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Cac heVal l ey ,Ut ah The2009LAEPChar r et t e


Logan is a prime example of the problems encountered when transportation and circulation are an afterthought. Having Main St. also serve as the through highway presents further problems now that there is a dramatic increase in the population of Cache Valley. Another circulation issue is the fact that the majority of development in the valley is taking place on the East side of Main St., yet no roads on the East side are through roads, once again bringing even more traffic to Main St.

EXISTING CONDITIONS

• Logan Main Street is currently at capacity • Growth pressures will put additional stress on minor arterials • East side currently has the highest demand and is the most underserved. • Majority of traffic is inter and intra community. Only 12% of traffic is through traffic. • Recent growth patterns are scattered, which is not conducive to a workable public transportation system. • Vehicle miles traveled are increasing at a higher rate than population growth.

The black dots portray existing development and the red dots depict projected growth by 2030 Graphic by Envision Cache, Ryan Beck

GROWTH PROJECTIONS Preston, IID D

Doubling of valley population projected by 2030 -with higher growth rate in outlying communities

Legend Current relativve populations Projected rela ative populations Current relativve traffi ffic volumes

Richmo R ond d Projected rela ative traffi ffic volumes

Sm mitthfield d

• There is no silver bullet for solving traffic/ circulation problems in Logan • The major influence on transportation is land use • Scattered unplanned growth (Sprawl) negates the possibility of a successful public transportation system • Mixed-use community designs will increase the walkability of a community. • Incorporating alternate means of transportation such as Bus Rapid Transit and better biking paths

Hyyde Park H

Norrth Lo N oga an

Logan n

Prrovid P dence

Mendon don

With the valley’s population on its way to doubling within the next twenty years or so, circulation and transportation issues must be addressed for both existing communities and new developments to accommodate the increased growth. If new developments in the valley follow the scattered and haphazard instigation patterns that prior developments have incorporated then the problems we face now will only be compounded and drastically reduce the quality of life in Cache Valley.

Mill M i llv vville i e Niiible ey Wellsville Hyrum H m

POPULATION GROWTH

Team Name: Public & Private Transportation Systems in Cache Valley Team Members: Mark Loscher, Ken Richley, Seth Brockholt, Matthew Payne, Blake Burton, Rachel Lingard, Chris Worthington, Paul Reinhardt, Kendall Hancey, Randall Adams


ENVISIONING THE FUTURE LOOKING AT THE PAST Transportation issues have been around since the advent of urban centers. Time has proven that there is not one magic solution to every transportaion problem. We must remain open to a variety of solutions to solve our individual needs

Things to think about Bus Rapid Transit

TYPICAL BUS RAPID TRANSIT Center Median Terminal

What is Bus Rapid Transit? Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is an innovative and high capacity public transportation system. It used buses or similar vehicles that drive on dedicated road lanes. It is a possible alternate to rail transportation and is usually less expensive to build and maintain. The ultimate goal of creating a BRT is to reduce traffic congestion, while effectively attracting customers. -National BRT Institute What fuel/propulsion does Bus Rapid Transit use? BRT mainly uses two types of fuels, which are: CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) and ULSD (Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel). CNG costs far less and burns more efficiently than diesel fuel. However, CNG has a slightly lower power output, driving range is significantly less, and there are much less CNG fueling stations. (Consumer Energy Center) Diesel has many fueling stations and burns more effectively than standard gasoline, but it is more expensive than CNG. (Fleet Owner - fleetowner.com)

Where does Bus Rapid Transit run? Curbside lanes exist on the same road as public traffic and flow in the same direction. The far right lane is generally the curbside lane. An advantage of having curbside lanes is that boarding is particularly easy and fast. Another advantage is that it is usually less expensive create, compared to a median lane. Some disadvantages of curbside lanes are that illegal parking may hinder the bus from continuing on in the same lane, and right turning vehicles waiting for pedestrians will slow down the bus.

