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MIND Exploring the eccentricities of the brain • Issue One • May 2014

Off Balance: Staying centered in the face of a turbulent world.

Fears & Tears:

The factors behind classic apprehension.

Shades of Grey:

How internal biases shape our decisions, development, and lives.

Tune Out:

How reveling in silence can help you learn to listen even more

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psych FINAL SEASON WEDNESDAYS 9/8C

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Nicol’s Consultations

2304 Hancock Dr. Suite 8 Austin, TX 78756

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Contents Letter from the Editor p. 8

How to Breathe Again p. 12 Behind the Angst p. 18

Contributors Page p.7

Sleep & Dreams p. 10 In the Depths of Phobias p. 16

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Neurochemistry p. 32

Cope Hope p. 22

Brain Game p. 38

Harmonizing the Mind p. 25 Split Decisions p. 34

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a better solution to stress.

St. Ives Mineral Therapy 6

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CONTRIBUTORS Andi Feddeler was born in Austin, Texas, and has a particular

interest in African American males. She is the proud owner of “King Licker Escalator Feddeler”, who is officially cancer-free! Andi has the ability to dream about the future. Her favorite movie is “Stuck in Love”, because it is a depressingly accurate love story. She has recently been diagnosed with Styrophobia, or the fear of styrofoam, because “texture kills her”. Andi’s favorite television show is “That 70’s show”, because “Mila Kunis is her life”. She has an “awful collection of socks with faces on them”.

shreya pandiri

was born in Austin, Texas, and her favorite book is “The Cupid Chronicles”, which is probably written for five-yearolds, but “it doesn’t matter, because she can read it over and over again without getting bored”. Her second favorite book is Wuthering Heights, which Kate really hates. She can tolerate the sound of crying babies. In her dreams, Shreya eats food prepared by strangers and jumps over fiery rings of fire. Shreya loves quesadillas and driving in school zones, and is the “calm eye in the storm of anime references (Kate) and strange animal noises (Andi)”.

nick erichson was born in Austin, Texas, and his most heinous crime is pirating fonts for his macbook laptop. Nick’s favorite catchphrase is “it’s okay, we can edit it later”. His step dad lives in Canada (Round Rock), and he “basically lives in starbucks and half priced books”. Nick’s favorite movie is “Scott Pilgrim vs. The World”, and his favorite part of the brain is the Thalamus. Nick’s favorite people are Audrey Plaza (his “spirit animal”) and Kanye West. He dreams about two things, money and chipotle burritos. Nick also dreams about the future, specifically about his goal to become a “trophy husband”.

kate poore was born in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and has a *small* obsession with anything Japanese/Korean. In her scariest dream, Kate was browsing in the grocery store and ran into a “gorgeous-faced, 7-8 foot creature”, but she decided to run away to a random house, where she proceeded to dump holy water on him. Classic Kate. Kate has one brother and two parents and they love to do “crap like hiking, biking, and mountain climbing”. Her favorite phobia is Chronomentrophobia, or the fear of clocks. She loves clocks, so this phobia would result in her untimely demise.

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letter from the e d i t o r

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he mind is a very strange thing. It has the power to bring people together and to tear people apart. Luckily, our brains decided to create a family of us. Families work well together (even though fights aren’t uncommon) and push through issues that hold them back. Our strengths were put to the test throughout this semester, but we made it- somehow. It’s amazing how four short months can bring four people with so many different values and interests this close together. Mind is a magazine for anyone who has ever had any emotions; that probably includes you. We can help you understand what the heck is going on inside that big ol’ brain of yours. If you are ever feeling down and don’t know how to cope, simply look inside. Our main goal is to help anyone in need, which is one of the reasons we have become so close. Your editor, —

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Andi Feddeler

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Available at your local bookstore. MAY 2014

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2%

ROOM TEMP

OF CHILDREN

SLEEPWALK

YEARS SPENT DREAMING

turn off 1 IN 4 MARRIED COUPLES

SLEEP ALONE

SLEEP&DREAMS 90 MILLION COMFORTABLE BED Z Z Z

SNORING

TEENS NEED

EAT

AMERICANS HOURS OF SLEEP DREAMS IN COLOR

DAILY

EARLY

NO CAFFEINE AT NIGHT

REPORTED INSOMNIA SOMNILOQUY 10

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The nocturnal organ

story and graphics by Shreya Pandiri

How much sleep do we need?

During the night, you might be asleep, but your brain sure isn’t. Neurons work overtime to produce fantastic images, but the next day; you can’t remember a thing. Learn more about dreams, sleep habits, statistics and tips from the national sleep association on the previous page, and more in-depth answers from the Cleveland Clinic on this page.

Sleep needs vary with age, but are also impacted by the lifestyle of the individual. Some people might need more sleep than others based on the amount of exercise that they get and their health. Most studies show that newborns and infants need 12-15 hours of sleep, toddlers need 12-14 hours of sleep, children need 10-11 hours of sleep, teenagers need 8.5-9.5 hours of sleep, and adults need 7-9 hours of sleep.

Is snoring harmful? does exercise help me sleep? Studies show that exercise and sleep are linked, and that exercise improves your sleep quality and sleep duration. You should aim for about 30 minutes of exercise every day, and vigorous exercise is best. You can exercise at any time of the day, but try to do it before it gets too late.

Snoring can be a sign of sleep apnea, which can be related with other medical issues. Sleep apnea is caused by a decrease in airflow during the night and can translate into a cardiovascular disease if it is not treated, according to the Cleveland Clinic. People with sleep apnea may wake up during the night, gasping for breath. Sleep apnea is treatable, but you should see a physician immediately.

What is the best way to go back to sleep?

What happens in my brain when I am asleep?

Relaxing images and thoughts may help you sleep again, but you shouldn’t stay in bed if you can’t fall back asleep within 20 minutes. Sleep experts say that you should walk around, go to another room and listen to music or read. Avoid screens, like televisions or phones. Keep in mind that if you frequently wake up and are not able to fall back asleep, you might have sleep insomnia and should see a doctor.

When you are asleep, your body is resting, but your brain is “recharging” and stays active during the night. Your brain still controls many of your body functions, like breathing and pumping blood through your body. When you sleep, you usually switch between two “sleep stages” Rapid eye movement (REM) and Non-REM sleep. REM occurs at intervals during the night, and contains more dreaming and body movements, and a faster pulse. Non-REM sleep is calmer and your brain is more “organized”. MAY 2014

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Sunset view of the Janaki Mandir Temple in Janakpur, Nepal. Many people travel to Nepal to seek spiritual enlightement Photo by Abhishek Dutta

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HOW TO BREATHE AGAIN The connections between meditation and the brain.

