JANUARY 2012 VOL. 34, NO. 1
How to control time and cost overruns
Destination garden centres Rethink your store â€” as a venue
Shot at survival for urban trees Bylands: Leader in conservation, HR and marketing
Green industry outlook positive
Meet the industry at Congress 2012
Horticulture, tradition, values â€ŚThailand
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contents JANUARY 2012 VOL. 34, NO. 1
PUBLISHER Lee Ann Knudsen CLP | firstname.lastname@example.org EDITORIAL DIRECTOR Sarah Willis | email@example.com EDITOR Allan Dennis | firstname.lastname@example.org WEB EDITOR Robert Ellidge | email@example.com ART DIRECTOR Kim Burton | firstname.lastname@example.org GRAPHIC DESIGNER Mike Wasilewski | email@example.com ACCOUNTANT Joe Sabatino | firstname.lastname@example.org SALES MANAGER, PUBLICATIONS Steve Moyer | email@example.com COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANT Shawna Barrett | firstname.lastname@example.org ADVISORY COMMITTEE Gerald Boot CLP, Laura Catalano, Hank Gelderman CHTM, Tim Kearney CLP, Marty Lamers, Jan Laurin, Bob Tubby CLP
Landscape Trades is published by Landscape Ontario Horticultural Trades Association 7856 Fifth Line South, Milton, ON L9T 2X8 Phone: (905)875-1805 Email: email@example.com Fax: (905)875-0183 Web site: www.landscapetrades.com
36 Green is good
Coalition looks at health benefits of green space
Cash in on garden tourism
BY COLLEEN CIRILLO
BY VERONICA SLIVA
38 Low-cost loans
12 Good news for the green industry Trades well positioned for growth in 2012 BY JUDITH GUIDO
16 IPM for growers Testing microbial-based pesticides
Not-for-profit offers financing for growers BY ASHLEIGH BENEDICT
40 Call to action: Come alive outside! New outdoor initiative helps build community connections
BY PETER ISA ACSON
BY JIM PALUCH
20 Lease on life for urban trees
49 Training executives for the green industry
Underground water collection cells promote survival
Management program is an investment in your future
BY LORRAINE FLANIGAN
BY LIZ KLOSE
LANDSCAPE ONTARIO STAFF Carla Bailey, Rachel Cerelli, Paul Day CDE, Lexi Dearborn, Tony DiGiovanni CHTR, Denis Flanagan CLD, Sally Harvey CLT CLP, Helen Hassard, Lorraine Ivanoff, Jane Leworthy, Kristen McIntyre CHTR, Kathy McLean, Linda Nodello, Kathleen Pugliese, Paul Ronan, Ian Service, Tom Somerville, Martha Walsh
24 Gold Rose for Bylands
Landscape Trades is published nine times a year: January, March, April, May, June, July/August, September, October and November/December.
Social media allows targeted marketing
All rights are reserved. Material may not be reproduced in any form without written permission from the publisher. Landscape Trades assumes no responsibility for, and does not endorse the contents of, any advertisements herein. All representations or warranties made are those of the advertiser and not the publication. Views expressed do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of the association or its members, but are those of the writer concerned.
ISSN 0225-6398 PUBLICATIONS MAIL SALES AGREEMENT 40013519 RETURN UNDELIVERABLE CANADIAN ADDRESSES TO: CIRCULATION DEPARTMENT LANDSCAPE TRADES MAGAZINE 7856 FIFTH LINE SOUTH, MILTON, ON L9T 2X8, CANADA
26 Mine customer data online
ROAD TO SUCCESS
68 Math is not sexy BY ROD McDONALD
BY KYLE LACY
28 Growing in a tropical paradise
70 Inspection vs. supervision: qualifying the designer’s responsibility
Horticulture in Thailand
BY ROBERT KENNALEY
BY MICHAEL PASCOE
72 Controlling cost overruns BY MARK BRADLEY
DEPARTMENTS GREEN PENCIL INDUSTRY NEWS CNLA NEWS PROVINCIAL NEWS NEW PRODUCTS CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIEDS WHERE TO FIND IT
4 44 64 66 76 79 79 81
74 It IS easy being green BY SEAN JAMES
In this issue: CONGRESS
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Canadian nursery recognized with international honour
Featuring Congress Conference and Special Events JANUARY 9, 2012 Human Resources and Leadership Modules — CLP Study Group IPM Symposium Landscape Designer Conference Ontario Parks Association’s 56th Annual Parks Educational Forum JANUARY 10 - 12, 2012 Congress Conference JANUARY 10, 2012 Canadian Fence Industry Association’s AGM JANUARY 11, 2012 Landscape Ontario’s AGM Irrigation Conference January 12, 2012 Green Roofs for Healthy Cities Workshops
locongress.com AN INITIATIVE OF:
to check out t sure Be of Exhibi he
list est lat
CONGRESS 2012 show preview Pages 51-62
Canada’s 39th International Horticultural Lawn and Garden Trade Show and Conference January 10 - 12, 2012 Toronto Congress Centre South Building Toronto, Ontario, Canada
SPONSORED BY: Bobcat of Hamilton Ltd. Entripy Custom Clothing Vermeer Canada Inc.
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greenpencil Customer engagement builds local connections for small business
Getting back to basics with a digital twist A popular YouTube video making the rounds again highlights the exponential differences in communication made possible through the Internet. Called Shift Happens 4.0, it was produced in 2009, so the shocking facts and figures would be even more eye popping if updated to reflect the marketplace in 2012. The idea behind fast-paced presentations such as this one, is to remind us of the infinite nature of the digital universe. We all know the Internet is a game changer. What you were doing two years ago, even a year ago, isn’t necessarily relevant anymore, as new hardware and softBy Sarah Willis ware are released constantly, requiring us to be in a state of perpetual adaptation. The smart phone in my back pocket is much more powerful than the first few computers I owned. Consumers have become addicted to change and we are online and accessible all the time. Apart from the appalling fact that 2,000,000 Americans now have a television in their bathrooms, the light bulb moment for me in Shift Happens was that, “It’s easier than ever to reach a large audience, but harder than ever to really connect with it.” So true. Will the Internet ever reach its full potential for small business? Globalization may be the Holy Grail for multi-national corporations, but is it relevant for a local service company creating trust relationships with its customers?