Median lanes are designated BRT bus lanes running down the center of a road. Platforms adjacent the roads allow customers to enter/ exit the bus at each stop. An advantage of having median lanes is that it is far less congested than curbside lanes. The following are some disadvantages: Left turning vehicles may conflict with the straight going bus. People must cross traffic in order to reach the boarding platform. Compared to curbside lanes, median lanes require more room. (U.S. Department of Transportation -Federal Transit Administration) What fuel/propulsion does Bus Rapid Transit use? BRT mainly uses two types of fuels, which are: CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) and ULSD (Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel). CNG costs far less and burns more efficiently than diesel fuel. However, CNG has a slightly lower power output, driving range is significantly less, and there are much less CNG fueling stations. (Consumer Energy Center) Diesel has many fueling stations and burns more effectively than standard gasoline, but it is more expensive than CNG. (Fleet Owner fleetowner.com) BIKE LANES Bike lanes in key areas such as Student Housing TODs can encourage bike use and reduce congestion

ONE WAY COUPLETS One way couplets have many advantages and are being successfully used in many communities that are facing the same issues as Cache Valley

PEDESTRIAN FRIENDLY CROSSWALKS

Team Name: Public & Private Transportation Systems in Cache Valley Team Members: Mark Loscher, Ken Richley, Seth Brockholt, Matthew Payne, Blake Burton, Rachel Lingard, Chris Worthington, Paul Reinhardt, Kendall Hancey, Randall Adams


ENVISIONING THE FUTURE Arterial or trunk roadway

Neighborhood TOD

Commercial core

Major Connector Green Space Minor Connector

Example of a typical Transit Oriented Development

Example of a park and ride for commuter, recreational, and University Rapid Bus Transit stops.

Arterial, or Collector Roadway Commercial core (Primary Area) Transit center, bus or rail, and park and ride station (Core).

Urban TOD

Minor Collector if Neighborhood TOD, or Rail if Urban TOD Office or multifamily housing (secondary area).

Co

llec

tor

Ra

pid

Bu

sT ran

sit S

top

Arterial or trunk roadway

Single family housing (tertiary area).

Bus Rapid Transit.

Transit Oriented Development.

What is Bus Rapid Transit?

What is Transit Oriented Development?

Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is an innovative and high capacity public transportation system. It uses buses or similar vehicles that drive on dedicated road lanes. It is a possible alternate to rail transportation and is usually less expensive to build and maintain. The ultimate goal of creating a BRT is to reduce traffic congestion, while effectively attracting customers. -National BRT Institute

Transit oriented development (TOD) is a design solution that attempts to mediate the increasingly ugly issue of traffic problems that we face every day. To do this TODs are focused on enhancing the efficiency of public transportation. It is all about the way we try to get around. A transit oriented development is any new development that is based upon a form of mass transit at its core, or highly accesible to the most amount of users.

Where does Bus Rapid Transit run? There are mainly two types of lanes that are used by BRT, which are as follows: curbside lanes, and median lanes. Curbside lanes exist on the same road as public traffic and flow in the same direction. The far right lane is generally the curbside lane. An advantage of having curbside lanes is that boarding is particularly easy and fast. Another advantage is that it is usually less expensive create, compared to a median lane. Some disadvantages of curbside lanes are that illegal parking may hinder the bus from continuing on in the same lane, and right turning vehicles waiting for pedestrians will slow down the bus. Median lanes are designated BRT bus lanes running down the center of a road. Platforms adjacent the roads allow customers to enter/exit the bus at each stop. An advantage of having median lanes is that it is far less congested than curbside lanes. The following are some disadvantages: Left turning vehicles may conflict with the straight going bus. People must cross traffic in order to reach the boarding platform. Compared to curbside lanes, median lanes require more room. -U.S. Department of Transportation -Federal Transit Administration

What fuel does Bus Rapid Transit use? BRT mainly uses two types of fuels, which are: CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) and ULSD (Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel). CNG costs far less and burns more efficiently than diesel fuel. However, CNG has a slightly lower power output, driving range is significantly less, and there are much less CNG fueling stations. -Consumer Energy Center Diesel has many fueling stations and burns more effectively than standard gasoline, but it is more expensive than CNG. -Fleet Owner (fleetowner.com)

How does it work?