You are balanced with everything around you, never feeling stressed or mad. You are becoming a better person, more compassionate and caring. As you enter a state of complete consciousness through meditation, neural connections in your brain slowly weaken. The ties between meditation and psychology are strong, and new research can tell us why. Meditation can mean different things for different people. For some people, it means pressing your palms together and humming the word “om” . Or sitting cross legged on the beach, making weird shapes with your hands. For other people, it’s a way of life, and they spend hours devoting themselves to the practice. They take it to a level of importance that cannot be superficial, and new studies explore the positive impacts of meditation. Prem Shivakumar, a meditation devotee, has been meditating with his wife for over 10 years and has learned a lot about the practice.

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rem said “So meditation itself, is to just continuously think about something, right? So in our system, which is the system of meditation I practice, it is not about what meditation is, but what you meditate upon. So the most important, the fundamental thing here, is what you meditate upon, the essence of that, you derive,” The system of meditation that Shivakumar practices is from the “Sahaj Marg” organization. In this particular organization, they are taught to meditate upon the idea that divinity is in our heart. The system is called raja yoga, and involves three parts; meditation, cleaning and prayer. The three parts form a routine that the devotees practice on a daily basis. Shivakumar found out about Sahaj Marg from his wife’s co-worker. “It was always that there was something different about him [co-worker], it was not that he was smart or he was intelligent, or anything. It was just that his whole mannerism, just sort of the compassionate nature that he had, the softness around him, and he was always happy. He always had a smile, even if he didn’t know you at all,” Shivakumar said. After talking to him, Shivakumar and

and in this practice that is a very fundamental turning point. There is no external pressure, there is no artificiality in going and meeting someone. It is merely you, trying to see who it is, and that is a personal relationship that you start developing, and that makes a huge difference in this practice,” Shivakumar said. After the practice got integrated into "You don't have to spend a certain his daily lifestyle, amount of time every day, getting him and his wife settled into the meditation. It began attending a becomes a part of your routine, and group meditation your mind and your body gets used to every Sunday. A few times each year, they that. So it's attend a “gathering”, extremely simple, but it's or celebration, which involves many extremely useful" more devotees than the small group meditation. Shivakumar explained the his wife decided to start meditating. Like importance of meditating daily, and what everything that a person does, it takes things that can be done to make these awhile to get used to the process before sessions as effective as possible. feeling any actual changes. Anyone who “If you do it every day, you do it at the wishes to start meditation needs to be same time, and it’s something called a committed to the practice in order to get body clock, right. You just get used to it, the most out of it. Shivakumar and his the body gets used to it. Then you go and wife went to a guru for their first session, sit in that place, maybe there’s a mental and continued to go for three weeks. thing that you feel immediately, that this After trying the program, they were is the time for meditation. You don’t have intrigued by it and decided to continue to spend a certain amount of time every meditating. day, getting settled into the meditation. It “And so there’s a natural interest that becomes a part of your routine, and your comes in you to go and see the teacher,

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Saha j Marg group meditation in Lake Lopez, California. Photo by Kafka4prez

mind and your body gets used to that. So it’s extremely simple, but it’s extremely useful,” Shivakumar explained. After meditating for a long time, you might start to realize how your attitude has changed. It it isn’t a sudden change, but rather a gradual one that you build up after meditating for months. Shivakumar described the changes that he felt after meditating for a long time. “I was an impatient person, so that changed significantly. I was sort of a restless person, so I would always have to be active, and that restlessness is gone. I used to be very judgemental, which sort of spoiled the experience for me, in some places. I would look at people and say that “they’re like that and they’re like this”. And that has completely changed. I used to be a serious person, now I feel, I feel that I’m happy, a go-lucky person. I like to be light and I don’t take things too seriously. So, big changes I would say,” Shivakumar said. As someone meditates more and becomes more curious about the practice, one might ask “how does this work”. The mind-body connection between meditation can be linked to the brain, specifically the limbic system, which has shown to control a person’s emotions. Pitchiah Mandava, a neurologist at the Baylor college of medicine explained the limbic system’s function and structures in more depth. “The amygdala is part of the


limbic system. The limbic system is made up of the olfactory system, hippocampus, fornix, mammillary bodies, septum pellucidum, and cingulate gyrus. Some or all or a number of these are involved with various types of memory. Memories are classified in several different ways. One classification is long-term or short-term. Another classification also talks about emotional memory,” Mandava said. “This is your brain on meditation”, an article in Psychology Today by Rebecca Gladding M.D., explained how the amygdala is the first part of the brain that reacts or responds to any changes in the environment. Furthermore, meditation supposedly weakens the neural connections between the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex (a part of the brain that moderates social behavior, personality, decision making, etc.), which, according to the article, can result in less anxiety and stress. “When you come out of meditation, the simplest way you can describe the feeling is balance. You just feel more balanced. You don’t feel fear, you don’t feel anger, you don’t feel like somebody is external to you. You feel completely natural meeting with everyone. You’re absolutely balanced,” Shivakumar said. According to Gladding’s article, the lack of anger and fear that you feel after coming out of meditation can relate back to the weakened connections in the limbic system. These weakened connections allow you to assess any strong feelings that you have and not let them impact your judgement or behavior. The limbic system is also involved in many other reactions, which Mandava explained some more. “The Limbic system is also involved in emotions. Classically, one of the emotions that the limbic system is associated with is ‘fight/flight’. Other emotions are fear, rage, sadness. Fear as well as happiness, along with other conflicting emotions can be triggered by electrical stimulation of the amygdala. Opposite feelings can be elicited by stimulation of nearby centers in the amygdala,” Mandava said. The fight/flight response is a psychological reaction and response that occurs when an animal feels threatened or harmed. This reaction begins in the amygdala, and triggers a neural response in the hypothalamus. Research shows that the amygdala is the primary structure that involves emotional response, so the weakened connections can impact how you handle or react to different situations. Furthermore, a study done at the University of Santa Barbara by scientists showed that meditation can affect a person’s ability to remember things. Since the amygdala also involves memories, the weakened neural connections also have impact on that. “I talked about the limbic system and the hippocampus, memory etc. Since memories can be modified, there is a lot of scientific interest in where and how memories are stored. Memories can be modified, and the repetitive electrical firing of a set of neurons in synchrony is supposed to strengthening their connection. This strengthening of connections somehow tied to forming a memory. Stretching it to modification