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Digital marketers tell us we now need to become ‘community managers’ to get our message across. Advertising is no longer all about shipping information out, it’s about listening, conversing, reshaping conversations, and relating to your target audience. The number varies depending on the source, but consumers are exposed to between 7,000 and 8,000 advertising impressions per day. Show it, don’t tell it, is a popular ad mantra if you want to get your message across. This is the secret weapon owned by the professionals in the green industry. It is full of caring individuals who are in the “show me” business. A look at the award-winning projects across the country bears witness to the skill and creativity required for the jobs you do. Word-of-mouth has always been the best form of advertising, as neighbours attest to the integrity of crews, attention to detail and pleasure experienced in a job well done. We don’t need marketing experts to tell us that 80 per cent of consumers trust a recommendation from a peer over a salesman. Our industry was built on overthe-garden-fence recommendations. Today, we need to connect both over the fence and digitally. Like it or not, the generation of upand-coming gardeners spends more time online than making connections face to face. Customers will only engage with you online if they can appreciate the value in your product or service. Your personality will draw them in, and ongoing advice and inspirational photographs will keep them hooked. If you’ve had success creating an online community network, I’d love to hear from you. Contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org or 647-723-5424. LT
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garden centre destination By VeronIca slIVa
What do garden centres and tourism have in common? More than you might imagine. Gardening is the most popular hobby in north america, expected to increase as baby boomers retire. this interest in gardening, combined with travel, has created a specialized niche known as “garden tourism.” as a garden centre or nursery owner, you can benefit. Ireland’s Gardenworld and terrain, near Philadelphia, use two creative strategies to attract retail customers.
You may not think of a garden centre as a “destination,” but gardeners not only enjoy visiting gardens while on vacation, but they also like to check out where the locals go to buy plants and look for inspiration. Canadian tour operator Donna Dawson of www.icangarden.com and www.gardeningtours.com has been offering garden tours since 1998. She says, “When I take my tour groups to a garden that has a garden centre nearby, it is always a tossup, ‘What do we see first, the garden centre or the garden?’ Garden lovers enjoy browsing for that special goodie to bring back home, whether it’s an idea or a product or just to check out what the locals grow.” Though Donna’s tours take her clients to far-off places, the same mindset applies when keen gardeners visit a town or city closer to home. What then qualifies a garden centre as a destination? Is it one that offers superb plants and a knowledgeable, friendly staff? Not necessarily so! These are normal expectations. For a garden centre to qualify as a 6 | JANUARY 2012
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destination it must offer something unique, and stand apart from all the rest. On a recent trip to Ireland I found such a place. Gardenworld, located in Kilquade in County Wicklow in the south of Ireland, opened in 2007 on the site of the existing National Garden Exhibition Centre. It is a top notch garden centre with a fine selection of hard-to-find plants and a staff with over 100 years of combined gardening experience. It’s not surprising that in a few short years this place attracts a lot of gardeners. It has something special to attract visitors ... its outstanding display gardens. The display gardens were born out of desperate times. For many years Tim and Suzanne Wallis ran a successful retail and wholesale nursery on the property, combining the retail garden centre with a plant propagation operation. Eventually, unable to compete with much larger propagation operations, this part of the business floundered. And as the saying goes, necessity became the mother of invention. Tim decided to do for gardening
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In the inspirational Celtic Stone Garden, this lovely Gothic arch is completed with a finely carved keystone.
what department stores commonly have always done for kitchens and furniture; to display products in a realistic setting. Timâ€™s brain child was to create an outdoor exhibit featuring a variety of garden designs, both large and small, to suit various budgets. He hoped that customers would be able visualize how plants, garden accessories and landscaping options fit into real properties. He then invited Irelandâ€™s top garden designers and landscapers to create gardens in the space left by the failed propagation business. It was a huge success. Now about to enter its third decade, the National Garden Exhibition Centre (www. gardenexhibition.ie/about.html) has since established itself as Irelandâ€™s leader of new trends in garden design. With over 15,000 plants, trees and shrubs incorporated into the gardens, the displays provide an excellent way for Gardenworld customers to identify plants and assess how they grow. Many of the displays include water features,
pergolas, mirrors, unusual furniture, sculptures and stonework. Some of the gardens present a traditional approach to garden design, such as the 100 metre Harlequin Walk. This permanent garden reflects the Edwardian style and serves as the main axis of the exhibition with climbing roses rambling over the eight arches that cross the path. In spring and summer, 2,500 bedding plants fill the borders on each side of the walk. At the centre an octagonal rose garden with four exits leads visitors into the other show gardens. While the plants themselves star in the Harlequin Walk, other gardens highlight hardscaping and the use of garden accessories. In the Celtic Stone Garden shrubs and plants take a back seat to the hardscaping. The star of this garden is a stunning hand-cut stone wall inlaid with Celtic carvings. A Celtic-inspired water fountain emerges from a wooden deck to complete the picture.
