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Khanamet, Hyderabad

G. Lakshmi Chaitanya Reddy A/2438/2012 Final Year, B.Arch School of Planning and Architecture New Delhi - 110002


Guides: Ar. Sambuddha Sen Ar. Anil B. Jain Thesis Co-ordinator: Dr. Aruna Ramani Grover


Acknowledgements The process of doing this thesis has been extremely enriching thanks to the many discoveries, discussions and critiques it made possible. I would like to thank my guides Ar. Sambuddha Sen and Ar. Anil B. Jain for their invaluable inputs and guidance, Dr. Aruna Ramani Grover for her patience and constant encouragement, and Ar. Suneet Mohindru for the demanding Urban Design semester which paved the way for this thesis. I would also like to extend my gratitude to some eminent professionals who helped me along the way - Ar. Srinivas Rao (Chief Architect at Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation) and Ar. D. K. Kiran (Architect at GHMC). Finally, thank you to my friends and family for their support and faith in me.

Synopsis With the concern for active and relevant public spaces at the core of this search, the thesis project grows out of the need for an urban realm that is centred on the user. Walkability, safety and sustainability have emerged as the primary concerns in responsible urban design. Given the pace and scale of development in Indian cities today, there is immediate need for incorporating these features in our built environment, lest we lose our cities to alien landscapes that favour the vehicle over the pedestrian. Success of cities can be gauged by the nature of their public spaces. However, from an observation of the cities we inhabit today, it can be said that not all public spaces are successful – many factors affect the functioning of these spaces. Sensitive design is important, but an important character of a good public space is how well it can adapt and capitalize on its built surroundings – its design and functions. The aim of this thesis is hence the exploration of how architecture can help create and sustain an active public realm supported by the built environment. The government’s taking to the principles of transit oriented development, the upcoming metro network of Hyderabad, and the city’s IT sector serve as the backdrop for this project. If the potential is tapped properly, here lies an opportunity to create a truly public space that can inspire an elaborate pedestrian sphere along the newly developing metro corridors. Apart from public interaction, the design also encourages interaction within the built spaces. Since a lot of area is dedicated to offices given the location in IT sector, it becomes important to study these spaces. For office spaces to stay relevant in the larger urban context, it is critical for them to respond to the current needs, which are centred on flexible and adaptable spaces that support collaboration and innovation.

Table of Contents

Declaration Certification Acknowledgements Synopsis Table of Contents List of Figures List of Tables List of Abbreviations


2 3 5 6 8 10 14 15


Research Question Proposition Need Identification Design Project & Proposition

Chapter 2 RESEARCH & CASE STUDIES Areas of Research Case Studies Case Study Matrix




Project Area Program Program Analysis

Locating the site Site Surroundings Site Data Edge Analysis Topography and Climate Operable Norms




Calculations Sustainability Structure Services Safety


Chapter 6 DETERMINANTS & DIRECTION S.W.O.T. Analysis Determinants




Concept Ideas & Strategies


Chapter 8 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT Stage I Stage II Stage III


Chapter 9 THE DESIGN

1:500 Scale Model 1:200 Scale Model Drawings Structure Services Facade Treatment Views


List of Figures

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Page Figure Description No. No.


22 23 24 24 26 27 28 28 29 30 31 32 33 35 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 39 39 40 41 42

www.hmda.gov.in The Hindu (May 25, 2017) The New York Times (Dec 19, 2011) www.google.com Metric Handbook (Adler,D. , 1970) Metric Handbook (Adler,D. , 1970); Author Metric Handbook (Adler,D. , 1970) www.effectiveworkplace.com www.humanspaces.com; Author www.humanspaces.com; Author Neufert’s Architect’s Data Metric Handbook (Adler,D. , 1970) Metric Handbook (Adler,D. , 1970) Google Earth; Author Author www.habitatworld.com Author www.habitatworld.com www.habitatworld.com Building in the garden (White,S. , 1989); Author www.google.com Building in the garden (White,S. , 1989) Author; Building in the garden (White,S. , 1989) www.google.com Building in the garden (White,S. , 1989) Building in the garden (White,S. , 1989); Author Google Earth; Author Author

Fig. 1 Map of Hyderabad showing the growth in its extents Fig. 2 Article announcing HMDA’s TOD plans Fig. 3 Food truck market, San Francisco Fig. 4 Street food in near Charminar during Ramzan Fig. 5 Building shell considerations Fig. 6 Layouts and location of core Fig. 7 Evolution of layouts since 1950s Fig. 8 Hierarchy & interaction depending on usage Fig. 9 Office Layout Analysis (a) Fig. 10 Office Layout Analysis (b) Fig. 11 Office anthropometrics Fig. 12 Frequency of change and flexibility Fig. 13 Time utilization of traditional desks Fig. 14 Satellite image of India Habitat Centre Fig. 15 Distribution of various program components Fig. 16 Shaded courtyard Fig. 17 Lotus pond Fig. 18 Landscaping courtyards serve as interaction spaces Fig. 19 Diagram showing the segregation of functions Fig. 20 Schematic section showing the framing of views by bridges Fig. 21 Brick cladding and ribbon windows Fig. 22 View of the interior courtyard from office Fig. 23 Plan of IHC showing circulation patterns Fig. 24 Shaded courtyard Fig. 25 Section through bridging masses Fig. 26 Massing achieved Fig. 27 Satellite image of Bharat Bhavan Fig. 28 Distribution of various program components


42 42 43 43 43 43 44 44 44 44 44 46 47 47 48 48 48 49 50 51 52 52 52 52 54 55 55 60 61 61 62 63 Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Fig. 29 Architect’s interpretation of the complex Fig. 30 Terraced gardens Fig. 31 The three connecting courtyards Fig. 32 Inter-connected terraces & courtyards Fig. 33 “Ritualistic Pathway” followed by visitors Fig. 34 Section through concrete ‘shell’ Fig. 35 Plan Fig. 36 Courtyards acting as social spaces Fig. 37 Lighting the interior Fig. 38 Museum with coffer ceiling Fig. 39 Seating in courtyards Fig. 40 Satellite image of Cyber City Fig. 41 Land Use Plan Fig. 42 Movement Systems Fig. 43 Distribution of various program components Fig. 44 Figure ground of site Fig. 45 Ground floor Fig. 46 Aerial view of Cyber City Fig. 47 Section through the main street of Cyber Hub Fig. 48 Activity Pattern mapped over different times during the day Fig. 49 Tensile roofs shade the walkway Fig. 50 Terrace level Fig. 51 Activity at night Fig. 52 Basement plan with services and fire-escapes Fig. 53 Times of India article announcing Hyderabad Habitat Centre Fig. 54 View of the site and adjoining Pipula Road Fig. 55 View of Gachibowli, IT suburb Fig. 56 Distribution of various program components Fig. 57 Privacy and Publicness Fig. 58 Privacy and Publicness on site Fig. 59 Location of site in the development zone Fig. 60 Context plan

Charles Correa (Frampton, K. & Correa, C., 1984) www.google.com Charles Correa (Frampton, K. & Correa, C., 1984) Charles Correa (Frampton, K. & Correa, C., 1984) Author; Charles Correa (Frampton, K. & Correa, C., 1984) Charles Correa (Frampton, K. & Correa, C., 1984) Charles Correa (Frampton, K. & Correa, C., 1984); Author Charles Correa (Frampton, K. & Correa, C., 1984) Author www.google.com Charles Correa (Frampton, K. & Correa, C., 1984) Google Earth; Author Author Urban Design Studio, SPA, Delhi, 2016 Author Author www.dlfcyberhub.com; Author www.dlfcyberhub.com; Author www.dlfcyberhub.com; Author Urban Design Studio, SPA, Delhi, 2016 www.dlfcyberhub.com www.dlfcyberhub.com Times of India (April 4, 2017) Urban Design Studio, SPA, Delhi, 2016 Times of India (March 10, 2014) Author www.wikipedia.com Author Author Author www.hmda.gov.in GHMC; Author 11

64 64 65 65 65 66 68 69 70 71 71 72 72 72 72 73 73 73 73 74 75 75 75 76 77 81 84 85 85 85 88 89 89 Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Fig. 61 Development corridor with respect to the city Fig. 62 Satellite image of the area Fig. 63 Masterplan for Cyberabad Development Authority (HMDA) Fig. 64 Site depicted in the masterplan Fig. 65 Diagram showing the connectivity of site with surroundings Fig. 66 Connectivity and Context Fig. 67 Site surroundings Fig. 68 Site surroundings Fig. 69 Site Plan Fig. 70 (A) Vegetation on site is scanty Fig. 71 (B) Panorama of the road on the north and the site terrain Fig. 72 Section through Hi-tech City Main Road on the West Fig. 73 KPHB Road Fig. 74 Hitech City Main Road Fig. 75 Construction site across the road Fig. 76 Section through road on the North Fig. 77 Road on the North, Pipula Road, towards main road Fig. 78 Road extending to Borbanda in the East Fig. 79 Construction site across the road Fig. 80 Slope analysis Fig. 81 Sun-path diagram Fig. 82 Wind Direction Fig. 83 Temperatures & Precipitation Fig. 84 Drainage on site Fig. 85 Contour map of the precinct Fig. 86 Solar Panels Fig. 87 Construction sites across both roads Fig. 88 Daylighting in offices Fig. 89 Reflective glass as an active strategy Fig. 90 Jaali façade Fig. 91 Solar radiation analysis on Ecotect Fig. 92 1111 Lincoln Road Fig. 93 The Mountain

Google Maps; Author Google Earth; Author www.hmda.gov.in Varun V, Thesis, SPA, Delhi, 2015 Author; ww.mapstack.com Author Varun V, Thesis, SPA, Delhi, 2015 www.hmda.gov.in Author Author Author Author Author Author Author Author Author Author Author www.gaisma.com www.gaisma.com www.gaisma.com Author GHMC; Author Metric Handbook (Adler,D. , 1970); Author www.google.com Author; www.greenbusinesscentre.com Author www.google.com Author www.wikipedia.com Arch Daily www.wikipedia.com 12

89 90 90 91 91 92 93 94 94 94 95

Fig. 94 Warsaw Stadium’s famous retractable tensile roof Fig. 95 Portal Frames Fig. 96 Carnegie Hall, New York Fig. 97 Scheme with connecting bridges Fig. 98 Linked Hybrid with similar bridging & technology adopted Fig. 99 Types of power & communication servicing Fig. 100 Radiant cooling Fig. 101 Refuge area Fig. 102 Safe ramp design for specially abled Fig. 103 Tactile ground surface indicators & guide rails Fig. 104 Structural safety

www.wikipedia.com www.steelconstruction.info www.wikipedia.com Author Arch Daily Metric Handbook (Adler,D. , 1970) www.google.com National Building Code of India, 2005 www.google.com www.google.com National Building Code of India, 2005

(All figures/illustrations/images in Part II of the report have been produced/photographed by the author.)