Basic diagram of the brain. Includes (clockwise from blue section), the Frontal lobe, Parietal lobe, Occipital lobe and Temporal lobe. The limbic system is located in the Temporal lobe. picture courtesy of Mysid

of behavior is outside the league of neurologists and neurosciences,” Mandava said. So even though many connections can be found between meditation and the brain, it’s sometimes best to leave the two apart. If a practice works for you, do it. It isn’t important to always depend on science, or always depend on facts to back up a practice. Shivakumar said, “There is not too much thinking involved here, so if you start intellectually analyzing it, it doesn’t really work that way. There are some people that have a question, and until someone answers it, They won’t do anything. That doesn’t help, because this is a naturally evolving process, and the answers come from within.” Thai novice meditating at Srikat Dam, Thailand. Photography courtesy of Tevaprapras

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Into the Depths of Phobias

Story and Graphics by Kate Poore

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hobias are an irrational fear that, in severe cases, are a challenge to overcome. There isn’t just one phobia, there are many different categories of phobias that people don’t know about. Fredd Culbertson lists on his website, phobialist.com, the many different varieties of phobias that people have been diagnosed with. The article “Fear/ Phobia Statistics” was published by statisticbrain.com and offers the current number of patients that have each of these fears. Kendra Cherry, B.A., wrote “10 Common Phobias,” which notes key facts about the ten most common phobias. Learning about the different types of phobias can help people to identify some of their own fears and anxieties and offers them information on each one.

Arachnophobia:

Ophidiophobia:

The fear of spiders •

30.4 percent of Americans have arachnophobia. This phobia affects more women than men. Women are four times more likely to have an aversion to spiders. This is due to a genetic trait from women hunter-gatherer ancestors. With their role as mothers , they shun dangerous animals away from their children.

The fear of snakes •

In a 2001 survey, it was found that around 51 percent of adult Americans were afraid of snakes. In evolutionary history, humans grew a tendancy to avoid and fear snakes. This was to help early humans to survive and reproduce.

Acrophobia:

Agoraphobia:

• •

The fear of heights •

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10 percent of Americans have Acrophobia. Most people are born with a parry to heights, because it could entail possible danger or death. This phobia usually stems from a traumatic fall or because their parents have acrophobia.

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The fear of places that are difficult to escape. •

2.2 percent of Americans have agoraphobia. Common evironments that trigger an agoraphobic reaction are crowded areas, open spaces, or any place that is likely to trigger a panic attack. Around a third of people who have some sort of panic disorder are agoraphobic.


Cynophobia:

Astraphobia:

• •

The fear of dogs

This phobia is often associated with people’s personal experiences with dogs or dog bites. This phobia stems from the fight or flight instinct we have from when dogs were wild.

Trypanophobia:

The fear of needles or injections • •

In 1998, 21 percent of Americans said they had trypanophobia Trypanophobia could be a danger to the person’s health because it is known to keep people from getting medical shots It is developed usually in smaller children

The fear of Thunder and Lightening

2 percent of Americans have astraphobia. It is most prevalent amongst young children, but adults are just at risk of developing it Astraphobia not only affects humans, but dogs and other animals as well

Social Phobias: The fear of social encounters • •

7.9 percent of Americans have some form of social phobia In some severe cases, people will completly avoid any events or situations that could trigger an anxiety attack.

Pteromerhanophobia:

Mysophobia:

The fear of flying •

6.5 percent of Americans have Pteromerhanophobia It is usually treated gradually, as to slowly introduce the person to flying, or risk the chance of a panic attack

The fear of germs or dirt • •

Roughly 15 percent of Americans have mysophobia Many people diagnosed with OCD became mysophobic Mysophobia is a very hard phobia to get rid of or treat; most doctors prescribe medication.

FREAKY PHOBIAS: • Zelophobia: Fear of jealousy. • Ophthalmophobia: Fear of • Theophobia: Fear of gods or religion. being stared at. • Staurophobia: Fear of crosses or the • Logizomechanophobia: Fear crucifix. of computers • Sophophobia: Fear of learning. • Iatrophobia: Fear of going to • Soteriophobia: Fear of dependence the doctor or of doctors. MAY 2014

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The skyline of a metropolitan area. Many students and teenagers reside in cities, it may even affect the problems and situations that rural teenagers may not have. One example is that 80 percent of rural teens have recieved permission to drink form tthier parents. While only 63 pecent of urban teens have received permission to drink from their parents.

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A three dimensional representation of brain. This is visula evidence that the brain is considered a muscle. Art by MARK SYKES ©

BEHIND THE ANGST

The teenage brain explored and the reasons why teens act the

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motion. It’s one of the strongest forces a human can experience and it’s at its highest in the teenage years. Envision every emotion you have ever experienced as a teen. Think of how happiness makes you smile and puts a kick in your step. Remember the times you have been afraid, anxious, or in love. Emotions like these always seem to be the strongest in the adolescent years. Here are the facts, emotions don’t come from some mythical place in our hearts, but from a small muscle at the base of our

Story by Kate Poore brain called the amygdala. Just like every other muscle it needs to get stronger so that it may mature. Everyone will or has experienced teenage emotions, thought processing, and reasoning. To know what happens chemically may shed some light on why teenagers feel the way they feel. Figuring out why each teenager develops differently, and how this knowledge benefits us or holds us back. Some exercises and precautions that can be taken to lessen whimsical decision making can be

discovered. As well as learning to step back and make reasonable decisions. Meagan Butler says, “Some people say the brain is a muscle some say its like a network like little lightening flashes,” The brain is, like all body parts, a muscle. There are multiple parts of the brain that all perform specific tasks. The main and most widely known areas of the brain are the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes. The most important area for this article is the frontal lobe, which is in charge of reasoning, emotion,

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planning, movement, and problem solving. As teenagers mature, the order that the brain develops is from back to front, so the last area to mature is the frontal lobe. This explains why teenagers, while they look older, some may act immature. This behavior usually comes out when experiencing heightened emotions. “When we think about people that are in crisis or having emotion swing, sometimes it based off of coping skills and the environment. So something that stresses someone out may not stress someone else out,” How and why teenagers develop and act differently on different levels is primarily based on the environment they grew up in. As they experience new, possibly more mature, activities as teenagers stress level increases. “So if homework stresses you out and growing up you had a coping skill of exercise or talking to friends, then that is your first thought.” says Butler. As teenagers are growing up they create coping skills for say, a lot of homework, and then they repeat that skill till it has become permanent. If say a student creates a bad coping skill like drinking, then they may have a harder time doing and accomplishing work. If a student has a good coping skill such taking a break to settle down, this will help them accomplish more. “At LASA you’re working out your brain constantly in a very intense way……The more you use your brain the more you learn the stronger your brain gets.” Everyone who goes to LASA knows the workload is above average. For some student at LASA, doing small math problems instead of having a boyfriend/ girlfriend may be an escape and a way to cope with stress. The brain grows through exercise thats why LASA students receive a lot of work, so that their brains can grow to their full potential. High school is an interesting time, and many examples