The Gothic Garden is designed to inspire and get creative juices flowing. The dramatic cement gothic window overlooks a pool, creating an ethereal effect to illustrate how a theme can pull both plants and structures together. In the summer the surrounding garden is a haze of colour. As the seasons change, the garden evolves naturally until in the depths of winter, it is wild, shadowy and full of character. In all there are 20 themed display gardens, each one offering visitors lots of ideas to take home. Some are permanent while others are changed or replaced so there is always something fresh to see. Most of the plants used in the display gardens can be purchased at Gardenworld. There are also designated retail areas for specialty gardening needs. For example, those interested in water gardening will find everything imaginable needed to create and maintain ponds. A tea room for refreshments provides a reason to linger longer. Today Gardenworld is an JANUARY 2012 | LANDSCAPE TRADES |
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One of a kind garden accessories are displayed throughout the gardens, showing homeowners how to use garden art to its best advantage.
outstanding example of a garden centre that has become a destination. ouTdooR liVing Not all garden centres and nurseries have the space or resources to create show gardens like those at Gardenworld. But, there are other ways to get on the garden centre destination map. Terrain at Styers’ in Glen Mills, Pa., near Philadelphia, is one that comes to mind. Before Urban Outfitters and Anthropologie (yes, the fashion retailers) purchased the business, Styer’s was a traditional American garden centre, looking pretty much the same as all the others in North America ... a tad uninspiring. Terrain is different. It is a lifestyle store that cleverly blends the line between home and garden. It’s a garden centre, a housewares emporium, a gift shop all rolled into a magical place where even those who don’t know a daffodil from a daisy can feel empowered to grow anything. Founded in 2008, Terrain transforms the local garden center into a celebration of nature. You know you are not in an ordinary garden centre the moment you drive into the parking lot. One-of-a-kind structures, doors and other large pieces of garden ornamentation that look like they spent a century or so at a castle are set up just beyond the parking lot. Whether you have the space for such pieces or not, you are drawn to check them out. The unusual accessories set the tone for the indoor retail space. 8 | JANUARY 2012
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A path winds through the exhibition gardens at Gardenworld.
Once inside the store, it is clear is that the inspired merchandising fingers of Anthropologie and Urban Outfitters have been at work. Terrain’s style is perhaps best described as rustic-modern, where old and weathered is a repeating theme. Preowned and not-so-loved pieces of furniture, along with wooden crates, old benches, planks of wood and pallets, serve as benches and tables along with natural materials like tree branches. Antiquish-looking props are used as retail fixtures to display products. The plants and horticultural products are intermixed with books, giftware, housewares and personal products. Blackboards and chalk are used for signage. The whole atmosphere is trendy and organic. And of course, “the look “is for sale everywhere. Terrain is a master at creating themed displays. Every season is special. Winter features bulbs for forcing and everything to celebrate Christmas with home décor, trees and ornaments for sale. In spring the nursery comes alive with flowering branches and is fully stocked for the gardening season ahead. The nursery stock is top-notch and displayed with accessories that encourage the browser to become a buyer. Summer is greeted with a superb selection of hanging plants and succulents for terrariums to help shoppers think about moving the gardening season indoors after summer’s glory. And in
fall, it’s all about the harvest with pumpkins and gourds to attract the Thanksgiving and Halloween crowd. Workshops that are regularly offered on a variety of topics from creating terrariums to building birdhouses to growing succulents are more reasons customers keep coming back to the store. Located in an antique greenhouse, the café is smack dab in the retail sales area. Surrounded by plants, books and products, it is a place to enjoy a light lunch, have coffee and chat with friends. The food (and the coffee) is excellent. Executive chef Keith Rudolf creates his menus using seasonal produce, meat and dairy from local farmers. And, the café is available for special events such as weddings and parties…after 5:00 p.m., of course. A retailer like Terrain illustrates that it is
Reclaimed and antique architectural elements set the stage in Terrain’s onsite cafe.
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Contient un supplément de croissance (Glomus intraradices) développé exclusivement pour les plantations de plates-bandes, jardins et contenants, incorporé à un mélange de tourbe de sphaigne et humus et respectant l’environnement.
A complete range of 20 high quality fertilizers for biodiversity of crops, designed for environmentally friendly consumers. OMRI certified. Une gamme complète de 20 engrais de qualité supérieure pour la biodiversité des cultures destinés aux consommateurs soucieux de l’environnement. Accrédités OMRI.
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The displays at Terrain (left) are a sensory experience. Here, terrarium growing media are simply but effectively displayed, highlighted with slate and chalk signage.
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Dramatic detail rules at Terrain. Guests are intrigued to enter the store where it appears an old tree is growing within the building. The â€˜treeâ€™ created from a trunk and vines, is a creative prop from which to sell lanterns, lamps and feeders.
possible to set yourself apart in the garden centre business. It takes outside-the-box thinking and creativity, and perhaps a little risk taking. When it comes down to it, what Terrain has to offer is really no different than most other garden centres. But, it is packaged uniquely, and thatâ€™s what sets this retailer apart. Standing out from the crowd has its advantages. Both Gardenworld and Styers have created destination garden centres in different ways, but are both benefiting in the same wayâ€Śby attracting a segment of the market that otherwise might have passed them by. You can LT do it too. Veronica Sliva is an Ontario-based garden writer with a lust for travel. Read about her adventures in both gardening and travel on her blog at www.gardenersworld.ca
Phone: 877-727-2100 17525 Jane St., RR #1 | Kettleby, Ontario | L0G 1J0
Terrain at Styers: Glen Mills, Pennsylvania www.shopterrain.com/for-garden Gardenworld: Kilquade, County Wicklow www.gardenworld.ie
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Innovation at work. For 85 years, STIHL has been a world-class innovator in outdoor power equipment. German engineered products featuring the latest pioneering technologies make STIHL the market leader. STIHL products are only available at independent STIHL Dealers who provide expert advice and on-site service. Thank you for supporting the leading team and for making STIHL the Number 1 Selling Brand in Canada.
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* #1 Selling Brand in Canada is based on an independent market share analysis of imported gasoline powered handheld outdoor power equipment for the year 2010.