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


List of Tables

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Page No.

Table No.


28 53 56 78 79 82 87

Table 1 Planning & Design of Office Spaces Table 2 Case Study Matrix Table 3 Area Program Table 4 Setback of the built Table 5 Water consumption based on type of building Table 6 Minimum requirements for fire fighting installations Table 7 Types of bricks and their properties

Source Metric Handbook (Adler,D. , 1970) Author Author www.hmda.gov.in National Building Code of India, 2005 National Building Code of India, 2005 www.greenerjournals.org


List of Abbreviations

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority Transit Oriented Development Information Technology National Capital Region India Habitat Centre Hyderabad Habitat Centre Floor Area Ratio National Building Code of India



Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Design Investigation


Chapter 1 Introduction Building inclusive, healthy, functional, and productive cities is perhaps the greatest challenge facing humanity today, and there are no easy solutions. A key part of the puzzle, though, lies right at the heart of the world’s urban areas: its public spaces.

Public buildings are at their best when they not only are active community places in their own right, but when they form part of a larger civic district. One of the key issues that architecture today has to tackle is the creation of architecture that belongs.

Public spaces range from parks, squares, plazas, green spaces and streets, the success of which is based on the activity and quality of human interaction they make possible. Vehicles no longer rule the street, design is now oriented towards the pedestrian.

The rate at which cities are growing causes us to consider the kind of architecture being produced. With most Indian cities, Hyderabad included, aiming at the glorified image of the globalized city with placeless structures that seem to represent a faraway future, the current development is alienating and monochromatic. Buildings in the suburb represent clearly this void in the urban continuum. This being said, it is extremely important for structures to stay relevant in the contemporary environment, with the required standards of workability and comfort.

The Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority (HMDA) has taken up the guidelines of Transit Oriented Development (TOD) to be followed for all future development in the vicinity of the upcoming metro corridors. This allows for a great opportunity to create an urban realm that engages actively with the people that it encompasses. The site being a part of one such stretch of land which is up for TOD, requires that the project being constructed be public – one that augments the sense of community and civic pride. For the project to be successful it is critical for these public spaces to capitalize on the building design and its functions. The built environment should allow and be able to support a robust environment around it. It should accommodate multiple uses (mixed-use development) and multiple users.

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

The project chosen represents an opportunity to explore an architecture that is both contemporary and responsive to the context. Together with the help of the TOD norms and involving in the creation of an elaborate public plaza, it becomes possible to imagine the kind of positive public environment that can be realized in the current wave of development in Hyderabad – and many other cities alike.


Research Question

How can architecture help create and sustain an active public realm supported by the built environment?


Good public spaces need to stay active. More often than not, despite the efforts of architecture, public spaces in the suburban context tend to be deserted or non-existent, thanks to the vehicle oriented development. With the pedestrian as the focus of development, the nature of space produced is drastically different. This idea of returning power to the pedestrian is in line with the current view of sustainable development. The scheme of TOD works on similar principles to reduce vehicular movement and promote walking or cycling. With the help of these guidelines, and the government’s interest in such development, elaborate public realms are now possible. The success of the upcoming projects relies heavily on how public and vibrant they remain during the day as well as night. Thus, the research will directly inform the kind of urban realms of the future.

Need Identification

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Discourse on public spaces and TOD is abound in architectural circles. Developed countries and cities are now implementing pedestrian friendly elements into their urban environments. With the global south urbanizing at such a fast pace, the application of these principles is very viable in the situation of developing cities. Indian government is also pro this type of building practices. However, further research is required in the field to apply it in the Indian context. The thesis presents the opportunity to do the same.

These places need to capitalize on the function and nature of the surrounding built environment to be able to work well in the context. They in turn enrich the quality of built by allowing for spaces of leisure and recreation. This thesis thus investigates the essence of public plazas activated by the architecture that surround them. Through this thesis, I would like to engage in one such project where the creation and sustenance of an active public space can be explored. This has been made possible by the government’s

proposal for a integrated public building in the IT sector of Hyderabad, modelled on the lines of Delhi’s India Habitat Centre, currently dubbed “Hyderabad Habitat Centre”.

Moreover, with the current frenzy of building leading to an architecture that has little to do with the context, there is merit in exploring a kind of way forward that is conscious of place as well as time. It can act as an intervention in the present scenario and help encourage a more humanizing architecture.


Design Project & Proposition

Relevance of the design project in terms of the proposition:

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

With the proposal for development of the stretch of land between the Hitech City MMTS Station and the proposed Shilparamam Metro Station in the lines of Transit Oriented Development (TOD) and mixed-use zoning, the area holds great potential to turn into a thriving commercial and cultural hub near Hitech City. This area is currently full of IT Parks and the supporting infrastructure, including some functions such as an auditorium, a tribal arts and crafts village etc. However, all these spaces are like islands that look unto themselves and there is little emphasis on the public realm. Thus, with this corridor up for development, there is great chance to create a continuous stretch of functions that cater to the public. The land marked for HHC is at a junction of two roads and provides an ideal condition for a public plaza. The Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority (HMDA) has realised the need for the city to have a public space available to all, that brings together the diverse population to recognize, appreciate and take part in conserving the art, culture, habitat and heritage of the city. The Khanamet area, where the project is proposed, is next to Hi-Tech City, Hyderabad International Convention Centre(HICC), Shilparamam and many IT companies, and is thus a highly successful commercial and office area, which sees a lot of footfall during all times of the day.

With the Khanamet area proposed for development using the principles of Transit Oriented Development (TOD) the locality is set to see further growth in economy, commercial and residential activity, thus validating a public realm. Given the lack of dedicated public spaces in this part of the city, there is potential in creating a plaza where the variety of users who visit the locality can meet and interact, thus creating an anchor for community life. There is a scope for creating interactive spaces for the office users to add interesting aspects to the monotonous nature of work. Like the structure the proposed project is modelled on – India Habitat Centre, New Delhi – this centre for art, culture, habitat and heritage aims to be a thriving hub for the city’s varied activities. Moreover, it is an opportunity to intervene in the sprawling city’s trend towards adopting a purely global architecture, by integrating it with the local. This becomes even more relevant given the fact that celebration of heritage is one of the primary motivations of this centre. Combined with the rustic Shilparamam grounds close by, together these structures can inspire a more glocal approach to contemporary building. Together with the upcoming developments under the TOD scheme, this project will provide a great opportunity to introduce a pedestrian friendly environment in the vicinity which is distinctly vehicular in nature.


Chapter 2 Research & Case Studies Areas of Research

Public spaces in the context of globalizing Hyderabad


The key areas of research arising from the theoretical proposition and nature of the project are as follows:

Given the direction and scale of development in Hyderabad, the way public spaces are treated becomes extremely important. The learnings can be directly applied in articulating the nature of urban forum being created. This also holds relevance in the fact that cities are now being analyzed in terms of the human interaction they make possible.

Transit Oriented Development as a tool for placemaking


As the government of Hyderabad is pushing for Transit Oriented Development, as a sustainable way ahead, for most of the projects today due to the upcoming metro, it allows for a good opportunity to explore the possibilities of this scheme in creating urban realms of the future.

Tactical urbanism and public spaces


In the dynamic way of life that people in metropolises lead, most of the architecture that surrounds us is static. Cities worldwide are implementing the idea of temporary architectural interventions to rejuvenate public spaces, to keep in sync with the current scene and demand.

Design of the contemporary workplace


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Flexibility is also key to creating contemporary work environments which rely heavily on collaboration and discussions. Providing for innovation is thus important to stay relevant in today’s world built on communication and interaction. This research informs the design project directly because of the huge component of office space being provided for.


Public spaces in the context of globalizing Hyderabad

“It is difficult to design a space that will not attract people. What is remarkable is how often this has been accomplished.” - William H. Whyte

Workings of public spaces

Public spaces are at the centre of the discourse on creating healthy and sustainable cities. In order for cities to be vibrant and safe places, we need to think of them as systems of interdependent parts and complex connections, as interactive and social spaces. The emphasis should be in creating the “Third Place” (Oldenburg R., 1989), distinct from the two usual places – home (“first place”) and workplace (“second place”). Oldenburg identifies “third places” as the public places on neutral ground where people can gather and interact. In contrast to first places (home) and second places (work), third places allow people to put aside their concerns and simply enjoy the company and conversation around them. Third places “host the regular, voluntary, informal, and happily anticipated gatherings of individuals beyond the realms of home and work.” Oldenburg explains that beer gardens, main streets, pubs, cafés, coffeehouses, post offices, and other third places are the heart of a community’s social vitality. Providing the foundation for a functioning democracy, these spaces promote social equity by levelling the status of guests, providing a setting for grassroots politics, creating habits of public association, and offering psychological support to individuals and communities.

living becomes more expensive. Where the means and facilities for relaxation and leisure are not publicly shared, they become the objects of private ownership and consumption.” William H. Whyte, an advocate of “small spaces”, wrote that the social life in public spaces contributes fundamentally to the quality of life of individuals and society as a whole. He believed that we have a moral responsibility to create physical places that facilitate civic engagement and community interaction. As architects our role in this is double-fold. Research findings by Whyte, an urbanist and professional people-watcher, in 1970 on the dynamics of urban spaces: • Providing sitting spaces in plazas is extremely important for encouraging human activity • The interplay of sun, wind, trees, and water is necessary for livening a space • The ambiguity of movement due to low rise stairs is very welcome in urban contexts • Public art and performance spur a lively and robust social interaction • Food is another great activator of plazas • Most importantly the research encourages plazas articulated into small nooks and corners of a human scale instead of large open spaces that impede interaction

According to Oldenburg, “in the absence of informal public life, Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


The situation of Hyderabad

Hyderabad like most Indian cities is witnessing growth at an uncontrollable rate, leading to unchecked urban sprawl. It has extended its boundaries to engulf the neighbouring peri-urban regions and grew from plain old Hyderabad to Greater Hyderabad – much like the Delhi, NCR situation. The aspirations of the city are set at international standards borrowed primarily from the West. With the core of the city reaching its limit in terms of density, development is now happening on the fringes. The emerging architecture responds to the said global aspirations. As one moves away from the core to the suburbs, one loses more of the familiar city with a characteristic style and gets lost in the urban jungle of IT Parks, massive, shiny buildings, monotonous housing masses, and fast moving traffic. The built environment takes from an architectural vocabulary that is purely global – universal to the extent of placelessness. The site for the proposed project, however, is closer to the core than the periphery of the city. It presents the peculiarity that it is located on a stretch of land which joins to densely populated areas. Since, it is located near Hi-Tech City which is a renown IT suburb, one can predict the kind of development that will happen here. There seems to be a need for integrating the local into this global architecture lest we confine the original character of the city to its centre, leaving the suburbs to grow monochromatic. These areas are now developing fast, well connected, and further being improved by the upcoming metro, and hence allow multiple opportunities to create structures of varied uses. The suburbs, al-

Fig. 1 Map of Hyderabad showing the growth in its extents

though now part of the main city (Greater Hyderabad), thus make possible interventions that inspire an architecture which adds a humanizing scale to the gigantic structures which are coming up. Hyderabad has yet again been dubbed “the most livable city in India” (Mercer’s Quality of Living rankings, 2016). How will this be if the rate at which development is happening and the direction of progress point to a future where people ‘live alone together’? The emphasis should hence be on creating places that shape livable communities and foster public interaction. After all,

“Cities fail and succeed at the scale of human interaction.” - Ethan Kent Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Transit Oriented Development as a tool for placemaking

Transit Oriented Development, often referred to as TOD, is the guiding principle along the lines of which development is proposed in many upcoming projects including that on the site in consideration. It offers a great opportunity for the creation of an urban realm that is knit together by public spaces.