Types of Development

Within Our Region

All other TODs

Heavy Office and Comercial

Logan with connections to Brigham, Tremonton and Preston

Municipal bus rapid transit, and campus transit.

Recreation Downtown Major Urban

Limited commercial residential

Utah State University

Bus Rapid Transit Municipal

Local Commuter

Varies Mixed Use

North Logan Providence Smithfield Etc

Location of TOD

Desired Housing Density

Desired Stories

Type of Transit

Transit to and from

County Seat. At center of business district and municipal areas.

Multi family housing. Very dense. Lofts and apartments

From four to eight stories.

All types. Rail, BRT, and Local bus routes.

Campus TOD

Near Campus park and ride. Near student housing.

Limited Higher Densities

Varies

Major Urban TOD

Near major commercial areas.

Multi family Single Family

One to four stories

Type of TOD

Downtown TOD

Downtown BRT

Local Commuter

Regional Commuter

Recreational TOD

Near single family homes and apartments in local towns.

Multi family Single Family

On Trunk, and Major connectors leading to outlying regions.

Multi family Single Family

On trunk and Major connectors leading to recreational areas

Limited Hotel/Motel

One to threestories

Local bus routes.

Regional Commuter Downtown

One to four stories

Varies

All types. Rail, BRT, and Local bus routes. Bus Rapid Transit

Local Commuter Downtown Campus Downtown Major Urban

Multi family Single Family Entertainment commercial

Hyrum Richmond Lewiston Franklin Etc.

Multi family Single Family Entertainment commercial

Wellsville Preston

Limited Varies

Canyons Rivers, Lakes Ski Resorts Etc.

Team Name: Public & Private Transportation Systems in Cache Valley Team Members: Mark Loscher, Ken Richley, Seth Brockholt, Matthew Payne, Blake Burton, Rachel Lingard, Chris Worthington, Paul Reinhardt, Kendall Hancey, Randall Adams

The entire system is set up in a way that one may live in a more rural area, and still be able to ride public transportation to work. To simplify this concept envision three types of roads. First the ‘arterial’ roadway, is a major regional connector. I-15, or 89/91 are arterial roadways. Next comes the ‘major collector’ roadway. This road may connect towns to the arterial roadway. 200 north is a major connector, since it connects Mendon to 91. Then there is the minor collector. This road may connects neighborhoods with the major collector. and thus to the arterial roadway. So if you live on a minor collector, in a TOD and you want to head to the city, you should be able to walk to a bus rapid transit stop and board a bus within 3 minutes. From there you wil run directly the nearest major collector TOD and transfer to another bus again in the shortest time possible, then arrive in the City at the arterial TOD. Where there may be a rail or other method to travel further.

Why are there different kinds of TODs? There are many kinds of TODs. They are based upon their rankings as described above. A TOD on an arterial roadway will need to serve more users, and transport them from there homes to the city or even to another neighboring region. Basically, there are urban TODs and neghborhood TODs. “Urban TODs are located on the trunk line transit network: at light rail, heavy rail, or express bus stops. They should be developed with high commercial intensities, job clusters, and moderate to high residential densities... Neighborhood TODs are located on local or feeder bus lines within ten minutes transit travel time (no more than 3 miles) from a trunk line transit stop. THey should place an emphasis on moderate density residential, service, retail,entertainment, civic, and recreational uses.” -Calthorpe “The American Metropolis”


AIR QUALITY Although Cache Valley has prestine air for much of the year, on some winter days it has the worst air quality in the nation in terms of PM2.5, the measurement of a pollutant that travels deep into the lungs and causes serious health issues. Infants and seniors are at highest risk. Working together, Cache Valley can overcome this “claim to shame.�

Team 2: Air Quality Team Captain: Michael Alley Team Members: Paul Allen, Justin Charlton, Tad Hansen, Nathan Kilchrist, Anthony Pozzuoli, Laura Reyes Romero, Travis Tanner, Emily Wheeler Team Advisor: Josh Runhaar 1/6


Cache Valley’s Unique Pollution Problem

When the meteorological event known as “the inversion” occurs, the effect is like a giant garage door closing over the entire valley, trapping the pollution close to the ground, with us. The question for Cache citizens is what to do when the garage door closes. Do we start our cars and pretend it’s okay?

