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Densification with of quality urban life

Master thesis by Lars Grenaker MSc.04 URB 06, May 2015 Department of Architecture, Design & Media Technology Aalborg University


“

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There is a myth, sometimes widespread, that a person need only do inner work, in order to be alive like this; that a man is entirely responsible for his own problems; and that to cure himself, he need only change himself... The fact is, a person is so far formed by his surroundings, that his state of harmony depends entirely on his harmony with his surroundings.� - Christopher Alexander et al. (1979:109)


FORMALIA TITLE Densification with quality of Urban life THEME Designing for good quality of urban life in a dense, urban residential area SUB THEME Environmental psychology & hydrology SEMESTER MSc. 04 URB Aalborg University, Denmark GROUP NUMBER 06 MAIN SUPERVISOR Hans Kiib Professor, Department of Architecture, Design & Media Technology, Aalborg University TECHNICAL SUPERVISOR Jes Vollertsen Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University PERIOD 02.02.15 - 27.05.15 PAGES 151 COPIES 4

Lars Grenaker

APPENDIX 4

3


PREFACE This master thesis is written at the Department of Architecture, Design & Media Technology at Aalborg University (AAU) on the MSc 04. The project takes place from February 2nd 2015 to May 27th 2015 with a final examination of June 2015. It marks the end of a two year Urban Design master’s degree and has a workload of 30 ECTS. The goal with the thesis is to gain knowledge about densification in growing cities, the importance of green spaces, and hydrological solutions to meet the increasing climate problems, with an environmental psychological approach. The motivation for the selection of these topics is the interest of peoples relation to their surroundings, to create good living environments and well-being in a dense urban residential area. The final design is based on knowledge and reflections from theoretical studies, case studies and experience analysis, and help from supervisors from Aalborg University.

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ABSTRACT We are facing rapid changes in the urban development. More people move to the cities, which require more places for people to live, and that people live closer together. This will pressure the amount of green space in the cities, that can be very beneficial for the quality of urban life. The climate is also changing, causing major challenges for the urban sustainability. This thesis discuss why these changes are important and how they can be met. The purpose is to illustrate how densification can be used in a beneficial way, not only for the environment, but also for people, and how they are being affected by their surroundings. The thesis is based on literature study on previous research on densification, green space and hydrology, case studies where this has been an important strategies, and analysis of peoples reaction to their surroundings. On the basis of these theories, cases and analysis, it has been made a proposal for how a dense residential area can be designed, taking into consideration the climate change and the importance of greenery and water in the city. The evaluation will debate whether the ambitions with the area have been met. The outcome can be used as recommendations for how to create better quality of urban life and will among other show how to form a calmer city life. Keywords: densification, green space, hydrology, environmental psychology, residential area, urban strategy.

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CONTENT INTRO 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

Introduction & background

008

Problem

010

Method

011

Process

012

The city

014

The site

016

THEORY STUDY 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

Densification

026

Typology study

044

Green space

048

Hydrology

058

CASE STUDIES 4.1 4.2

Pilestredet Park

064

Bo01

072

Introduction

080

Result

088

PRESENTING 2.1 2.2

EXPERIENCE ANALYSIS 5.1 5.2

6


VISION 6.0 DESIGN PARAMETERS 7.0 DESIGN 8.1 8.2 8.4 8.3 CONCLUSION 9.0

Godsbanearealet East

096

Strategies

098

A calm city life

112

Facts & figures

124

Technical solution

132

Story

136

Reflection

142

REFERENCES

146

APPENDIX

152

7


CHAPTER

01

INTRODUCTION & BACKGROUND Sustainable development was seriously put on the agenda when the World Commission on Environment and Development published the report Our Common Future in 1987. It says that sustainable development is; “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” (WCED, 1987). These words cover three important criteria - economical, social and environmental development. From 2006, more than 50 per cent of the world’s population live in cities, which means that urbanization and higher density are irreversible. This is a sustainable challenge for urban designers and planners. The concept of the compact city promotes relatively high residential density and mixed use (Jacobs, 1961). But if we focus too narrowly on densification as increased land use, the risk would be ignoring the importance of functional mix and the challenges it can generate. Densification means that the existing development gets a higher and more efficient space utilization. It is primarily important to prevent urban sprawl, which expands human populations away from central urban areas. This often results in communities that are more reliant upon transportation usage. By exploiting areas within the undeveloped areas more effectively through densification, we can contribute to less pressure on both the local and global environment. A dense city can give relatively less transport and thus less air - and noise pollution and lower emissions of greenhouse gases. The countryside around the cities can be kept free of buildings and still serve as recreational areas, maintain food production and preserve biodiversity. In addition,

8

INTRO

resources which is put into infrastructure and service can better be utilized and save society new investments (Guttu & Thorén, 1996). But densification also brings with it some challenges. A common source of conflict involves the loss of visual and physical access to parks and green spaces, and thereby reduce the opportunities that nature provides for psychological restoration. It can give unfortunate traffic load and increased pollution, if the use of private transportation is prioritized. In addition, densification can reduce quality of living in terms of loss of sunlight and view, problems with privacy and noise, fewer social meeting places, and interfere with the city’s or districts character (Guttu & Thorén, 1996). Densification and transformation leads to constant pressure on green structure, biodiversity, living qualities and aesthetic qualities. Although compact cities are good for the environment, it is important to preserve natural areas in the cities. Thoughts that implies that there should be more green in the cities includes Ebenezer Howards introduction to the idea of garden cities. He believed that having more green would have positive affect on air pollution and radiation from the sun, and simultaneously give residents more nature and the opportunity to grow their own food (Thorén, 2005). By preserving or developing new green areas in the city it can also increase biodiversity. Increased vegetation use will have a positive effect on the local climate, air quality and water balance. This will give animals and plants better chance to survive, since


they more easily can move between areas and thereby increase the basis of existence (Thorén, 2005). Today we also know that the reason why green areas like forests, parks, trees and gardens are important is because they “are known to provide opportunities to enhance public health and well-being.” (Nilson et al., 2011). When we take into account that green areas can stimulate citizens to spend more time outdoors and be more physically active, it is natural to believe that it will be possible to prevent many serious health problems through the design and facilitation of greenery in the cities. It is not just the green structure that is in danger by densification, but as the cities gets densified, the residents needs for more green environment for play, recreation and social activities increase. According to Denmark’s meteorological Institute (DMI, 2014), Denmark will get a warmer climate with more rainfall and more extreme weather in the future, which will provide milder winter and long heat waves in the summer. It is also expected a rise in sea levels around Denmark. This will create challenges in cities since densification leads to more impervious zones, like roofs and roads that will collect water and create flooding and damages. Another and equally important strategy is to make people aware of the climate changes we face, and what we can do locally to prevent it.

We can see that the fulfilment of needs is not only important for sustainable development, but also for peoples well-being and quality of life. But this does not mean that sustainable development is equal to good quality of life? A good example is sustainable transportation. Taking the bus is good for the environment, but some people may find the car more attractive because it is more convenient, comfortable and private (Garling et al, 2007). On the basis of this we can say that the term quality of urban life refers to urban designs objective to realize sustainable development with respect to an individual quality of life. It is a concept that has the opportunity to solve the problems of urban areas, to control urban sprawl and to prevent environmental exacerbation. Urban attributes that comes up when talking about improving the quality of urban life is transportation, public space, recreational opportunities, population and building densities, accessibility, public health, safety, social integration, preservation of history, spatial diversification and mixed use, and respecting the local environment. So far we can see that we have crossing interests in connection with densification; on one hand the need for reduced energy and urban sprawl, and on the other hand the need for green spaces for play and recreation and to ensure psychological restoration.

So what does these problems have to do with the quality of urban life? According to Lotfi et al. (2009), quality of life is considered one of the most important dimensions for sustainable urban development. The term might be defined differently in various disciplines. It is not used to describe physical features, but the relationship between them. WHO defines Quality of Life as “individuals’ perception of their position in life in the context of the culture in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns” (WHOQOL, 1997). This is a broad definition that are affected by peoples health, social relationships, mental state and relationship to their surroundings.

INTRO

9


PROBLEM How can we densify the city and at the same time

maintain green spaces, meet the climate change and create good quality of urban life?

DENSIFICATION

+

GREEN SPACE

Is the only solution to densification to reduce our standard of living in already crowded areas? And how does the urban environment affect peoples thoughts, feelings and behaviour? To answer this problem, looking at densification, green areas and hydrology at an environmental and physical level alone is not enough. It is important to see how we perceive and are affected by the environment, which means to look at the social and psychological level. Perception involves gathering, organizing and making sense of the environment. Therefore the emphasis in this thesis will be on thoughts, feelings and behaviour. This will again help to find out how the environment should, and should not be designed. The relationship between humans and the environment must be understood as a complex interaction between psychological factors and the specific environment a person lives in.

10

INTRO

+

HYDROLOGY

=

To examine quality of urban life it will therefore be focused on environmental values, physical values, social values and psychological values. In addition to the values mentioned, quality of urban life also consist of political values, mobility values and economical values. The economic, nor political factors will have the same priority in this thesis. Influences and experiences inside the building, mobility and infrastructure (including permeability), and history, will be mentioned, but not discussed in depth.


METHOD ENVIRONMENTAL

PSYCHOLOGICAL

PHYSICAL

The broader one’s understanding of the human experience, the better design we will have” - Steve Jobs (1996) Wired Magazine

SOCIAL

The method that is going to be used in this thesis is an environmental psychological approach, which looks at the relationship and interaction between people and environment. Not only how the environment is described and perceived by us, but how we interact with it and get influenced by it (Fyhri et al., 2012). Environmental psychology “includes theory, research, and practice to improving human relations with the natural environment and making the built environment more humane and improving human relations with the natural environment.” (Gifford et al., 2011) An important concept in environmental psychology is affordance, which was introduced by James Gibson (1986). That is features in the environment that allows us to interact with it or affect it. Environmental psychology researchers have proven that the city affects our quality of life. For example

do we try to avoid spiders, sharp edges, loud noises and darkness, while we enjoy novelty, soft edges, nice smell, gentle surprises and pleasant memories. Use of environmental psychology in planning will ensure that the physical surroundings will be given a design which ensures pleasurable sensations. It is important to know why and how the physical environment can provide restorative effects, i.e. contribute to recovery from stress and mental fatigue. This is an increasingly important issue, as most people now live in cities or urban areas with less access to nature and greenery. Knowledge about environmental preferences and restorative aspects of the environment will contribute to a better understanding of what kind of environments that are good for people. Urban design can secure physical environments that satisfy basic human needs, and lay the foundation for satisfaction and welfare.

INTRO

11


PROCESS The thesis will consist of two parts; a theoretical and analytical section, and a design section, both with equal importance. In the beginning it will be given an introduction to the site in the project, together with some relevant analysis.

ment is experienced in a continuous motion in the urban space, to help to put peoples experiences into words and find out how people react to a certain place (e.g. relaxed or stressed).

The environmental psychological approach will take place primarily through literature study of previous theories and research, both relevant theory and concrete cases where this has been used as a strategy. The main themes of densification, green space and hydrology will be seen through environmental values, physical values, social values and psychological values. These are all interrelated and can be difficult to distinguish from one another, but they are all influencing humans thoughts, feelings and behavior. Here it will be important to look at why these themes are essential, how they may be used and how they affect us. On the basis of these theories it will be made two general case studies, and a more experiential site specific analysis. The case studies will be of similar projects as the site in this thesis, built in recent years. Case studies provide the opportunity to apply both qualitative and quantitative data, to discuss similarities and differences between cases and the opportunity to so-called analytical generalization (Yin, 1994). The more experiential analysis will be made in form of a serial vision combined with a semantic differential form and stress measurement, like a “Walk around the Block” (Lynch et al., 1986) with people. This is to show how the architecture and environ-

12

INTRO

The knowledge from the literature study, case studies and analysis will be used as design parameters for the site to enhance the quality of urban life when densifying and transforming a place into an urban residential area. The parameters will be presented in the form of text, illustrations and pictures. The design section starts as a step-by-step method where the parameters are implemented. Both the conclusions of the theory and analysis section and the existing conditions in the area will be taken into account. Finally the design is presented with plan, sections, elevations and visualizations. This will not be considered as a linear process, but a process in which the phases have an effect on each other. It makes it possible to go back and make changes when new knowledge comes along. This applies to both the theory, analysis, technical solutions and design aspects in the project.

Our perceptual systems are designed to register aspects of the external world that were important to our survival...” - Steven Pinker (2003:199)


INTRODUCTION

Problem

SITE

Godsbanearealet East

Prioritization

THEORY

DENSIFICATION

GREEN SPACE

HYDROLOGY

CASE/ANALYSIS

Pilestredet Park / Bo01 Experience analysis

DESIGN PARAMETERS

Conclusion Strategies

DESIGN

Process Final result Facts & figures

CONCLUSION

Evaluation Thoughts

INTRO

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CHAPTER

02

THE CITY Aalborg lies in the northern part of Jutland and works as the centre of the region. It is Denmark’s forth largest city, and have around 207 800 inhabitants (Danmarks Statistik). 130 900 of them lives in urban areas. The city lies right next to the waterfront and have an average elevation of about 5 meters. Aalborg is known for its industrial heritage, with shipping ports and industry. In the later years, because of the globalization, the city have shifted its focus to becoming a knowledge city. This has amongst others resulted in the need for new student apartments and transformation of industrial areas.

MUNICIPAL GOALS Aalborgs goal is to be an attractive city (Aalborg kommuneplan, 2013) and as they call it “The tough little big city” with an international city pulse. They want to integrate people, business, culture, education, recreation and a good environment at one place. In Aalborg it is expected around 25 000 more people by 2030 (Danmarks Statistik). At the same time the number of people per household have decreased from 2,7 in 1970 to 2.1 in 2010. The composition of the households can have a major impact on how the outdoor area is used and what the residents want of qualities.

+

Aalborg

+

Copenhagen

14

PRESENTING

TRAIN STATION


Climate challenges and focus on sustainability and shortage resources, makes it sensible to focus on urban densification rather than sprawl.” - Aalborg kommuneplan (2013)

LIMFJORDEN

CITY CENTRE

KAROLINELUND

ØSTRE ANLÆG

GODSBANEAREALET

HÅNDVÆRKERKVARTERET

Picture 2.1: Aalborg

PRESENTING 15


THE SITE GROWTH AXIS

REASON FOR THE SITE

The municipality believes that transformation and densification within the existing city limit is the starting point for a sustainable city (Aalborg kommuneplan, 2013). This will primarily happen along the growth axis (illustration 2.2). This is an area that extends through Aalborg, from the airport in the north-west, to the port in the south-east. The axis should according to the municipality have good urban qualities, which means life all day, varying urban space, extraordinary architecture and a light rail. Tennøy et al. (2013) has gone through literature on this area and concludes that “the development of housing, trade, services and jobs in such key areas, with very good public transportation, will result in less car traffic than if such a development took place elsewhere in a city and region”.

The chosen area of this project is part of the Godsbanearealet. It will from now be referred to as Godsbanearealet East or the project site. The reason why this place is selected as a project area for design is because it gives the opportunity for various forms of densification and transformation, development and conservation of green areas, and implementation of hydrological solutions. Consideration of more green structure and recreation dictates densification on already processed spaces or formerly industrial - or parking areas.

GODSBANEAREALET Along the planned growth axis we find Godsbanearealet. This is an old freight track area coming into the city. The municipality’s vision for this area is to make it into a climate-friendly district, where the CO2 discharge from the city’s energy consumption and transport, will be reduced to a minimum. The goal is to transform it into an area with a green and blue structure where nature interacts with the residents and the users. And a place where there is life, residences, work, education and facilities for outdoor living and physical activity.

16

PRESENTING

LOCATION & SURROUNDINGS Godsbanearealet East is approximately 7 ha large and located where the flat area of Østerådalen meets Aalborg city centre. The area is defined by Jyllandsgade to the north, marking the start of the inner city, Håndværkerkvarteret (“the craftsman district”) to the south, with different types of small industry buildings, and by Dag Hammerskiølds Gade to the west. The transition between the city centre and the site is evident, as a series of buildings next to Jyllandsgade create a ‘city wall’, marking the boundary between old and new. Here we can also see how the morphology changes from urban blocks defining streets and squares, to buildings as separate free-standing objects. Håndværkerkvarteret is a good example of earlier planning where the industry was moved from residential areas and placed in new areas on the outskirts of the city. The Urban and Landscape Committee in Aalborg municipality have (April, 2015) started a debate for a new


plan for transition of the northern part of Håndværkerkvarteret, from an industry and commercial area to a mixed residential and commercial area (Aalborg kommuneplan). West of the site we find the city’s public transportation hub with the train station and the bus terminal, which are frequently used by students. Together with them lies the Kennedy Arcade, a big compact building, which includes shops, offices, a cinema and a parking garage. With the sites proximity to public transportation, along with the new light rail coming trough Jyllandsgade, it has big advantages when it comes to sustainability. Between the site and the Kennedy Arcade lies a new campus and residential area, which is still under construction. The areas are separated by the Dag Hammerskiølds Gade bridge, which connects Jyllandsgade and Østre Alles two different levels. The bridge stands out clearly visually, but do not constitute a real barrier because there is room for movement underneath. On the other hand, the site works as a big barrier for the surroundings. Although it is easy to get into the area from the north, it is more or less closed around itself. It is among other no connection south to Håndværkerkvarteret. There are no roads going through, and the area contains virtually no function other than service and industry, and an open field for car parking. These factors causes almost non existing biodiversity at the site.

• • • • • •

• • • •

more than 0,5 m above ground. The ground floor of a new building shall have a height at least 4.0 m. Protected buildings must be preserved. Local identity and architecture shall be used and preserved. Multi-family buildings must be equipped with balconies, patios or rooftop terraces. The roofs on new buildings should generally be established as green roofs. The undeveloped land must be fitted with opportunities for physical activity as well as play, recreation and stay. Safe traffic, links and good visibility. The edges of the buildings shall be 0,60 m or 2-3 m depending on the use. Parking spaces on the ground, must have green surface. Walkways shall have a with of minimum 2 m, while the bike paths shall be minimum 2,5 m. There is no requirements for building density.