• • • •

TOD is the creation of a compact mixed-use residential and commercial area which is designed to maximize access to public transport and encourage the pedestrian trend. This allows for the various components – housing, office, retail and other amenities integrated into a walkable environment. This mode of development was designed to decrease the traffic congestion which is synonymous with road transport in most cities. It allows for a reduction in travel time which is a big concern in metropolitan areas. The attempts to solve this by construction of more roads and highways only increased the problem by allowing further urban sprawl and consequent hike in travelling distances. TOD also came up as a solution for the unbearable pollution levels in cities, and a growing desire for compact urban lifestyles away from traffic, with all necessities falling within a walkable radius. A TOD neighbourhood typically has a centre with a transit station surrounded by relatively high density development with progressively decreasing development spreading outward from the centre. The important features of transit oriented development include: • pedestrian friendly design • the transit station or stop featuring as the most prominent part of the area • public zone around the transit station which forms a vibrant, activity fuelled centre • the regional node consists of a mixture of uses in close proximity (residential, office, retail, civic)

high density circle commutable by pedestrians, within a 10min walk of the transit station integrated lighter modes of transport designed for easy use of bicycles and scooters as daily support system reduced parking within the 10min walk circle around the centre development of retail and other public and civic functions in and around the stations

TOD has many benefits including a healthy, affordable, and over all sustainable way of life. It allows lesser use of renewable resources like oil, reduced use of energy and even checks pollution, unrest due to traffic including accidents and injuries. It increases foot traffic and makes possible commercial activity meant for pedestrians which rejuvenates the street activities and sustains local vendors and hawkers leading to the increase in stable informal economy. Added benefits include an incentive for compact development and lesser sprawl. It is also more economically viable than constructing roads and the infrastructure to support the consequent sprawl.

Fig. 2 The Hindu article announcing HMDA’s TOD plans Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Tactical urbanism and public spaces

Contrary to the view of architecture as permanent, the architecture that is now being discussed is fast and fleeting: pop-up shops, food carts, marketplaces, performance spaces. There is undeniable opportunity in the temporary: it is an apt response to a civilization in flux. And like many prevailing trends — collaborative consumption (a.k.a., “sharing”), community gardens, barter and trade — “temporary” is so retro that it’s become radical. The strategy of temporality, as explained by Robert Kronenburg, is that it “adapts to unpredictable demands, provides more for less, and encourages innovation.” No single master plan can anticipate the evolving and varied needs of an increasingly diverse population or achieve the resiliency, responsiveness and flexibility that shorter-term, experimental endeavours can. “Tactical urbanism” is all about injecting spontaneity into urban development through temporary interventions.

Fig. 3 Food truck market, San Francisco

By providing for this, the project can remain contemporary and forever evolving to change and demand. It also helps infuse activity into a place during a particular time of the day. For instance, in a primarily corporate set-up like the site in consideration, a recreational zone or food market will work better after hours when the employees are free for the day. This also adds to the safety of the area as places tend to remain active till late into the night. In this thesis, the idea of a food truck market is used for activating the public plaza. This also takes into consideration the street food culture of Hyderabad which ranges from the bazaars of Old City to the growing involvement of food trucks near the IT hub. Aptly put, Fig. 4 Street food in near Charminar during Ramzan

“If you want to seed a place with activity, put out food.” - William H. Whyte Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Design of the contemporary workplace

In the past, designers and organization leaders often privileged aesthetics over function and built fixed physical boundaries between industries, organizations, and individual workers. Today, research shows that the most successful innovation spaces prioritize flexibility and pro-actively provide opportunities for collaboration. As traditionally separated sectors increasingly intermingle and technology becomes a platform for most disciplines, this new convergence economy is influencing spatial design. Successful innovation spaces now must be flexible locales where separate professions and disciplines can easily converge. Whether a scientific lab designed to accommodate multiple disciplines, a co-working campus intermixing various companies, or new structures built to blend industry and university researchers, many of the most successful innovation spaces are designed to facilitate and encourage cross-sector collaboration. Employers, economic development professionals, city leaders, and, ultimately, designers should recognize the importance of innovation spaces and intentionally design them into functional catalysts for innovation. Those spaces designed with people and collaboration in mind not only bring innovative aesthetics, but also contribute to the modern economy and the strength of the communities in which they reside.

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


KEY FEATURES IN OFFICE DESIGN Adaptability to meet a range of space and servicing requirements Contact with the outside world Better, healthier and more productive internal environmental quality. In all its aspects: heat, light, sound, colour, and air quality User control. Psychologists have observed that the human factor– for example, the operable window – is disproportionately significant to perceived wellbeing

DEPTH OF BUILDING Building depths are generally described as being predominantly 'glass to core' or 'glass to glass'. • Glass-to-core depths of 9-12 m allow room for cellular office space or open plan plus storage. • Glass-to-glass depths of 13.5-18 m allow two or three zones of office and support space

PLANNING GRID These determine how the organisation uses its space. The size of the planning grid is less important in a completely open-plan office. If part of the space is enclosed, however, the planning grid will determine the size of the office modules and the overall efficiency in the use of space. • A 1.35 m grid allows 2.7 m wide offices; a 1.5 m grid will provide 3 m wide offices, and relates better to building components in 600 mm modules. Fig. 5 Building shell considerations

FLOOR-TO-FLOOR HEIGHTS Related to floor depth and floor plate size, this has a major effect on air conditioning, cable distribution, ability to use natural ventilation and light, and on visual comfort. • Floor-to-floor heights of 4–4.5 m provide maximum flexibility and good visual comfort.

FLOOR SIZE & SHAPE These affect internal communications and circulation routes around the building. Small floors are inefficient in terms of the ratio between core space and usable floor area. Large departments have to be split over a number of floors, which is also inefficient. Very large floors, on the other hand, produce circulation routes with long distances between departments. • Contiguous floor sizes between 500 m2 and 2500 m2 provide the most usable spaces. Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


• • • •

Core at one end One-row layout Uneconomical Only justified f or deep office spaces where daylight is a problem

• • • • • •

Core on the periphery Double-row layout Small office spaces Ample daylight for all Less depth of plan Previously used in most office buildings

• • • • •

Core in the middle Three-row layout Ample daylight for all Common in high rise office buildings Ease of access to service space. Thus, better fire escape plan

• • •

Core on the periphery/centrally located Layout without corridor Daylight mostly for those on the periphery

• • • •

Core centrally located Floor plan allows for more than one office space Ease of sub-letting Daylight for those on the periphery

Fig. 6 Layouts and location of core Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


History and Evolution of the Office Layouts

Table 1 Planning & Design of Office Spaces

Fig. 7 Evolution of layouts since 1950s Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Fig. 8 Hierarchy & interaction depending on usage 28

Office Layout Analysis

Fig. 9 Office Layout Analysis (a) Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Office Layout Analysis

Fig. 10 Office Layout Analysis (b) Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad



Fig. 11 Office anthropometrics Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Frequency of change and flexibility Another key feature of sustainability is recycling. Buildings are relatively permanent, while the organisations and activities within them are continuously changing. Flexibility is hence very important for a building to be used to its maximum potential. Frequency of change depicts the flexibility expected. To allow for maximum flexibility, different time scales of building briefing and design can be distinguished into separate functions of:

Building shell – the structure and enclosure of the building lasting 50–75 years, while the functions within change many times over. The ability of the shell to allow for change is reflected in the depth of space, location of cores, floor-to-floor height to allow capacity for services, and the floorplate configuration.

Building services – the heating, ventilation, and cabling infrastructure of a building which have a life span of 15 years or less before the technology becomes obsolescent.

Scenery – the fitting-out components of a building, such as ceilings, lighting, finishes which adapt a building to a specific organisation’s requirements. The life span of a fit-out is between 5 and 7 years.

Setting – the day-to-day re-arrangement of the furniture and equipment to meet changing needs.

Fig. 12 Frequency of change and flexibility Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Computers make it possible for an increasing proportion of staff to work away from the office, which becomes a communications centre for the organisation. This has implications for the location and aesthetics of the building; and other implications, too. For instance, there is likely to be more travel outside rush hours. Office buildings should provide more meeting rooms, and a less ordinary desk space. Some of the office space will be allocated to staff on a temporary rather than a permanent basis. Many organisations, particularly in the services sector, already find that up to 40 per cent of their staff are away from the building at any one time. It is not therefore appropriate to plan for 100 per cent occupancy by all employees. This leads to the concept of "free addressing": an employee does not have a personally assigned desk, but uses any convenient free desk when he or she is in the office

Fig. 13 Time utilization of traditional desks

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Case Studies The case studies chosen are of varied scale and uses, but are similar in the sense that they are all creating public spaces supported by certain functions. Given the diversity of the proposed scheme, different projects inform different aspects of the proposal.



Methodology: Reasons for choice:

Primary Case Study Diverse area program | Scale of the project | Mixed-use development Type of public space achieved | Sustainability features | Landscaping Success of the scheme | Visitor experience

BHARAT BHAVAN, Bhopal, India


Methodology: Reasons for choice:

Primary Case Study Cultural activities | Response to site | Use of multiple levels Type of public space achieved | Success of the scheme | Visitor experience

CYBER HUB, Delhi-NCR, India


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Methodology: Reasons for choice:

Primary Case Study Transit oriented development | Mixed-use development | Diverse area program Activity at night | Cultural activities | Food market | User group Type of public space achieved | Success of the scheme | Visitor experience


India Habitat Centre

Delhi, India (1989-92) (Sourced from Habitat World’s website, “Building in the Garden” and author)

Architects Joseph Allen Stein - Stein, Doshi & Bhalla Architects

The INDIA HABITAT CENTRE (IHC) was conceived as forum for handling multi-disciplinary issues involved in the development of human settlements. The project weaves urban design into a synergetic inter-relationship between institutions working in diverse habitat-related fields to optimize their total effectiveness. It mixes work, commercial and social spaces to result in an integrated urban physical form, with common facilities for information dissemination.