Team 2: Air Quality Team Captain: Michael Alley Team Members: Paul Allen, Justin Charlton, Tad Hansen, Nathan Kilchrist, Anthony Pozzuoli, Laura Reyes Romero, Travis Tanner, Emily Wheeler Team Advisor: Josh Runhaar 2/6


Key Pollution Points

1.

The Valley’s PM2.5 levels come from secondary chemical reactions that occur as the many pollutants combine in the high atmosphere, typically on cold, sunny days. When the inversion sets in and traps the poison, the danger spreads evenly throughout the valley, so really nowhere is ever safer to breath than another. 2. Though many types of emissions contribute to the problem, by far the ones we can most control are the organic-compound emissions from our cars. By reducing our vehicle miles traveled (VMT) we can have the greatest impact on reducing air pollution.

3.

Cache Valley’s population is growing at about 3% per year. Vehicle miles traveled, however, increases at twice the rate of population. So as the valley’s population grows, the air quality gets worse and faster. This is partly a result of people simply being more and more spread out across the valley and travelling farther to work, to shopping, to home again, etc. Better land use planning will have a significant and absolute effect on Cache Valley’s VMT dilemma.

Team 2: Air Quality Team Captain: Michael Alley Team Members: Paul Allen, Justin Charlton, Tad Hansen, Nathan Kilchrist, Anthony Pozzuoli, Laura Reyes Romero, Travis Tanner, Emily Wheeler Team Advisor: Josh Runhaar 3/6


Land Use Options: The Live, Work, Play

To create opportunities for work, shopping, and recreation in existing neighborhoods so residents don’t have to travel so far to meet their needs.

To provide recreation, shopping, and entertainment close to where people work and live to reduce travel time and encourage a healthier lifestyle.

•Rehabilitate older buildings and unused spaces to allow for multiple uses, such as shops, restaurants, and parks. •Obey existing laws regarding not using wood burning stoves on yellow and red air days if you have an alternative form of heat. Consider getting the cleanest heating possible. •Try to avoid using gas powered yard equipment like leaf blowers, snow blowers, and gas lawn mowers.

•Paths and trails should connect to major destinations to encourage non-motorized transportation and recreation, including walking, biking, rollerblading, and equestrian use. •Switch back to walkable schools, where children have a safe path to walk or bike to school. Many daily vehicle trips made by parents are to transport their children to school and other activities because there are no safe routes for children to travel. •Plant trees in parks and along streets. Appropriate trees clean some pollutants from the air, as well as increasing property values, creating a sense of place, controlling climate extremes, and making parking lots, streets, and sidewalks cooler and more pleasant.

People in live, work, play communities have more opportunities for relaxation and recreation because they spend less time driving themselves and their kids around. They save money on gas and wear-and-tear on their cars. Their streets have less traffic and are safer and more inviting than car-oriented neighborhoods. They also generally get more exercise, have cleaner air, and are healthier.

To reduce emissions from vehicles by driving fewer miles and using cleaner vehicles.

To design live, work, play communities where residents can walk to many of their destinations and have easy access to mass transit.

•Create streets and paths with connections, decreasing driving time and making it easier to walk to destinations. •In areas with multiple destinations, create a more pedestrian-friendly environment so even people who have to drive into town can park and walk instead of having to drive from one parking lot to another. •Make mass transit as convenient as possible. Rapid transit allows fast, easy transport from one major destination to another, reducing the need to deal with the hassle and traffic of driving when running errands. •Provide safe bike routes. These bike routes are separate from motorized traffic and provide an opportunity for exercise and alternative means of transportation. Communities also need safe and adequate places to park bikes, especially at popular destinations.