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of the experiences associated with high school is romance. This same concept of coping skills can be applied to new romantic experiences and can help you to have a more mature relationships. “Teenage years is a time of great interest and curiosity about romance. Some of that is hormonal and some of it is the growing awareness of adult relationships. Only in teenage do we begin to realize that we can have close intimate relationships with someone who is not a parent or a sibling and we also realize that this close relationship can be fun, interesting, exciting and mysterious.” As explained by Vagdevi Meunier, a relationships counselor, romance is, in a way, a completely new subject to teenagers because they have never experienced it before. As children, teenagers identified romance as this magical substance that can develop at a glance as Disney fairy tales taught us. Now they are confronted with the real thing, and to some it can be scary. The environment, usually your school, is important in establishing influence in developing these kinds of relationships, but its not the only one. The media also has influence on how today’s teenagers view romantic relationships to be. “Google an old tv show from the 70’s or 80’s and compare it to tv shows of today. What you will see is more sex and sexual scenes, more nudity, more violence, and more profanity. Um, The Bachelor anyone?!? We are taught that what we see is what we should act like and be.” Today’s media as described but Lori Scott, a student at St. Edwards University working toward her degree in psychology, has changed over the past few decades, it has become more risque and sexual. Most teenagers are well versed in the television universe, they are exposed to it even before they are teenagers, so they get this idea that romance should be something unrealistic compared to what

it actually is. Its the media and the fault of how people have been taught to deal with emotions.

"Maybe this comes with being American, but I sometimes try and suppress certain emotions (like sadness, or grief, or anger) because those emotions don't make you seem like a person people would want to be around." How teenagers, or anyone for that matter, view themselves and how they express emotions is all based on what society has taught us to do. Depending on where you grow up, the culture you are surrounded with impacts how you learn to deal with emotions. In America people are taught to suppress emotions that have been labeled as inappropriate in front of others. While in other cultures it made be considered wrong not to show them. Especially in the teenage years, teens try to suppress certain emotions, when really teens should express what they are feeling because talking about what you feel is an important part of overcoming them. “Human interaction stimulates the brain and helps with learning on several levels. There is proof that lack of human contact is actually harmful and potentially life-threatening to infants and young children,” In childhood we are taught everything about our society, and the humans around us in these years affects us more than any other time. This could be why some teenagers act or mature differently than others because their home lives are different that others. Now this isnt a problem because everyone is different, it becomes a problem when the people and environment you grew

Photo by Jim Owens ©


up in was an unhealthy and dangerous environment. Of course, you can always fix or change who you choose to be if you set your mind to it. “The good news is that our brain is very plastic or moldable. That means what happens in childhood while it leaves a mark on our brain can be healed and re-programmed through healthy adult relationships.” The human brain is able to stimulate and change in many different ways as it matures, just a the teenage you is different than the adult you. While our childhood leaves a deep impression every person can be changed with certain influences. The influences you encounter in life may be different, some may be good ones that help to find a better place, or they might be bad one that can harm or endanger your life. Not everything can be influenced, and not everything can change. This is the case in areas such as PTSD or traumatic situation. “When you experience trauma its a very sensory experience and is stored in a different part of your brains so its harder to work out that. We all have floods of memory every day but when you are in a car crash that is stored in the sensory part of your brain down with all those other sensory experiences and childhood memories are stored.” Everyone has experienced trauma, some more than others. It’s these traumatic events that won’t disappear because they are stored in the sensory part of the brain as said by Butler above. That means if anything reminds you of that event, you remember it. That is why PTSD is such a terrifying thing because everything could spark a flashback, then all of the emotion you felt come rushing back. There are some positives that can result from trauma as Pruden will tell of you of how she feels about the loss of her father, and how she handles it. “I recently lost my Dad, and I feel like trying to get through that and handle being a normal teenager with normal teenager problems has pushed me forward and made me more mature. (At least in same aspects)” Even though Pruden went through a very traumatic and deeply depressing event it resulted in her maturing. Even though her growth was through sadness and grief, these emotions are what have opened

Teenage hardship can cause feelings of grief, anger, and despair. Photo by D Sharon Pruitt ©

up her eyes to experiences that not many teenagers have had, and because of that she has experienced something no one else will. “Our brains are malleable, theres a big movement about malleable intelligence….its the concept that some people think intelligence is fixed. Like you’re either born smart or dumb” Some scientists believe that human’s intelligence is fixed, while others believe it can grow and change. The environment around us influences, partially, in who we become, but scientists have not been able to figure out if how and what we learn is fixed or not. Brains are a muscle, so they would need to grow stronger, but how each person learns and grows their brain is different thats why each person is different. No mother and daughter or father and son are the same, they all have different brains and how they learn or what they learn depends on them. Thats why the teenage years are so important because teenagers realize they are their own person. “I’ve noticed that as I’ve entered my teenage years I’ve become more openminded and individualized. When you’re little, you just think what your parents or best friends or teachers think, but now that I’m getting older and more independent, my thinking and opinions have done the same.” says Pruden. In the teenagers view, you notice changes as you grow up, and you realize that you don’t have the same opinion as your parents. This is why exposure to the world happens in these years, your brain is maturing, therefore you need to know what the world is like, all the bad and good things about it. How fast or slow a teenager mature is up to them and how long or slow their brains need to do that. “I think how fast one matures depends on how they view themselves, and what they have to go through in adolescence. People who are very selfconscious tend to mature slower because they are so preoccupied with themselves and stressed out about that, whereas people who let themselves be different and unique don’t have that mental block preventing them from maturity.” Being who you are is the lesson or the point of being a teenager, to experience all you can to learn about yourself, so teenagers need to go and become the best they can be.

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M

Cope Hope

any people struggle when dealing with large amounts of stress or anxiety. Therapists, such as Jennifer Wu, suggest having steady coping skills or acronyms to remember during a crisis. These are some examples of coping strategies that professionals around the world support. It can be very helpful when having dark thoughts to think about things that bring joy or happiness.

Story by Andi Feddeler

Making crafts or having a hobby can be very helpful calming someone down. Photo by tOrange.biz

AWARE

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Playing with an animal can be one of the most effective coping skills. Photo by Traci Elswick

Accept the anxiety, don’t get mad, and understand that you have a problem. Watch your anxiety objectively, from the outside. Act with the anxiety, slow down, breathe, don’t run from your problem. Repeat the excercises. Expect the best, but don’t run from future anxiety.