Site Conditions Plain site located on Lodhi Road, New Delhi. The L-shaped site has frontage on three sides, all bounded by roads. The fourth side is flanked by Bal Bharthi School. The area is predominantly institutional along Lodhi Road and residential as one moves deeper inside.

Climate • • •

Client India Habitat Centre Society

Site Area FAR Builtup Area Super Builtup

~4 Ha 1.4 53,000 m2 97,000 m2

Program Offices Convention Centre Auditorium Theatres Art Galleries Library & Resource Centre Restaurants Member Facilities Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Humid sub-tropical Average temperatures range from 1932 depending on the weather Summers are hot, winters are quite cold, with most amount of rain during monsoons

Connectivity and Access The site can be accessed from the three sides bounded by roads. Lodhi Road on the north serves as pedestrian entrance. Roads on the west, Max Mueller Marg, and south, Vardhman Marg serve as direct access roads to different areas of the complex and entry by vehicle is allowed. The site lies 1 km from the main road connecting I.T.O. and A.I.I.M.S.

• •

200m from Lodhi Corner Bus Stop 1km from Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium Metro Station on the Violet Line. Fig. 14 Satellite image of India Habitat Centre 35

Building Program IHC is programmed as a moderately dense complex with institutional and office work spaces, conference and library facilities, including a diverse range of facilities for the members. • 40,000 sq.m. of office accomodation • Conference rooms with a total capacity of 1000 in various configurations holding 30 to 450 people • 60 guest rooms, 5 suites, 5 service apartments • Conference rooms, cafeteria, restaurants and private dining rooms can handle around 1500 persons at a time • 700 sq.m. of exhibition space • 420 capacity auditorium, 250 capacity amphitheatre • Parking for 933 cars and 2000 two-wheelers • 25% of the total area goes into landscaped courts

Fig. 15 Distribution of various program components

Architectural Vision and Implementation The genesis of the design, according to Stein, is rooted in the fact that he is a “horizontal architect with a profound dislike for automobiles and the need for climate modification, the application of these with the co-operation of the client led to a conscious decision to under build”. Thus, the complex is realised as an oasis of quiet and greenery in the midst of the chaos of the city.

Fig. 16 Shaded courtyard Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Fig. 17 Lotus pond

Fig. 18 Landscaping courtyards serve as interaction spaces 36

Response to Site The neighbourhood is marked by free flowing traffic and not much public activity. The buildings here do not interact with each other or the street and this results in very little pedestrian movement and is essentially vehicular in nature. IHC, therefore, is an inward looking complex, whose public activity is removed from the surroundings. The complex is divided into two main blocks • The North Block along the main roads is made of seven storeyed office spaces. Lower floors remain public. • The South Block along the Lodhi Housing Colony holds functions like auditorium, theatres, library, member facilities and guest rooms. The height decreases progressively from the North to the South Block in response to the housing. The built is also set further back from the plot line on this edge.

Fig. 19 Diagram showing the segregation of functions in the North & South Block

Fig. 20 Schematic section showing the framing of views by bridges Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Fig. 21 Brick cladding and ribbon windows 37

Spatial Organization The habitat centre is organized as a series of four to seven storey blocks around linked shaded courtyards. The built forms are grouped around climate tempered courts, shaded by overhead sunscreens and are enlivened by vertical gardens. Spaces are segregated on the basis of their level of publicness. All areas which are expected to experience large and regular inflow of public have been placed close to the entrances. Offices are accessed from the courtyards. Courts and landscaped areas connect the public with the semi-public areas. However, there is limited engagement between the office workers and the activity in the courtyard due to horizontal windows where vertical would have suited better.

Fig. 22 View of the interior courtyard from office Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Fig. 23 Plan of IHC showing circulation patterns 38

Sustainability Features • • • • •

The interesting blue sunshade provided between two buildings in court helps maintain a comfortable environment and has a cooling effect. The trees help maintain a green environment. Fountains make the environment cooler & give an effect of lightness. The building is planned in such a way that maximum part of the floor enjoys sunlight. Sunlight is also allowed in the basement through interesting glass and metal structures in the courtyards.

Fig. 24 Shaded courtyard

Fig. 25 Section through bridging masses Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Services The entire building is air-conditioned, the basements are mechanically ventilated, sprinkler systems are installed in all usable areas and the complex has its own water purification plant. Fire escape staircases and lobbies are pressurized to prevent the spread of fire along vertical shafts. All office spaces have the flexibility of providing their own wet areas, apart from those provided in the central cores, and a floor grid provides adjustable connections for power and telephones that can be integrated with the partitioning. Computerized building management systems have been designed for the efficient operation of all systems, including watering of window boxes and the detection of faults. The level of detail that has been applied to the services is indeed remarkable.

Fig. 26 Massing achieved

Inferences • • • • • • • • • • •

As the original scheme is modelled on this building, many parallels can be drawn between the programs, and the study directly informs the proposal. The project is very successful in terms of architectural expression, and as a place for indulging in cultural and leisure activities. Validation of the proposed area program, as similar functions have been provided for here and are known to work. Effective zoning for handling crowds. Vehicular circulation is restricted to the periphery, making the site pedestrian friendly. Landscaping ties the scheme together and is critical for creating the ambience and micro-climate that facilitates outdoor activity. Courtyards also act as important binding elements and tools for place-making. The nature of public space created is inward looking, with volumes containing the inside from the outside. Hampered pedestrian activity on the road outside due to similar - inward looking - buildings along the road. The premises is active at night because of the many events it hosts. This activity is restricted to within the site and the roads outside remain deserted. Materials and proportions used for cladding and paving - brick, tileas and stone - create a interesting facade and lend it a more humanising scale.

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Bharat Bhavan Bhopal, India (1975-81) (Sourced from “Charles Correa” by Kenneth Frampton, Archdaily and author)

Site Conditions The site for this Art Centre is on a gently sloping hill overlooking the Upper Lake, in Shymala Hills, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. The site is bound by roads on the south-east and south-west. Towards the north runs the Lake View Walk Path. The immediate neighbourhood is predominantly residential.


Architects Charles Correa

Client Legislature of Madhya Pradesh

Site Area FAR Builtup Area

In the late 1970s, the Government of India launched an initiative to build in every state capital an institution to celebrate the cultural and creative output of the nation. Although the scheme was largely unsuccessful, one shining example remains: BHARAT BHAVAN, Bhopal. It is an autonomous multi-arts complex and museum set up to create an interactive proximity between the verbal, visual and performing arts, established and funded by the Government of Madhya Pradesh.

~2 Ha 0.4 8,000 m2

Program Museum of Arts Art Gallery Workshop Theatres Amphitheatre Admin. Office Library Canteen

• Humid sub-tropical • Average temperatures range from 16-30 depending on the weather • Hot summers, mild,dry winters and humid monsoons

Connectivity and Access The site can be accessed from the Rustam Khan Marg on the south-east. Vehicles cannot enter the site and only a little parking is available on the opposite edge. The site lies 600m from the busy Polytechnic Square. It is 450m from the Kamla Park Road along which runs the BRTS corridor.

• •

700m from Polytechnic Bus Stop 450m from Kamla Park Bus Stop

Fig. 27 Satellite image of Bharat Bhavan Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Building Program Bharat Bhavan is programmed to contain various cultural facilities like • Contemporary art galleries • Roopankar, museum of tribal and folk art • Anhad, library of classical and folk • Vagarth, library of Indian poetry (for all the 17 major languages) • Print shop cum workshop for the fine arts including lithography and sculpture • Ashram, studio for an artist-in-residence. Bharat Bhavan also houses a full fledged theatrical repertoire company and facilities for the performing arts, including the • Antarang, indoor auditorium • Rangmandal, a repertory • Bhairang, open-air amphitheatre overlooking the lake

Fig. 28 Distribution of various program components

Architectural Vision and Implementation The design of the complex is a product of Correa’s mission to establish a modern architectural style specific to India and distinct from European Modernism. Drawing on the plentiful source material provided by the rich architectural heritage of his home country, at Bharat Bhavan Correa produced a building for the modern era which manages to also remain firmly rooted in the vernacular traditions of India’s past.

Fig. 29 Architect’s interpretation of the complex. Section shows multi-levelled spaces connected by courtyards and lit by dramatic skylights Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Fig. 30 Terraced gardens 42

Response to Site Built into a hillside which slopes down toward a lake, a series of terraces and courtyards comprise the complex. The route through the terraces encourages movement down the site’s natural gradient, with the courtyards providing tranquil spaces for rest and relaxation. The dialogue between these two components creates an ebb and flow of energy around the complex, in what Correa described as a “Ritualistic Pathway”. The complex is shaped by its environment, with climate control as a primary factor. Hence, the “open-to-sky spaces” ideal for the Indian weather. The sunken courtyards provide shade from the scorching midday sun, while the raised terraces offer refreshing air and space at cooler times of day. The sky is even incorporated into the interior spaces of the site, with concrete ‘shells’ atop the structure allowing light and air to pour in through their circular openings.

Fig. 33 “Ritualistic Pathway” followed by visitors

Fig. 31 The three connecting courtyards

Fig. 32 Inter-connected terraces & courtyards

Fig. 34 Section through concrete ‘shell’ Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Spatial Organization

Fig. 35 Plan

Upon entering, the visitor can either follow the path of terraces cascading down to the lake, or descend to the three courtyards which provide access to majority of the cultural facilities. From the courtyards, wide glass-panelled openings to the buildings ensure the arts program is both literally and figuratively accessible to all. At the bottom of the site sits the amphitheater, where open-air performances take place with the lake as a backdrop. • The open-to-sky pathway is structured around three courtyards – from which one enters the various facilities. • Courtyards and terraces act as connectors between the spaces • Built and open spaces merge into each other • Away from the activity within the buildings, the courtyards provide a contemplative void, enhanced by the placing of sculptures in their center • Courtyards create communal public space, with the steps around their peripheries providing articulated seating to meet and socialize • The entire area is purely pedestrian, with vehicular movement ending at the gate .