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Industry outlook for 2012 Despite economic pressure, green industry businesses can tweak their models for success By JUdItH GUIdo
After a successful
presentation on market dynamics, trends, and growth opportunities held at the Landscape Ontario headquarters in September, I was asked to share my thoughts and outlook for 2012. The question is daunting for several reasons. First, the volume, rate and speed of change is faster and more furious than ever. Next, as the world gets smaller and communications systems advance, the effects of global political, economic and physical tidal waves can have a direct impact on our businesses within a matter of minutes. For example, current data shows that of 160 emerging countries around the world, we may see as many as 45 holding major revolutions, ousting their current political leadership in 2012. Depending on how these potential revolutions affect the stock markets and major economic indices, will determine whether they affect our businesses. Think back to this past summer and fall; did you ever think that the instability of Greece would cause such world-wide economic ripples? With those caveats covered, I will attempt to paint what I
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believe our industry will look like in 2012. Even though the world is getting smaller, our market dynamic periphery needs to expand. We can no longer focus entirely on our micro-markets and those of our nextdoor neighbours. We need to look at events happening around the world. Why? Because they have a direct impact on both consumer and commercial spending. When global volatility heats up and disrupts markets, this causes a wave of instability, which translates into buyer skepticism and conservatism. Buyers take a â€œholdâ€? mentality, spending money only on items deemed necessities. Make certain you engage somebody who knows how to read and analyze markets, and then leverage the data into an intelligent and profitable business model. This means looking at local, national and international market dynamics, while listening to the voice of your customers, and analyzing their spending patterns. Utilize social media, the web and low-cost SFA (sales force automation) and CRM (customer relationship management) tools to stay
in constant contact with your customers, prospects, media and competition, in order to identify changes in the market, and emerging business trends. Once youâ€™ve identified market changes and trends, act quickly, leveraging them before your competition. gReen sTill glows A market trend that will continue in 2012 is the GREEN movement. Revenues from green construction projects increased by 11.3 per cent in 2011, with projections of 19 per cent growth for 2012. There are several market dynamics that contribute to this growth, including regulatory compliance, but mostly contractors and retailers are listening to the voices of their customers, as 73 per cent percent are demanding GREEN. Green companies will be rewarded with higher revenues and profit margins, lower expenses, greater market share and increased customer and employee retention in 2012, along with significant brand equity growth. Many businesses now view GREEN as an
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Retailers need to ensure their customers an extraordinary experience to maintain their patronage.
important strategic business tool. Consumer conservatism and risk aversion will reign again in 2012. The renovation market will continue to see strong growth, as people reinvest in their homes, with 39 percent allocating money to outdoor living and landscaping. The commercial market will also benefit by the renovation trend. Position yourself as a landscape investment advisor instead of a landscaper or garden centre employee. Ask your customers how much they intend to invest (not budget or spend) in their landscape products or projects. The word invest implies that your customers will get a return, and it moves you away from being an adversary or expense centre, to an advocate with the customers’ best interest in mind. Promote products and services that will produce strong return on investment and environmental stewardship, such as low maintenance landscapes, smart irrigation, perennials, hardscapes and indigenous plantings. open — foR business A seismic trend is the increased demand for transparency. Customers expect you to be transparent in your pricing, contracts and information about your company. You need to open your “kimono” to them, as they don’t want any surprises. Buyers are risk averse. They’ve been badly burnt over the last three years. They want to know that you are a financially solid company with a professional team. Tout your education, credentials and expertise, as these communicate low risk. Buyers want to understand your guarantees and warranties easily. Fewer than 20 percent of guarantees are redeemed, so differentiate by making yours the lowest-risk in the industry. Promote the innovations, products and equipment that will save your customers time and money. Those providing dashboards 14 | JANUARY 2012
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and reports that customers can access easily will be big winners. Providing clearly documented site information, via mobile technology, will earn you business and provide a competitive advantage. Those who don’t use technology will be seen as suspect and outdated. Being transparent and proving how you are part of the solution is critical today. As customers become smarter and more connected in 2012, the need for quantifying and communicating your value will be paramount. Customers EXPECT that you’ve done your homework, and understand their needs, pains and goals. You’ll need to PROVE your value, how you’re part of their solution, AND how you’re really different from your competition. Make value a tangible and easyto-understand asset. Align your values with ease of doing business,extraordinary customer experiences, environmental stewardship and differentiation. For commercial companies, developing reporting systems with“before and after” scenarios will earn trust and customers. Learning how to read and translate the voice of the customer, ahead of your competitor, will be a critical skill in 2012. Those who can clearly articulate, communicate and PROVE their value proposition, as it relates to the voice of the customer, will win. Technology connecTs Social media will continue to be a great tool for you, and your key stakeholders, in communicating value to others. Social media really does matter, and will continue to play an even greater role in purchasing decisions in 2012. Customers will use social media to conduct research, identify trends, locate suppliers, find deals and talk about you in either a positive or negative manner. Recent research shows that 80 percent of buyers change their minds about buying from you if they read negative information, while 87 percent of buyers will buy from you after reading positive feedback. Clanning like-minded, successful customers, who continue to grow as a result of their relationship with you and your services, will create incredible sales-advocate channels for your organization. Using social media and managing your online presence is a must in 2012. Either control your brand and
communications, or your competitors will do it for you. Expanding smart partnerships with suppliers, customers and value chain partners will not only increase revenues and market share, but will significantly improve name awareness and reputation, your brand equity. Remember, we’re all judged by the company we keep, so choose these partners carefully. Identities of our philanthropic and community partners will play a role in the customer’s decision-making criteria. Customers, as long as there is product and price parity, will continue to favour local and smaller players. Farmer’s markets will continue to grow in 2012, a great place to partner with locals, promote business and align yourself with the community. Farmer’s markets are cost-effective sales and marketing channels. Embrace technology; it not only saves you time and money, but it increases efficiencies and company valuation, along with attracting and retaining excellent employees and partners. Embracing technology ahead of your competition can earn you significant market share. Customers want to be aligned with innovators, not dinosaurs. Affordable mobile field technology and software, smart irrigation and phones, downloadable apps, GPS, killer websites, sales force automation, hybrid equipment and social media are available to both big and small companies, at a very reasonable cost. The year 2012 is showing signs of overall growth in the seven to nine per cent range. Those who can read and leverage the markets, deploy technology, and have assembled an intelligent team will lead, earning more than 15 per cent. For those who don’t lead, approximately eight per cent will go out of business, 23 per cent will lose money and the remainder will make less than nine per cent. Listen, watch, learn and adapt to your customers and the markets, LT and make 2012 your best year ever! Judith Guido, of Guido & Associates, is a Californiabased business growth specialist. She has helped all green industry sectors with research and product development, training, mergers and acquisitions, branding and strategy, and profitable growth.