“ •

Sustainability is included as a fundamental prerequisite for the transformation of Godsbanearealet, including the establishment and operation of the planned campus. In the definition and implementation of the sustainability concept, the climatic, biological, social and economic sustainability is pursued.” - Bæredyktighed, Godsbanearealet (2009)

LOCAL PLAN REGULATIONS • • • • • • • •

Require establishment of green areas. Close links to public transportation systems. The buildings shall not exceed 10 floors. Stormwater shall be drained locally. The noise level shall not exceed 58 dB. Desire to reuse rails, light poles and other characteristic elements in the outdoor areas. Have stores, restaurants, cafeterias and cultural activities in some of the first floors. New buildings must be adapted to the terrain, and the ground floor must generally not be Illustration 2.2: Growth axis

PRESENTING 17


INFRASTRUCTURE

NYHAVNSGADE 13500 /

1100

ØSTERBRO 5900 /

2900

+

Aalborg Vestby KJELLERUPSGADE 3600 /

1600

KAROLINELUNDSVEJ 8000 /

370

JYLLANDSGADE 9600 /

2400

Aalborg East DAG HA. GADE 4600

ØSTRE ALLE 17200

-

SØNDERBRO 10500 /

610

Aarhus

1:10 000 new light rail AADT (annual average daily traffic)

18

PRESENTING

N


MENTAL MAP

FJORD

+ + CITY CENTRE

PARK

PARK

PARK

+

Adapted from Lynch (1960)

1:10 000 landmarks nodes

N

+

edges buildings worthy of preservation line of sight

PRESENTING 19


URBAN DENSITY

~350% ~170%

~180% ~170%

~190%

~170%

~190%

~200% ~130%

~100%

~120%

~200%

~250%

~130%

~170%

~230%

~220%

~160%

~50% ~170%

~170%

~25% ~200%

67 1:10 000

36

pop/ha (abstract) far ~%

MALMĂ–

10

OSLO

PRESENTING

COPENHAGEN

20

AALBORG

33

N

Average population density (pop/ha)

(aalborgkommune.dk, kk.dk, oslo.kommune.no & malmo.se)


AREAS & BUILDING HEIGHTS

FJORD

CITY CENTRE RESIDENTAL

RESIDENTAL

BUSINESS/RESIDENTAL

INDUSTRY

PARK

PARK

PARK

RESIDENTAL

BUSINESS/RESIDENTAL

BUSINESS/INDUSTRY PARK

floors

10

1:10 000

N

5

1

PRESENTING 21


NATURE & CLIMATE

.

Because of the expectation of more rainfall and raised sea levels, Aalborg is particularly vulnerable because of the location by the fjord and low level areas. It means that the ground water level will rise. If the sea level rises over 3 meters, it will have direct consequences for the project site. For the municipality, it is important to pay attention to climate change and develop a blue and green city both in a recreational sense with health promotional purposes, and as a functional investment for the built environment (Aalborg kommuneplan, 2013).

(MST) the limit is 58 dB for new residential areas in the city. They also say that it should not be planned for new homes if the level is over 68 dB. As we can see from the registration of noise around Godsbanearealet, most of the area at the site is within the limit. However, the noise increases drastically towards the boundaries, especially against Jyllandsgade, where it is closer to 70 dB.

The area now contains virtually no biological diversity and is a barrier for wildlife in the city, but it has close proximity to Kileparken, Karolinelund and Østre Anlæg. The climate strategy for Aalborg municipality includes planting of more trees, because they can take up CO2 from the atmosphere. Aalborg municipality is planning to open up the Østerå canal though the site. This can work as recreation, be helpful for the rainwater management in the area, as well as emphasize the connection between the inland, the city centre and the fjord. Today the water follows an open canal trough Håndværkerkvarteret and in a closed system from Sønderbro before it runs out in Limfjorden. It is expected that because of the climate change, the water canals will be flooded. This can have consequences for the land, infrastructure, industry and buildings at the site. We can see a correlation between the reopening of Åen in Aarhus, and what the municipality in Aalborg wants to do with the new Østerå canal. In Aarhus they have transformed a street into a river that runs through the centre of the city, and instead created recreational pedestrian areas for new use.

NOISE As we can see on the map (page 25), the site is surrounded by roads and industry. This is a challenge for the noise level at the site and for the risk of negative health effects. According to Miljøministeriet

22

PRESENTING

APPEARANCE & IDENTITY Godsbanearealet East is experienced as an open, overgrown, flat area with relatively few and low buildings. Most of the buildings are located in the northern part of the area and are primarily used for business and industry purposes, some of them with a certain conservation value (page 19). Before Godsbanearealet became a fright track area it had a natural landscape with vegetation and lakes. The site is now characterized by the time it served as a freight track area leading into the city, among others because of the existing buildings, railway lines and other elements that shows the history of the site. The railway lines are distinct and form a structure at the site. This history makes you feel you are in a forbidden territory, because it has a special character with elements that create a particular atmosphere you can not find anywhere else in the city. On the other hand, the site has a potential to function as a link between Aalborg city centre and Østerådalen, if the space is made more extroverted and grab on to the surroundings.


PRESENTING 23


Wind direction distribution (%), Aalborg. windfinder.com N

NW

NE

W

2

NATURE & CLIMATE

4

6

8

10 12 14

SW

E

SE

S

Wind direction distribution (%)

(windfinder.com)

+

LIMFJORDEN

+

-

KAROLINELUND

-

-

+

KILDEPARKEN

+

ØSTRE ANLÆG

+

-

SØNDERBROSKOLEN

+

ØSTERÅ

1:10 000 sea level 2,9 m

canal

3,1 m

new canal

3,3 m

green areas

3,5 m

soil pollution

(klimatilpasning.dk)

24

PRESENTING

N

+


NOISE MAP

75+

70-75

60-65

55-60 65-70

1:10 000

N

55-60 dB

60-65 dB

65-70 dB

70-75 dB

75+ dB

PRESENTING 25


CHAPTER

03

+ DENSIFICATION So far we know that densification can be good for sustainability. But how can we densify and how dense can it get before it reduces our standards of living? What we know is that, the denser it gets, the more important it is to provide privacy and liveable environments. Densification can be designed and planned in many ways, with different character and scale. It can be done by infill on vacant lots, additions to existing buildings, or redevelopment or transformation of former industrial sites. It may also revolve around junction densification, or even as a dike for protection against the environment.

26


27


28

THEORY STUDY


DEFINITION OF DENSITY

.

Density is a complex term. According to environment behaviour researchers we can distinguish between two types of density that relates to people’s lives: physical density and perceived density (Stokols, 1972). Physical density means numerical measure of the physical structures within a given area or concentration of individuals, while perceived density refers to the relationship between individuals and their surroundings. How spaces are characterized are important for our perception of density, but the interaction between people and the environment is even more important (Alexander, 1993). Perceived density is more subjective, and does not only look at the relationship between individuals and surroundings (spatial density), but also between individuals (social density/crowding) (Ng, 2010). Physical density can be measured in different ways:

There are many recommendations for how dense an urban residential area can be, from 100-150 % (Christophersen & Lorange, 1992) to 150-200 % (Martens & Helle, 2000). According to Gehl (2010), high density is a prerequisite for good urban life, but a density above 250 % will produce the opposite effect, as it will affect the quality in terms of human scale, sun, shade and unpleasant wind conditions. Others say it can be up to 300-350 % before it affects these qualities. Pedersen (2011) conclude that a higher density percentage not necessarily mean a deterioration of these conditions.

FAR

DU

The recommendations probably vary so much because the assessments of density is relative, and depend on time, place and who you ask.

OSR

POP

Illustration 3.1: Building density & population density

FAR Floor area ratio is the ratio of building structures related to a plot surface. DU

Dwelling units measure the number of dwelling units built in an area.

OSR Percentage of ’non-building’ areas of a site, regardless of the use. POP Population density measure the number of individuals in a given area.

THEORY STUDY

29


URBAN MORPHOLOGY & ENCLOSURE Building density is related to urban morphology, because the same density can be achieved with different building types, and the same types can be used to achieve different densities. Here we can see an example of three different settlements with the same residential density, but with different urban forms: Illustration 3.2: Building types

To achieve quality of urban life for outdoor spaces it requires that we use design that respond to the human experience, in other words a good people-space relation. The spaces between the buildings are not experienced one at a time, but rather in a continuous sequence (Cullen, 1961). Depending on the morphology, we will get different degrees of exposures and enclosure, or ‘constraints and relief’, affecting how people feel and what people do. People can experience space as a location, direction or a transition between these two.

Illustration 3.3: Enclosure

30

THEORY STUDY

Urban space between the buildings can be considered in terms of “positive” or “negative” space (Alexander et al., 1977). Positive space is enclosed. This refers to the degree the public spaces are visually defined by buildings, walls, trees, levels and other vertical elements. Negative space however is shapeless, because of lack of perceivable edges, so we cannot really tell where the boundaries are. Enclosure makes us feel more comfortable and secure, and positive spaces therefore tend to be used more.

. . As we can see on illustration 3.3, a single building does not create positive space. Neither does buildings that are organized in a row. When buildings are placed in the middle of the site, the outdoor areas can becomes narrow and get small utility value. To create a positive space and enclosure, the buildings should be seated at right angles to each other around a central space. When the walls of the buildings fill the corner of the space, it creates even more sensation of enclosure. Another way to tell if a space is positive or negative is to look at the relation between the building and the space. If we look at the plan of an environment where outdoor spaces are negative, we see the buildings as figures, and the outdoor space as ground. It is impossible to see the outdoor space as figure, and the buildings as ground. If we look at the plan of an environment where the outdoor spaces are positive, we see the buildings as figure, and outdoor spaces as ground. At the same time we may also see the outdoor spaces as figure against the ground of the buildings (Alexander et al., 1977). According to Love (2009), rather than having one plot size, different plot sizes may encourage and facilitate more diversity of building types and land use. This is also something we can see around the project site. So the plot size should be determined by the local context, in terms of movement and identity. Smaller plots are good for vitality, permeability, visual interest and legibility, while larger plots may be more efficient in terms of built form and open space. Bigger plots also have a better opportunity to create an urban parameter block, with a public front and a more private backside.


HUMAN SCALE

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The scale is an important factor for how we perceive our surroundings compared to our self. Human scale refers to size, form and other physical elements that engage with the human size. Smaller buildings, narrow streets and spaces create a more intimate environment, while larger buildings and wide streets can have the opposite effect. Streets where the height of the building equals the width, creates a strong sense of enclosure (Alexander et al., 1977). In narrow streets where the height exceeds the width we can get dramatic contrasts and counterpoints. Does this mean we should not build buildings where the height exceeds the width?

Many places it has been argued that the best height-to-width ratio for streets to crate good sense of enclose is 1:2, and minimum 1:1. But does not this depend on where we stand in the street, and how we orient ourselves? If we stand close to the wall, the wall can seem dramatic, but if we turn to the street, the space can seem less powerful. This is also the case if the ratio is for example 1:4. Elements in the street can be used to make a higher sense of enclosure and human scale, and we can find many examples of streets that create a good sense of human scale, that both have a higher and lower ratio of 1:1 (picture 3.1 & 3.2).

Emotional ďŹ eld of vision

3,7 m

Public distance

Illustration 3.4: Emotional field of vision

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1:2

1:1

2:1 Illustration3.5: Height-to-width ratio

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As mentioned, the visual sense is the most developed. According to Gehl (2010) we can detect motion and body posture on individuals who are 100 meters away, but to read facial expressions and emotions we have be down in about 22 to 25 meters (illustration 3.4). This is called the ’emotional field of vision’. The human senses are also developed horizontally, because we from a natural side would be able to look for danger on the ground and from the side. The conclusion from Gehl is that if a building reaches a height over five floors, it is harder to maintain contact between the street and the building, but this does not mean that more floors can not be placed above and behind the lower floors. Gehl however conclude that high buildings with large density do not create vibrant cities.

Physiological experiments have shown that our senses need stimulation every four to five seconds for the environment to seem rich and coherent (Gehl, 2010). Therefore it is important with vertical façades, so the streets become more interesting and eventful. The reason for this is that horizontal lines are visually faster than vertical lines. So by having vertical lines, the eye will slow down. It has also been studies how long horizontal façades not only speed up people physically, but bring them down emotionally (Montgomery, 2013).

Picture 3.1: Philadelphia

Picture 3.2: Copenhagen


SUN AND SHADE

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The spatiality of the outdoor spaces can also be measured in the amount of sunlight. The amount of sunlight is an universal satisfaction factor and is important to make the dense urban city more comfortable and pleasant. Physical and psychological well-being is related to the exposure of sunlight and shelter (Guttu et al., 1996). It will encourage outdoor activity, improve health by giving the body vitamin D and be a source of energy. The access to sunlight is also directly linked to the building design. The height of the building should therefore be adapted to the width of the street and the distance to the neighbouring buildings. Also the facade material can be used to reflect the sunlight. The amount of sun does not only depend on the buildings, it varies over the cycle of the season, especially in Scandinavia, where the sun is low.

Thorén et al. (1997) recommends direct sunlight on a minimum of 50 % of the ground at 15.00 at equinox. The reason for this time is probably due to that this is the time when people come home from work, school or kindergarten. Guttu et al. (2006) suggest that we should have direct sunlight on at least 25 % of the ground 5 hours a day. These are relatively high requirements for dense urban areas (illustration 3.6). To maintain a high density ratio, it is therefore necessary to work with open areas above ground.

Equinox, March 20th 3.00 pm, Aalborg 57° 2ʹ 29.03ʺ N 9° 55ʹ 35.01ʺ E ~50 % shade

To improve the sun conditions it is possible to orient the urban structure diagonally in relation to the world corners. This allows the sun to penetrate longer down into the urban space and thereby Equinox, Marchthrough 20th reach more apartments the year. 3.00 pm, Aalborg 57° 2ʹ 29.03ʺ N 9° 55ʹ 35.01ʺ E ~50 % shade

25°

25°

25°

Ratio 1:2

Ratio 1:1,25

Ratio 1:5

25° Ratio 1:2

Ratio 1:1,25

Ratio 1:1,25

Ratio 1:1,25

Ratio 1:5

Ratio 1:5

Ratio 1:5

Illustration 3.6: Sun & shade on equinox

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MIXED-USE

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Good outdoor areas are also related to proximity and accessibility. Mixed-use means that we blend dwellings, jobs, shops, services, culture, sports and leisure facilities, and different kind of spaces. Mixed-use is essential for densification. Without mixed-use, densification will not achieve the same benefits, like reducing the need for transportation. If we only build residential buildings in a dense urban environment, it will give little back to the city. The idea is that mixed-use will create life in and around the buildings all day, as well as reduce transport demand so people can walk or cycle. This will also reduce homogeneous districts and create more spontaneous communication and interaction. According to Montgomery (2013), people that are driving are more unhappy. The longer people have to drive to get to work, the less happy they are with their entire life.

cities push us together physically, but apart socially. He also mention that people who live in taller buildings feel lonely and crowded by other people at the same time. This means that human density is not the critical issue for sociability, but rather our ability to control the situation, and have the opportunity to interact how we want.

CROWDING

“

Community is nowadays another name for paradise lost – but one to which we would dearly hope to return, and so we feverishly seek the roads that may bring us there.� - Bauman (2001:3)

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Densification involves more people living closer together. Crowding refers to the perceived density and psychological stress of having too many people in close proximity. What we see and experience as crowded depends on time, place and personal space, but does not have to be negative. For example can we feel less insecure if we know the people around us. Freedman (1975) argues that crowding is not good or bad, but depends on what we expect. He says that it is not physical density that determine the effect it has on people, but crowding. Crowding gives us more social interaction and a lack of control over unwanted social contact. According to Baum et al. (1978) people that are aware of the density level in beforehand will feel less crowded. But they also mention that residents tend to use their private or semi-private space less, and have less social interaction with other residents, if the space is in connection to public markets or shops. Montgomery (2013) refer to studies that shows that crowding lead to stress because of lack of control and social uncertainty. The reason for this is that over-stimulation can make people retreat. Denser

COMMUNITIES People associate themselves with other people, and form relationships based on common interests. An important factor in this sense is the proximity principle, which means that people form relationships with others that are in physical proximity to themselves. The more these people interact, the greater attraction, identification and affiliation are created between them (Newcomb, 1960). This is about active participation in a network, and the opportunity for self realization, which gives the feeling of acceptance, rather than location and architectural features. Certain forms of neighbourhoods promote more sense of community than others. Kolstad (2011) talks about how suburbs with a large proportion of tower blocks are rated as poor living environments, since they provide an inadequate sense of community and contact. Kaplan (2001) believes that narrow streets and houses closer together is helping to solve this problem. But Bauman (2001) believes that these types of relationships are undergoing constant change and are impossible to maintain and interact. People want freedom, but also security in the form of community. Today we can see that the social communities are changing into networks across the physical locations. This means that peoples social network exists outside the closest neighbourhood. But there is still some common interests we all share, independent on age, wealth and social status, and that is among others green space and water. This will be presented in more detail in the following sections about green spaces and hydrology.


OUTDOOR SPACE

.

The outdoor spaces are essential for these communities to exist. Gehl (2007) divides this space into spaces for necessary activities, optional activities and social activities, and says that open spaces are first meaningful when these activities can take place at the same time. The necessary activities take place regardless of the quality of the physical space, while the optional activities depends on what the space has to offer. The social activities occur by themselves and comes from people moving about and being in the same space. So if a place have high quality, it means that necessary activities take place at the same time as optional activities have good conditions.

also talked about how we can start recognizing faces and expressions at around 22 meters away. By keeping this distance, we also secure a certain degree of privacy.

Gehl (2007) also focuses on various transitions and spatial communities in the city. He says that one square meter of space right outside our front door, is worth and used much more than 100 square meters a short distance away. Quality is defined like a question of proximity and not quantity. It is essential to offer space from spontaneous activities to scheduled activities, to ensure diversity, but also predictability and safety.

PRIVACY Architectures social function is to provide the framework, possibilities and limitations for private and social interaction. The desire to create higher density developments may be in conflict with our privacy. If a space is public or private depends on the ownership of the space, access to the space and whether the space is actively used. But as mentioned, the reality of how we perceive our environment is more socially constructed, and also depends on culture. So what seems like a public space for one person, is not always the same for another person. Therefore, a place have to be perceived as private to be private (illustration3.7). Gehl (2010) concludes that our social distance is 1,2 to 3,7 meters, while the public distance is 3,7 meters (illustration 3.4). He also mentions that people have an intimate zone of an ’arm’s length’, where others presence is not desired. As mentioned, Gehl

.

Privacy refers to the ability to control the amount and type of contact we have with others. To achieve privacy through design, Lawson (2010) suggests that we have to create boundaries so we can organize our surroundings hierarchically by the local conditions.

.

In general we can distinguish between public space, semi-public space, semi-private space and private space. They are linked with the concept of territoriality, referring to the social structure. A public space is where everyone have access, like a square, street or a park. When we densify, these spaces have to get smaller. To solve this we can make more semi-public space, in form of institutions, playgrounds or pocket parks. The private space have no physical access to other people, and can be found not only indoors, but also outdoors in form of balconies, backyards, entrances and terraces. Since they are visible to others, they can provide a form of surveillance to the public space as well as a place for more privacy. Balconies and roof terraces are a part of the building itself, while backyards take up more outdoor space. Instead we can compensate by having more semi-private front yards, courtyards, raised courtyards, access balconies, entrances, common facilities or roof terraces. Roof terraces, access balconies and shared entrances are all an extension of the building, and will therefore not take any capacity from the urban space. •

In the courtyard we have an overview and can relate to a predictable range of people. This is a meeting place for the whole neighbourhood, but according to Isdahl (2007a), the courtyard is primarily used by children, and a minority of other residents. By raising the courtyard we can get space underneath that can include underground parking and commercial properties. The courtyard is usually less windy, but can get more shady.