Imagery. Picture beautiful things. Meaning. Find value in your surroundings. Prayer. If you’re into that. Relaxation. Put your mind at ease. One thing. Focus on simplicity. Vacation. Let your thoughts drift away. Encouragement. Cheer yourself on.


DEARMAN

ACCEPT

Describe the experience. Express your emotions. Assert and face your fears. Reinforce your coping skills. Mindfulness goes a long way. Appear confident to feel confident. Negotiate with your feelings.

Activities. Distract yourself with something fun. Contributing. Give to others. Comparisons. Compare your feelings with others. Emotions. Do something that will trigger a different feeling or emotion. Pushing. Block out the situation. Thoughts. Think about happy things.

Being cozy and comfortable doesn’t just make you feel good physically, but it also calms the brain. Photo by Tati Bertussi,

Working out releases chemicals and gives a feeling of accomplishment. Photo by Del Sandeen.

Dialectical behavior therapists, like Wu, specialize in helping those who self-harm find comforting activities to take part in. These acronyms are used to help people express and understand their emotions, and how to react to them. Each person may have a different set of personal coping skills that is effective for them. The necessity of developing coping skills, as psychologist Deborah Jackson says, determines our well-being.

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Feeling stuck? Don't know who to talk to? We can help. National Suicide Hotline: 1-800-SUICIDE Any Crisis or Emergency: 911 Mental Health Alliance: 1-800-969-6642 Suicide Crisis Line: 1-800-999-9999 National Suicide Prevention Helpline: 1-800-273-TALK National Adolescent Suicide Helpline: 1-800-621-4000 Crisis Help Line – For Any Kind of Crisis: 1-800-233-4357 Suicide & Depression Crisis Line: 1-800-999-9999 National Child Abuse Helpline: 1-800-422-4453 National Domestic Violence Crisis Line: 1-800-799-SAFE National Domestic Violence Hotline (TDD): 1-800-787-32324 Center for the Prevention of School Violence: 1-800-299-6504 Child Abuse Helpline: 1-800-4-A-CHILD Domestic Violence Helpline: 1-800-548-2722 Sexual Assault Support: 1-800-223-5001 Domestic & Teen Dating Violence: 1-800-992-2600 National Drug Abuse: 1-800-662-HELP Be Sober Hotline: 1-800-BE-SOBER Cocaine Help Line: 1-800-COCAINE Ecstasy Addiction: 1-800-468-6933 Marijuana Anonymous: 1-800-766-6779 National Youth Crisis Support: 1-800-448-4663 Teen Helpline: 1-800-400-0900 Youth Crisis Support: 1-800-448-4663 or 1-800-422-0009 National Runaway Hotline: 1-800-231-6946 National Youth Crisis Hotline: 1-800-442-442-4673 Self-Injury Support: 1-800-DONT CUT Eating Disorders Center: 1-888-236-1188 24

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Start your day the right way. Kickstart your brain with the new Starbucks Refresher series, with caffeine from real green coffee extract. For fun days at the beach or the 3 PM crash- all of the flavor of your favorite fruity drink with all the focus of your 8 am cup of coffee.

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Photo by Sharon Pruitt

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HARMONIZING

the MIND

How to deal with depression in a cruel world Story by Andi Feddeler

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eathery clouds settled in against the lavender skies of the winter afternoon, captivating the girl as she continuously zipped and unzipped her jacket. As her eyes scanned her surroundings, she noticed the supposedly comforting decorations that scattered themselves throughout the room. A cool breeze brought in the blissful scent of vanilla, calming her nerves and putting her into a trance of happiness and peace. Her eyes drifted back to the woman who was waiting for an answer. Her stomach clenched itself at the thought of explaining her emotions, and she felt a sickly need to throw up. Going to therapy can be hard. It’s even harder to bring up with people who are unaware of the situation. Seeking help can be a very challenging thing to do, but even a small step will spark a lifetime of improvement.

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tacey Hopper, a high school wellness counselor, says, “My first thing to say is to meet with the counselors, that would be a good starting point. If it’s stress related to academics and achieving, I think an often overlooked thing is to go to the teacher themselves, and just getting to know them and going to some of their office hours or tutoring hours can really help. Having that relationship with the teacher definitely helps, and I’ve seen it help lower anxiety for kids.” If there’s an ongoing problem that can’t be avoided, you may feel the need to notify your friends and family. This can be very risky, and it is vital to be selective about who to tell and how to tell them. Hopper recommends making sure the people you tell are supportive and trustworthy, and that it’s a case-by-case

situation.The people who know about the situation can be very helpful and caring, but this can also create an opportunity for teasing, bullying, and people finding out who have no business knowing. “I would definitely always consider the consequences of talking about it then.. as I have seen it go bad sometimes, in some cases kids have moved schools because it got that bad, and it shouldn’t have to be like that. But, as a group, people don’t understand mental illness very well,” Dr. Gabriel Garza, a childrens psychiatrist, says. Opening up to those who don’t understand mental illnesses is one of the most difficult tasks a young person can face. Many people in high school and college don’t fully understand the causes and effects of depression, anxiety and many other mental disorders, which

“At Eternity’s Gate”: In 1890, Van Gogh depicted depression and severe mental illnesses based on his own life. This piece was created just two months before his death. Photo by The Yorck Project

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leads to misunderstandings. It is a common misconception that a person’s life must be horrible or traumatic for them, or that a life-changing event must take place to develop depression. “Most of the time there’s not a reason to be depressed, the first incident or episode of depression somebody has... a lot of times there is a reason, and there’s something going on that’s putting a lot of stress on that person’s life, which leads to a low mood and depression. But, as somebody is suffering with depression that is recurrent, each depressive episode that comes may require less of a reason. Sometimes depression just happens or there isn’t any good explanation why, even for somebodies first time,” Garza says. Many have false images of people with mental illnesses, viewing them as attention-seekers or dramatics. If you aren’t sure how to explain the mental illness you are experiencing, it can be especially hard to tell people who don’t even understand mental illnesses as a whole. Garza explains that people, as a population, don’t really understand mental illnesses. You can describe having anxiety or depression and that you need to take medication for it, but other things such as schizophrenia, psychosis, and bipolar disorder are much harder to explain to people who lack a knowledge of mental disorders. A lot of the time, it’s hard to tell what’s going on with someone, because they are typically quiet about it, and it’s not something that makes its way to the physical attributes of a person. Depression is a chemical imbalance, meaning that it’s purely the brain that is sick. “This is a theory that is still a work in progress, and what we found is that certain chemicals are associated with depression, and when they do autopsies of people who have committed suicide, within their brain they find lower levels of chemicals like serotonin. The drugs that we use are targeted to increase that particular chemical, except it increases it at a safer and more longer lasting way. Garza says, “I think that it’s hard to wrap your head around it. It’s not something like blood pressure or somebody who has hypertension... that’s really easy to see, where with mental illness, you can’t really see it, because its such a subjective experience, and it seems that if you can’t see it, its a lot harder for people to understand it and believe it, and this is even true