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Microbial-based pesticide testing in nurseries By Peter Isaacson, National IPM/Minor Use Coordinator, CNLA
Nursery growers have identified the lack of access to newer, environmentallyfriendly pesticide products as an impediment to adopting IPM strategies. While some reduced-risk and microbial products are becoming available in the Canadian marketplace (Table 1) pest management is still predominantly dealt with culturally and chemically. In 2006 the Canadian Nursery Landscape Association and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada initiated a two-year research project to study the viability of microbial-based pesticides on ornamental nursery production. This research project was undertaken to start encouraging nursery growers to adopt these technologies and assist in reducing chemical pesticide use, and the risks associated with them. First year results were published in the March 2007 issue of Landscape Trades. This article will summarize the final year of testing.
Efficacy of biofungicides In this project the biological fungicides Rootshield* (Trichoderma harzianum), Rhapsody (Bacillus subtilis) and Pre-Stop (Gliocladium cacatenulatum) were evaluated for efficacy and crop tolerance of powdery mildew on outdoor- and greenhousegrown hybrid roses (2006-2007), Botrytis on geraniums (2006-2007) and Rhizoctonia aerial blight of maidenhair fern (2007). These results summarize the results from the 2007 growing season. Rose powdery mildew experiments All of the biological fungicides applied as a preventative spray every seven to 14 days reduced rose powdery mildew symptoms on one-gallon, container-grown outdoor hybrid roses compared to the untreated check, under moderate disease pressure. Pre-Stop (G. catenulatum) and Serenade
*Please note that early trials were conducted with Plantshield which is not registered for use in Canada. Rootshield is currently registered for both aerial and drench applications. Table 1: Registered Biofungicides for ornamentals in Canada
Product Manufacturer PCP no. Target pest Crops Actinovate SP Natural Industries Inc. 28672 Botrytis, powdery mildew Field and greenhouse Fungicide grown strawberry, pepper, gerbera daisy Bloomtime Biological Northwest Agricultural 28436 Fire blight Apple, pear, including FD Biopesticide Products non-bearing pome fruits Dygall AgBioResearch Ltd. 21106 Crown Gall Nursery grown plants Mycostop Biofungicide Verdera Oy 26265 Fusarium (damping off, root Greenhouse grown rot, stem rot and wilt) cucumber, tomato, pepper, ornamentals PreStop Verdera Oy 28820 Pythium sp., Greenhouse grown Rhizoctonia solani, vegetables, herbs Fusarium oxysporum, and ornamentals Phytophthora cryptogea, Botrytis cinerea, Didymella bryoniae Rhapsody ASO Agraquest Inc. 28627 Powdery mildew, Botrytis, Greenhouse and outdoor bacterial leafspot, anthracnose grown ornamentals RootShield Drench WP, BioWorks Inc. 27115 27116 Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Fusarium Greenhouse grown Rootshield Granular tomatoes, cucumbers, ornamentals Serenade Max Agraquest Inc. 28549 Botrytis, Sclerotinia, downy Various vegetable and fruit mildew, powdery mildew, crops fire blight
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Max (Bacillus subtilis) applied every 14 days, and Rhapspdy (B. subtilis) applied every seven days, performed as well as, or better than, the standard fungicide, Nova 40W (myclobutanil). Serenade Max left a white residue on the leaves which persisted after overhead watering, which may not be desirable in a commercial hybrid rose; however, no residue or injury was observed on flower petals. Plantshield (Rootshield), Trichoderma harzianum, was somewhat less effective under higher disease pressure at the end of trial. Differences between treatments were not statistically significant due to a high degree of variability within each treatment, including in the check and standard fungicide treatments. No symptoms of phytotoxicity were observed on any of the three hybrid rose cultivars in the trial. Geranium botrytis blight experiments Under moderate to high disease pressure, zonal geraniums cv. ‘Bravo’ and cv. ‘Neon Violet’ treated preventively (prior to inoculation) and every 14 days postinoculation with pre-stop (Gliocladium catenulatum strain J1446) had significantly less Botrytis blight than the check plants or the plants treated with captan fungicide, and the highest plant quality rating. PRESTOP reduced Botrytis lesion size, number of lesions and number of diseased leaves and provided control comparable to captan. Serenade Max (Bacillus subtilis QST 713), with the second highest plant quality rating, reduced the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) significantly compared to the untreated checks and provided a level of disease control comparable to captan. All of the biologicals: Pre-Stop, Serenade Max (Bacillus subtilis QST 713), and Plantshield (Rootshield), Trichoderma harzianum strain T-22, reduced the area under the disease
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AUDPC (area under the disease progress curve) calculated on the percent leaf area affected. The lower the value the better the disease control. 2 Columns with the same letter are not significantly different in LSD at P < 0.1. 1
progress curve (AUDPC) significantly compared to the untreated checks. No phytotoxicity was observed in any treatment.