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Physical privacy PHYSICAL PRIVACY

Square/park

Playground

Institution/residence

Street

SEMI-PUBLIC

PUBLIC

Front yard

SEMI-PUBLIC

Residence

Back yard

PRIVATE

Courtyard

SEMI-PRIVATE

PerceivedPRIVACY privacy PERCEIVED

Square/park

Playground

Institution/residence

Street

privacy increasing

Front yard

Residence

Back yard

Courtyard

privacy increasing

Illustration 3.7: Privacy

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The roof terrace can be a “access-controlled private common area” for those who live in the same building (Haslum, 2005). Even thought the activities we can make are confined compared to the courtyard, there is less transparency, and often good sun conditions and view. The problem with the roof terrace is usually that it may be exposed to wind, and take much space compared to the amount of people it is available for. It is also small opportunity for random encounters, especially between residents of different buildings.

The balcony is for the people who live in the same apartment only. It is usually open for view from the neighbours, but again it has good sun conditions and view depending on the height and orientation.

The question is if the roof terrace can compensate for the courtyard, or if it just can be a supplement. According to the descriptions, the roof terrace can not replace outdoor space on the ground in its entirety, mainly because of the amount of space. But the roof terrace can be a tool to meet the need for sunlight. Instead of having a minimum requirement of 50 % sunlight on the ground, we can move some of this to the roof terrace.


THE EDGE

.

Although the height of the buildings not necessarily have the biggest significance for human scale, the articulation of the edge and the facade has. To provide an interface between public and private realms, the edge must enable both interaction and protection. This can be done by sufficient distances, adequate vegetation and level differences, and provide both visual and aural privacy. This depends on the degree of how much people can see or hear what lies beyond the edge, in other words transparency.

In a survey done by Gehl in Melbourne, he examined the edge effect at traditional town-houses (Gehl, 2007). He found out that a semi-private area located in the transition zone between housing and access roads, led to strengthening of the neighbourhoods social life. They were 3-4 meters deep, and optimal to ensure privacy, but at the same time allow communication between the home and the public space. This may have to do with the public distance of 3,7 meters. He also concluded that the first floor was used much more than balconies, where there is less space, worse climate and less contact with the surroundings. To use space and distance as a solution to ensure privacy can on the other hand take up much needed space when we densify, and create monotonous layouts.

The edge can also reach out to the street, and offer more activity and vitality. Doors and windows offer human presence, and the more doors and windows we have, the more active the frontage gets. This means that the edge work both as a protector as well as a place for interface and communication (Madanipour, 2003). Blank and empty edges will therefore offer less activity. Privacy can be established physically by both permanent and temporary edges. This includes walls, roofs, windows, doors, fences, signs, furniture, paving, levels/stairs, vegetation and openings. To put up a permanent barrier like a fence can be a solution, but a softer and more permeable way is often desirable, because activities that take place are not equally private. But again, more permeable solutions can also confuse people to understand the degree of privacy. To use level differences or stairs in front of the buildings can be a good way to provide a proper transition between public and private that people can understand, but at the same time that can cause a problem for movement and universal design.

“

Different type of surface may be a good option to mark the limits. People tend to look down and be careful where they tread. Change in surface will therefore make people aware and conscious about where they go. This will also make places more open and inviting, and will not be as dominant and excluded as a fence.

The wall that separates two neighbours, home from street, and city from countryside, lies at the heart of the notion of law and society. City building therefore is partly a boundary setting exercise, sub-dividing space and creating new functions and meaning, establishing new relationships between the two sides.� - Madanipour (2003:240)

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SAFETY & SECURITY

.

An important criteria for good quality of urban life is that people feel safe and secure. It is important for us to have other people in the streets to feel secure. At the same time we do not know most of these people. And for the most part, even though we feel strange if we are the only ones in the street, we try to avoid contact with most of the other people. People operate according to a “mini-max principle” (Lofland, 1973), which means that we like to be alone, but at the same time like to know that people are around us.

Different dwelling types affect the relative safety. Dwellings with exposure on more sides feels least safe. This applies, for example, for urban villas, that will be as examined later under the typology studies.

Variation in population composition and mixed-use contributes to more use of the outdoor space during the day, which is an important tool to create a safe area. This creates both surveillance and light from windows. Kiosks, artworks, furniture, plants, parked bicycles and playgrounds can also give a reassuring effect since it witnesses of proximity and the presence of other people.

Fear of crime is another factor in our satisfaction with our surroundings. What is interesting is that fear of crime is closer associated with population density than actual crime rates (Gifford & Peacock, 1979). Crime prevention can not only be solved in physical ways, but also social and psychological. The idea is that the environment can be manipulated to prevent crime, and thereby improving quality of urban life (CPTED). To reduce crime in an urban setting we can define a hierarchy of public and private zones, provide natural surveillance by having ’eyeson-the-street’ (Jacobs, 1961), and by having activities and people in the street. The argument is that zoning or segregation and discontinuous streets will reduce crime because criminals avoid street patterns where they might be trapped. Here we can see contradictions between open solutions where people are present, and closed solutions where people have restricted access. The biggest benefit is anyway to have necessary density of pedestrian movement. In higher density urban areas this may be required, but in lower density areas it may be more important with segregation.

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We appreciate buildings which form continuous lines around us and make us feel as safe in the open space as we do in a room.” - De Botton (2006:245)

IDENTITY Densification and transformation can change the impression of a place, even outside its boarders. A place gives the people who live there social identity. And like the feeling of security, hierarchies and zoning are important for the identity of a place. Residents feel that it is their place or their street, while guests or passers feel they are visiting. We are strongly tied to a place that is beautiful, well kept and valuable, which gives us more confidence and better self-esteem (Kolstad, 2011). That will again increase security on the site indirectly. What has an impact on whether a place has good identity or not is the sites development and stability, how we can affect the place, the possibility of self-realization, and contact, proximity and integration. To create attachment to a place, we have to spend time in it. A good procedure could be to have public participation in the design process. Another important reason is to preserve the old, and rather give it a new twist, such as the transition from old to new development, because we prefer what we have seen before (Myers et al, 2010). By taking care of local features, we can counteract the tendency of uniformity and allow objects to retain their identity.


VISUAL QUALITY

.

Densification change the visual image of the a place as a whole, and also its surroundings. When we open for densification, we must be aware that the city and especially the individual district will eventually get a new character. In our daily life we experience the environment, both consciously through cognitive processing, and unconsciously regardless of thinking and conscious assessment. Whether we appreciate it or not depends on how we perceive it and how we process, judge and feel about the information we get. This are and can be personal, but since we live in a social and cultural community, there are also some components that are similar for everyone.

The diagrams we looked at under the topic Morphology and enclosure, created order. Here the whole space could easily be observed, and because of that not very intriguing and complex. If we make smaller spaces within the big space, so we can not see the whole space, it will create a sense of mystery or intrigue. But too many small and complex spaces can again lead to negative sensations, because the spaces can not be used in the same way (illustration 3.8). Booth (1983) also mention another factor that can establish a strong sense of enclosure and at the same time contribute to a complex experience. He talks about the ’windmill’ as being the most favourable condition. That means that the streets not pass directly through, but force people to experience rather than walk past. Studies shows that courtyards shaped as a ’roundabout’ with paths along the façades works best (Thorén et al., 1997).

ORDER AND COMPLEXITY Meiss (1990) argues that to make sense of our surroundings we need aesthetic coherence from recognition of patterns. This refers to a sense of visual order in a place. The degree of coherence is not only influenced by the arrangement of buildings, but also the scale, character, landscaping and other physical elements. In other words, how we see our environment depends on how easy it is for us to mentally group different elements from each other. According to Meiss we get this order and coherence from similarity, proximity, enclosure, orientation, closure and continuity (illustration 3.9).

Illustration 3.9: Order & coherence

At the same time, if a place is too easy to orient in, it can become too uninteresting and monotone, not challenge our senses and a place not worth visiting. The complexity of a place depends on the variety of visual elements. It can be number and kinds of buildings, architectural diversity, landscape elements, street furniture and human activity. Cold et al. (1998) argues that we desire an environment with more details than we can process immediately. But if our surroundings gets too complex, our preference decreases. When we sustain ourselves in an urban space, we look at opportunities to experience inequalities during a day as an important factor. This is to get some kind of relief, and may involve different types of designs and colours. Illustration 3.8: Spaces

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PATTERNS

.

Surrounding architecture and environment can trigger our moods by its outer shape and colour. How we respond can depend on our culture or be more individual. But these feelings are largely determined by immediate, unconscious sensory impression, and less of our cognitive processing (Kolstad, 2011).

the ’golden rectangle’. This is a rectangle where the length to the height of the shape equals 1,618. The reason we find this shape aesthetically pleasing starts with the evolutionary layout of our eyes, which forms a horizontal vision. This makes sense, because as Gehl mentioned, in our evolutionary past we tended to look at dangers from the sides, and not from the top. Another reason is that we try to save energy when we gather information, and if something is formed like a golden rectangle, we use the same amount of time to sweep horizontal and vertical. The rectangle can be found in the elevations and plans of many architectural monuments, like the Parthenon in Athens (picture 3.4), and in the layout of the front page.

To design best possible places for people we have to know how people work. And what people do, is to look at other people (Whyte, 1983). According to Kandel (2012), one of the reasons we tend to look at other people is because the brain devotes more space for face recognition than other visual objects. Because of this we are able to create an image of our surroundings that are quite similar to what others see, and tend to see ’faces’ in the environment. This is also the case in buildings. Buildings that have a face-like design, grabs our attention, affect our emotions and can play a role in our appreciation of the cityscape (picture 3.3). To make a place distinct people have to see, identify and remember patterns, in other words imageability. It does not mean that all façades should look like faces, but it gives a better chance to predict how a place or building will be perceived by others. Faces are not the only pattern we have an affinity toward. Our brain subconsciously engages with

Picture 3.3: Face facades, Bo01, Malmö

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Picture 3.4: Parthenon, Athens

Kolstad (2011) claims that we prefer symmetrical shapes rather than asymmetry and imbalance. This is, like the ’golden ratio’, because we do not need to spend so much energy to process symmetrical shapes. If we have seen one side, we recognize the other. Humans also have a preference for curves over straight or sharp lines. Cures gives the feeling of happiness and excitement, while sharp forms tend to connect to feelings of sadness or fear (Kastl et al., 1968). This also have to do with our past, where we tried to avoid pointy edges.


AURAL QUALITY

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The aural dimension of sensation and perception can in some cases be less prioritized. What we rarely think about is that we can not in the same degree choose what we want to hear, like we choose what we want to see. Sound surrounds us all the time, but we can not close your ears in the same way that we can close our eyes and control the sight.

and through façades, windows or noise isolation. Other noise reducing elements can be balconies, stairwells, windbreaks, pergolas, fixed furniture, and vegetation on horizontal and vertical surfaces. It is important that these element not affect the view and good sun conditions.

… there is substantial empirical evidence that we are genetically programmed to respond positively to complexly ordered sound (music) but not to chaotically complex sound (noise).” - Hildebrand (2008:265)

Noise is defined as an undesired sound or the sound that is damaging to us. The main sources of noise in the city are transport, industry and business activity. Lower levels of sound can also be considered noise, especially when they are unpleasant and uncontrollable.

Lang (1994) argues that instead of removing the negative sounds all the time, we should focus on increasing the positive ones. The “soundscape” or the aural environment can be arranged in the same way as the visual, only with use of sounds instead of materials. This could be things like birdsong, waterfalls or leaves blowing in the wind. The more the outdoor space is enclosed by high walls, the stronger the sound reflection and reverberation will be. Broken wall surfaces with sound absorbing materials have large damping effect. However, this should be combined with light-reflecting surfaces to take care of the sunlight.

The most obvious effect of noise is that it is distracting, but it can also affect our thoughts, concentration, relaxation, stress, restoration and sleep (Fyhri et al., 2010). This is a crucial factors for how we function, both physically and mentally. It turns out that both too little sleep and high stress factor can give us negative health problems, and that poor concentration can lead to lower achievement and self-realization. According to Siegel and Steele (1980) noise may affect how we think about other people. They concluded that in noisier surroundings we tend to have fewer social interactions, end conversations sooner, be more aggressive, disagree more, and be less helpful and patient. So how can we really solve noise problems for urban residential areas? According to Miljøministeriet (MST) we can reduce noise at the source, during its propagation and at the receiver. In this project it will be most relevant to look at the last two options. It means to curb the perceived noise through adoption of buildings, noise barriers or embankments,

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SUMMARY

+

+

WE NEED TO HAVE A DENSITY THAT DOES NOT COMPROMISE THE QUALITY OF LIFE WE NEED TO CREATE POSITIVE SPACE AND ENCLOSURE BETWEEN THE BUILDINGS

+

WE NEED A BUILDING SCALE THAT FIT TO THE HUMAN EXPERIENCE

+

+

WE NEED TO HAVE GOOD AMOUNT OF SUNLIGHT WE NEED TO PROVIDE EASY, WALKABLE ACCESS TO VARIOUS DAILY FUNCTIONS AND SERVICES

+

+

WE NEED TO CREATE BALANCE AND HIERARCHY BETWEEN THE NEED FOR PRIVACY AND THE AMOUNT OF PUBLIC SPACE FOR INTERACTION AND EXPRESSION

+

+

WE NEED TO CREATE SAFE PLACES, DISCOURAGE VANDALISM THROUGH DIFFERENT TYPES OF OUTDOOR SPACES AND A CLEAR HIERARCHY.

WE NEED TO HAVE THE RIGHT AMOUNT OF PEOPLE THAT CAN CONTROL THEIR OWN SITUATION, AND PREVENT NON-EXISTING SOCIAL INTERACTIONS

+

+

+

WE NEED TO CREATE AFFILIATION, SOCIAL INTEGRATION AND OPPORTUNITY FOR SELF REALIZATION

+

WE NEED TO CREATE BOTH PHYSICAL AND VISUAL LINKAGE AND INTERFACE FROM BUILDING TO STREET, BUILDING TO BUILDING AND SPACE TO SPACE

WE NEED TO CREATE COHERENCE BETWEEN ORDER AND COMPLEXITY, AND BETWEEN UNDERSTANDING AND DISCOVERY WE NEED TO USE PATTERNS IN A MEANINGFUL WAY IN BUILDINGS AND STREETS TO CREATE IMAGEABILITY AND LINKAGE.

WE NEED TO ENSURE PRIVACY AND GOOD OUTDOOR SPACES

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TYPOLOGY STUDY TYPOLOGIES BY GODSBANEAREALET

A typology study has been made by classification of contemporary urban development types, based on the studies of Pedersen (2011) and local conditions at Godsbanearealet. Typologies will be compared through criteria discussed earlier in the literature study, to unite density and quality of urban life. Houses, nor high-rises will be part of this study, because they do not fulfil the requirement for urban context, local plan, identity or human scale. The scale of the high-rise is in-human, and often the perception around the building seem homogeneous and not complex enough. Yet, it may be necessary to compensate with some towers to create higher density.

URBAN VILLA

FAR

SLAB

160 % - 280 %

Single units from 2 to 3 floors. Little relationship between buildings and surrounding street, but can easily be adapted to the landscape and play an active role in the urban context. To increase the density we can expand in depth or in height, and it is possible with balconies and roof terraces

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TYPOLOGY STUDY

FAR

North:

East:

Urban block

Slab

FAR 250 %

FAR 170 %

South:

West:

Point house

Urban block &

(small)

point house

FAR 50 %

FAR 230 %

URBAN BLOCK

120 % - 230 %

The slab is free-standing, 3 to 5 floor buildings, characterized by being directional, and often open in one direction and closed in another. Slabs are often built over a bigger area, and are rarely built alone as a single unit. Outdoor spaces can also be provided above ground in form of balconies and roof terraces, but tend to provide narrow outdoor space and access opportunities.

FAR

250 % - 440 %

The block is an urban building that is closed around itself, creating defined street patterns and spaces. The buildings can be of different heights and configurations, usually from 4 to 7 floors. If the building percentage rices, the amount of open space can be transferred in the height.


URBAN VILLA ENCLOSURE + The urban villa is characterized by being a single unit, so it will not create enclosure. HUMAN SCALE +++ The structure result in spatial and recreational contribution, often surrounded by green areas.

SUN +++

Gives good conditions, but depends on the form, location and orientation. Higher buildings change the sun conditions drastically.

MIXED-USE + No real possibility.

CROWDING +++ Does not feel overcrowded.

COMMUNITIES ++ Can be created since the residents can become more familiar with their neighbours.

SLAB

URBAN BLOCK

++

Less feeling of enclosure.

+++

Form enclosure around an open space.

++

The slab usually have 3 to 5 floors in Danish context. Conventional for our sense of scale and communication.

+

If the height does not exceeds 5-6 floors, it can fit with the human scale and make communication possible.

++

The sunlight conditions for the open space will vary depending on the organization and direction of the buildings, but it can give sunlight on more sides if they are placed correctly.

+

Will vary on the shape and height, but usually it will have worse sun conditions than the slab and villa. High structures will create shade for outdoor areas.

++

Can be hard to implement space for communal use, if the site coverage is high, but have potential for having commercial spaces in the lower floors.

+++

Good possibility to implement commercial use in the lower floors.

++

Depends on the arrangement.

+

Can feel overcrowded if many people live in the same place and if it is much activity in the streets.

++

Not the best typology to create communities because there is no enclosure and it can be long distances.

++

Indicates that the inner space belongs to the settlement and not the city. But can contribute to a social and functional fragmentation of the city.

TYPOLOGY STUDY

45


URBAN VILLA PRIVACY + Need special consideration. This is because it can be hard to separate and distinguish between the private and public places. Need hierarchy.

URBAN BLOCK

++

The space between the buildings is clearly defined, and provide the opportunity to separate private and public outdoor space, in form of front and back gardens.

+++

The urban block can provide relatively high degree of privacy in urban terms, because it creates better correlation between public and private space.

SECURITY + Can feel less secure because of exposure on all sides.

++

Depends on the arrangement and surroundings.

+++

Feels more secure because there is walls around and more people and windows. Exposure only on two sides.

IDENTITY ++ Depends on the surroundings, but can be flexible towards the surrounding.

++

Depends on the surroundings, but can be flexible towards the surrounding.

++

Structures can be adapted to the surroundings.

++

Clear and continuous structure patterns that often can result in monotonous, uninviting outdoor areas.

++

Create order between built structure and infrastructure.

+

Opportunity for flexible arrangement, in depth, height and length.

++

The clear form of the urban block can be arranged and be supplemented with other typologies, to create more complexity.

++

More protected against outside noise, but generates more noise.

+++

Create noise barrier for the inner space, but can create a noisy inner space.

+++

View over longer distance because of the height.

+

The view tend to be blocked by the building structure.

ORDER ++ Have the opportunity for formal arrangement.