Fig. 36 Courtyards acting as social spaces Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Fig. 37 Lighting the interior

Fig. 38 Museum with coffer ceiling

Fig. 39 Seating in courtyards 44

Inferences • • • • • • • •

Great example of responding to the site. The terraces and open-to-sky spaces bind the built mass into an experiential walk for the visitors. Like in IHC, courtyards act as important tools for place-making. The project is a success as a public space, and becomes active in the evening with families and visitors from the neighbourhood. Site is entirely pedestrian. However, universal access is a problem due to the many stairs. Here as well, the nature of public space created is inward looking, with volumes containing the inside from the outside. Activity in the night can be credited to the various events that the place hosts. Materials used for cladding - brick and red sandstone - lend a humanising character to the building.

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Cyber Hub

Delhi-NCR, India (2013) (Sourced from DLF CyberHub’s website, Urban Design Studio, 2016, SPA, Delhi and author)


DLF CYBER HUB is a premium socializing zone, part of the corporate park, DLF Cyber City which is considered one of the largest hubs of IT activity in Delhi-NCR, catering to over 2.5 lakh employees. The site is long and linear with multiple entrances and three levels to cater to an average footfall of 25,000. Cyber Hub not only caters to the people working in corporate and business hubs in the vicinity but also to the catchment in and around Gurgaon. Besides being a food and entertainment area, it also hosts art and cultural shows, media launches, displays, lifestyle shoots, TV programmes.

Site Conditions The site is strategically located on the main artery connecting Gurgaon to Delhi, NH-8. Udyog Vihar, a densely populated industrial area lies on the opposite side of the highway. The site is also surrounded by commercial and residential. Cyber Hub is located at a prime corner of Cyber City.

M. Paul Friedberg and Partners + Hafeez Contractor + AWA Ligthing Designers




Site Area FAR Builtup Area Ground Coverage

• •

Humid sub-tropical Average temperatures range from 1932 depending on the weather Summers are hot, winters are quite cold, with most amount of rain during monsoons

~10.6 Ha 3.75 4,00,136 m2 39,332 m2

Program Offices Restaurants Retail Exhibition Hall Media Room Amphitheatre Fig. 40 Satellite image of Cyber City Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Land Use High, medium and low density industrial, residential and public & semi-public uses established without clear definition or relevant scales between individual buildings. Buildings contain a vertical mix of uses, often with office on the ground level with car parking occupying the rest of the plinth. This reduces the public presence and passive surveillance on the street. Very few areas of green spaces present in precinct, thus forming no hierarchy in green.

Connectivity and Access Rapid Metro runs around Cyber City and connects to the Yellow Line Metro. Multiple entries are available into the site from the stations on this privatized line. Free shuttle services and auto-rickshaws serve as last mile connectivity for the vicinity. Access by public bus service is inadequate in comparison to metro, rickshaw and private vehicles. Fig. 41 Land Use Plan

Fig. 42 Movement Systems. Left to Right - Rapid Metro, Public Bus, Private Vehicles, Pedestrian Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Fig. 44 Figure ground of site

Fig. 45 Ground floor

Building Program The main component of this corporate park are 2,71,400 sq.m. of offices of top IT and Fortune 500 companies. Cyber Hub allows varied experiences to users through 1,36,150 sq.m. of congregation and circulation space besides commercial activity of 9770 sq.m. • F&B with indoor and outdoor seating • Retail opportunities • Exhibit area that offers space for design and display of products • Amphitheatre with digital sound and projection system, air screens and weather-proof sound system • Open terraces for socializing These are supported by 2670 sq.m. of services and 14,360 sq.m. of surface parking, besides generously provided basements. Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Fig. 43 Distribution of various program components 48

Architectural Vision and Implementation The design brief was to create a space for entertainment of the employees in order to heighten the worklife experience. The complex is built on the international idea of dining and entertainment. Cyber Hub is India’s share of the glamorous corporate life that has been borrowed from the West.

Fig. 46 Aerial view of Cyber City Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Response to Site The buildings are intricate steel and glass constructions that seem to exist outside time, representing a distant future, and have little to do with contemporary Gurgaon. The volumes open and rise up from the highway. The terraces thus seem like a welcoming gesture to the oncoming traffic. The building. The hub is ideally located to attract the IT crowd in the neighbourhood as well as people from Gurgaon. Facades on the outer edge are blank or covered in advertisements, leading to decreased pedestrian movement.

Spatial Organization There are multiple entrances along the length of the complex. The lower floor is primarily dedicated to public functions, while the upper floors house offices, thus achieving vertical zoning. Definite visual nodes are created for visitor orientation and collection, which at night are connected by a lighting tapestry. The excitement of the store fronts lends an organic growth pattern to the site, combining the rigor of a wellplanned night-time urban environment with the flavors of a local souk or bazaar. The street flanked by F&Bs is vibrant with pedestrian activity which is promoted by the humanising scale and appropriate treatment of the walkways with seating available at multiple intervals. The open space is organized such that the threshold from open to built is gradual, with semi-covered area linking the two. Staggered facade keeps the pedestrian interested. However, as the path ends abruptly, the commercial activity at the end is lesser. Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Fig. 47 Section through the main street of Cyber Hub


Activity Pattern

Fig. 48 Activity Pattern mapped over different times during the day Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Fig. 49 Tensile roofs shade the walkway

Fig. 50 Terrace level


Inferences • • • • • • • •

• Fig. 52 Basement plan with services and fire-escapes Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Fig. 51 Activity at night

Project lives upto the ideals of TOD. The project is an example of a universal architecture that is placeless. It caters to the aspirations of globalising India. Scheme works well in the corporate IT setting, where late hours and need for relaxation are common. Validation of the proposed area program, as similar functions have been provided for here and are known to work. Vehicular movement is restricted to the periphery, leaving the interior open for free pedestrian movement The project has succeeded in creating a public space that remains active late into the night. The nature of public space created is extroverted, inviting the outside into the buzz of activity - by extravagant lighting and the variety of experiences it offers. Treatment of the pedestrian walkways with seating at regular intervals, adequate shading, attention to universal access, stone paving, patches of green and vibrant store fronts, makes is comfortable and safe. Same is not true for entry and exit points, which hinder movement on foot. Food is realised a great way to activate public spaces, but the high-end nature of the F&Bs limits the crowd drastically. 52

Case Study Matrix Parameters

Table 2 Case Study Matrix

India Habitat Centre

Bharat Bhavan

Cyber Hub


New Delhi, India

Bhopal, India

Delhi-NCR, India

Year of completion




Charles Correa


Joseph Allen Stein - Stein, Doshi & Bhalla Architects

M. Paul Friedberg and Partners + Hafeez Contractor + AWA Ligthing Designers

Site Area

4 Ha

2 Ha

10.6 Ha

Built-up Area

53,000 sq.m.

8,000 sq.m.

4,00,136 sq.m.






2 basements - 933 cars, 2000 two-wheelers

No parking on site. Nominal parking available across the road

3 basements - 7,800 cars for offices 500 cars for the hub


Museum of Arts, Art Gallery, Workshop, Offices, Convention Centre, Auditorium, Theatres, Art Galleries, Library & Resource Theatres, Amphitheatre, Admin. Office, Library, Canteen Centre, Restaurants, Member Facilities

Site Planning

Peripheral movement of vehicles. Built zoned into two blocks - offices & cultural. Masses connected by courts.

Architectural expression

Use of materials and greenery to introduce Elements of Indian vernacular. Familiarity Alienating nature of large glass facades. humanising scale to the large project. fostered by scale and articulation of space. Lower floors respond to human scale.

Type of public space

Inward looking public space. Sensitive landscaping - an oasis in the midst of the city's chaos.

Inward looking public space. Placemaking elements like trees and sculptures

Public space is loud and inviting. Activates surroundings. Good environment for pedestrians due lighting, seating and shading.

Activity at night

Activity dependent on events hosted

Activity dependent on events hosted

Extremely active because of F&Bs

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Site entirely pedestrian. Access to various functions through courtyards, which bind the built together.

Offices, Restaurants, Retail, Exhibition Hall, Media Room, Amphitheatre Peripheral movement of vehicles. Vertical zoning - lower floors for cultural activity and offices above. Hub organized along a street


Chapter 3 Project and Program Analysis Project Project proposed by the government: Hyderabad Habitat Centre (HHC) • • •

The centre is meant for the promotion of heritage, art and culture. It is an exclusive and permanent facility which will host social and cultural events. Being located close to Hyderabad International Trade Expositions Ltd. (HITEX), the HHC project would be a complementary facility. The offices are to mainly deal with habitat related issues. The centre is modelled on the India Habitat Centre in New Delhi.

Areas Proposed Broad outlines of the program derived from the proposed distribution of functions and their respective volumes by the project consultants IL&FS

• • • • • • • • • • •

Offices: 12,000 sq.m. of flexible office spaces proposed (9300 sq.m. for government offices) Library & resource centre: 1,500 sq.m. of space open to public Guest Accommodation: 60 rooms, 4000 sq.m. Convention Facilities: 200sq.m. Auditoriums Theatres Galleries Restaurants & Food Courts Club & Fitness Centre Administrative Offices Parking

Fig. 53 Times of India article announcing Hyderabad Habitat Centre Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Fig. 54 View of the site and adjoining Pipula Road

The site located in Khanamet, is adjacent to Hitech City, the home to IT industry of the city. • The precinct includes prominent areas like Madhapur on the south-east , Gachibowli on the south-west; Jubilee hills, a high end residential area on the east, Kondapur on the west and Kukatpally, a major residential and commercial hub on the north. • The precinct has major IT company offices such as, Google, Microsoft, IBM,Wipro, Dell, Cyber tower and Cyber Gateway, etc. • On the other hand it has convention centers, hotels and Reading of the site City - Precinct – Neighborhood shopping arcades in the form of HICC, Shilparamam, Inorbit mall,etc. • Prominent Institutions such as NIFT, IIIT, ISB, Hyderabad Central University, etc are apart of the precinct. • The site with such rich public, institutional and commercial context, is suitable for HHC which is a mix of all these activities.

Fig. 55 View of Gachibowli, IT suburb Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Area Program

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Table 3 Area Program


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Program Analysis Client -

Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority (HMDA)

Users Users would be varied in nature given th e kind of spaces proposed – Employees in the offices on site, employees from surrounding offices, public attracted by the commercial character of the corridor, convention facility users, students from the neighbouring institutes – NIFT, ISB etc., art & culture enthusiasts, tourists, and local residents.