•Include multiple uses in new neighborhoods, including opportunities for work, shopping, and recreation, and convenient mass transit. •New communities should be designed to support multiple modes of transportation, with connected paths and trails so pedestrians and bike riders can easily reach their destinations. •Cluster homes in rural communities so they are near to each other and to amenities like parks, schools, civic buildings, and businesses. Open space and agricultural lands can be arranged to surround the village. This reduces the need to drive long distances and makes it easier for mass transit to serve the area.

Team 2: Air Quality Team Captain: Michael Alley Team Members: Paul Allen, Justin Charlton, Tad Hansen, Nathan Kilchrist, Anthony Pozzuoli, Laura Reyes Romero, Travis Tanner, Emily Wheeler Team Advisor: Josh Runhaar 4/6


Winter: A Paradox The smartest way to to lower our VMT is to change the way we commute, the travelling back and forth we do everyday. True, biking and walking are great alternatives to driving, but in the words of Josh Runhaar, “I love biking to work, on a nice day.” There’s the rub. Winter is the most critical. Problem is, that’s when we have the most excuses to not bike or walk, because it’s cold and poisonous.

According to the official state guidelines, the #1 way to reduce driving in the winter is by

CARPOOLING.

Team 2: Air Quality Team Captain: Michael Alley Team Members: Paul Allen, Justin Charlton, Tad Hansen, Nathan Kilchrist, Anthony Pozzuoli, Laura Reyes Romero, Travis Tanner, Emily Wheeler Team Advisor: Josh Runhaar 5/6


The “New” Carpooling: Do or Die!

It’s time to get serious about carpooling, which means it’s time to get creative about incentives. How about raising the price of an individual University Parking Permit to $5,000? A new “Pool Pass” will only be $5, but it’s assigned to one specific car for only one day of the week, basically forcing students to share rides with each other or take the bus.

?

How about all High School students who carpool get excused from their “home room” class period? This gives them an extra hour to sleep, an incentive for them, and all you have to do is reserve the thirty parking spaces closest to the school for Pool-Pass-Only. Any abuse by students goes on their permanant record. How about raising the speed limit 10 mph for all carpoolers on Main Street in Logan on red air days? Also, how about for all noncarpooler traffic tickets on red air days the price is tripled? What about the increasing number of charter school children who get picked up and dropped off by their parents far from home? Why not turn this “kid-commute” into a “school-pool” where parents take turns and drive only once a week? This would cutback the long trips, save money, save hundred of hours of time, and boost the children’s social development as well as cardio-respiratory health. For public school with geographically expansive studenthood, like MLMS, how about the state picks up 25% of the parents’ grocery bill for afterschool-activity-related school-pooling? All the parent has to do is agree to pick them up, the weekly groceries that is, on their way home from the school (to consolidate the trip). In reality, one cause of long commuting might be couples that have two far-away jobs. How about the state waives the divorce fee for all split-ups that result in people relocating themselves closer to where they work?

Team 2: Air Quality Team Captain: Michael Alley Team Members: Paul Allen, Justin Charlton, Tad Hansen, Nathan Kilchrist, Anthony Pozzuoli, Laura Reyes Romero, Travis Tanner, Emily Wheeler Team Advisor: Josh Runhaar 6/6


Ground Water Recharge Critical groundwater recharge areas Cornish

Cache county has 17 municipalities with a total area of 1,173 square miles. Groundwater recharge will be affected when each of the municipalities develop to the extent of their jurisdiction. The images below show the areas of future coflict between wetland/waterbodies/prime agriculature soil areas and areas of potential municipal development.

Lewiston Richmond

Clarkston Trenton

Importance of Groundwater Recharge •

Newton Amalga

Smithfield

• •

Hyde Park North Logan

• •

Logan

Recharge may be impeded somewhat by human activities including paving, development, or logging. Use of groundwater, especially for irrigation, may also lower water tables. Important process for sustainable groundwater management, since the volume-rate abstracted from an aquifer in the long term should be less than or equal to the volume-rate that is recharged. Recharge can help move excess salts that accumulate in the root zone to deeper soil layers,or into the ground water system. Ground water is essential to maintain wetlands and to provide healthy habitat for other aquatic systems.