COMPLEXITY +++ Informal interaction between buildings.

NOISE + Not protected against noise, but does not generate as much noise because of less activity. VIEW ++ Will give view in several directions.

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SLAB

TYPOLOGY STUDY


Illustration 3.10: From single unit to block

Single unit

Open u-shape

Multiple units

Slab

Street

Closed u-shape

Block

Dense block

CONCLUSION

.

This is only schematic illustrations, and in real life, the situation is not as straight forward. As mentioned in the text, there is many variables that come into play. It will always be an interaction between building structure, infrastructure, green spaces and humans. They can contradict each other because they are competing for the same resources, but they are also depending on each other. For example will the variety and density we want to achieve, affect the relationship between the residence and the outdoor area. The different typologies can sometimes be hard to separate, and there is small changes to be done before the character changes (illustration 3.10).

As we can see from the study, the different typologies have their own qualities, and overall, non of them are much worse that the others. One possibility is to try to take the best qualities from each typology, and come up with a mixed solution, or a hybrid (illustration 3.11). The mixed solution typology involves combinations of the above, justified by context and project brief. If we have freedom to combine and choose types of buildings, we can better adapted to the plot and the surrounding. Then we have the opportunity to take care of terrain and natural features that may be important and valuable. For example can an open u-shaped block give better sun conditions. FAR 230 % ORDER

NOISE BARRIER HUMAN SCALE

ENCLOSURE ~50 % SHADE

COMPLEXITY

SECURITY MIXED USE

80 x 80 m

Illustration 3.11: The hybrid block

TYPOLOGY STUDY

47


+ GREEN SPACE The pressure on urban nature and green spaces increase because more people choose to live in the city, and the need for housing in the centre raises.

Underlying the city planner’ deep disrespect for their subject matter... lies a long-established misconception about the relationship of cities - and indeed of men - with the rest of nature... Human beings are, of course, a part of nature, as much so as grizzly bears or bees or whales or sorghum cane.” - Jane Jacobs (1961:443)

48


49


50

THEORY STUDY


INTRO

.

Green spaces in the city includes spaces that are partly or completely covered with green vegetation, from public to private gardens. The size of individual green spaces decreases, while the total number of green spaces increases. Fragmentation can be problematic and occurs when patches of green are interrupted by roads and traffic (Nyhuss & ThorĂŠn, 1996). Because of this shortage of space we have to adopt new areas for outdoor green spaces, while maintaining good sun conditions, privacy, view and tranquillity. To argue that we should have more greenery in urban areas requires knowledge of how people use and perceive nature and outdoor areas in the city, as well as environmental benefits. Here it will be looked into why greenery is important, how it affects people and how greenery can be implemented into urban dense areas.

These will be important stepping stones where different species can move easily and thus increase the livelihood (illustration 3.12). Where disruptive new roads and passageways occur, underpasses or bridges can be introduced to connect the spaces. This can also provide safe crossing conditions and uninterrupted enjoyment for people. Habitat

Stepping stones

Habitat

BIODIVERSITY Biodiversity refers to the number and distribution of species living in a given area. The design, construction and maintenance of an urban site can therefore have a big effect on biodiversity. More greenery in the city strengthens the biodiversity. It will also have a positive effect on the local climate, absorption of pollution, air quality and increased water absorption through permeable surfaces. The city is a habitat for many different plants and animals, but to ensure a large biodiversity it requires varying green areas, and possibly with a certain physical context. The green areas should be large rather than small, circular rather than long, have varying size and have corridors between them (ThorĂŠn & Nyhuus, 1993).

Habitat

Illustration 3.12: Habitats and stepping stones

REMEDIATION Many places in the cities, there are problems with soil contamination, as is the case at Godsbanearealet. Traditional methods for purification of soil contamination is an expensive process that can destroy a number of the soils physical and chemical characteristics (Jensen et al. 2006). Instead, we can use certain plants to break down and retain contamination and have a positive effect on the groundwater, while adding climatic and visual qualities (picture 3.5 & 3.6).

Picture 3.5 (top): Willow tree Picture 3.6 (bottom): Field pennycress

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TEMPERATURE

RECREATION

Dense cities with a low share of greenery have higher temperatures than the surrounding countryside. Urban heat island is a term used for the fact that it is warmer in urban than rural areas, due to human activities and the modification of land surfaces. Dark materials like black roofs and asphalt does not reflect sunlight to the same degree as natural materials, and thereby contribute to urban heating. The heat islands can lead to more rainfall as well as being harmful for the biodiversity (Simmons et al., 2008). It can also have an effect on humans. Thermal comfort is subjective, but it is related to thermal balance between the body and the environment (Ng, 2010). Higher temperatures in the city tend to increase thermal discomfort and can even lead to heatstroke. It is therefore critical to provide shading in the summer and sun exposure in the winter. To reduce heat islands we can paint the roofs white, create green roofs and façades, and plant more trees in the streets (Ng, 2010). Especially trees lowers the surface temperature, because they have a large vegetative surface that evaporates water and offer shade.

Being out and in contact with natural elements is fundamental to our well-being and processing of impressions and thoughts (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989). Green environments may be used for recreation, give us joy, feeling of mastery and give us energy. Recreational opportunities can help us to clear our mind, to use less of the governing sense and reflect on life. Regarding the social aspects, Kaplan and Kaplans studies also shows that being together with friends and family and doing something together, are strong motives for visiting green spaces, while meeting new people play a significantly smaller role.

NOISE The city’s concentration of traffic, people, construction sites and activities cause, as mentioned, an increased noise level in relation to the rural environment. The many hard surfaces evokes acoustics where sound waves are thrown around in the urban space, which only amplifies the noise. This high noise levels can have a negative effect on our concentration and ultimately on our well-being. Soft, broken surfaces as green areas can absorb the loud sounds, to some extent, and simultaneously decelerate and spread the sound waves, so that the sounds are received in a more convenient form. Reduction of noise can be done using green façades, green roofs and other shielding vegetation, which again will increase the potential for using public and private outdoor areas for gathering, recreation and stress relief (Fyhri, 2014). Even under noisy conditions, green spaces can have a calming effect on us (Kaplan, 2001).

Maas et al. (2006) argues that short distance to green areas result in more frequently visitations. This naturally applies to many things, but close green areas also increase the visit to green areas further away. This shows that it is important to have a relatively compact network of different green areas without barriers. A study done by Kuo et al. (1998) proves that common spaces without trees or grass tends to be more abandoned, while outdoor common spaces with trees and vegetation are more used by people simultaneously. Studies also shows that square or circular parks increases the value and functionality experience rather than elongated spaces (Thorén & Nyhuus, 1993). The reason is that it is easier for us to ‘get away’ from the city’s impression, to experience security, tranquillity and spaciousness, and the opportunity to express ourselves.

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People with access to nearby natural settings have been found to be healthier than other individuals.” - Kaplan & Kaplan (1989:173)


HEALTH & ACTIVITY

.

Health in urban areas was previously linked to industrialization with poor and unhygienic living conditions. Today, the focus on health is related to inactivity and unhealthy lifestyle, in addition to psychological disorders and stress. Several studies show that nature, in terms of parks and forests, can have a positive impact on people’s health. Green areas increases places’ attractiveness and contributes to the possibility of physical activity, recreation and social interaction (de Vries, 2010).

away. For children, the whole city is a place for play, which means that areas designed for play do not have to be used as much as expected (Thorén et al., 1997). But a study found that children who attended colour-coded playgrounds where more actively engaged than on places without this design (ADG).

Mix of land use, walkability, bicycle infrastructure, parks and open space for recreation can be good for physical activity and health. For it to happen these places have to be inviting and close. According to ‘Active design guidelines’ (ADG) large rather than small areas allows multiple forms of activity. Parks should facilitate paths, running tracks, bike tracks, playgrounds, sports facilities and drinking fountains to all age groups. A recently published study (Thompson Coon et al., 2011) shows that physical activity in natural surroundings, including urban parks, gives a better effect, as opposed to physical activity indoors. Physical activity outdoors was also associated with greater joy and positive engagement, and people felt less tense, angry and depressed.

CHILDREN IN THE CITY The most important thing for children and their physical activity in the city is proximity and safety. It is therefore important to facilitate enough close meeting places where children can participate. Children’s opportunities for free physical activity and play has consequences not only for their health, but also for their development, imagination, concentration, motoric skills, physical endurance and social relationships (Isdahl, 2007b). Older kids will need more space for play on the ground (Isdahl, 2007b).

We can see that the more combination of functional possibilities, the more opportunities there are for compression of areas. Hills, landscape, built structures and multiple levels can contribute to reduction of space needed, and compensate for reduced area of the ground floor, as well as being beneficial for children. Equally to the built environment, we also have visual preferences for the natural environment. Both in terms of content, spatial configurations and features that affect our understanding and motivation to explore. Kaplan and Kaplan (1989) have created a preference model (illustration 3.13), showing that landscapes should be characterized by conditions that make it easier for us to process spatial information, and relationships that make this information meaningful. Here we see some of the same factors that were discussed about order and complexity of the built environment. They also claims that landscape where human impacts dominates over natural elements, receive lower preferences than when there is harmony between buildings and nature. Green space can be particularly important to relieve pressures, providing human scale and a more attractive environment, as well as seeing changing in the seasons.

Gehl (2010) mentions that smaller children rarely go more than 50 meters away from their front door. When they grow older they can more easily orient themselves in the traffic and therefore go further Illustration 3.13: Preference model

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53


AESTHETICS & VISUAL CONTACT

RESTORATION & STRESS

The green element may also have an aesthetic effect on the landscape, which can help to improve the visual quality of the city’s buildings, streets and open spaces. Among other things, urban greening can create many different colours and nuances in the city, that can vary throughout the year.

An important aspect to stress is reducing exposure to stressful circumstances, but it is also important to promote psychological restoration, which over time can promote better health and well-being. Research on restoration indicates that contact with natural environments offers a relatively effective way to achieve restoration from stress compared to other outdoor urban areas, even if we experience it for a few minutes or through pictures (Van den Berg et al. 2007). But the longer we are exposed, the better health we get in the long run.

View is very important to us, in terms of overview, security and tranquillity. According to Dramstad et al. (2006) the value of areas that overlooks greenery increases. By having shared outdoor space above ground, we can increase the potential view for more people. A study made by Maller et al. (2005) confirms that most people prefer a view to nature rather than an urban environment, and especially surroundings with water, old trees and unspoiled nature. It has also been proven that view to greenery can reduce crime, aggression and violent behaviour (Montgomery, 2013). Spaces with less greenery have a higher rate of assaults, battery and robbery.

Not only do natural spaces and public parks protect the essential systems of life and biodiversity, but they also provide a fundamental setting for health promotion and the creation of well-being for urban populations that to date has lacked due recognition.” - Maller et al., (2005)

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THEORY STUDY

We have two different theories on psychological restoration: Attention restoration theory (ART) This theory argue that natural environments provide relatively good opportunities for psychological restoration, because contact with natural environments possess several qualities that can not be found other places. This includes the feeling of being away, a sense of fascination and curiosity, a degree of order, coherence and exploration, and a compatibility between what people need and what the environment can give (Strumse & Aarø, 2000 & Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989). Psychoevolutionary theory (PET) PET is an evolutionary theory, which argue that people’s response to nature is not learned, but inherited. This means that people have an inner, emotional urge to live together with other living organisms and in contact with nature, which has been important for human survival (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989). This excludes the modern and urban city life, which is characterized by a lot of traffic, crowding and a large amount of information.


. But how may urban green spaces be designed to help people meet their need for restoration? Nordh at al. (2009) have conducted a survey on various urban parks, involving both visual and physical contact. They conclude that size, scale of the surroundings, and kind and arrangement of vegetation and materials are important. The larger park, the better chance for restoration. It also turned out that components such as benches and other people attracted more attention, and that grass and trees are more significant for mental restoration than shrubs and water features, even though water can be seen as a fascinating element. This shows that the greener and more natural the outdoor environment are, the better it is for restoration. Trees and bushes offer some enclosure, and in that way it is vital elements to create a feeling of getting away. A study done by Burdett et al. (2004) in London conclude that open landscape areas in cities, like parks and green spaces, is one of the most significant factors for good quality of urban life. Picture 3.7: Romanesco Broccoli

PATTERNS As we have patterns in the built environment, we can find this in landscape and nature through fractals. These are recursive patterns that occur repetitively in smaller and smaller scales in nature. They are ordered, but at the same time complex. We can for example find them in snowflakes and leaves, but also in buildings, like the Eiffel Tower in Paris. Taylor (2011) have found that these patterns have an appeal to humans and making us more relaxed.

Picture 3.8: Eiffel Tower, Paris

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IMPLEMENTATION OF GREENERY

56

Courtyard

A courtyard is an enclosed area, enclosed by buildings and open to the sky. Courtyards can play a role in densely populated areas, providing privacy for residents and a safe place for children to play in a green environment. We can also raise the courtyard, creating room underneath for parking. Then it is important to have a good foundation and depth so the vegetation can grow. It may be necessary with planters to expand the volume of the soil. That implies soil with about 80 cm thickness, or optional to upgrade the dimensions of the support system (Guttu & Schmidt, 2008).

Pocket parks

A pocket park is a small green area, situated as a pocket between the buildings. Pocket parks often act as local place used for stay, relaxation and meeting. The park is often centrally located where many people can come, and therefore provide an opportunity to take a step to the side while gathering the strength to step back into the city life.

Nature playground

This is a playground made up of natural elements to increase the experience of nature while encouraging activity. It can give children a better understanding of nature, while it activates them both physically and mentally. Trees, rocks, craters, water, terrain and hiding places can stimulate to different types of play (Miljøministeriet).

THEORY STUDY


Green roofs can absorb rainwater, provide insulation, be cooling and decrease stress by providing a more aesthetically pleasing landscape. Rowe (2011) separates green roofs into two types. Extensive green roofs that have a maximum depth of 15-20 centimetres, and are best suited for grass and smaller crops, are light and require minimal maintenance. Intensive green roofs on the other hand have a minimum depth of 15-20 centimetres, can support trees and bushes, and have a better potential to provide biodiversity. This method is usually used on top of parking basements. Intensive green roofs is therefore better for stay and activity, but thus require more costs.

Green roofs

Green faรงades are self-sufficient vertical gardens that are attached to a building structure. Green faรงades can also reduce the building temperature, providing air filtration, reducing stormwater runoff, reduce noise, provide shade, and creating habitats for plants and animals. They can also be aesthetically pleasing, making people more relaxed, productive and mentally healthy. Green faรงades can be either two dimensional, having vegetation that climbs directly up the wall, or three dimensional that are deeper systems (Architek)architek.com/ products/green-facades).

Green faรงades

Urban gardens are a way to offer citizens the opportunity to cultivate their own flowers, plants and food in densely populated areas. It is a valuable resource in relation to social, cultural, and ecological challenges in cities, as well as having a relaxing and calming effect. Studies has also shown that actually touching and working with nature have an even more calming effect because it demands more focus than just observing (Montgomery, 2013).

Urban garden

Illustration 3.14: Greenery

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57


+ HYDROLOGY With increased population growth, new development and climate change it is expected more stormwater in urban areas, partly because of the large impermeable surfaces such as roofs and asphalt. The cities drainage systems shall ensure that the stormwater does not lead to flooding and have implications for safety, create damages or lead to potential health risks. It will still not be possible for the local drainage systems to deal with extreme rainfall. Then it is important to manage the water above ground, to relieve the pressure on the sewer systems. Sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS), is a more long-term and environmentally sustainable approach to the planning of urban drainage systems compared to conventional solutions in the built environment. SUDS are not intended to be a complete replacement for the drainage systems, but more as a supplement. The intention is to hold back the water, transport the water safely, and increase the evaporation. The greater part of the water being handled (delayed/infiltrated) locally, the smaller the pressure will be on the drainage system centrally. But in urban areas the stormwater can be supplied with a variety of contaminants such as particles, nutrients, pollutants and road salt. The water therefore have to be purified, before it can be released (COWI, 2013).

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59


LOCAL STORMWATER MANAGEMENT Permeable surface Since there is little permeable surfaces in cities and towns, it will be possible to make them more permeable. Gravel, grass cover or permeable paving stones have a greater opportunity to infiltrate rainwater. These types of surfaces can be used in smaller streets, parking lots, sidewalks and courtyards, where it is harder to implement greenery. Gutters Gutters are open and visible canals where water is led above ground, both for functional and aesthetic purposes. Compared with the permeable surfaces, they can store large quantities of water and is therefore more efficient. Drainage canals also helps to cool the surroundings and creating a better micro climate. Because it is visible, open drains can also help to raise awareness about climate change, and at the same time be a recourse for play and recreation.

Elevated building

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THEORY STUDY

InďŹ ltration zone

Rain garden

Infiltration zones An infiltration zone is an elongated artificially constructed infiltration solution in areas with poor natural infiltration conditions (dense masses). The water will linger on the surface before it sinks into the ground where the water is captured by an underlying drainage system. Green roofs A green roof improves the climatic conditions by holding back the stormwater, delaying the runoff time and reduce the runoff velocity. It will also cool down the city when the water evaporates, creating better air quality. It can also have aesthetic qualities and create new urban habitats. During longer rain periods without interruptions, the roof gradually lose the ability to absorb and retain water. Rainwater that is not absorbed is then led to infiltration zones.

Permeable surface


Rain gardens Rain gardens are planted depressions on the terrain that is supplied with the stormwater on the surface. The water will then infiltrate into the ground or an underlying drainage system. The rain garden will reduce the runoff intensity and clean the water by holding back the pollution. Ponds In urban areas we can use local ponds to hold up the rainwater under heavy rainfall. The pond is designed so it will receive stormwater from hard surfaces and let out the same amount of water that are going in. So unlike rain gardens, it will always be a permanent layer of water that are visible and have a more recreational effect. The dimension of the permanent water flow should be 1-1,5 meters.

Dry ponds The purpose of a dry pond is primarily to reduce the risk of flooding. The pond function is to hold back water for a period, but the rest of the time be used for other purposes, such as activity and play area or parking place. Water faรงades Another way to cool down the buildings is to use vertical water faรงades. This will be effective against urban heat islands as well as creating good indoor climate. Elevated buildings By elevating structures flood water are less likely to cause any damages to the buildings. This can be done by having a higher foundation or by using posts or piers.

Adapted from COWI (2013)

Illustration 3.15: Hydrological solutions

Pond

Dry pond

Open channel

Blue facades

Green roofs

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RECREATION

.

Water, whether it is visual contact, smell or sound, has an alluring and soothing effect on people. Open systems can be exploited as a positive element in the urban landscape to create more dynamic, reflections, life, enjoyment and recreation. By integrating water and vegetation in urban environment, this can also help to give a place a new and strengthened identity (Jensen & Fryd, 2009).

risky situations affects our emotions in the form of fear. Therefore, a solution to the environmental issue related to hydrology can be to play on fear, to make people more aware of the future consequences it may cause.