Additional Areas Proposed •

• • •

With the idea of creating a public space active both during the day and night, it seems viable to accommodate flexible/temporary kiosks on an elaborate public plaza. To increase social interaction, attract students, engage the possible users (artists, enthusiastic learners, general public etc.) and given the proximity to NIFT, studios and workshop areas can be included. A recreational zone including outdoor gaming activities can also help make the area more active and cater to the office users. Food Trucks are growing in popularity in Hyderabad. Maybe an area to accommodate such temporary functions can work well in terms of temporary urbanism. The large site available calls for extensive green spaces including parks and landscaped gardens.

Fig. 56 Distribution of various program components Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Diagram shows how the site is oriented in terms of publicness. The area farthest from the main roads can be zoned as private while those along the edge are public. This indicates how the program elements can be placed depending on the levels of privacy of the respective functions.

Fig. 57 Privacy and Publicness Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Fig. 58 Privacy and Publicness on site 61

Chapter 4 Site Analysis Hyderabad has a dominant IT sector. Most of this development falls in the Cyberabad Development Area (CDA), now under Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority (HMDA). With the Madhapur area almost reaching the saturation limit, its immediate neighbourhood oh Khanamet has been ear-marked for development as a new-hub for commercial and mixed-use zone. The land which is to be developed using the principles of Transit-Oriented Development is located between the Hitech City MMTS station and the proposed metro station at Shilparamam. The area has been realised as highly valuable as it adjoins a crucial spine connecting two major roads – National Highway 65 and the Outer Ring Road. On a parcel of land at the junction of this road and its branch to Borbanda is HMDA’s proposal for “Hyderabad Habitat Centre” (HHC) – modelled on New Delhi’s India Habitat Centre .

Fig. 59 Location of site in the development zone Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Fig. 60 Context Plan

Context Plan

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Fig. 61 Development corridor with respect to the city Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Fig. 62 Satellite image of the area 64

Fig. 63 Masterplan for Cyberabad Development Authority (HMDA)

Fig. 64 Site depicted in the masterplan. Area zoned for commercial cum offices.

• •

Site falls on a crucial spine joining two important roads – the National Highway 65 and the Outer Ring Road. This area is zoned for commercial, offices and public functions. The development of th e land on the other side (Kukatpally) is majorly residential.

Fig. 65 Diagram showing the connectivity of site with surroundings Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Fig. 66 Connectivity and Context

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Readings from the figure-ground (opposite)

• • • •

• • • •

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

The map shows how the grain and texture of the built varies in the different directions from the site. To the north are the plotted housing developments, multi-storey housing towers and townships To the east as well the density and size of the units clearly suggests residential development made up of individual housing. To the south and the west the grain is mainly coarse and of uneven texture, suggesting commercial, institutional development. The massive, distinct blocks of Cyber Towers, Cybergateway, etc. can easily be recognized. In both these directions IT development gives way to residential areas. The site falls in the centre of an undeveloped stretch of land. A lot of construction activity can be seen in the locality. The zoning of this area as commercial and office with public functions will lead to the creation of a public spine which has the potential to be populated by the people from the residential areas as well as the office- goers. The many waterbodies in the area are naturally formed and become the collection points of run-off of rain-water. The contours further explain the lay of the land with the many hills. The MMTS line running so close to the site will also bring in public into this spine. The two metros set to come up in the area will help with the footfall.


Fig. 67 Site surroundings Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Fig. 68 Site surroundings Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Fig. 69 Site Plan

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Site Data All measurements are in metres. Contour interval is 1m. Site Area: 39,650 square metres (around 10 acres) Location: Khanamet, Hyderabad F.A.R: 1.5 Built-Up required to achieve F.A.R: 59,475 square metres Built-Up proposed: 53,000 square metres Setbacks: 12m from the Hitech City Main Road (27 m ROW) 8m from the Pipula Road (15m ROW)

Fig. 70 (A) Vegetation on site is scanty. Rocks and weeds cover the land

Fig. 71 (B) Panorama of the road on the north and the site terrain Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Fig. 73 KPHB Road, towards Hitech City MMTS & housing in the North Fig. 72 Section through Hi-tech City Main Road on the West

R.O.W. = 27m

North-South Aligned

Edge Analysis • • • •

The road granting access to the site through the west is the Hitech City Main Road which extends south to the Hitech City Flyover and leads to the IT development in the region. To the north it leads to the Kukatpally Housing Board (KPHB) Colony over the KPHB Flyover. The Hitech City metro station also falls in the north-west direction on the KPHB Road. This is a crucial road connecting two main highways and hence sees heavy, fast moving traffic, especially during the office hours by people commuting to work from the residential areas.

Fig. 74 Hitech City Main Road, towards IT development in the South

Inferences • Due to the already busy nature of the edge, the entrance to the site from this direction can be • •

restricted. The footpath along the site has scope for more pedestrian traffic, although it currently sees little. The face of the site along this edge is the most public and hence extremely important. Fig. 75 Construction site across the road

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Fig. 77 Road on the North, Pipula Road, towards main road Fig. 76 Section through road on the North

R.O.W. = 15m

East-West Aligned

Edge Analysis • • • •

The road granting access to the site through the north is the Pipula Road which extends east to Borbanda. The development it leads to is marked by residential areas. The road branches out from the KPHB Road creating an intersection at one corner of the site. Entry into this road for vehicles coming from the south is only from under the KPHB Flyover. The MMTS line runs parallel to this road further up north, connection Hitech City MMTS Station to Borbanda MMTS Station. The little traffic on this road is fast moving as well.

Fig. 78 Road extending to Borbanda in the East

Inferences • Due to the laid back nature of the traffic here, there is possibility to develop a pedestrian friend• •

ly edge of the complex here. There is also better opportunity for vehicular access to the site from this road. The public interface of the program can be developed along this face. Fig. 79 Construction site across the road

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Fig. 80 Slope analysis

Slope Analysis Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Climate Hyderabad has a tropical wet and dry climate, bordering on a hot semi-arid climate.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

The annual mean temperature is 26°C Monthly mean temperatures are 21-32°C Summers (March–June) are hot and humid, with average highs in the mid 30s Maximum temperatures often exceed 40°C between April and June. Winter lasts for only about21⁄2months, during which the lowest temperature occasionally dips to 10°C in December and January. May is the hottest month, when daily temperatures range from 26 to 38.8°C January, the coldest, has temperatures varying from 14.7 to 28.6°C Temperatures in the evenings and mornings are generally cooler because of the city's moderate elevation. Heavy rain from the south-west summer monsoon falls between June and September, supplying Hyderabad with most of its annual rainfall of 812.5mm The highest total monthly rainfall, 181.5mm occurs in September. The heaviest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period was 241mm on 24 August 2000. The highest temperature ever recorded was 45.5°C on 2 June 1966, and the lowest was 6.1°C on 8 January 1946. The city receives 2,731hours of sunshine per year. Maximum daily sunlight exposure occurs in February.

Fig. 81 Sun-path diagram

Fig. 82 Wind Direction

Fig. 83 Temperatures & Precipitation Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Topology Hyderabad, the capital of Indian state of Telangana, is located in the central part of the Telangana. Geographically the city is located in the northern part of Deccan plateau, in Southern India on the banks of Musi River. The modern Hyderabad is spread over an area of 650 km2 (250 sq mi), making it one of the largest metros in India. The predominant topography of the city is sloping rocky terrain of grey and pink granites. Some locations with higher altitude are scattered throughout, giving rise to the appearance of several small hillocks

Topography Rocky terrain with abundant quantity of stone. Low vegetation, mostly flat surface with medium upheavals, thus making it easy for construction of large conference areas and halls for the convention and meeting areas.

Vegetation Wild grass and shrubs. The site is sparsely vegetated thus it becomes essential to plan a well designed landscape scheme to reduce the energy consumption of the building and make the environment more habitable.

Hydrology Ground water at approx. 45ft below ground level. Thus basement construction is easy and desirable. Rainwater harvesting is to be essentially incorporated in design by collecting water through pavement areas and also getting water through rain water pits.

Seismic considerations Since site lies in zone IV having low level of seismic activity, no special earthquake resistant measures are required. Thus, following building bye-laws and national building codes will be sufficient.

Infrastructure Facilities Electric supply, 11 kvA which is step down to 220 V on site. Fig. 84 Drainage on site Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Operable Norms • •

Maximum permissible FAR = 1.5 Minimum Approach road requirement for sites in new areas/layout areas: No site or parcel of land shall be used for building activity unless it has a clear and established approach road of minimum 9 m Black topped Road is provided by the developer/builder/owner at his own cost or deposits the necessary cost for laying of the Road. There are no plot size stipulations based on use or occupancy of the building. The setbacks and height stipulations given here are applicable for all types of buildings. A strip of at least 1.0 m greenery/lawn along the frontage of the site within the front setback shall be compulsorily developed and maintained with greenery. For all residential/institutional/industrial plots above 750 sqm, in addition to (vi) and (vii) above, 5 % of the site area has to be developed as tot-lot/ landscaped area and trees planted and maintained. Such organized open space could be in more than one location and shall be of regular shape. To enhance the streetscape in respect of 18 m and above roads, no front compound wall is recommended along the front setback. Only iron grill or low height green hedge and / or with sloping type planters is recommended along such roads.

Fig. 85 Contour map of the precinct depicting the hilly form of the terrain, and the neighbouring plots Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Operable Norms • • • • •

The building requirements and standards other than heights and setbacks specified in the National Building Code of India, 2005 shall be complied with. Such buildings shall be undertaken by owners by engaging registered architects/ licenced builders/developers and licenced structural engineers. As an encouragement for developing ‘U’ type buildings with central courtyards, the setbacks of sides and rear, except the front setback, can be reduced provided: (a) the area so saved is transferred to the central area/space or court yard; (b) the minimum open space on sides and rear except front, shall be 1.5 m for normal buildings, & 6 m in case of high rise buildings up to 21 m height and 7 m in respect of buildings 21m –30 m height. Such high rise buildings need to obtain prior clearance from the Fire Services Department

Table 4 Setback of the built with respect to the abutting road width and the building height

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Chapter 5 Technology Calculations Water Consumption (Sourced from NBC)

Table 5 Water consumption based on type of building



Area/person = 10 sq.m. (as per engineeringtoolbox.com) Approx. total area = 17,000 sq.m. No. of occupants = 1,700 People occupying miscellaneous spaces = 160 Total no. of people = 1,860 Total water consumption = 83,700 litres

750 capacity Total water consumption = 11,250 litres

Guest Accomodation 60 rooms; on full occupancy = 120 people Total water consumption = 21,600 litres

Convention Centre 1200 people; on full occupancy Total water consumption = 18,000 litres

Total water required = 1,52,050 litres

Restaurants 50 people in restaurants, 150 people in food courts Total no. of people = 250 Total water consumption = 17,500 litres Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Rain Water Harvesting

Usable rain water from the Ground Average annual Rainfall in Hyderabad = 828 mm Ground catchment area = 11,500 m2 Volume of rainfall = 11,500 x 0.828 = 9,522 m3 = 95,22,000 litres Since the ground has a cement flooring, Run off Coefficient = 0.7 – 0.95 The coefficient for evaporation, spillage, first flush wastage is considered as 0.8.