Candles can be very helpful in coping with stress and emotional trauma. Many people light candles when they need to calm down and take a break. Photo by Tim Sackton

with adults. That’s true with physicians too, which is surprising because all physicians have to do a psychiatric evaluation.” Many people find comfort in selfmutilation, because it seems to help calm the nerves at the time. “People often self-harm to cope with emotional distress. It can release endorphins in the brain that people think gives them “relief ” or an escape from their pain,” Jennifer Wu, specializing in dialectical behavior therapy, says. There are many safer alternatives to self-harm, though. Going back to the idea of therapy- it’s not easy to find a well-suited therapist. You may have to go through many therapists and sessions in order to find one that works best for you. They can help you discover coping skills that are best for you and willhelp the most in the long run. Hopper voices the idea of setting up weekly or semi-regular appointments with counselors or therapists, and developing techniques for self-soothing. This is crucial for those undergoing thoughts of self mutilation and suicide. Therapy may not be the best option if you are in a crisis and need help immediately. There are many options you can turn to when you don’t feel safe without support from others. Wu suggests going to the emergency room,

a psychiatric facility, or calling a hotline suited for your needs, whether that be suicidal thinking, problems with eating disorders or concerns about loved ones in your life. There are many phone numbers to call, personalized by the

"Many coping skills have effects that help soothe the mind and body of someone who is undergoing a lot of stress or anxiety." best way to get help for specific needs. Although mental disorders are created by the chemicals in your brain, there are ways to decrease the symptoms and help prevent things from getting worse. “So the most important thing there is to make sure you’re getting sleep because it’s often overlooked. It just sets the perimeter for how you feel all day at school and at home so making sure you have enough (8-10) hours of sleep. Then, from there, I would create a schedule- it seems silly, but write in the hours you’re at school, write in the hours of your extracurriculars, write in the hours that

you wanna do fun things with friends and then from that you kind of have a picture and you can look at ‘Wow, im a little off balance here,’ or ‘I have too much of this’ when you write it all by week,” says Hopper. It’s going to be hard to get better. Don’t discourage yourself because you aren’t seeing immediate signs of improvement, even after multiple therapy sessions and prescriptions. This isn’t an overnight thing, where it just goes away. It will take time, and sometimes you won’t feel good. It happens. Almost everyone in recovery has had a relapse of some sort, so don’t feel bad about it. “To prevent a relapse I would go back to your effective coping skills, and then if you do relapse its really important to be kind to yourself and to not beat yourself up because nobody’s perfect. And people are gonna relapse, but as long as you tried, it’s okay. And, with the disappointment, nobody’s perfect and I really try to get kids to really say nice things to themselves because you will relapse, that’s just going to happen,” Hopper suggests. It’s not easy to accept the feelings you may be having. Do what’s best for you when thinking about getting help. There is an effective path for everyone who wishes to get better.

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Brookstone The most comfortable your feet will ever be.

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SPLIT SPLIT DECISIONS: DECISIONS How internal bias affects the brain, the job market, the media and you. Story by Nick Erichson

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very day, teenagers work hard and complete their homework to maintain their grades in school. However even a perfect grade of 100 received by certain students can be systematically knocked down to a 77. Though it sounds like a far off fantasy for grading purposes, millions of American women face the same problem reflected on their pay scales on a daily basis. Prejudice is easy to see in society. Many people experience the effects of prejudice in small interactions on a daily basis, but it is also highly visible on a larger scale in issues like politics and

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media: women make up 51 percent of the US population, but continue to earn 77 cents to a man’s dollar and comprise only 20 percent of congress. In 2011, 11 percent of protagonists in films were female, 11 percent of speaking characters were African American, five percent were Asian, and only four percent were Hispanic. Conflicts caused specifically by clashes with discrimination and inequality continue to saturate the newsWendy Davis’ momentous filibuster, the conviction of George Zimmerman in the Trayvon Martin murder trial, and Russia’s inordinate intolerance to homosexuality and LGBTQ+ communities in the face

of the 2014 Olympics exemplify the ubiquitous consequences of modern prejudice and discrimination. Prejudices and stereotypes often developed in childhood have a great effect on adolescents, and students and experts agree that the prevalence of these judgements can be a huge influence on teenagers’ actions and thoughts. I n modern society, it’s practically impossible to get away from the effects of discrimination. Stereotypes and prejudice is commonly played out through the media- for example, males outnumber females 3-to-1 in family films (a ratio that hasn’t changed since 1946) and women represent only 37 percent of prime time television characters. With the average American teenager spending 31 hours a week watching T.V, three hours a week watching movies, 10 hours a week online, and viewing upwards of 500 ads a day,


messages sent out by the media have enormous potential to resonate with their viewers. Rebecca Bigler, PhD, is a psychology and gender studies professor at The University of Texas. Bigler studies the formation and effects of stereotypes. “One thing we’re very interested in,” Bigler says, “is the ways that media representation is a marker of social progress, and also factors like segregation. We know that depictions of segregation have been common in the media- a big example was the show Friends, where all of the main cast was white.” Bigler’s research specifically includes stereotypes as they relate to childhood development and the formation of biases. “That shows children that if you’re white you should have white friends, and if you’re black you should have black friends,” she says, “and that they need to keep the two worlds separate. People learn from the media the same way they learn from their own environmentslooking at their personal social lives and the places around them, and seeing large depictions of stereotypical groups just further reinforces ideas of segregation. Though the media serve as tremendous amplification for inequity in society, media factors are only one part of a larger whole that causes discrimination in society. Bigler comments, “The basis of stereotyping is categorization- when you make groups of people like black/white, boy/girl, straight/ gay. We know that humans are really good