Children are also attracted water, since it creates attraction and assumptions for play and experience. This brings with it a certain risk (COWI, 2013). Fencing is therefore important to prevent the risk of drowning where there is differences in altitude and steep slopes. This will not be necessary if the water is shallow (maximum 20 cm), where the terrain is not as steep or where vegetation is used as a buffer zone to restrict the availability.

IMPACT The human response to the climate change does not only mean structural changes, it is also about more personal behavioural and emotional responses. To look at environmental issues in a broader perspective, it may look as if people’s attitudes to these risks is about dilemmas. How we experience the risk is different. We can distinguish between personal risk and environmental risk (Pfister et al., 2001). Personal risk affects us by potential negative consequences. Environmental risk do not have equally negative consequences for us in the short run, as it has for the surroundings. Although we contribute to negative environmental effects, we are not that able to see the consequences and it can be difficult for us to take it seriously. People construct their own mental models (Pfister et al., 2001). We look at what we can gain for the choices we make, which motivates us to action or not. These choices may again have consequences for the environment, for example greenhouse gas emissions when driving, resulting in rising sea levels. What is true is that people do not register all the layers in this model. What we do know is that

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BLUE-GREEN FACTOR Developments in urban environments has as mentioned led to increasingly larger areas with hard surfaces, overloading drainage systems, drier and warmer local climate and poorer conditions for flora and fauna. A planning tool that can measure and ensure more blue-green areas are the ‘Biotope Area Factor’ (BAF). This has been developed from a method from Berlin called ‘Biotopflächenfaktor’, and has been used in the development project Bo01 in Malmö. The tool is available in several variants with different factors. Here it will be taken point in the model developed by ‘Framtidens byer’ in Norway [BGF]. This will ensure a green community, good recreational areas and a good micro-climate. The model is based on calculating the average bluegreen qualities for a new or existing development with numbers (Böhme, 2010). The different parts of an area are given a value between 0 and 1 which depends on the possibilities for plant growth, management of stormwater and micro-climate. The factor 1 is for vegetation which is in contact with ground water, while 0 are sealed areas. Lower number means lower evaporation efficiency, lower infiltration and soil function, and lower ability for habitats for plants and animals. There is also given partial points for different treatment of the surface, infiltration of rainfall, large trees, green roofs and green façades. In Bo01 they used an overall factor of 0.50. Böhme et al. (2001) recommend 0.6 for residential areas, 0.45 for mixed areas and 0.3 for commercial space. BAF = Ecologically effective surface areas / total land area


BAF

SURFACE BLUE

0,0

ADDITIONAL QUALITIES GREEN

BLUE

GREEN

Sealed surface

Impermeable surfaces

0,1

with drainage to closed systems

Impermeable surfaces

Vegetation not in

0,2

with drainage to open

contact with soil

basin

5-20 cm

0,3

Partly permeable

Rain gardens

surfaces

Vegetation not in

0,4

contact with soil

Hegdes & bushes

20-40 cm

Vertical greenery

Vegetation not in

0,6

contact with soil 40-80 cm

Vegetation

0,8 1,0

Trees 5-10 m

>80 cm

Permanent water

Vegetation with

Trees

contact with soil

>10 m Illustration 3.16: Blue-green factors

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CHAPTER

04

CASE STUDIES Urban design case studies are reviews of context, processes, products, and outcomes intended to give inspiration and knowledge about existing development. They can give examples of both success and failures. Pilestredet Park in Oslo, and Bo01 in Malmรถ, have been studied to examine how these places are designed.

Picture 4.1 (top): Pilestredet Park Picture 4.2 (bottom): Bo01

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CASE STUDIES

65


LOCATION

City Center, Oslo

CONSTRUCTED

2004-2006

ARCHITECT

Lund og Slaatto Arkitekter Arkitektkontoret GASA

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT

Asplan Viak Bjørbekk og Lindheim

DWELLINGS

1500

POPULATION

2000

SIZE

7 ha

FAR DU POP

210 %

214 du/ha

GREENING DEGREE

30 %

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CASE STUDIES

286 pop/ha


PILESTREDET PARK INTRODUCTION

.

Pilestredet Park is a densification project at the former State University Hospital in Oslo. The goal was to transform it into a new environmentally friendly residential area, that included both housing, parks, commerce, kindergarten and schools (Statsbygg, 2008). A number of measures have been carried out, including reuse of materials and local stormwater handling. Pilestredet Park is one of the largest urban ecology projects in Scandinavia and has received several awards, including Oslo City Architecture Prize in 2005 and The National Building Award in 2007 (Asplan Viak, 2008). The area is 7 ha, just like the project site at Godsbanearealet. It is around 1500 dwellings with different types of apartments, 130 of them being student apartments.

parallel distances between the buildings. Yet the vegetation, alleys, shielding elements and openings increase the complexity and therefore curiosity.

ENCLOSURE

HUMAN SCALE & SUN The area is built dense and high, and mainly consists of slab buildings with five to seven floors. However, the old hospital building is twice as high. The distance between the buildings varies considerably, making some spaces more sunny than others. The highest buildings provide more shade, but they do not affect the most common outdoor areas as much. The positive side is also that several of the slab buildings have apartments with good sun conditions with balconies and front gardens and balconies facing south and west.

Illustration 4.1: Morphology, Pilestredet Park

If we look at the whole area together, the largest and oldest buildings are placed in the middle, while the surrounding buildings are built down towards the edges. This creates some kind of ‘city wall’ along the adjacent streets, and smaller and larger spaces between the buildings where we get the feeling of enclosure. The outdoor spaces also have different levels, materials, vegetation and other elements that contributes to this feeling.

ORDER & COMPLEXITY The buildings are clearly oriented after each other and may at the first glance seem very monotonous. The roads are also more or less straight, and it is Picture 4.3: Open space between the buildings gives the opportunity for various activities

+ CASE STUDIES

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PRIVACY & THE EDGE Pilestredet Park have access from all the roads around the site, which is natural considering the central location, but is closed for vehicles, so you can not drive trough. The degree of privacy is varying. This is due to the variation in the settlements and the distance between the buildings. Most apartments have private balconies and roof terraces for the occupants. There are two main pedestrian paths going through the site that are perceived as semi-public. The reason is that they are not as wide as the streets outside, yet available for everyone. Some apartments located near these paths will experience more transparency. This particularly applies to the lower apartments where most apartments have the curtains closed. The buildings situated south in the site have private yards towards the outdoor areas. The gardens are slightly elevated relative to the rest of the outdoor area and has a depth of approximately 5 meters. These are also shielded by hedges and delimited with paving. This increase the feeling of privacy. Generally slab buildings would suggest that the outdoor areas would not seem as private, but here the rich greenery provide an opposite effect. Overall it may seem that the area is more private than what the purpose dictates. Although the area is open, it is still closed around itself due to the level differences, the walls and the architecture. Many of the paths, parks and courtyards will easily be perceived as courtyards for the residents only and not invite those who do not live in the neighbourhood to settle down. Along with the lack of cultural and other public offerings, it contributes little to city life, considering that it lies so close to the city centre. Another factor is that the most heavily used paths are paved using concrete, while the more private paths have gravel. This indicates a border. To the south there is also a high wall that creates the impression that it is a private area on the other side, and that we must have special permission to enter. Picture 4.4: Frontyard

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SECURITY & IDENTITY The use of vegetation, the preservation of old trees, the design of various parks and squares, walkways and courtyards are diverse and characterized by high quality materials. This can make the area more secure for crime and vandalism. The site is located on a slope facing south and west, providing views and a feeling of being outside the city. Materials from the demolished buildings are largely reused locally as paving on trails and as elements in the parks. The white facade gives the relatively dense structure a bright and airy feel. Balconies with climbing plants is a typical feature that contributes to a green touch and gives the area its own character. The same applies to the green roofs and terraces on the new buildings. Picture 4.6: Scale

+

Picture 4.5: Relation between the building height and the street width.

Illustration 4.2: Mental map

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Illustration 4.3: Building heights

GREEN SPACE The project has a strong positive environmental profile, which helps to create good living areas, as well as a place for meeting between residents. There are climbing plants on the walls, vegetation on roofs on all the new buildings, vegetation along the trails and in the public areas. There are several large, old trees preserved that leads to more detail and exuberance, and provides a better basis for various species. There are also grass, bushes and trees 13 on top of the basement parking. This indicates that it has sufficient amount 10of soil, since planters are not used. 9

floors

10

8

Pilestredet Park will overall have a high green factor. 7 It was planned that the area would be 30% covered 6 established in an assesswith vegetation, and it was ment of the project that 5 this is maintained (Holthe & Strand 2004).

4 3 2 1

5

1

Picture 4.7: Accessibility

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+

Picture 4.8: Greenery and climbing elements on facade


Picture 4.9: Public space & hydrological solution

HYDROLOGY Especially stormwater management is a general element that puts its mark on the site. Stormwater is handled and stored locally before it runs to the sewage system. Stormwater is also retained by the green roofs before being led down into the ground or to surface canals and basins. These canals have been designed to present the water in different ways. The water is also recirculated to keep the water fresh (Statsbygg, 2008). The large, old trees also take up water and reduces pressure on the environment, while it increases the visual effect. Gravel on some of the paths increases the permeability. There is also a fountain in the Central Park that collect rainfall and contribute aesthetically. Picture 4.10: Hydrological solution

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71


LOCATION

Western Harbour, Malmรถ

CONSTRUCTED

2001

ARCHITECT

Klas Tham

PROJECT TEAM: MKB Fastighets AB, Local government, National government, European Union, SWECO Projektledning AB, Moore Ruble Yudell, FFNS Arkitekter AB

DWELLINGS

600

POPULATION

1000

SIZE

15 ha

FAR DU POP

160 %

42 du/ha

GREENING DEGREE

50 %

72

CASE STUDIES

71 pop/ha


BO01

Illustration 4.4: Morphology,Bo01

INTRODUCTION

.

Bo01 is part of the new development at the Western Harbor (Västra Hamnen) on the outskirts of Malmø. Bo01 was part of the ‘City of Tomorrow’ international housing exhibition. The intention with the site was to show how sustainable planning and building technologies could be used and at the same time create socially supportive spaces and environmental values. Bo01 was built on a former industrial port where the ground was polluted, but has today many positive aspects in its location by the sea and close to the city centre. The district consists of approximately 600 dwellings, along with offices, shops and other commercial services.

Park, mainly because there are few straight streets or long lines of vision. The width of the streets also varies from wide to narrow in just a few meters. This can trigger the visitor’s curiosity and experience because they can not see the whole are at once, and make them want to find out what lies round the next corner. Simultaneously the higher buildings in the background will create more order. The risk with this layout is that it some places can be hard to orient, and to know where you are. It can maybe be too complex and it would be an idea to make a better hierarchy.

ENCLOSURE The illustration on page 73 shows that the taller buildings are placed on the outer edge of Bo01, forming a shelter to the west and north. It is also several smaller and bigger outdoor spaces between the buildings. This helps to promote the feeling of enclosure, both in large and small scale, and stands in contrast to Pilestredet Park, where the buildings are more or less higher in the centre.

13 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ORDER & COMPLEXITY The plan director for Bo01, Klas Tham, was inspired by the medieval cities when he planned the site. The aim was to build higher along the seafront to help protect the site from the wind, and have lower buildings in the middle (City of tomorrow). The layout of Bo01 is much different from Pilestredet

+

Picture 4.11: Frontyards

+

CASE STUDIES

73


Picture 4.12: Typology

HUMAN SCALE & SUN Building heights, outdoor areas, views and scale are all factors that people can relate to. The five to six story buildings that are located on the northern and western part of the development response to the adjacent area by the sea and protects the two and three story inner buildings. The inner buildings engage more with the human scale on ground level. One exception is the Turning Torso. The backside with the surrounding buildings is that they can create some shade, in addition to wind in the narrow passageways. By letting the buildings get higher towards the middle, the wind passed over the roofs, rather than in between. But in return we will get less enclosure.

Picture 4.13: Scale

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CASE STUDIES


Picture 4.14: Typology

PRIVACY & THE EDGE The urban space carries out different types of life, both private and semi-private inside the courtyards and backyards, and public spaces along the streets, parks and quays. Most of the area is available for visitors. A big problem with Bo01 is the lack of visual privacy. Although there are several places where it is used surfaces and walls to mark a distinction between what is public and private, the proximity and the location of especially the lower buildings create large transparency. The surface is deliberately used to distinguish between different levels of privacy. Outside the area it is grey surface. The most public street within the area has red surface, while the remaining, which is more semi public, has yellow surface. Also the taller buildings surrounding the site create some kind of privacy. When you walk around in the area you can get the feeling13 of disturbing the privacy of the residents, since you can see right into 10 the residence, although you apparently are allowed 9 to be there. It makes the public squares more semi 8 public and the private areas more semiprivate. The problem is particularly large in summer when there 7 are lots of tourists and swimming guest. Another 6 reason could be that the area is seen as a public 5 object, because of its popularity and identity.

floors

10

5

1

4 3 2 1

Illustration 4.5: Building heights

CASE STUDIES

75


IDENTITY & SECURITY In return for the proximity there are many eyeson-the-street and activity, which provides better security. As mentioned, the settlement is very diverse, with different architecture, materials, scale and identity. The most notable building built for Bo01 is the Turning Torso skyscraper, which with its 54 floors is the tallest building in Scandinavia. This stands out as a landmark, not only at Bo01, but for Malmö and Øresund, and stands in great contrast to the otherwise human-scaled buildings. Another area within Bo01 that is worth mentioning is the European Village. This shows the architecture, engineering, construction and traditions from nine European countries, adapted to Malmö’s climate and building conditions (Malmö Stad). These factors can make the area more secure for crime and vandalism, as is the case at Pilestredet Park.

Illustration 4.6: Mental map

6 GREEN SPACE

+

2

6

Bo01 put great efforts into the integration of green 5 areas and nature, both in terms of parks, backyards, streets and squares. This included the need to reduce the negative consequences of urban sprawl 5 and prevent cities from becoming grey and visually boring. As mentioned earlier, they used the ’Biotope Area Factor’ in the development, where it was 5 required that half of the site should be vegetated. This has resulted in many green roofs. Granite, concrete, brick, wood and steel is much used and makes the grey elements stand out as well. All of these efforts have been used to increase the 6 biodiversity of the area. A large numbers of trees, plants, ponds, green walls and green roofs mean that every garden is home to a variety of plants and animals.

2 3

6

2

5 5

76

CASE STUDIES

3


Picture 4.15: Greenery

HYDROLOGY The stormwater management system within the streets, squares and courtyards also changes the character of the site, since it is so visible. Many of the buildings at Bo01 have green roofs or green yards. When the water eventually flows down from the roofs, it goes down to small open systems, consisting of narrow concrete canals and ponds with or without vegetation. Some of the open spaces is designed so the water can run directly down to the sea or the central canal (Malmรถ Stad). The streets are covered with bricks, so when the water runs out on the street, it will sink down into the ground. On the way to the sea, the drainage system has been designed not only to take care of the water, but also to be nice to look at. They also work as playgrounds for kids, as well as giving a pleasant sound and being beneficial for biodiversity.

Picture 4.16: Water system

Picture 4.17: Rain garden

CASE STUDIES

77


Picture 4.18: Canal, Bo01

78

CASE STUDIES


CONCLUSION The biggest distinction between Pilestredet Park and Bo01 is the density. Pilestredet Park lies closer to the city centre something the typology is characterized by. Both areas have a degree of enclosure, just in different ways. Pilestredet Park have enclosure that is created by the slab buildings and vegetation. Bo01 however also have enclosure by having higher buildings located in the outer edge. Another clear distinction between the areas is the degree of order and complexity. Pilestredet Park have more clear lines and orientation of the buildings, while Bo01 is very diverse and complex. Although this seems interesting to move through, it may have led to that the privacy at Bo01 has not been shielded sufficiently, because of the small spaces and high degree of transparency. Both projects have much focus on greenery and hydrological solutions, but it may seem like Bo01 focuses more on the ecological and technical factors rather than the social factors. Godsbanearealet may have more in common with Pilestredet Park, not only due to a central location, but also the degree of density that is desired. The conclusion will be to take the positive aspects of both projects. Pilestredet Parks order and scale can be made more complex with Bo01’s morphology, just not at the expense of private life and social factors.

CASE STUDIES

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CHAPTER

05

EXPERIENCE ANALYSIS

80

EXPERIENCE ANALYSIS

When you observe a space you learn about how it is actually used, rather than how you think it is used!” - Project for Public Spaces (2000:51)


INTRODUCTION

.

We can find many urbanists that have worked with creating good outdoor public places based on observations, including Jacobs’ Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961), Gehl’s Space Between Buildings: Using Public Space (1971), and Whyte’s The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces (1980). The reason is to find out how we can design for protection, comfort, enjoyment and engagement to make better cities. Today we can use other methods to look inside the bodies of those who inhabit urban spaces.

greenery, traffic rate, facade complexity and other elements that have an affect on us as described in the literature study. It is to see differences within the urban environment.

In environmental psychology, humans are studied in the physical environment, looking at interactions between the social, psychological, aesthetic and operational factors to shed light on the relationship between them (Cold et al., 1998). The intention is to look at how people are built, both physically and mentally, and design and plan for these environments. The challenge is that we are torn between proximity and isolation. We need to connect with others, but we also need privacy and nature. The aim of this analysis is to use the results to develop proposals for a solution and improvement of the design decisions at Godsbanearealet, and create a place that generate a sense of well-being for the citizens. In doing so, the approach has been to take some participants on a walk through the a chosen route through Aalborg while wearing gear that measure their cognitive and emotional responses to what they experience. The reason for having a route is to get contrasts in the level of density, scale,

METHOD The method is to combine serial vision, semantic differential form and measurement of stress level. Serial vision is used to visually experience the architecture and surroundings in a continuous motion in the urban space, which is part of the urban sensations (Cullen, 1961). This is a method of defining the urban landscape as a series of related spaces, usually by going for a walk with a camera and take pictures at certain times. The reason why this can be important is that we can have different experiences of a place just by moving slightly. Serial vision will here be used to compare different locations along the route, and how people experience these places. The participants will have with them a semantic differential form (see appendix A) to help them put their experience into words, inspired by Hauge (2003). It can for example be whether a place feel dense or private. The results will be used to compare and find similarities between the different participants experiences and assessments, together with places’ characteristics. This does not tell the whole truth about places, but can help to tell the reason for peoples experiences in a given situation. The participants will also get the opportunity to come with other remarks or impressions.