Rhizoctonia aerial blight of fern experiments Plantshield (Rootshield), Trichoderma harzianum Strain T-22, was the only biological fungicide that significantly reduced Rhizoctonia aerial blight of western maidenhair fern (Adiantum aleuticum) compared to the untreated check, under moderately high disease pressure. Disease control with Plantshield was not statistically different from that obtained with Senator 70 WP (thiophanate-methyl). Maidenhair fern is highly susceptible to Rhizoctonia aerial blight when grown in the greenhouse under high temperatures. All treatments were applied every 14 days in this trial. Serenade Max and Rhapsody (Bacillus subtilis MB 600) reduced disease to some extent also, and may have performed better on a 7-day schedule on this overhead-irrigated crop. Pre-Stop (Gliocladium catenulatum) was not effective on this disease.
18 | JANUARY 2012
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Conclusions In this project the biological fungicides Rootshield (Trichoderma harzianum), Rhapsody (Bacillus subtilis) and Pre-Stop (Gliocladium cacatenulatum) were evaluated for efficacy and crop tolerance of powdery mildew on outdoor and greenhouse grown hybrid roses (2006-2007), Botrytis on geraniums (2006-2007) and Rhizoctonia aerial blight of maidenhair fern (2007). On roses preventative sprays every 7-14 days with any of the three biological fungicides reduced powdery mildew symptoms when compared to the untreated checks. Each performed the same or better than the chemical standard Nova 40W (myclobutanil). Botrytis suppression on geranium was most successful using PreStop when treated preventatively, and every 14 days. Pre-Stop reduced the number of Botrytis lesions and the number of diseased leaves and provided a level of disease control comparable to Captan. Plantshield (= Rootshield) was the only biological that significantly reduced Rhizoctonia aerial blight on western maidenhair fern and
Columns headed by the same letter are not significantly different in Duncanâ€™s MRT at P<0.05.
AUDPC calculated on the % lesion area as a function of plant leaf area. The lower the value the better the disease control. Columns headed by the same letter are not significantly different in Duncanâ€™s MRT P<0.05.
control was equivalent to Senator 70WP. None of the products showed phytotoxicity symptoms on the test plants. We would encourage growers to try these products at least on a limited scale to better understand how they will be incorporated into production practices. It is important to note that most of these products act preventatively and will not compensate for poor growing practices. Growers must establish the environment that will allow healthy plant growth and reduce the need for fungicide sprays. Ensure you follow label directions carefully when using any pest control product. Overall we have been very pleased with the research work conducted as a blend of efficacy data generation, demonstration trials and extension work. When informing growers of the trials the response has been generally positive, and the research data generated will help promote use of these biologicals among ornamental growers. Data generated through the course of this study has been sent to registrants to support registration efforts. We would very much like to thank the growers who donated plant material and participated in these studies including NATS Nursery, Langley, B.C. and Bylands Nursery, Kelowna, B.C. Research trials were conducted by Dr. Zamir Punja, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C. and Dr. Janice Elmhirst, Elmhirst Diagnostics and Research, Abbotsford, B.C. LT This work was supported by the Pest Management Centre of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pesticide Risk Reduction Program. Additional funding was provided by the Canadian Nursery Landscape Association.
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Urban trees get a chance BY LORRAINE FLANIGAN
New technology nurtures roots, beneath the pavement Gazing at the trees planted along the north side of a commercial block on the Queensway in the Etobicoke area of Toronto, you’d hardly be aware of what’s been going on underground since Toronto Water installed a system called Silva Cells in 2008. That is, unless you glance directly across to the south side of the street and compare the size of the trees there, which were planted in a conventional manner, to the larger ones growing above the Silva Cells system. That’s when you realize that something extraordinary is going on right under your feet. “It’s an underground rain garden and a tree soil delivery system, too,” says Michael James of Deep Root Canada, the company that worked with tree and soil consultant James Urban to develop Silva Cells. Introduced in 2007, there are now 200 Silva Cell installations around the world, including plans for the 2015 Pan Am Games in Toronto. The modular system is designed to deliver a high volume of un-compacted soil to the root zone of trees planted in paved areas, such as parking lots, roads and sidewalks. Based on research Urban has conducted, 20 | JANUARY 2012
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Consultant James Urban talks about how the Silva Cell system affects the trees planted at the Queensway site.
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trees need two cubic feet of soil volume for every square foot of canopy area. Most urban trees, according to Investment vs. Returns for Healthy Urban Trees, a report prepared by the Kestrel Design Group, get less than one-tenth of that amount. “The handwriting is on the wall,” says Urban. “There are only five or six species that are typically planted in cities — ash, linden, honey locust — these are the ones that have a ghost of a chance of survival. And with [threats like] the Asian long-horned beetle [and other pests], we need to move into the next tier of trees, ones like beech, the whole range of oaks and the maple genus. Soil is the main thing that limits the plant palette,” he explains. Conventional planting practices, threats from infestations and the stresses of an urban environment are factors that adversely affect the life span of city trees. The Kestrel report maintains that urban trees live for an average of only 13 years. “Cities don’t get the values from their trees until they reach maturity,” explains James. It’s not until trees reach trunk diameters between eight and 12 inches, he says, that they contribute significantly to the reduction of heat island effects and air pollution levels, and start to improve residential resale values. The purpose of the Silva Cells system is to give the tree what it needs to grow to maturity in an urban environment. 22 | JANUARY 2012
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A model at the Queensway site shows how the perforated pipes deliver stormwater to the soil-filled trenches of the Silva Cells where it’s filtered by microbial action.