categorizers, and they’re born to be good categorizers, so even babies can be good categorizers. But the trick is, when you look at a group of people, there’s all kinds of ways they could be grouped: you could use their gender or their race or their hair color or their eye color or whether their earlobes are attached or if they’re tall or The Trayvon Martin protests of 2013 were just short, on and on and on- and children one of the many recent events in response to in American society. women’s communications, for example, look to the adult social world to find these prejudice men are more objective and focus on groupings to use.” Though stereotypes are generally agreed outside or material qualities, where to be harmful, research has acknowledged women are more person and utilize more words to describe feelings.” Pennebaker’s at leastMartin’s a minor degree of truth some Trayvon death in 2012 is justto one of the many stereotypes. Studies have shown some published study, Gender Differences in recent ma jor events attributed to discrimination. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia. validity to ideas like those of Asian descent Language Use, elaborates that, “Females’ doing better on tests, or differences language was more likely than men’s to in communication between men and include pronouns and social words. Men women. Jeff Pennebaker, PhD, is the chair also discussed various current concerns of psychology at The University of Texas, more frequently, and swore more often.” and has conducted extensive research into Keeping in mind the high level of nuance the linguistics and communications of across many samples, Pennebaker says, certain groups, and how it relates to their such studies of communication and interactions provide an accurate lens for identity. examining divisions in society. The basis of stereotyping “Closely examining language is categorization: when and communication styles like allows us to see all the differences between you make groups of communications in certain groups, even when they aren’t immediately evident. people black or white, many experts agree that such boy or girl, straight or gay. However, differences often surface as a result of Humans are born to be stereotypes, and not as a fundamental cause. good categorizers. “A lot of differences between sexes “We see language differences in a lot of really evolve and arise from social factors,” ways, even very subtle ones, like use of says Bigler, in examining the specific case pronouns and the word we… In men and between men and women. “We know that the brain has great plasticity, so the more you’re able to practice skills, the better you get at them and the more the parts of the brain are able to develop connections and develop skills related to those areas. Plasticity can make a huge difference in shaping people’s brains, but there are of course some factors that look like they have a more innate basis- in the example of boys and girls, take activity level. Boys have a generally higher activity level than girls, and we’re able to find differences in activity like kicking and moving even in the womb, even where there hasn’t been a chance for repetition.” Pennebaker agrees, stating, “I think it’s a little of everything. Opressed groups often find their capabilities and In the case of men and women, there are intellect held under harsh regard in the public eye. certainly biological factors at play, and Photo courtesy of Wikimedia. that shapes their communication. In other Photo courtesy of Wikipedia.

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cases, language differences can be the result of a biological factor contributing to mental state, like depression, or desires or witnessing a traumatic event. That’s why language is such a beautiful thing- it acts as a marker of all aspects of your group, feelings, thoughts, and state.” Though there are some biological explanations for differences between groups, many stereotypes have no clear physical basis. Factors like race have negligible effects on behavior, and other traits like sexual orientation, physical attributes like hair color, or social groups warrant to difference in actions. Regardless of even some valid root causes, however, no differences in these group warrant the unjust prejudice many victims of discrimination face today. So what causes the harsh divisions we see throughout society? Bigler explains that many stereotypes like these can originate from simple thought processes and interactions during development. “Children think, ‘What am I supposed to pay attention to to? Am I supposed to pay attention to if they’re girls or boys or their hair color or their skin?’ and the messages adults give are what cause stereotyping and prejudice to develop.” Bigler has spent a large amount of time studying the specific factors and interactions that spur this intense categorization, and has pinpointed many

effects to very subtle interactions. “In the case of gender, what happens is that when adults label gender, they say things like ‘good morning, boys and girls’ and ‘what a good girl’ or ‘now the boys can get their backpacks’, and they tell kids that it’s gender they’re supposed to categorize by: that there are two types of people, men and women, that’s what they learn to pay attention to and form categories about, they may attribute certain attributes to that, and that’s what leads to stereotyping and prejudice. The easiest way to think about it is that if you walked into a school and said ‘good morning, whites and blacks!’ or ‘what a smart black child!’, there’s little doubt whether it would make racism better or worse.” Though it isn’t always obvious, the subtle divisions formed throughout childhood processes like thesecategorization, association, and repetition can shape the face of interactions and social dynamics in high school as well as the rest of life. Though some fall further into stereotypes due to social pressure, adolescence can be a time to examine internalized stereotypes and beliefs with a context for the real world, and to reshape those beliefs to accurately reflect the diversity and variation of society. “Adapting to fit social norms is normal for adolescents,” says Maricruz Aguayo, a history and psychology teacher at LASA High School. “Normally, the

shifting of behavior can be a positive thing-- your peer group might lead you to be a better student, or to follow certain norms of behavior (like not bullying, etc.). Most often, this helps students to become more confident in their abilities and more aware of the world around them. Sometimes, though, the social norms to which a student is attempting to adapt might be wrong, or skewed-- they want to fit in with a certain crowd, so they follow along with bullying, or with extreme dieting, extreme procrastination, etc. In this case, it can become a pretty vicious cycle in which a student finds herself or himself caught up with forces they didn’t foresee-- and the consequences can seem particularly harsh.” LASA sophomore Ari Tolany elaborates on the effects of discrimination in high school. “I see a lot of it with teenagers,” she says. “From the job marketwomen not being able to get jobs in math or science- to expectations or people’s behavior. I see a lot of discrimination form when people take a stereotype- like femininity - and devalue it. When people stigmatize femininity, they punish women for acting in a feminine way and block them from a lot of opportunities, but it also blocks women from acting in a more masculine way, or guys acting in a more feminine way.” Aguayo states although most students at her school can move past stereotypes,

The media commonly distorts images of those who fall under prejudice, creating unrealistic expectations and building stereotypes. Photo courtesy of Kike San Martin.

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internalizing and living up to stereotypes can interfere with their self image and well being. “Most of my students develop, I think, a pretty healthy self-image, but occasionally they are affected by a negative stereotype or social expectation. I’m thinking particularly about students who think they have to perform at a certain level because their peer group/ ethnic group/ older brother or sister did so-- they become anxious about individual assignments and often procrastinate starting assignments because they can’t see a way to work on and submit a “perfect” assignment,” she says. “There are also students who perceive a specific social norm (being thin, or being happy all the time, etc.) and who try to adhere to that. I’ve known students who developed eating disorders, or who ignored symptoms of depression for way too long because they believed they weren’t “supposed” to be sad. S tudents who are affected by these stereotypes generally develop conditions such as anxiety (maybe even leading to a panic attack) and depression, which may in turn even lead to physical problems (lack of sleep, high blood pressure, etc.).” Despite the pervasiveness of these inequalities even in high school students, it’s entirely possible to work against discrimination and help provide an equal opportunity for people of all backgrounds. Education about the origin and effects of stereotypes can help teenagers examine their beliefs and interactions, and make sure that all teens have an opportunity to be educated and informed about discrimination as a concept, but also as it applies to major current events and everyday interactions. “I think that studying how the brain thinks helps students to understand how biases and stereotypes come into existence.” Aguayo says. “To learn and realize that the brain naturally categorizes, that is needs to form these categories to remember and organize information is powerful--