EXPERIENCE ANALYSIS

81


To help assess peoples emotional state, and whether they feel stressed or relaxed they will simultaneously be provided with a sensor to measure their skin conductance. This is because the skin conductance depends directly on our state of relaxation or stress. So by indexing the sweat glance, we can get continuous information of the participants level of arousal, and a better understanding of how different urban realities affect feelings. The method is inspired by Colin Ellard, who is a psychologist at the University of Waterloo. The problem with this method is that arousal can be both positive and negative (Trimmer et al., 2013). But the semantic differential form can help to distinguish between this problem. Even if it can be positive or negative to feel exited, it can over time be hard on our immune system (Montgomery, 2013).

eSense Skin Response The skin response is based on bio-electrical properties of the skin, measuring the activity of the perspiratory glands of the skin (wet hands). Skin conductance is measured in µSiemens (µS). The activity of the perspiratory glands is determened by the autonomic nervous system, making it a good indicator for inner strain and stress. The average level for a person sitting inside in a quiet room is 5-10 µS. Source: eSense Skin Responce application

As an end to the analysis the participants were asked on which of the stops they think it would be most likely do get their wallet back if they dropped it, and rank them from most to least likely. Helliwell et al. (2010) have used this question in several surveys. They found out that people living in the places where people believe they would get their wallets back, also had the highest life satisfaction. Part of the reason for this is trust.

PREDICTION

AROUSAL tense

ACTIVE

alert

nervous

enthusiastic

stressed UNPLEASANT

happy NEGATIVE

POSITIVE

sad

relaxed bored

Illustration 5.1: Arousal state

EXPERIENCE ANALYSIS

PLEASANT contented

depressed

82

To try to measure peoples concentration at the different stopping point, they were all given a small concentration test. The test was in the form of a memory and concentration game on the smartphone. The participants had to try to memorize numbers and find two similar options in the shortest time possible. The result was then given by comparing the time and number of attempts.

PASSIVE

calm

Based on the literature study the prediction was that the participants would feel more relaxed in the green areas, and feel more stressful by busy streets junctions. This will hopefully show that what people think of as minutiae in urban design really can have an effect on our bodies and minds. The prediction on the concentration test was that the most quiet areas would result in better concentration level.

THE WALK The 1,75 km walk was done individually with one person at a time (7 people in total, who all have lived in a city for the least five years) and lasted for about 40 minutes. Each person carried the scheme with check mark questions and the gear to measure the skin conductance. Then they stopped at the six locations to fill out the form and take the concentration test. The stress level was constantly measured through the whole walk. It has to be mentioned that there are many factors that can play in on this type of test, but that makes it even more interesting since the conditions are not totally set.


THE STOPPING POINTS START

1

NORDKRAFT Cultural centre

START

1

NORDKRAFT Cultural centre

2 STOP

6 STOP

KILDEPARKEN Public park

6

KILDEPARKEN Public park

2

5

KAROLINELUND Public park

KAROLINELUND Public park

RANTZAUSGADE Courtyard

5

RANTZAUSGADE

3

Courtyard

GODSBANEAREALET Residential & campus area

GODSBANEAREALET Residential & campus area

3

4

SKOUSEN

Street junction

SKOUSEN

Street junction

4

Illustration 5.2: Stopping points

“Historical feeling, but got more potential”

“Historical place” “Noise from traffic, hard to talk”

“Oasis in the city, great soundscape”

1

1

2

2

3

3

“Like a new world, with good scale”

“Historical feeling, a bit unsafe”

4

5

4

6

5

6

Illustration 5.3: The walk

EXPERIENCE ANALYSIS

83


SERIAL VISION

1 Nordkraft is an old power station transformed into a cultural centre located by the harbour. In relation to this transformation it is made an outdoor public space that is characterized by the identity of the old industrial area. This stands in great contrast to the tall building, creating a fairly unenclosed windy area. In return the square have good sun conditions and elements with human scale, like a playground. The surface is made of asphalt, paving and sand, and have a few small trees around the site. The size of the square gives room for mixed use, for example by combining parking and temporary activities and gatherings. The majority of the people are passing by and entering Nordkraft.

84

EXPERIENCE ANALYSIS

2 Karolinelund is a former amusement park that in 2012 was turned into an urban park. Most of the area is covered with grass, while the paths are made of asphalt. There is also big, old trees mainly at the edges of the site creating enclosure, and smaller tress and bushes dividing it into zones. In the open spaces the sun conditions are good, while the trees helps to create shade. Some people tend to stay, not only pass by. Inside the park we can also find assembly halls, urban gardens, sports facilities and items that show the history of the place.


3 This is an open street junction that divides Jyllandsgade, Karolinelundsvej, Kjellerupsgade and Sønderbro and where we find the transition to project site. The area is characterized by a lot of car traffic and parked cars, but also people passing by. This manifests itself in the noise measurement showing over 75 dB. The closest buildings relate to the human scale, but are more related to higher speed because of the horizontal façades. The surface are mainly asphalt and we can find small amounts of roadside greenery.

4 This is a new residential and campus area close to the site. The reason for this stop is to compare it to the older developments and use it as an example for the project site. The stop is characterized by the ongoing construction close by, which leads to noise, unfinished spaces and empty premises. The buildings are 5 to 7 storeys high, containing apartments and offices. The façades are horizontal and closed, marking a clear edge between the private indoor and the public outdoor. The identity of the old freight track area is preserved through stormwater solutions. The rest of the surface is covered in concrete. It is fairly small amounts of greenery, although the trees probably will grow larger.

EXPERIENCE ANALYSIS

85


5 This is an urban block separating the inner city and the new development at Godsbanearealet. It is mainly apartments, but also commercial facilities facing Kennedy Square. The 5 to 6 floors vertical faรงades create enclosure, but a good amount of shade on most of the ground. The structure will keep the surrounding noise out, but on the other hand cause reverberation. The courtyard is covered with grass, and also have trees, bushes, plants and flowers, making some kind of hierarchy. The density is about 250 %.

86

EXPERIENCE ANALYSIS

6 Kildeparken is located opposite to the railway station, accessible via an underpass. Most of the park is covered with grass, and have old, tall trees as well as bushes. In the middle of the park is a small lake. The park is open and have good sun conditions. Street lights is turned on at night. Since it is in so close connection to the train station, many people pass through the park on gravel paths. But people also use it for recreational use. The road on the other side crate a constant background noise.


87


RESULTS .

WALLET QUESTION

The result of the analysis first of all shows that, as the urban landscape changes, so does our thoughts, feelings and behaviour. The result from the semantic differential form is more or less as expected, if looked at separately. For example is the square outside Nordkraft seen as the most public, open and spacious area, with the greatest scale. It is also one of the areas the participants feel most exposed. The skin conductance test, however, do not show as clear correlation as expected.

The result from the question about where the participants thought it was most likely to get their wallet back if they lost it at one of the stops, shows Rantzausgade. This would, according to the argument from Helliwell et al. (2010) say, that people living here would have a higher life satisfaction than the people living at Godsbanearealet. These two places have almost the same amount of density, in addition to shops and offices connected to the buildings. But as the survey shows, Rantzausgade is seen as more private (1), and shielded from the surroundings. The participants even think that it would be more lightly to get the wallet back at Karolinelund, than it would be at Godsbanearealet. The reason may be that Karolinelund is seen as a more inviting place (2).

28,6%

21,1%

1

18,4%

Illustration 5.4: Result from the wallet question

88

EXPERIENCE ANALYSIS

KILDEPARKEN

10,9%

RANTZAUSGADE

GODSBANEAREALET

5,4%

SKOUSEN

KAROLINELUND

NORDFRAFT

15,6%

1 2 3 4 5 6

Private Public


SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL FORM

.

If a place is inviting or not does not correspond with the openness (3), but rather to the excitement (4) of the place. The Skousen junction is more excluding than any other place, even though it is the most lively (5) and crowded (6) place. This is much because of the car traffic. It is interesting to see how Rantzausgade and Godsbanearealet do not seem either inviting or excluding. In Rantzausgades case it may be because of the privacy. We have the ability to walk inside, but we are seen as strangers, and do not feel comfortable to stay there for too long. Unfortunately, Godsbanearealet is also seen as a more boring place, even though it is open. It inspires less people to go outside.

so exposed (16). Actually, the amount of greenery and good view are equal to the degree of happiness in every stop. These are also the places where the participants say they feel most relaxed (17). Here we can see a correlation with the amount of traffic. This corresponds well with the theories presented under the chapter about green spaces.

We can also see a connection in what extent the participants feel safe. The place that provides the most security (14) is Karolinelund, followed by Rantzausgade and Kildeparken. Good sun conditions and transparency (7) makes the parks feel safe. In Rantzausgades case, it has good natural surveillance and are more enclosed. Godsbanearealet does not score as high. This could be because people not feel as good a connection to the neighbourhood, and because it seems empty and has many hard surfaces.

The experience of scale is an interesting part of this test. The stopping point that feels smallest in scale (9) is in fact Rantzausgade, even though this is a very dense area. The courtyard at Rantzausgade is divided into zones, which is not the case at Godsbanearealet. At Godsbanearealet there is no meeting between the building and the outdoor space. Therefore, we can get the impression that the scale is different. Rantzausgade gives a feeling of order and complexity (10) at the same time because the higher buildings create the frame, while the smaller elements in the courtyards, like bushes and bicycle parking blocks the view and create curiosity. Godsbanearealet on the other hand could seem more disorganized because of the random placement of buildings and the unclear pattern, creating more negative spaces. Non of the places seems to be experienced as very narrow (11).

Positive space Rantzausgade

Negative space Godsbanearealet

Illustration 5.5: Negative vs. positive space

What we prefer about our surroundings are individual. But something that everyone seek is happiness (15). The stopping points that score highest on this scale are also Karolinelund, Rantzausgade and Kileparken. What they all have in common are greenery, good view (8) and a feeling of not being

EXPERIENCE ANALYSIS

89


EXPERIENCES ABOUT THE STOPS 2

4

6

8

10

90

EXPERIENCE ANALYSIS

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 2 3 4 5 6

Inviting Excluding

Exciting Boring

3

5

Empty Crowded

7

Good view Bad view

9

Order Complexity

11

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 2 3 4 5 6

Open Closed

Lively Inactive

Transparent Blocked

Small scale Large scale

Spacious Narrow


12

13

Silent Noisy

1 2 3 4 5 6

Good smell Smelly

1 2 3 4 5 6

FEELINGS ABOUT THE STOPS 14

1 2 3 4 5 6

16

1 2 3 4 5 6

Safe Insecure

Hidden Exposed

15

1 2 3 4 5 6

17

1 2 3 4 5 6

Happy Sad

Relaxed Stressed

EXPERIENCE ANALYSIS

91


AROUSAL STATE

.

The use of the skin response to find the participants arousal state does not give as clear an answer as the semantic differential form. But what we have to remember is that the arousal state can be both positive (excited, happy or relaxed) and negative (stressed, sad or bored). Therefore we have to consider these surveys together. First of all, we can see a pattern in the diagram (illustration 5.6).

spaces. But they also claimed that they were happy and in a more exciting environment. This could be the reason why the level rises, and stay more or less the same before they reach the junction by Skousen. At Skousen the diagram reaches a peak. This would probably be because of the amount of noise and car traffic, and that this crossing is seen as a more dangerous barrier. Skousen is also the place that is seen as the most stressful stop during the walk. What does not fit with the amount of arousal is the participants feeling of boredom and sadness. This match better when they start the walk down Jyllandsgade, where the level suddenly drops.

If we start from the beginning, looking at Nordkraft, we can see that the values are quite low. The degree of excitement, happiness and relaxation does not indicate why this level is so low, but it can be because the square is quite spacious and empty. There is not a lot of traffic crossing the participants path either.

But the level gradually rises again down the street, where the participants have to cross several driveways. When they reach the crossing over Dag Hammerskjølds Gade, we get a new peak. Suddenly there is a small decline in the arousal leading in to Godsbanearealet. This match the opinion of a more

When the participants enter Karolinelund we can see that the level rises. This is not as expected, since green areas would make people more relaxed. According to the scheme, they claimed that they felt more relaxed, which match the theory for green

Entering Karolinelund

Reaching Jyllandsgade

Entering Godsbanearealet

Crossing Jyllandsgade

Entering the underpass

40 µS

20 µS

0 µS

92

3 min

1 2 Illustration 5.6: Arousal state

EXPERIENCE ANALYSIS

6 min

3

9 min

12 min

4

15 min

5

18 min

21 min

6


.

.

relaxed feeling, but not the degree of excitement and happiness. The place gives you a feeling of being away from the heavy traffic, but it is still a quite unfinished area, which might be the case why this place is more inadequate.

which have the highest amount of people and traffic, especially because this is a public transportation hub. All this activity may well be the reason for the high arousal. Maybe the clearest change in the whole walk we can see leading down to the underpass towards Kildeparken. The amount of people is varying, but the noise from the streets are gone. Entering Kildeparken the level stays the same, and correspond with Karolinelund. The excitement is however higher, and may be affected by the sight of the small lake.

Walking towards Jyllandsgade again the arousal increases as expected. This is another crossing with traffic lights and a higher amount of traffic. Again we can see how the level changes leading in to Rantzausgade. The amount of excitement, happiness and relaxation in this backyard is more or less the same as in Karolinelund, and may have the same reasons behind them. What does not seem to match is the amount of exposure, privacy and transparency.

The results from the concentration test do not show any clear answer (illustration 5.7). Skousen scores relatively low as expected. The conclusion from this test must be to use other tools to determine how well people can concentrate in various places in the city.

KILDEPARKEN

RANTZAUSGADE

GODSBANEAREALET

SKOUSEN

KAROLINELUND

NORDFRAFT

Leading out of Rantzaugade again and on to Jyllandsgade the arousal level is back where it was, which can be justified with the proximity to the traffic. What is interesting is how the level rises in Kennedy Square. This is the place along the walk

CONCENTRATION TEST

Illustration 5.7: Results from the concentration test

EXPERIENCE ANALYSIS

93


Illustration 5.8: Map of the full walking route with an overlaid arousal contour.

6

KILDEPARKEN Public park

5

RANTZAUSGADE Courtyard

4

GODSBANEAREALET

Residential & campus area

94

EXPERIENCE ANALYSIS


CONCLUSION This analysis can obviously be wishful thinking and not completely concur with what the participants felt. Regardless, it will mean that there is a relative lack of fit between self-reported state and physiological arousal. In other words, we pay attention to our surroundings both voluntarily and involuntarily. The voluntary attention requires a lot of attention from us when we negotiate with the city, which again can tire us out. All the stimuli forces us to decide what to pay attention to. The involuntary attention is more effortless, but it still affects us. It suggests that we are not particularly good at monitoring our own internal states during our urban experiences, likely because we are continually adapting to our surroundings. What we can take from this analysis is of course the clear answers the semantic differential form gave us. It also seems, from the arousal test, that traffic and noise play big roles in creating stressful environments, and that greenery not only make us more relaxed, but also makes us happy and more excited.

1

NORDKRAFT

Cultural centre

2 3

KAROLINELUND Public park

SKOUSEN Street junction

EXPERIENCE ANALYSIS

95


CHAPTER

06

VISION The future Godsbanekvarteret East will be a centrally located residential area with high density, offering a green urban culture with focus on human health, well-being and sustainability. The aim is to use design and planning solutions that combine the benefits of the compact city, without compromising varied networks of green space for ecological reasons and people’s need for physical activity, recreation and restoration. Additionally, architecture and re-use of cultural and historical trail should create an original identity in a new district. The plan will be to seek relationships and hierarchies on different levels. From the relations between the city and nature, to the close communities in the neighbourhoods. The citizens need for contact and experiences with other people must be fulfilled, while they get the opportunity to be alone and sheltered from the outer world. They will have the opportunity to be active and unfold themselves physically and creatively, to easily orient themselves, have proximity to the nature, commerce and work, be able to identify themselves with others and the surrounding environment, feel comfortable and safe at all times, and get positive thoughts and feelings. Nature in the city make us more happy and healthy, and it helps create relationships with other people and the place we live. A big advantage is therefore to have natural diversity, complexity, and the opportunity for contact with nature. These ambition will be met by the qualities behind Green Urbanism (Beatley, 1999). This approach can be described as the greener approach than New Urbanism. While New Urbanism focuses on making cities greener in an ecologicalsense, Green Urbanism also argues that quality of life and restoration for urban residents are important functions. The design solutions of Green Urbanism involve green roofs, communal gardens and green façades, as well as having close proximity to the existing transportation modes to prevent urban sprawl (Beatley, 1999).

96

VISION


Picture 6.1: Aalborg

VISION 97


CHAPTER

07

DESIGN PARAMETERS THEORY & ANALYSIS CONCLUSION / STRATEGIES FOR THE SITE

98

DESIGN PARAMETERS


0.0

OVERVIEW DIAGRAM

1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

INTRO MAIN STRUCTURE INFRASTRUCTURE IDENTITY MIXED-USE & PROGRAMMING COMMUNITIES

2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

TYPOLOGY HEIGHT SUNLIGHT NOISE ROOF TERRACES ACCESS BALCONY BALCONIES APARTMENTS

3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

MORPHOLOGY ENCLOSURE ORDER & COMPLEXITY COURTYARD ACTIVITIES FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT

4.0 4.1 4.2

THE EDGE PRIVACY FACADE

5.0

GREENERY

6.0

HYDROLOGY

DESIGN PARAMETERS

99


CITY SITE

Public

Infrastructure

Park

Semi-public

Square

Side street Edge

Edge Golden ratio & faces

Golden ratio & faces

1.618

1.618

1

1

Surface

Surface

SURFACE

Asphalt

Dark paving Courtyard

Courtyard

PROGRAMMING

4m

4m

Height

Height

SUN N

S

1-2 m

1-2 m

Taller buildings north

S

NOISE

Buildings as cover

3-4 m

Order

3-4 m

2-3 m

2-3 m

Order

Order Complexity

Complexity

ENCLOSURE

NEIGHBOURHOOD

RESIDENCE

S

RESIDENCE

3m

ORDER/COMPLEXITY

ACTIVITY

Site edge create enclosure

N

N

SITE

NEIGHBOURHOOD

Roof

Complexity

Enclosure

Enclosure

Order

3-4 m

3-4 m

Water Roof

Water Green roof

Regional playground

Roof terraces

Roof terraces

Green roof

Balcony

Balcony

Water facade

Water facade

THE EDGE

Street/channel

Street/channel

Rain garden

Rain garden

Dry pond

Dry pond

Green roof

oof

Open channelsAccess balconies

Access balconies

FAร‡ADES GREENERY STORMWATER

100 DESIGN PARAMETERS

3m

S

1-2 m

Open channels

Pond/channel

Pond/channel

Longer faรงades (higher speed/maximum 20 m)

Park

Urban garden

Pond

Dry pond

Permeable surface

Pocket park

Infiltration zones


NEIGHBOURHOOD

Courtyard

RESIDENCE

Semi-private

Roof terrace

Access balcony

Golden ratio & faces

Frontyard

Shared entrance

Edge

Private

Backyard

Balcony Edge

Golden ratio & faces

1.618

8

1

1

Surface

Surface

Gravel

Light paving Courtyard

Courtyard

4m

4m

Height

Height

1-2 m

1-2 m

Balconies facing south

Reflecting faรงades

Complexity

N

S

Enclosure

Enclosure

Faรงades as cover

Balconies/ vegetation as cover

3-4 m

Order

Order

Order

2-3 m

3-4 m

2-3 m

Complexity

N

Block create enclosure

Vegetation create enclosure

N

SITE

NEIGHBOURHOOD RESIDENCE

S

3m

3m

S

3-4 m

3-4 m

Order

Order

Complexity

Complexity Roof

Water

Water Green roof

Green roof

District playground

Roof terraces

Local playground

Balcony

Balcony

Water facade

Water facade

Street/channel

Street/channel

Rain garden

Rain garden Green roof

Dry pond

Dry pond

Access balconies

Open channels

2-3 m

3-4 m

Open channels

Pond/channel

Pond/channel

Shorter faรงades (lower speed)

Courtyard

Rain garden

Roof garden

Open canals

Green faรงade

Green roofs

Water faรงades

Frontyard/backyard

Elevated buildings

DESIGN PARAMETERS 101


1.0 INTRO 1.1 MAIN STRUCTURE The goal will be to reach a density of minimum 230 % (FAR) and still create a residential area that maintain good quality of urban life. Godsbanearealet East and the surroundings should be seen as a whole. The overall structure shall be open and inviting, as well as being a natural part of the existing image, meeting it both functionally and aesthetically. A park will be established to be a natural connection and transition between the existing Godsbanearealet and the new development. This will also help to carry on the identity at the site and create a rhythm and a hierarchy that follows the existing context. The park should be more circular than elongated. The reason for that is that it is more beneficial for biodiversity, and because it increase the value and functional experience for people. The new canal will also be places through the site following the excisting rail system, making it into a blue-green uninterrupted connection. It is expected that Håndværkerkvarteret will be transformed into a more residential area in the future, so it will be important to meet this trend and create connection to the south.