Areas per current scheme: Roof area – 13,450 m2 Paved area – 11,500 m2 Soft area – 14,700 m2

Efficient rain water quantity that can be harvested is = 0.8 x 0.8 x 95,22,000 = 60,94,080 litres Usable rain water from the Roof Roof catchment area = 13,450 m2 Volume of rainfall = 13,450 x 0.828 = 11,136.6 m3 = 1,11,36,600 litres For efficiency the roof should have tiles laid on it. Run off Coefficient for tiles = 0.8 – 0.9 The coefficient for evaporation, spillage, first flush wastage is considered as 0.8. Efficient rain water quantity that can be harvested is = 0.9 x 0.8 x 1,11,36,600 = 80,18,352 litres

• • •

The heaviest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period was 241.5 mm (10 in) on 24 August 2000. The average annual rainfall in Hyderabad is 828 mm The area that is paved can be counted as 100% runoff after removing the percolation index.

Total Rain water that can be used = 1,41,12,432 litres Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Solar Panels

Area calculation Available roof area for solar panels = 7615 m2 Loss area = 5% of available open space, so that area can be calculated for installing solar panel = Available open space - Loss area Effective area of installation = 7615 – 380 = 7235 m2

Shadow Angle Calculation To avoid excessive shadowing, the arrays have to be spaced apart by a distance, d in relation to the module width – d/a = cos β + sin β/tan ε (2) and, ε = 90º – δ – ф (3) Where, ε = shadowing angle, and δ = ecliptic angle = 23.5º [4]. From eq. (1), (2) and (3), ε = 49.12


Tilt angle calculation Latitude of Hyderabad = 17.38 degrees Optimum angles = β = 0.76 × ф + 3.1 (1) Where ф = Latitude of Site Optimum angle = 0.76*17.38 + 3.1 = 16.3


1.2m Fig. 86 Solar Panels

Size of each panel = 1m x 2m Two panels are mounted one above the other. So the length of the panels together becomes 4 m Since the shadow of the panel would reduce the efficiency of the panel behind it, a gap of 1.2m (rounded off from 1.14m) needs to left. (as the solar panels are mounted at an angles of 49 degrees) So 22.6% space of a panel is wasted Therefore the total effective space is 7235 – 22.6% of 7235 = 5600 m2 Area for each set is 4m2 and the panels can be placed in a row without any space between them Therefore number of solar panels = 2,800 panels Each panel generates = 230W Total electricity generated = 6,44,000W = 644 KW Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Fire Figthing Requirements (Sourced from NBC)

Table 6 Minimum requirements for fire fighting installations Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Water storage = underground storage + overhead tank Requirement for hotels = 1,00,000 + 10,000 = 1,10,000 Requirement for offices = 75,000 + 10,000 = 85,000 Requirement for assembly bldgs. = nil + 15,000 = 15,000

Overhead Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant

For OHT, NBC recommends 50% of daily usage Daily Usage = Offices + Hotels + Restaurants = 83,700 + 21,600 + 17,500 = 1,22,800 litres Capacity of OH T = 50% of 1,22,800 = 61,400 litres

Underground storage = 1,75,000 litres Overhead storage = 35,000 litres Total storage for fire fighting = 2,10,000 litres

For STP, total domestic (raw) water demand = TWD = 1,22,800 litres = 123 KLD Estimated Sewage (X) = 90% of TWD Capacity of STP = 1,10,520 litres Size Calculation Consider total depth 3.3m including free board 300mm (standard depth); Liquid depth = 3m Size of STP = 1,10,520/3.3 = 33,500 m2

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Sustainability Preserving the landscape

The landscape is comprised of rocky hillocks, interspersed with steeply stacked dumping yards where the huge amounts of rock dug out of surrounding construction sites is deposited. As most of the projects are providing for extensive parking within the site, deep basements are being constructed that require a lot of rock to be displaced. There are construction sites across both the roads, opposite to the site. The construction process lays bare large faces of rock. The topography in the locality is that of rocky hills, but there is little response to the characteristic features of the land in the existent context. Most surrounding buildings appear to be sitting on a plain site, unlike the hillocks that currently comprise the terrain. With the view of celebrating and protecting the existent topography of rising and falling rocks, and in the spirit of sustainable architectural practices, this thesis aims to leave the natural terrain as undisturbed as possible. The foundation in any case does not need to go deep into the ground. Further it can only be made possible if parking can be accommodated above the ground, eliminating the need for a basement.

Fig. 87 Construction sites across both roads Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Efficient use of daylight

Passive method: As more than half of the program is made up of office space, there is a great opportunity to incorporate efficient use of day-light. This can begin with using an optimum grid size. Working spaces in the office can be located alongside the openings, thus maximizing the dependence on natural lighting. The layout of the office hence becomes key for daylight savings. Active Method: Technology is available to help with better implementation of the saving strategies. At a given point of time sensors can detect if the amount of illumination in a space is sufficient for working comfortably and can moderate the artificial lighting accordingly

Fig. 88 Daylighting in offices

Façade design

An important aspect of sustainable buildings is the way in which the façade is treated so as to minimise the amount of heat gain while not compromising on daylight and the views outside. Reflective glass will most significantly reduce penetration of radiation from the reflecting side to the non-reflecting side (penetration of 11-37% of total striking radiation). Such glazing can be used where it is desirable to maintain eye contact with the outside as well as to prevent penetration of radiation and in areas where it is hot most days of the year. Jaalis or lattice walls can also be used to prevent glare and heat gain while ensuring adequate day lighting and views. Ecotect is one such software where simulations can help design a façade that responds well to the climate. Fig. 89 Reflective glass as an active strategy

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Fig. 90 Jaali façade


Terrace Gardens

Earth sheltering is a an ancient architectural practice of using earth against building walls/ roofs for external thermal mass, to reduce heat loss, and to easily maintain a steady indoor air temperature. Roof gardens cover the exposed roof area of the building leading to high reduction of heat gain. This can be well implemented in the current scheme due to the large area of terracing created over the slopes. These terraces are also accessible from offices, thus acting as breathing spaces besides the thermal advantages.

Water Management

Terrace gardens play an important role in rain-water harvesting by acting as catchment area absorbing the incident rain and channelling it through pipes to a collection area where suitable plants help recharge the ground water table. Seepage into the ground can be installed in pedestrian areas and parking. Some rainwater can be absorbed into the soil by the use of permeable grid pavers. The remaining rainwater can follow existing flow patterns into a pond, another traditional method of rain water harvesting, which can be constructed at a low-lying site. Root-zone treatment is an effective method for treatment of waste water generated on site. It comprises of artificially prepared wetlands made of clay or plastic lined excavation and emergent vegetation growing on gravel/sand mixtures. • All wastewater generated is recycled by root-zone treatment - simultaneously irrigates the vegetation • Low operating cost , less energy requirement and ease of maintenance • Attractive alternative for wastewater management • Enhances the Landscape

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad



Compared to traditional bricks fly ash bricks are more eco-friendly due to the following reasons: • Manufacturing method saves energy, reduces mercury pollution • Costs 20% less than traditional clay brick manufacturing • Low embodied energy, High recycled content, low CO2 emission • Lighter than clay bricks • High strength, practically no breakage during transport • Uniform size of bricks reduces mortar required for joints and plaster by 50% • Lower water penetration, considerably reducing seepage of water through bricks • Gypsum plaster (plaster of paris) can be directly applied on these bricks without a backing coat of lime plaster

• Use of locally available materials and recycled materials in the building reduces the embodied energy of the structure. As the site has been used as a dumping yard in the past, there is a lot of rock available which can be put to use for building – especially as landscape features and as other landscaping elements in pavements and curbs.

Table 7 Types of bricks and their properties

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Solar Radiation Analysis (Ecotect)

Fig. 91 Solar radiation analysis on Ecotect Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Structure Multi-storey Car Parking

Multi-storey car parks tend to be dull spaces with little activity. They need to be structurally competent to take the load of several vehicles. Expansion joints are provided for this purpose – to take care of the excessive loading which in some cases leads to the collapse of the structure. However, this structure allows for much structural exploration. Car-parking structures are rarely discussed for their architectural expression. The following are the exceptions: Fig. 92 1111 Lincoln Road

Fig. 93 The Mountain

1111 Lincoln Road multi-storey car park. The building is laid out on the concept of a house of cards , with large pylons and flat slabs acting as the primary structure. Another interesting structure that serves for parking is The Mountain, a residential complex in Copenhagen.

Tensile Structures

To accommodate the proposed temporal food bazaar that will spring up in the evenings, temporary structures need to be installed that can be set up and packed up swiftly and easily. For this purpose tensile structures can be Fig. 94 Warsaw Stadium’s famous retractable tensile roof used that can be supported by the built. The flexibility they offer suits the need. Retractable tensile forms are the ideal choice.

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Stilts, Portal Frames & Large Span Structures

Stilts are poles, posts or pillars used to allow a structure or building to stand at a distance above the ground. As one of the main intents of the design is to leave the existent topography as undisturbed as possible, stilts are realised as one of the best ways to preserve the contours on site. Portal frames can also be used to support the bridging masses. They efficiently transfer loads to the ground. These may result in floating columns which are not desirable due to safety considerations, but deep girders can help transfer the weight in this case. The underside of the buildings also become important features in this case. An interesting structural language can improve the experience immensely. The 1000 seater auditorium needs to be a large span structure so that the view is not interrupted by intermediate columns. This structure will be an important feature of the project due to its size and span and hence needs to be designed accordingly.

Fig. 95 Portal Frames

Fig. 96 Carnegie Hall, New York

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Interconnecting Bridges

The built masses are interconnected at various levels by bridges. These bridges span upto 50m and hence require a strong structuctural system. Similar type of bridges are observed in Linked Hybrid a multi-use building in Beijing by Steven Holl Architects. The same structural system can hence be adopted.