the brain needs prototypes (of nouns and verbs) in order to understand the next “new” thing better. So when a prototype becomes entrenched, becomes a caricature-- that’s when you get a stereotype. Understanding that process helps our students remain more open-minded.” There are also objective benefits to education about bias and discrimination on a larger scale. Learning about stereotypes or biases someone may be a victim of can help push them to explore all of their options and choices (both large and small) and potentially allow them to find a passion, talent, or skill

customs, so being prejudiced and narrowminded just isn’t good; it’s unfair, and it puts you at a disadvantage, because you’re more likely to learn more diverse skills when you’re open minded about people and learn to see past prejudice. With men and women, I’ve always argued that girls have lots of things to learn from boy’s and the “strength” that men have historically had, and vice versa. Education about these issues can have a significant impact on teenagers, allowing them to explore topics that affect them and make new observations that are an integral part of learning and growth. Describing LASA students’ reaction to learning about such issues in classes like Psychology, Aguayo commented, “Students respond with curiosity; they want to know what makes them ‘tick’, why they think (or don’t think) about certain situations or consequences, etc. Some of our best discussions in AP Psych revolve around lectures in which we’re addressing a concept like gender or sexuality.” However, when confronted with issues of prejudice and discrimination, students react differently. “Our students are often confused and upset-- sometimes even outraged. Many teenagers are idealists at heart, and they’d like to think that everything usually works out fairly or justly. But “fair” and “just” aren’t always the same thing as “legal” or even “moral”-some of that depends on your culture, and some of that depends on you. In a world ravaged by stereotypes and discrimination, it can be difficult to see past preconceptions and provide fair judgement and equal opportunities for everyone, regardless of their background. However, education can create change, and even teens’ simple actions can have a large impact, and moving towards equality can provide even those in power with a more diverse and interesting world. “To get along in the world,” Bigler says, “and make it a more socially just place, you need to recognize differences and learn to accept them.”

"If you walked into a school and said 'Good morning, whites and blacks!' or 'what a smart black child!', there's little doubt whether it would make racism better or worse." they would have never otherwise been drawn to. Being informed and used to operating in a diverse environment is a valuable skill for any person in modern society, and knowing what inequalities someone faces can help them find ways to push back against those prejudices, to the benefit of the individual and society as a whole. “I think one reason for people to be aware of these issues and for adolescents to learn about them at school is that the world is a very diverse place,” Bigler remarks. “it’s a very different place, and it’s getting more and more impossible to live your life not encountering people who are different from you, and so the more that adolescents understand about social groups and circumstances? The better position they have to negotiate their social world.” Bigler also believes that such skills can be assets in the job market. “Even in business, you have to be able to deal with people from other countries with other

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brain game: The structure of the cranial tissue that forms our thoughts and rules our lives. Story and Art by Nick Erichson

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very thought that shoots through the brain pulses through a variety of cranial structures to create a simple action or word. As The Scientific American, a highly regarded national science magazine, states, “The brain instantiates virtually all mental operations, from understanding language, to learning that fire is dangerous, to recalling the name of one’s kindergarten teacher, to categorizing fruits and vegetables, to predicting the future. Arguing for the importance of the brain in psychology is like arguing for the importance of money in economics.�

CEREBELLUM:

The cerebellum integrates information from the vestibular system that indicates position and movement and uses this information to coordinate limb movements. From tossing a ball to handwriting to musical instruments- all use the cerebellum.

THALAMUS:

The thalamus relays incoming sensory pathways to appropriate areas of the cortex, determines which sensory information actually reaches consciousness. The thalamus intakes information, processes it, and filters out unimportant stimuli. The strong sensations that bring about sleep, alertness, and environmental awareness all come from the thalamus.

HYPOTHALAMUS:

The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are responsible for visceral functions, body temperature and behavioral responses such as feeding, drinking, sexual response, aggression and pleasure.

FRONTAL LOBE:

The frontal lobe The frontal lobe sits at the front of the brain and is associated with reasoning, motor skills, higher level cognition, and expressive language. The motor cortex is located at the back of the frontal lobe; this area of the brain receives information from various lobes of the brain and utilizes this information to carry out body movements.

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TEMPORAL LOBE

The temporal lobe is located at the bottom of the brain, and houses the primary auditory cortex, hippocampus, and many elements of the limbic system. The primary auditory cortex is the essential structure for interpreting sounds and language, while the hippocampus is integral for emotion and the formation of memories.

OCCIPITAL LOBE:

The occipital lobe is the main center for visual processing in the human brain. This lobe is home to the primary visual cortex, the ma jor organ associated with vision, perception, light, and color.

PARIETAL LOBE:

The parietal lobe in the middle of the brain is responsible for processing physical information like pressure, touch, or pain. You enguage your cerebellum anytime you use the five human senses- touch, smell, vision, hearing, and taste. The parietal lobe intakes signals from all over the body and bounces them back to the brain as information that spurs scent, color, light, and more.

BRAIN STEM:

The brain stem controls the reflexes and automatic functions (heart rate, blood pressure), limb movements and visceral functions like digestion and urination. The brain stem is a part of the limbic system and integral to “fight or flight” reactions.

The brain and its functions are a world of mysteries and adventures for scientists on the forefront of discovery. Neurobioligist Bill Clement says, “Familiarity with the brain has helped us make tremendous leaps in science over the past ten years.” As the organ dictating thoughts, control, and conciousness, however, the brain still contains a number of unsolved myseries. “This is a small chunk of tissue that essentially creates our world, “ says Victoria Whitman, a psychology professor at Columbia University. “It sure isn’t going to be simple.” MAY 2014 | MIND 37


Designed with the mind in mind. Experience the phone built for you with the new iPhone 5c. With a 4-inch screen, eyecatching Retina Display, even faster A6 processor, you’re sure to find a great experience in the phone that comes as colorful as you are.

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Acknowledgements We, the creators of this magazine, would like to attribute these following photo’s/ picture’s to their creators. None of these following photo’s belong, nor were created by the MIND magazine creators.

Abstract Cloudy Sky Light Blue

• Webtreats © Abstract Cloudy Sky Light Blue https://www.flickr.com/photos/webtreatsetc/5972016444/ This photo was strunk.

Drawing of 11 Different Men

• Jun’ ichiro Seyama © Drawing of a 11 different men into one face https://www.flickr.com/photos/averageface/8225503439/ This photo was strunk.

Christopher Michel Photo • Christopher Michel ©

Two Left Hands Forming A Heart Shape •

Leon Brochard © Two left hands forming a heart shape

Astrocyte

• Gerry Shaw © Astrocyte

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