1.2 INFRASTRUCTURE Walking, bicycling and public transportation will be prioritized ahead of car traffic. Yet there will be one shared space road that connects the existing roads north of the site to Håndværkerkvarteret. That will be strategically places and give access to the buildings and connecting secondary streets. The secondary streets leads to the buildings and create directions adapted to the existing structure and railway system. The rest of the streets and paths further connects the residents in the courtyards. The road hierarchy will also be a tool to divide the area into zones, and distinguish between the degree of public access. The main roads (shared spaces) trough the site will have asphalt. It creates a clean and simple expression. On ground parking places should have more permeable surface. The secondary streets and alleys, that are not available for heavy traffic, will be covered with paving. Darker paving indicates more public areas, so in the transition to the courtyards, the paving should be lighter. The courtyards should have a mix between light paving, gravel and grass. The paths trough the park will also be gravel, while the bicycle track will be made of coloured asphalt. The overarching streets should be straight and easy to orient in, while the smaller connections should be more varied. Parking will mainly be under ground. The parking above ground shall be green parking lots and be of multiple use.

102 DESIGN PARAMETERS


1.3 IDENTITY The transformation shall also consider the existing industrial/fright track identity of the site. Elements like lampposts, rails and track shifts will be preserved where possible. It creates a link between the area’s future and past and paints a characteristic picture of the site. A division of the district in less quarters and neighbourhoods strengthens the local identity and provide more housing types and thus a greater social mix in the area. It would be an advantage if the area is not designed fully at first, but give the residents the opportunity to take part in the formation, both in terms of the courtyards and roof terraces.

1.4 MIXED-USE & PROGRAMMING The strategy is also to provide the district with more variety, which will be crucial for the social as well as the commercial success. A mix of housing, service and workplaces, cafĂŠs and culture will contribute to reduced transport needs and a more versatile urban environment. The most public areas for business and service will naturally be in connection with Jyllandsgade, and not be drawn too far into your site. It shall be a minimum of 75 % dwellings and maximum 25 % commercial.

1.5 COMMUNITIES The communities are carried out on different levels. The new park and canal are elements everyone can relate to, and will appeal as a meeting place and recreational destination for residents and guests from other parts of the city, and a location that everyone can have in common. The park must therefore give something to the city that can not be found elsewhere. Between the neighbourhoods there will be open spaces where people can come and meet residents within the site and with close proximity to the site. Communities are here created using pocket parks and common outdoor space, like streets and squares. These places will be an important part of daily life, and shall also be designed as places to stay. The closest communities are built up around the families and the neighbours within the same building structure. Here people know each others faces. Communities are created with access to yards, roof terraces and courtyards. These are the most important social places, since it is the edge between the totally private and the public. Without them it is not possible to build a site with strong social relationships and great cohesion. Since we are densifying it is necessary to establish vertical communities as well.

DESIGN PARAMETERS 103


2.0 TYPOLOGY Edge

ratio & faces FAR 230 % 80 x 80 m

1.618

The new buildings will be a natural part of the existing structure. The typology is based on the hybrid solution that was presented during the typology studies, which is a cross between Edge Golden ratioslabs & faces free-standing objects, and traditional urban blocks. It covers several qualities for how to create a dense residential area. The solution will therefore be to use this typology to create neighbourhoods that consider the existing patterns, the local identity and infrastructure. The typology will contribute to create variation, from offices, apartments, student housing, and gradually over to more family-related apartments (row houses). At the edge of the site 1 it should be higher apartment buildings with student apartments and commercial use in the Surface lower floors. As the block reaches the centre of the site, the buildings should be more like row houses, mainly for families that have more need for outdoor space on the ground.

ard

2.1 HEIGHT Courtyard

4m

The new development meets Jyllandsgade to the north with taller buildings and greater density because of the existing scale and speed, and will be built down towards the south. This 1-2 m will contribute to a better view both toward north and south. The buildings will also be built Height down towards the canal, giving it more focus and meeting the scale. Complexity

2.2 SUNLIGHT N

S

Order Complexity

To satisfy the recommended requirement of sunlight, the overall street pattern will to a cerEnclosure tain extent be oriented diagonally in relation to the world corners. The building structure will as mentioned be built down towards the south. This contributes to better sunlight as well as view. A more varied urban structure will provide more space for the unexpected sunlight to find its way to the ground. So instead of having the same height, the key will be to have 3-4 m variety in both height and width. This will also be beneficial for the roof terraces. In some neighbourhoods sloping roof and2-3openings will be required, to increase the amount of sunOrder m light. Roof terraces will compensate for spaces where the sunlight conditions are not good enough. Balconies and terraces should face south and west. The faรงades should also be able to reflect some of the light. N

N

SITE

2.3 NOISE

NEIGHBOURHOOD RESIDENCE

S

By having taller buildings to the north, and creating enclosure, it will reduce the noise level from the surrounding streets. A prerequisite for building residents by the edge, where the 3m noise level is higher than 58 dB, is that the buildings are equipped with special noise insulation or shielding, to ensure a proper noise level indoor. The structure of the neighbourhoods 3-4 m will ensure more quiet outdoor spaces between the buildings, while vegetation and walls will contribute to reducing the noise for dwellings. The shape of the block will also prevent noise from coming into the courtyard. It is expected that the new light rail in Jyllandsgate will contribute positivelyWater to the noise level.

S

Roof

Green roof

Vegetation around the park should help to reduce the noise level from the street and the Water facade industry area.

Roof terraces

Water

Street/channel Rain garden

Green roof

Balcony

Green roof

Water facade Access balconies

Open channels

Street/channel Rain garden

Pond/channel

Dry pond

Open channels

104 DESIGN PARAMETERS Pond/channel

Dry pond

3-4

2


SITE

NEIGHBOURHOOD RESIDENCE

1-2 m

Complexity

Roof

2.4 ROOF TERRACES

N

3-4 m

The roofs on the new buildings should generally be established as flat, to utilize the space 2-3 m better. The roof terrace should have a light colour, and will be an important supplement to the outdoor space on the ground level in the denser areas. The reason for that is that it is most used by adults, and can to a certain degree supplement other areas. Families with small children rarely or never use roof terraces because they are perceived as less suitable for play. Therefore, buildings with smaller scale (the row houses) prioritize roof terraces to a lesser extent, and is rather used only as green roofs for sustainable reasons. The roof terraces should have easy access, and be accessible not only for the residents, but also for visitors in some places. This is an important factor to help create communities, human scale and better 3m S It shall also be possible to get to the terraces in different ways, both inside sunlight conditions. and outside the building.

Roof terraces

Green roof

Access balconies

3-4 m

2.5 ACCESS BALCONY Access balconies will be an important element to create additional semi-private areas, and a place for informal social contact between the neighbours. In the tallest buildings access balconies will create better contact with the ground level, and make the faรงades less dominant and meet the human scale. In this way, vertical communities can be established above ground, and it can be connections between the access balconies and the roof terraces. This roof is aGreen good way to increase the density, but at the same time keep the social contact and the Balcony human scale. Water facade

Street/channel

2.6 BALCONIES

Rain garden

Dry pond Balconies should be prioritized in the densest areas where the common outdoor areas are smaller. They should be facing south and west, to ensure better daylight conditions. It should be taken into account where the balconies and windows are positioned relative to each othOpen channels er, considering the transparency and visibility. With increased density, the transparency also increases. Bay windows, vegetation or shielding can provide better climatic conditions in the dwelling while it Pond/channel secure better view and more privacy.

2.7 APARTMENTS The apartment sizes and apartment types will be adapted to the neighbourhood. In areas with heavy traffic or bad sunlight it is an advantage to place the residences in the upper floors, with shops and offices on the lower floors. This especially applies to the areas along Jyllandsgade. In a cramped urban situations, it will be particularly important to provide apartments which extends through the building. This will provide better light conditions, better ventilation and rooms towards quiet courtyard/backyards. Additionally we get visual contact to both street and courtyard. One sided oriented apartments to the north should be avoided. The apartments should also be places vertically rather than having horizontal corridors. This is because people have more control over the social interaction and experience less stress. The apartment size shall on average be 80 m2 and minimum 70 m2.

DESIGN PARAMETERS 105


1

Surface

3.0 MORPHOLOGY Courtyard

Height

3.1 ENCLOSURE

N

S

The typologies creates spaces between the buildings. These spaces will as far as possible be created as positive spaces, and give the opportunity for optional activities, like gatherings and events with friends and family. At the same time the whole area should create enclosure on different levels and scales to make people feel more comfortable. On the overall level the focus will be to use taller buildings, vegetation or other elements forming a frame at the edge Enclosure of the site. Likewise, enclosure is created for every neighbourhood and resident using vegetation, level differences, fences, walls, pergolas, hedges etc. The park will be enclosed by the bridge, buildings and trees.

3.2 ORDER & COMPLEXITY

Order The bigger scale will create order for the smaller scale, while the smaller scale create com-

Order Complexity

atio & faces

SITE

NEIGHBOURHOOD RESIDENCE

plexity for the bigger scale. Order shall be created through a legible and clear infrastructure in terms Edge of the main connections. Complexity is formed by the typology that provides varying height-width ratio, which gives smaller spaces, and more disorder and curiosity. The N neighbourhoods create order for the residences, in that they form smaller rooms. Finally, the residents create complexity towards the neighbourhood, with varying façades, smaller vegetation and zone subdivisions. The buildings should contribute to visual order by following the overall settlement structure, but differ more in the Sdesign, colour, use of materials etc., to create complexity.

The idea is that as people walk through the site they will have different experiences, both through openness and closeness, and the degree of detailing. These experiences will be triggered by having smaller ‘hidden’ spaces and complexity, that gives people the desire to see what lies behind the next corner. Therefore, it will be openings in the façades, so people both can see what lies in the backyards, and also be able to see the canal and park from the outside.

rd Roof

Water

4m Green roof

Roof terraces

Green roof

Access balconies

3.3 COURTYARD

1-2 m

3-4 m

2-3 m

N

S

3m

3-4 m

106 DESIGN PARAMETERS

Water facade

The courtyards shall be designed as ‘roundabout’ with a contiguous green space in the middle, and as a ‘windmill’, where the Street/channel paths follows the edges. The paths should not lie so close Rain garden be on the to the buildings that it disturbs the private life. The courtyard shouldComplexity primarily ground level and divided into zones. Vegetation, terrain and steps can divide the Dry space, pond provide shelter from the wind, increase the well-being, and contribute to that various activities can take place at the same time. It will create smaller rooms that are valuable, and the feeling of a ‘private’ places will increase. Shrubs, trees structures with climbing plants can also Openor channels create such differentiation. Every courtyard shall be well-defined and have its own character Pond/channel and individual identity.


3.4 ACTIVITIES To create a healthy neighbourhood, the site will provide opportunities for safe and convenient physical activity/exercise. The main solution is to have connecting sidewalks, trails and networks for walking, running and bicycling trough the site. It shall also be possible to use the pond and canal for water activities. The children will get places for activity and play trough different layers. Closest to the residents we will find the local playgrounds for the smallest children and families. These playgrounds should be colour-coded to attract activity, and it is essential that they are separated from the traffic. As the children grow and get more curious they will explore things further away, and will have the opportunity to play and have fun in the open space between the neighbourhoods. In the regional level it will be created a nature playground with waterplay in the park, that can attract the whole city. Children have been shown to physically acclimate to the demands of play on natural terrain. The natural playground will therefore be placed in the park, and have connection to the excising playgrounds and ball courts at the campus.

3.5 FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT To maintain the areas identity as an old fright track area, furniture and equipment should be made of iron, wood and stone, that are already in use. Proper placement of bench will be more important than the actual material or design of the bench. A proper place to put seating will be at the edge of a room near an entrance, where the back is covered and where it comes more sunlight. Nevertheless, the benches should have backrest, armrests and a height that makes it easy to sit down and get up. Children and young people can sit almost anywhere, whether it is a nice bench or a random edge.

DESIGN PARAMETERS 107


4.0 THE EDGE 4.1 PRIVACY All the residents must have edges that allow for stay and are transitions between the private and semi-private and on to the (semi-) public. The most public street, in this case Jyllandsgade, will have less distinction between the building and the street. This will indicate that this is a more public area that is welcoming for everyone, and contribute to more life in the street. The distance should be 1-2 meters. The transition between the more semi-public areas, or the meeting between the site and the Edge neighbourhoods, will be secured by raising the lower floors and having more vegetation to cover the view through the windows. The front gardens will be 2-3 meters.

Golden ratio & faces

In the most private and small scale areas inside the neighbourhoods and by the row houses, the distance between the private building and paths are higher, and preferably around 3-4 meters. This will secure a decent amount of privacy as well as act as a zone for informal contact. The back gardens does not necessarily need to be as sheltered because of the distances.

Surface Edge

The main purpose for this is to let people have more control over their own situation. They have the opportunity for various kinds of exposure.

Courtyard 4m

ht

1-2 m

Complexity

Edge

osure 4m

1-2 m

3-4 m

2-3 m

er

Complexity

N

4m

3-4 m

3m

S 1-2 m

2-3 m

Public space Edge Apartment buildings Asphalt

Public towards semi-public space Complexity

Paving

Water S

108 DESIGN PARAMETERS 3-4 m

Semi-public towards semi-private space Centre Row houses Gravel

3m Green roof

Water facade 2-3 m

3-4 m

3-4 m

Balcony


4.2 FACADE The focus on the edge will help to decode and understand the district’s overall hierarchy, and it will reduce the amount of negative open spaces. The intention is to work with great variety and diversity of urban façades and volumes. The façades will be active, open and more transparent to meet the speed of the streets to the north and east. This creates more interaction between the ground floor and the urban space. At the same time it is important to keep a sense of verticality so the buildings not seem so long, by using displacements, change in facade expression and different materials. As we get closer to the courtyards and more private areas, the facade length decreases as the speed reduces. The façades for each neighbourhood should have a more varied and expressive idiom, with different types of colours, materials and details, to avoid monotonous buildings. But generally the façades should appear bright and light, and the detail degree should be greater in the lower floors. It is important to avoid pointy corners on the buildings, so they should not go below 90°. It will not be a requirement, but it is desirable that the golden ratio and facial expression in the façades/windows should be considered. This is to create a more engaging and welcoming place that grabs peoples attention. The façades will have openings, not only for better accessibility and sun conditions, but also to create better visual contact between the streets and backyards.

exity

Gol

1.618

Edge Golden ratio & faces

Golden ratio & faces

1

Sur

1.618 1.618 1

Surface

Cou

1

Surface Height

Courtyard

Courtyard 4m

Height

N

Height

DESIGN PARAMETERS 109 S 1-2 m

Enclosure


5.0 GREENERY It shall be offered visual and physical access to green areas and contact with nature. In this way, a fair ratio of urban greenery will be maintained, with easy access in relation to the built environment. The green areas will also differentiate between being large public and close private, to give the opportunity for different activities. As mentioned it will be established a new park area south-west on the site, with a regional attraction value. This is drawn between the buildings to make it more lively. At the same time, the settlement is pulled out into the park, to create contact to the landscape. The buildings should at the same time have a sharp border, which emphasizing where the distinction goes. The park will be fitted with terrain, a pond, the canal, a natural playground with waterplay, an urban garden and a shared platform. Paths through and across the park will ensure good movement possibilities for pedestrians and cyclists, which helps to create a safe atmosphere. To the possible extent, it is desirable that the existing and partly self-grown vegetation is preserved. This reinforces the area’s character further, and particularly applies to the old railway tracks. By using them as part of a blue-green avenue, the availability for the pedestrians and cyclists are pursued, while contributes to a special and attractive experience of moving through the site. In the densest areas it is important to use plantings and trees to break down the scale. Greenery can be given to the frontyards to make the streets more green, while greenery in the courtyards give residents more choices with regards to sun and shade, and privacy and contact. The goal of having more continuous greenery is also to increase biodiversity by using the areas as stepping stones for different species. The plants on the ground should be able to purify the soil.

110 DESIGN PARAMETERS


3-4 m

6.0 HYDROLOGY

2-3 m

The site will be planned to meet future climate change and local handling of rainwater shall be incorporated in the entire area, to limit derivation to the public sewer system. Water should therefore be delayed and collected on the site before it can be led out. In the park it will be established a small lake which works as a pond (connected to the canal), and the planned canal N will be laid through the site. First and foremost, the green park, green areas and canal will lie as depressions in the terrain. The rainwater system consists of several parts. The green roofs (both extensive and intensive) collects and delays the rainwater from the roof surfaces. The water that can not be handled by the roof is then led down the faรงades or in run-downs to open canals on the ground. On hot days, these water elements invite to play and movement in the urban spaces. Then the S water is led to rain gardens, which are further depressions between the buildings. The streets can also work as canals, since they are lowered compared to the edge. Under powerful rain periods, the water is led out into the park and green spaces, which distributes water in the pond, canal and dry ponds if necessary. When the rain stops, the water that is not evaporated or infiltrated, is led to the sewer system.