Fig. 97 Scheme with connecting bridges

Fig. 98 Linked Hybrid with similar bridging & technology adopted

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad



Key Features in Ofice Design • • • •

Adaptability to meet a range of space and servicing requirements Contact with the outside world Better, healthier and more productive internal environmental quality. Heat, light, sound, colour, and air quality User control. Psychologists have observed that the human factor– for example, the openable window – is disproportionately significant to perceived wellbeing. Fig. 99 Types of power & communication servicing

Power & communication servicing through raised floor: • Most expensive • Most popular among developers • Increased floor-to-floor height • Access through flaps to the sunken boxes • Boxes have limited capacity and are hard to move • Ductwork controls layout of furniture • Restricts flexibility due to relatively fixed furniture • Heavy traffic routes tend to be hazardous

Power & communication servicing through suspended ceiling: • Increase in floor depth minimal as cable-work is accommodated alongside A/C and ventilation ducting • Access through service poles • Poles easy to move • Consequent random positioning of poles tends to be unsightly • Any repair work requires changes being made to the floor above which is likely to be occupied by a different organization Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Power & communication servicing through perimeter ducts: • Suitable for naturally ventilated offices without suspended ceilings • Moving of furniture becomes difficult • Inhibits free movement of workspaces • Peripheral wall necessary • Needs longer perimeter

INFERENCES: • Raised floor and suspended ceiling methods viable • • •

for open plans Suspended ceiling offers most flexibility Perimeter ducting for narrow, deep plans Perimeter ducting is not viable in large open plan areas 92

Why A/C over natural ventilation? Although A/Cs incur more costs and require heavier maintenance, beyond the reason of better comfort (which is not always observed) air-conditioning is chosen for the following reasons: • Standard requirements, particularly for many multinationals • Deeper plans, partly for alleged organisational needs and partly to maximise usable area • Flexibility to accommodate changing requirements, seldom achieved except at a high cost • Higher rents giving a better rate of return for landlords • Poor external environment, particularly traffic noise.

Radiant Cooling A radiant cooling system refers to a temperature-controlled surface that cools indoor temperatures by the removing sensible heat and where more than half of heat transfer occurs through thermal radiation. Radiant cooling systems are usually hydronic, cooling using circulating water running in pipes in thermal contact with the surface. Typically the circulating water only needs to be 2–4 °C below the desired indoor air temperature. Once having been absorbed by the actively cooled surface, heat is removed by water flowing through a hydronic circuit, replacing the warmed water with cooler water. Occupant thermal comfort can be achieved with warmer interior air temperatures than with air based cooling systems. As a result of the high cooling capacity of water, and the delivery of a cooled surface close to the desired indoor air temperature, radiant cooling systems potentially offer reductions in cooling energy consumption.  The latent loads (humidity) from occupants, infiltration and processes generally need to be managed by an independent system. 

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Fig. 100 Radiant cooling


Safety Refuge Area

For buildings more than 24 m in height, refuge area of 15 m2 or an area equivalent to 0.3 m2 per person to accommodate the occupants of two consecutive floors, whichever is higher, shall be provided as under: The refuge area shall be provided on the periphery of the floor or preferably on a cantilever projection and open to air at least on one side protected with suitable railings. a) For floors above 24 m and up to 39m - One refuge area on the floor immediately above 24 m. b) For floors above 39 m —One refuge area on the floor immediately above 39 m and so on after every 15 m. Refuge area provided in excess of the requirements shall be counted towards FAR. Fig. 101 Refuge area

Universal Design

Universal Design is the design and composition of an environment so that it can be accessed, understood and used to the greatest extent possible by all people regardless of their age, size, ability or disability. Safety and accessibility are key features of this approach. Tactile ground surface indicators and guide rails help the visually impaired navigate safely around the site. Such elements become important considerations in creating an environment that safe and comfortable for all user groups.

Fig. 102 Safe ramp design for specially abled

Fig. 103 Tactile ground surface indicators & guide rails Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Structural Safety

Floating columns are columns that do not extended up to the ground (base) level and are left suspended. Floating columns may result in large distress during a severe earthquake, which is not likely in the site. However, care must be taken to treat the cantilevering or bridging masses in accordance with the safety norms. The columns need to be supported by girders or portal frames that can better transfer the loads to the ground.

Fig. 104 Structural safety

Seismic Considerations Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Since site lies in zone IV having low level of seismic activity, no special earthquake resistant measures are required


Chapter 6 Determinants and Direction S.W.O.T Analysis



Site is located on the highest point in the vicinity. This allows the building to be the highest structure visible from over the flyover, besides the views to surroundings.

As the land around is still underdeveloped, it is difficult to respond to the possible future developments.

Easily accessible from metro, MMTS as well as bus stop, thus promoting public transport.

Terrain of the site is not suitable for basements, so parking has to be provided above the ground

Presence of important buildings in the precinct allows the project to function as a part of larger network.

Since the slope is steep is certain parts of the site, it becomes difficult to negotiate the required height by pedestrian and even vehicular paths



The terrain of the site is its most striking feature and can be utilised in the architectural expression.

If the future development on adjoining plots does not go about as planned, the project may end being an island disconnected from the surroundings.

The slope of the site is favourable for the creation of green spaces next to the road, where rain water run off can be collected. Site has the potential to direct the kind of development that will come up in the future.

For the scheme to be a success, pedestrian paths and green networks of the future projects should mingle with it. For better or worse, much of the project’s impact on surroundings depends on the what lies in store for the neighbouring plots.

Corner plot allows for better connection with the movement systems around the site - better scope for creating a pedestrian edge.

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Design Determinants

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Volumetric Disposition

Pedestrian Movement

Determinants: • Edge of the Road • Direction of Slope • Direction of Contours determine the lower floors • Sun Path determines the upper floors

Determinants: • Connecting the open areas • Direction of slope and contours


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Vehicular Movement

Hierarchy of Open Space

Determinants: • Periphery of the site • Servicing requirements • Drop-offs for various functions

Determinants: • Adjacencies • Natural form of the site • Edge of the road • Direction of the contours


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Functional Diagram

Vertical Zoning

Determinants: • Hierarchy of space • Inter-relationship between functions • Nature of connection between them

Determinants: • Publicness of functions • Ease of vertical circulation • Ease of servicing



Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Design Translation


Chapter 9 Concept Design The idea of an Urban Forum takes directly from the Roman forum, which served as the district centre, marketplace, meeting place, and an overall truly public

space that brought together people from all backgrounds in the urban realm. Creation of a built environment that supports such active interaction and provides an ideal setting for the convergence of people, culture and ideas, needs articulation of an elaborate public plaza that remains engaging and relevant with changing times. This can be made possible by mixed-use development, and supporting and allowing for tactical urbanism.

Ideas & Strategies

Diagrammatic representation of a Roman Forum •

• •

Translation of features of Roman Forum into the design •

Nodes of activity and interaction occur in a number of intersections as well as at varying scales (of intimacy and size). Connections established between these nodes. Placemaking elements give a human scale to large open space

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

• • •

Nodes created in open spaces where built supporting multiple functions intersect. These nodes are connected by pedestrian paths that divide and join buildings. The connections in turn give rise to streets of activity. The streets lead to one large public space that allows multiple uses including a food-truck park activated in the evening.

Public plaza is wrapped around by built masses that host a variety of functions, thus achieving an active public realm. Streets dividing the built feed the plaza with pedestrian traffic. 101


From the eastern block emerge fingers that extend towrds the road and open towards it as a welcoming gesture. The fingers are north-south oriented.

Preliminary sketch of the imagined space

Voids, terraces and placemaking elements make the space more interactive

Final zoning & form achieved

Connections established at various levels between the fingers.


The intermediate fingers end in terraces facing the road and balconies looking into the circulation spine. Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Chapter 8 Design Development STAGE I Positives • • • • •

Built on higher ground responds well to contours. Fingers emerging from the eastern block oriented in the north-south direction. Basic zoning works. Compact scheme. Beginnings of terracing imitating the contours.

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Negatives • • •

Massing too heavy. Built along the main road is impermeable. Built obstructs existent drainage patterns.


STAGE II Positives • • • •

Built more porous and responsive to the main road. Spaces between the built allow natural drainage. Courtyards work better. Terracing better articulated.

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Negatives • • •

No particular identity as one complex. Built too fragmented for effective circulation. Although structure opened up to the road there is lack of a defined edge along the western face.


STAGE III Positives • • • • • •

Scheme works well as a single complex. Two distinct pedestrian/green spines established. Courtyards connected well with the plaza. Terracing better articulated. Transition from closed to open spaces adds to better experiential quality. Well defined streets created.

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad

Negatives • • •

Terracing too regular and in need of interruptions. Functions do not respond well in proportion to the respective open spaces available. Excess terracing on the west requires special measures to tackle the sun.


Chapter 9 The Design 1:500 Scale Model

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


1:500 Scale Model Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


1:200 Sectional Part Model Model shows fenestration details: • Green walls & lovres on the southern elevation • Inclined faces with solar panels protect the western terraces • Louvres shade the western facade • Northern facade has wide windows windows that let in the glareless sun

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Source: RMA Architects, Mumbai

Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


Urban Forum, Khanamet, Hyderabad


References • • • • • • • • • • • •

Oldenburg, R., 1989, The great good place, Da Capo Press, Cambridge Whyte, W., 1980, The social life of small urban spaces, Project for Public Spaces Inc., New York Das, S. K., 2005, “Urban Square: The Effect of Architecture of Space on Social Interaction”, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi Arieff, A., December 19 2011, “It’s Time to Rethink ‘Temporary’”, The New York Times, viewed on February 4 2017, <https://opinionator. blogs.nytimes.com/2011/12/19/its-time-to-rethink-temporary> Jacobs, J., 1961, The death and life of great American cities, Random House, New York Transit Oriented Development, viewed on February 22 2017, <www.tod.org> Wagner, J., Watch, D., April 13 2017, “Innovation Spaces: The New Design of Work”, Project for Public Spaces, viewed on March 10 2017, <https://www.pps.org/blog/innovation-spaces-new-design-work> Adler, D., 1970, Metric handbook: planning and design data, Architectural Press, Oxford White, S., 1989, Building in the garden: architecture of Joseph Allen Stein in India and California, OUP, India Frampton, K., Correa, C., 1984, Charles Correa, The Perennial Press, London National Building Code of India, 2005 Andhra Pradesh Building Bye Laws, HMDA, viewed on January 10 2017, <www.hmda.gov.in/Gos/168.PDF>

Websites • • • • • • • • • • • •

www.google.com www.hmda.gov.in www.timesofindia.indiatimes.com www.nytimes.com www.humanspaces.com www.pps.org www.trulab.org www.habitatworld.com www.archdaily.com www.dlfcyberhub.com www.gaisma.com www.wikipedia.com

Profile for Lakshmi Reddy

Thesis Report 2017  

URBAN FORUM: Transit Oriented Development of a Cultural and Business Hub, Khanamet, Hyderabad. Architectural thesis project 2017, SPA, New D...

Thesis Report 2017  

URBAN FORUM: Transit Oriented Development of a Cultural and Business Hub, Khanamet, Hyderabad. Architectural thesis project 2017, SPA, New D...