Comprised of 2x4-ft. fiberglass reinforced polypropylene frames that meet American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials H-20 loading requirements, each Silva Cell has a soil capacity of 10 cubic feet. At the Queensway site, two trenches dug under the sidewalk accommodate 260 frames, which supply 688 cubic ft. of soil to each of four trees: two American Liberty elms (Ulmus americana ‘Libertas’) and two Freeman hybrid maples (Acer x fremanii). Rainwater captured from the storm sewers is carried through the cells via perforated distribution pipes. As the water flows through the system, it’s filtered and cleaned of pollutants such as the chemicals and metals typically found in urban environments. “The soil is doing the work,” says James, “The carbon-based elements are eaten by microbial matter in the soil.” Although enhancing tree health through a system that provides adequate amounts of good soil was the impetus for designing the Silva Cells system, an increased interest in stormwater management has led DeepRoot to develop an add-on that has become attractive to city planners. As in the Queensway project, the Silva Cells system is designed to cycle stormwater through the soil, helping to slow the rate of runoff. At the Queensway site, the runoff that flows into the sewers is captured and filtered through the bioretention soil held in the Silva Cells
– a mix of 80 percent sand and 20 percent soil. The system is designed to manage the runoff from a two-inch rainfall in 24 hours. “This works just like a swale, but it’s happening underground. We just put a roof on it,” James explains. With the additional benefits of stormwater control, Silva Cells has placed the care of urban trees within the sphere of utilities management. “Trees are part of the municipal infrastructure, just as lightposts are. But where light poles depreciate in value, trees appreciate over time,” says James. The truth of the matter is that budgets for utilities infrastructure are greater than those for urban trees. Compared to a conventional stormwater management system, Silva Cells are not only more cost-effective, but they come with a bonus. As James Urban puts it, “We sell the idea as a stormwater system — LT and the tree is free!” Lorraine Flanigan is a Toronto-based garden and horticulture industry writer.
| LANDSCAPE TRADES
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11/24/2011 11:35:36 AM
Bylands Nurseries After winning the inaugural CNLA RBC grower of the year award, Bylands Nurseries of Kelowna, B.C., was honoured with the prestigious Gold Rose award by the International Association of Horticultural Producers (AIPH) in Xi’an, China in September, 2011. Nominees for this international program are all winners of their own national awards of excellence competitions. The Silver Rose was awarded to Majestic Trees of the United Kingdom, and The Green Innovator of The Netherlands received the Bronze Rose. Judging criteria for the AIPH Grower of the Year award goes far beyond the production of top quality plants. Judges consider economic performance and marketplace position, innovation in production and growing techniques, market orientation and company image, environmental standards and human resource policies. In a comprehensive application, the company provided key benchmark indicators to prove its financial strength, demonstrating fiscal prudence. Letters of reference from bankers and accountants attested to the strength of Bylands’ management team. CANADIAN LEADER Primarily a container operation, Bylands produces over 3 million plants on 400 acres in Kelowna and Chilliwack. The inventory lists over 3,000 plant varieties and sizes. The company was one of the first Canadian nurseries to become DCPC certified and to implement the new Clean Plants Certification program, recognizing the importance of documentation and traceability. In 2008, Bylands revamped its marketing and focused on promoting itself as a brand, targeting the end user. The goal is to have customers asking for Bylands’ product when they visit a garden centre. Plant labels underwent a complete redesign, with the logo prominently displayed, a great photo and relevant plant information. POP bench signs and tree wraps were distributed to act as silent salespeople at independent garden centres.
Bylands Nurseries of Kelowna, B.C. was awarded the International Grower of the Year Gold Rose award in Xi’an, China. On hand to accept the award were John and Maria Byland, and their two children, Mike and Melanie.
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Innovations such as this palletizing system for shipping plants, helped Bylands win the international award.
ENVIRONMENTAL OWNERSHIP Bylands has been an industry leader with its environmental practices for decades. Growing in the dry conditions of the British Columbia interior, water conservation is taken very seriously. In 1993, Bylands was the first nursery in B.C. to construct a water reclamation pond. Since then, two more have been built, allowing the nursery to reuse up to a third of water consumed. The community composting program offered at Bylands was featured in May 2011 Landscape Trades. This program diverts green waste from local landfills, and creates valuable organic matter that is reused at the nursery. As testament to its commitment to environmental initiatives, the nursery was the first recipient of BCLNA’s Environmental Stewardship Award. The final judging criteria for International Grower of the Year, is the human resource element. Bylands Safety Committee is active at the nursery, which is committed to offer its employees a safe, clean, well-maintained workplace. The company offers a top-notch benefits package to full-time and continuing season employees, and brings a physiotherapist on site every two weeks to provide employee assessments and treatment, at company cost. As a result, the nursery’s worker compensation insurance rates were adjusted down by 30 per cent. Bylands supports apprenticeship, and its company policy is to have one or two employees in the program at any given time. Social events throughout the year express the company’s appreciation for staff’s hard work and dedication. “It was a great honour to receive this award, especially as this is the first year for Canada’s participation,” said John Byland. “I wish to acknowledge the foresight of Owen Vanstone in bringing this program to Canada, and the support of the CNLA in making the LT national Grower of the Year Award possible.”
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11/23/2011 1:34:00 PM
Using Data and Social Media
to drive Revenue BY KYLE LACY
I would like to assume we all understand that social media is here to stay in the world of business. The conversations and arguments over the relevance of digital marketing become unavoidable in the mid-1990s and continue into the new millennium. Now the conversation has moved from using Facebook to the integration of social media, direct mail, and email in order to create a streamlined direct-response platform for customers. We should be having this conversation! It is extremely important to create a system to reach consumers in the way they want to be reached. Normally, we look at data like transactional and demographic information in order to make marketing decisions. For example, where the person is from, how old, income data, and what they spent in the store or business. However, in the new world of digital marketing, that is not enough. People aren’t just households in a segment, they are individuals with unique needs, motivations, interests and passions. They only become committed, loyal advocates when they perceive your company as a partner in their life. Are you allowing your best customers to tell the story for you? It is extremely important that YOU, the business owner, start focusing on different types of data in order to fully sell your customers. This is important to shift
marketing towards understanding that personalization and technology is kind. There are five different data sets to focus on when capturing and building a database for your business.
people. We also need to understand that different age groups may use the same type of media. My 64-year-old father uses and communicates through an iPhone. My 24-year-old brother does not.