3m

3-4

The goal is that this will solve the problem for future climate change while create a more dynamic area, where activities can take place. By having visible canals and ponds people will also become more aware of climate change. It will create different spatial experiences, because the terrain will change depending on the amount of water in the pond, canal and wetlands. Access to the water will be provided by stairs, lower surfaces and piers.

er Green roof

Water facade

Street/channel Rain garden Dry pond

Open channels

Pond/channel

DESIGN PARAMETERS 111


CHAPTER

08

DESIGN

THE FUTURE GODSBANEAREALET EAST

A CALM CITY LIFE 112 DESIGN


DESIGN 113 DESIGN


DESIGN PROCESS STEP 1

SITE LOCATION Godsbanearealet East is formed by the surrounding infrastructure and lies as a more or less empty space that are closed around itself. The site has been expanded to meet the future development at HĂĽndvĂŚrkerkvarteret to the south.

STEP 2

REMOVAL OF BUILDINGS Some of the existing industrial and commercial buildings has been removed to open up the site, make space for the new development and create new connections.

STEP 3

GREEN & BLUE STRUCTURE The first step of the development is to use the existing greenery and implement the park and the canal. These elements are prioritized first because they are a recreational destination, and part of the strategy behind Green Urbanism.

114 DESIGN


STEP 4

INFRASTRUCTURE The main road through the site will have its entrance by Dag Hammerskiølds Gade. This will be shared space to reduce the amount of car traffic and make it more safe environment for the pedestrians. Rather, the focus will be on bicyclists. The reduced focus on cars will also gives a better opportunity to create a dense area.

STEP 5

INTRODUCING THE BLOCK The building structure is based on a grid system of block buildings that are adapted to the old and new infrastructure, and canal. The buildings are raised towards the edge, giving a feeling of enclosure. They are also more varying at the centre where the scale is smaller. By pulling and pushing the buildings and breaking up the blocks it forms outdoor spaces and corridors which creates constraints and relief.

STEP 6

GREEN ROOFS & ROOF TERRACES The green roofs are introduced to make the site more sustainable. The roof terraces creates outdoor space that can compensate for the reduced outdoor space on the ground.

DESIGN 115


JYLLANDSGADE

PLAN 1

1:1000

Rain gardens

Squa

Urban gardens

116 DESIGN

Stores


Stairs Waterplay

are

Wetland

Kindergarten

DESIGN 117


Campus

PLAN 2

1:1000

Sports facilities

Waterplay Multi center Dry pond

118 DESIGN


Rain gardens

s

Nature playground

Pond Urban gardens

HJULMAGERVEJ

DESIGN 119


SECTION A-A’

1:200

B C’ A A’ C

B’

1:1000

3,0 m

5,0 m

3,0 m

Height-to-width ratio: 3:2

120 DESIGN

13.0 m

4,0 m


SECTION/ELEVATION B-B’

5,0 m

3,0 m

1:1000

11,0 m

4,0 m

DESIGN 121


ELEVATION C-C’

1:200

122 DESIGN

1:200


DESIGN 123


FACTS & FIGURES BUILDING DENSITY FAR 240%

BLUE-GREEN-FACTOR 0,55

DWELLING UNIT DENSITY 240 DU/HA

POPULATION DENSITY 500 POP/HA

See appendix B & C

124 DESIGN


INFRASTRUCTURE Main streets (public) Shared space (public) Collector streets (semi-public) Collector streets (semi-private) Gravel paths (semi-private) Bike path (public)

P P P

PROGRAMMING Residentail Corporate/service Residential Corporate Service Commercial

Commercial

DESIGN 125


Residentail Corporate/service Commercial

BUILDING HEIGHTS 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

BALCONIES Prioritized south and west

126 DESIGN


SHADOW STUDY March 20th

June 20th

September 20th

December 20th

09.00

12.00

15.00

18.00

DESIGN 127


ENCLOSURE AND URBAN SPACE Enclosure on three levels

ORDER & COMPLEXITY Ordered Complex

128 DESIGN


LINE OF SIGHT

THE EDGE 1-2 m 2-3 m 3-4 m

DESIGN 129


Green roofs Roof terraces

ROOF

ZONING & HIERARCHY

130 DESIGN


BIODIVERSITY Habitats & stepping stones

DESIGN 131


TECHNICAL SOLUTION The size of the rain gardens are developed to handle the rainwater within the blocks and from the roof tops (see appendix D).

6: 4 800 m2

61 m2

43 m2 69 m2

43 m2

36 m2

72 m2 33 m2

72 m2

57 m2 Wetland 36 m

2

56 m2

A The canal and the pond will have permanent water, together with the waterplay areas and the water surface. B When it rains, the park, green roofs and other greenery will take up water. When the green roofs can not handle the rain, the rain gardens will be filled. C Under heavier rainfall, the dry pond and wetland in the park, and the wetland by the square will come into use. D Under extreme situations, certain areas in the park can handle more water since it lies lower than the buildings.

132 DESIGN

Dry pond Wetland

9: 3 700 m2

44 m2

Pond

A

B

C

D


3,0 m

1:200

2,5 m

4,0 m

1,5 m

5,5 m

2,0 m

4,0 m

4,0 m

Height-to-width ratio: 1:3

DESIGN 133


SECTION

134 DESIGN

1:2000


DESIGN 135


THE PARK

Imagine you are on your way home from training early one morning. You decide to go through the new Godsbanearealet, and look at the new development. You are not the only one in the park. People are out running, children are playing by the water and in the forest, while others are out just to relax or walk the dog. There are also an abundance of wildlife. At the urban gardens, you meet a person who asks if you want a tomato. You are hungry after your workout, and do not say no to some fruit. Naturally, you follow the canal further, as it leads the way in between the buildings. It seems exciting...

136 DESIGN


DESIGN 137


THE CANAL

138 DESIGN


As you walk down along the canal, you can notice how the mood changed. It feels more urban, even though the nature is still present. Although the buildings are tall and dense, it does not feel cramped or far, since it is constantly openings that gives more breathing space, and shifting faรงades. You can see glimpses of the courtyards and are very curious about what lies inside. You stop as you reach the square. Here people enjoys each others company. They have gone out to enjoy the waterfront, go to the cafe or just look at the city life. You can clearly see how the areas history is preserved. You also notice how the water has left traces along the canal, which makes you think of how the climate is changing. As you walk home you decide to check out a courtyard...

DESIGN 139


THE BLOCK

140 DESIGN


The courtyard seems more complex, and more private. But it does not give you the feeling that you are not welcome. It feels safe and you can clearly get the impression where you can go, mostly because of the covering vegetation and changing surface. The water is still a prominent element in the form of a rain garden. Suddenly you notice a stairway that leads to the roof. You decide to go up. On the top you get a nice view over the park, and also other parts of the city. As you go down again it starts to rain. You can hear how the water runs above ground down the canals. You decide that it is time to go home.

DESIGN 141


CHAPTER

09

CONCLUSION The goal of a density of minimum 230 % is preserved, ending up with 240 %. That is a bit more than the existing development at the campus area. Small changes can still be made to increase the density, but to much will rapidly affect the living quality at the site, especially with the chosen typology. The result shows distinct urban blocks that are well-connected and adapted to the environment, creating a new sense of place. The blocks also create enclosure on several levels because people can tell where the boundaries are, making them feel more comfortable. Most of the outdoor spaces will be perceived as positive, as they are covered in every corner, either by faรงades, vegetation or other vertical elements. The benefit from this is also that the noise level will be reduced. All of the site fit with the demands for human scale. Where the buildings go over 5-6 floors, they are compensated with access balconies and terraces to make them less dominant. Every building are under 10 floors, taking into account the requirement from the municipality. The site offers different types of housing, commerce, service and work places. This creates great variety of residents, more life in and around the buildings, reduced transport demands and more spontaneous communication and interaction. An important factor is the proximity principle, and peoples control over their own situation. They will have short distances to the park and the water. The proximity to nature and natural elements may even be more attractive than the location itself. The residents will have a better opportunity to decide over their own situation, in terms of privacy. The reason for this is they have varied outdoor space, more ways/roads to choose from, vegetation and variety in shapes and distances. They also have the possibility to form their own surroundings and create communities, so the feeling of crowding reduces. The place will get a new identity based on the current situation and history. For the residents to get a better connection to the site, they will be given the opportunity to form the site, and put their own touch on it. This is made possible by not fully develop the front- and backyards, courtyards and roof terraces. The site gives a good opportunity for a healthy and active lifestyle, recreation, sufficient safe places for children to play, and visual and physical contact with greenery for restoration. It does also provide qualities to the surroundings. Not only because of what it has to offer, but also because it opens up the area and contribute to a better identity. The amount of sun on the ground is not 50 %, but the shared roof terraces compensate for this requirement. The road system are mainly structure diagonally in relation to the world corners, so it gives more sun on the street level. Not all roofs can have roof terraces. To meet the climate change it also have to be green roofs. Therefore it is more roof terraces on top of the apartment buildings, and green roofs on top of the row houses that are better suited for families with smaller children.

142 CONCLUSION


The site is designed for walking and cycling, and less for car traffic. For people to relax, they will as mentioned need a breathing space that stands in contrast to the urgent environment. Greenery and water features, and less car traffic, will emphasize this contrast, and therefore making it easier to relax. It is worth mentioning that trees and other green elements can block the visual permeability, and create unsafe environments. The proximity, windows, layout and life will help to reduce this problem. The infrastructure create coherence and is generally easy to orient in, making order at the site. At the same time, it is unexpected entrances, connecting alleys and differentiated outdoor space, creating more complexity. The architectural diversity and landscape elements also increase towards the centre and closer to the ground. Compared to Pilestredet Park and Bo01, that was used as case studies, the site is a cross between the two. Not as strict and ordered as Pilestredet Park, and not as complex as Bo01. The grass in the park helps with many qualities. It creates a green, soft floor that breaks the harder structures of the urban environment, and provide natural terrain and vegetation for seating and play. The trees create walls and ceilings around the park and contributes to human scale in relation to higher elevations. The park, courtyards, green roofs and tree lines are all helpful as habitats and stepping stones for greater biodiversity at the site, and creates a connection both north and south. Something that is not as good expressed in the design is the way greenery, vertical elements and terrain are used to divide the site, open space and courtyards into zones. By using local stormwater management, both the residents and visitors are made aware of the climate change by the presence of visible water, but they can still feel safe, and not worry about flooding and damages to the same extent.

CONCLUSION 143


Reflection From the beginning of the project the desire was always to look into environmental psychology, and use theories from that subject to form a site. But that would probably not be enough. Therefore, the decision was to pair it with the problems connected to densification of cities, both regarding green space and climatic challenges. Whether environmental psychology is the right approach for this type of task are certainly debatable. But environmental psychology is a topic that is included in many subjects, and serves as a foundation for these subjects. The goal is to understand the relationship between people and their surroundings. For urban design it can therefore be used to come up with a design solution that creates environments where people feel more comfortable. The thesis started with defining the problem, and looking into what material that could be used, and what the result should be. Much time was put into the theory study. It can be difficult to know if the theories can be used, but most of the theories are implemented into the result. It has been interesting to see how the site in a way developed itself based on the literature, without knowing how it would end up from the beginning. A question that is also relevant is whether the experience analysis is relevant for this thesis. The answer to that is both. Since the outcome of the analysis was hard to predict, it was also hard to predict whether it could be used. Maybe, as it worked out, the results from the skin conductance test could fit better with other types of design. But the results from the semantic differential form, together with the feedback from the participants was helpful in the way that it showed how we are both aware and unaware of our surroundings at the same time, and that we tend to favour green and soft areas above congested areas. The design section could have been more prioritized, but the decision was from the beginning that the theory study and analysis would be equal. With more focus on the design part, and by focusing narrower and maybe more in depth on fewer topics, the result would probably look a bit different. Then it would be desirable to look more into the outdoor spaces above ground, with both vertical and horizontal connections. And also the problem surrounding privacy, distances and materials, that probably would have resulted in different typologies and formations. An idea would then be to make a plan for the site, but only detail one block, to better describe the design parameters, like hydrology. The reason for the site was as mentioned that it was located in the city, and had the opportunity for densification, transformation, green spaces and hydrological solutions. It could have been more challenging if the site was located a place where more buildings had to be preserved. Then it would be necessary to connect the new and old development even more. Some may argue that a city should be a city, and therefore not have so much influence from green spaces. But looking into the benefits greenery gives, it is important that this is a big part of future developments. Thanks to the supervisors for helpful input.

144 CONCLUSION


“

The question of the purpose of human life has been raised countless times; it has never yet received a satisfactory answer and perhaps does not admit of one... We will therefore turn to the less ambitious question of what men show by their behavior to be the purpose and intention of their lives. What do they demand of life and wish to achieve in it? The answer to this can hardly be in doubt. They strive after happiness; they want to become happy and to remain so.� - Sigmund Freud (1953:75-76)

CONCLUSION 145


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Strumse, E. & Aarø, L.E. (2000) Menneske, miljø og livskvalitet. Norges forskningsråd. Oslo. Taylor, R. P. (2011) Reduction of Physiological Stress Using Fractal Art and Architecture. MIT Press Tennøy, A. Øksenholt, K. V. og Aarhaug, J. (2013) Miljøeffekter av sentral knutepunktsutvikling. TØI rapport 1285/2013. Thompson Coon, J., Boddy, K., Stein, K., Whear, R., Barton, J. & Depledge, M. H. (2011) Does Participating in Physical Activity in Outdoor Natural Environments Have a Greater Effect on Physical and Mental Wellbeing than Physical Activity Indoors? Environmental Science & Technology, 45 (5): 1761-1772. Thorén, K. H. & Nyhuus, S. (1993) Hvordan har vi tatt hensyn till natur I by? Thorèn, K.H., Guttu, J. & Pløger, J. (1997) Utearealer i boligområder. Bruk og betydning. Oslo. NIBR

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Illustrations 2.2 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5-3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10-3.12 3.13 3.14-3.16 4.1-4.6 5.1 5.2-5.8

Aalborg kommune, 2013 Adapted from densityatlas.org / Pedersen (2001) Urban Task Force (1999): rsh-p.com Adapted from Booth (1983) Adapted from Gehl (2010) Own illustrations Adapted from Booth (1983) Adapted from Meiss (1990) Own illustrations From Kaplan & Kaplan (1989) Own illustrations Own illustrations Adapted from Trimmer et al. (2013) Own illustrations

Pictures 2.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 4.1 4.2 4.3-4.18

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krak.dk, 2013 streets.mn nerdybynature.dk pinterest.com padfield.com/greece/athens biologypop.com/using-broad-leaved-trees-such-as-willowtrees-are-cost-efficient-cleaners-of-contaminated-soil/ desktopwallpaper4.me/flowers/field-penny-cress-2318/ imgarcade.com/1/romanesco-broccoli-purple/ cnet.com/news/the-eiffel-tower-now-generates-its-own-power-with-new-wind-turbines gulesider.no msaudcolumbia.org Own pictures


151


Appendix A

SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL FORM

SKIN CONDUCTANCE SENSOR

How do you experience the stopping point? Ordered Private Open Exciting Spacious Lively Transparent Inviting Empty Silent Good smell Small Good view

Complex Public Closed Boring Narrow Inactive Blocked Excluding Crowded Noisy Smelly Large-scale Bad view

CONCENTRATION GAME

How do you feel about the stopping point? Happy Safe Hidden Relaxed

Sad Insecure Exposed Stressed

Secondary remarks/ impressions: _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________

152

WALLET QUESTION IF YOU LOST YOUR WALLET ON ONE OF THE STOPPING POINTS, WHERE DO YOU THINK IT HAD BEEN MOST LIKELY TO GET IT BACK?

1

2

3

4

5

6


Appendix B

Floor area: Site area (without park): FAR (144 000 m2/60 000 m2) Dwelling area (80 %) 115 200 Commercial area (20 %) 28 800 Dwelling size 80 m2 Number of dwelling units 1 440 DU (1 440/6 ha) People per dwelling 2,1 Population (1 440*2,1) 3 024 POP (3 024/6 ha)

144 000 m2 60 000 m2

(6 ha)

240 %

240

504

153


Appendix c

Value Factor SURFACE 1.0 Permanent water 0.3 Partly permeable surface 0.2 Impermeable surfaces with drainage to open basin 1.0 Vegetation with contact to soil 0.6 Vegetation not in contact with soil (40-80 cm) 0.3 0.7 0.5

154

Additional qualities Rain gardens/wetland New trees >10 m (25 m2) New trees (5-10 m) (16 m2)

Area m² 85 000

BGF

~3 500 ~12 000 ~10 000 ~30 000 ~10 000

(3500*1.0) (12 000*0.3) (10 000*0.2) (30 000*1.0) (10 000*0.6)

3 500 3 600 2 000 30 000 6 000

700 40 100

(700*0,3) (0.7*40*25) (0.5*100*16)

210 700 800

46 900

0.55

BLUE-GREEN-FACTOR (BGF) (46 900/85 000)


Appendix D

Rain garden dimensions: Around 5 % of the impervious surface is required for handling of rain water, while 3 % goes to the actual infiltration zone. 1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

8)

9)

10)

3 800 m2 * 0,50 = 1 900 m2 impervious surface Area required for water management: Infiltration area:

1 900 m2 * 0,05 = 95 m2 1 900 m2 * 0,03 = 57 m2

2 700 m2 * 0,45 = 1 215 m2 impervious surface Area required for water management: Infiltration area:

1 215 m2 * 0,05 = 60 m2 1 215 m2 * 0,03 = 36 m2

2 800m2 * 0,40 = 1 100 m2 impervious surface Area required for water management: Infiltration area:

1 100 m2 * 0,05 = 55 m2 1 100 m2 * 0,03 = 33 m2

4 600 m2 * 0,50 = 2 300 m2 impervious surface Area required for water management: Infiltration area:

2 300 m2 * 0,05 = 115 m2 2 300 m2 * 0,03 = 69 m2

3 400 m2 * 0,60 = 2 040 m2 impervious surface Area required for water management: Infiltration area:

2 040 m2 * 0,05 = 102 m2 2 040 m2 * 0,03 = 61 m2

4 800 m2 * 0,60 = 2 880 m2 impervious surface Area required for water management: Infiltration area:

2 880 m2 * 0,05 = 144 m2 2 880 m2 * 0,03 = 86 m2 (/2=43 m2)

8 700 m2 * 0,55 = 4 785m2 impervious surface Area required for water management: Infiltration area:

4 785 m2 * 0,05 = 239 m2 4 785 m2 * 0,03 = 144 m2 (/2=72 m2)

3 000 m2 * 0,40 = 1 200 m2 impervious surface Area required for water management: Infiltration area:

1 200 m2 * 0,05 = 60 m2 1 200 m2 * 0,03 = 36 m2

3 700 m2 * 0,50 = 1 850 m2 impervious surface Area required for water management: Infiltration area:

1 850 m2 * 0,05 = 93 m2 1 850 m2 * 0,03 = 56 m2

2 900 m2 * 0,50 = 1 450 m2 impervious surface Area required for water management: Infiltration area:

1 450 m2 * 0,05 = 73 m2 1 450 m2 * 0,03 = 44 m2

155


Densification with Quality of Urban Life  

Master Thesis | Lars Grenaker | Aalborg University | 2015

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