PSYCHOLOGICAL People view the world differently. A lawyer, auto mechanic, homemaker, artist, student or pilot all have different constructs of their needs, as well as those of their family, friends or community. Is the prospect a driver, intuitive, practical, calculative, creative, sympathetic? How do we know and how does that instruct content creation? Psychological parameters are important because you can draft/write content that directly speaks to the specific psychological makeup of an individual. For example, if someone is passive they are not going to buy landscaping to make their yard better than the neighbors. They do not care! However, they may be interested in products that help them grow their backyard garden.
ASPIRATIONAL Start with the end in mind. What do you want your product or company to do and how will you know it is a success? What do you know about the goals, values and objectives of the people you want to compel, and how can you use this information to drive more revenue? Most people ignore this extremely important data point. Are you going to send a direct mail piece for a fullservice landscaping product to an individual who bought a tomato plant? No.
GENERATIONAL People of different ages interact and communicate differently. The media which is used to compel a response in 2011 is much different than 1980. We need to be sure we aren’t trying to further perfect media that was designed for another time, for other
Digital goes live Kyle Lacy is author of Twitter Marketing for Dummies and Branding Yourself. He will be presenting two sessions on online communication and using social media at Congress 2012 in Toronto. Evolve or die – The future of online communications Landscape Designers Conference - Mon., Jan. 9, 9-10:15a.m. Lacy will discuss the changing world of communication and customer interaction through websites such as Facebook and mobile applications. This session will help you reach customers more effectively through online marketing. Using Social Media to enhance your business. Congress conference - Tues., Jan. 10, 9-10:30 Features detailed examples on how to be successful using social media and digital technologies. You will take away at least three strategies to build a social media plan for your business. For more information, or to register for one of these sessions, visit www.locongress.com. 26 | JANUARY 2012
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TRANSACTIONAL What did the person spend, and why? This piece of information is usually the most recognized in the database. The more people spend, the more likely they will be back in the store. Transactional data can also be used to predict customer trends, and they are your best advocates through social media. GEOGRAPHICAL Most of you are regional businesses, where location is extremely important. Geographic information should be included in your database marketing campaign and is just as important as the other four segments. It should be the data driving most of your direct mail or couponing strategies. Other than the data, it is important to know that your best social media marketers are your customers. Your customers are the individuals who truly understand why your company is important. They truly understand what makes your brand and sells your product. You must speak to them as individuals, not a massive group. Social media allows you to individualize your marketing and build a cleaner, faster, and more productive LT marketing revenue stream.
| LANDSCAPE TRADES
11/23/2011 1:34:00 PM
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Orchids grow in Thailand like dandelions grow in North America, making Thailand a major exporter.
gives gardeners a reason to smile Thailand, as the tourist posters proclaimed in the late 1980s, is the land of smiles, and this still holds true today. A visit to the country in February of 2011 was a homecoming; I once lived here and worked for the Royal Thai Government for three years. Now I was back again, visiting friends as a tourist. It still is the land of smiles, and a country where our version of ‘take it easy’ is translated into ‘never mind’ when things go awry. Thailand is, and always has been, a popular tourist Mecca because of this laid-back attitude and friendly people. Today however, it is also a booming central economy for the region because business here is easy. On a downtown Bangkok street you can hear German, French, English, Italian and Japanese spoken as frequently as Thai; the locals expect foreigners to act, well, foreign. Everyone is accepted and of course, everything must be ‘sonook’ or fun. 28 | JANUARY 2012
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BY MICHAEL PASCOE
Thailand, once known as Siam, has always been a stable anchor in an area of constant disruption and conflict. Bordered by Myanmar (Burma) to the west, China to the north and Laos to the east, it is a country whose people have learned to tread lightly and always smile in the face of adversity. Thailand has the longest-serving world leader in its monarch, King Rama IX, and is a constitutional democracy. It is a country that has never been occupied by foreign interests. Though stable, it erupts with minor internal political power shifts, usually quelled by its benevolent leader-king. Thailand’s stable political history, coupled with its people’s positive attitude, has enabled the country, based in a poor region of the world, to develop rapidly. Today, it is a newly-industrialized country and has one of the most progressive attitudes towards foreign investment and
| LANDSCAPE TRADES
11/23/2011 1:34:06 PM
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Brightly decorated spirit houses are found at entrance ways and in gardens.
Vivid colours reflect the happy nature of the Thai people.
culture. It is the ‘mai pen rai’ or ‘never mind’ attitude, where everything has to be sonook, that makes the people so accepting. ROOTED IN TRADITION Agriculture coupled with tourism are the pillars of the economy. (There is no word in the Thai language for horticulture.) Thailand is the world’s largest rice exporter, farming 25 per cent of its arable land, the most of any country in the Mekong
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Delta. This agrarian-based society has a strong connection with the land through centuries of farming, but also through its religion, Buddhism. Over 85 per cent of the population are practicing Buddhists. Thai people have an intense link with plants through their own gardens and religion; gaily decorated spirit houses are found in almost every garden and at the entrance to most industrial parks and factories. Spirit houses are often placed in a tropical oasis
and adorned with offerings of fruit, jasmine and orchid flowers, and of course the staple, rice. Horticulture in Thailand is everywhere; in this tropical climate everything grows. In the 1980s when I worked in Thailand, I was amazed at how easily woody cuttings rooted. At the time we were producing over one million Morus alba trees for the country’s sericulture industry. We rooted hardwood stem cuttings over 12 cm in diameter; we
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