River Heights Providence Factors that influence the recharge rate:

Millville Nibley

• Climate • Terrain or topographic relief • Geology • Type and amount of vegetative ground cover

Wellsville Hyrum

N

Paradise

Areas of Conflict Cornish

Cache Valley’s population is expected to double within the next twenty to thirty years. The maps below depict the areas of future conflict between existing wetlands/water bodies/ prime agriculture lands existing within municipal boundries. Protecting these vital groundcorner recharge areas from development will require foresight and innovative planning techniques.

Lewiston Richmond

Clarkston Trenton

Newton Smithfield

Amalga

Hyde Park North Logan South Logan

Amalga

Logan River Heights Providence Millville Nibley Wellsville

N

Hyrum

Paradise West Logan

Water N. Meldrum - A. Goodwin - A. Corry - Z. Roberts - R. Clark C. Jensen - B. Swaner - H. Spear - D. Harrison - D. Aumen


Water Quantity Better BMP Design Typical Solution

Bldg.

Grass Detention Basin

Detention basins sized to accomodate 2, 10, and 100 year storm events Alternative Solution

(i.e. Smithfield 13.16.290: Discharge of Stormwater and other unpolluted drainage)

Lawn

Parking

Reconstructed Wetland

Parking Grass Swale Bldg.

Lawn

Typical Design Solutions

Picnic and employee area

Alternative Design Solutions

• Detention of water output in downstream waterbodies during storm events

• Detention of water output in downstream waterbodies during storm events • Higher potential of gourndwater recharge • Higher water quality due to vegetative/natural filtration • Aesthetic qualities • Suupports ecological habitat • active recreation

Important Water Saving Tips - Outside Important Water Saving Tips - Inside 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Water N. Meldrum - A. Goodwin - A. Corry - Z. Roberts - R. Clark C. Jensen - B. Swaner - H. Spear - D. Harrison - D. Aumen

Repair dripping faucets by replacing washers. Take shorter showers. Avoid flushing the toilets unnecessarily. Insulate water pipes. Install water softening systems only when necessary. Do not use running water to unthaw meat and other frozen foods. Fill a pitcher with drinking water and store it in the fridge. Turn off the water while brushing your teeth, shaving, or washing your face. Install low flow aerators in bathroom faucets. Reduce the dependence of the on the kitchen sink disposal. Do not run water for long periods of time when waiting for it to heat up. Create awareness of the need for water conservation among your children. Run only full loads of dishes in the dishwasher and only full loads of clothes in the washing machine.


Water N. Meldrum - A. Goodwin - A. Corry - Z. Roberts - R. Clark C. Jensen - B. Swaner - H. Spear - D. Harrison - D. Aumen


ZONING MAP FOR CACHE COUNTY CORNISH

PARKS/OPEN SPACE RESIDENTIAL CIVIC SPACE BUSINESS/INDUSTRY COMMERCIAL/RETAIL

GOALS AND VISIONS FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

LEWISTON

BRAG

CLARKSTON

TRENTON

•MAINTAIN URBAN CORES •ENCOURAGE COLLABORATION BETWEEN JURISDICTIONS TO MAINTAIN QUALITY OF LIFE. •INCREASE INCOME AND WAGES •SUPPORT AND PROMOTE EXISTING CULTURAL EVENTS

RICHMOND

SMITHFIELD CITY

NEWTON

AMALGA

•PROMOTE COMMERCIAL GROWTH •BE ECONOMICALLY ACCOUNTABLE

SMITHFIELD

LOGAN •PROMOTE INDUSTRY AND BUSINESS GROWTH WHILE CONSIDERING QUALITY, AND CONSIDERATION FOR THE COMMUNITY.

HYDE PARK

NORTH LOGAN •BALANCE GROWTH THAT ENCOURAGES COMMERCE, INDUSTRY AND EMPLOYMENT.

CMPO

NORTH LOGAN

•PROVIDE INFRASTRUCTURE THAT WILL SUPPORT AND MAINTAIN THE ECONOMIC GROWTH AND VITALITY OF CACHE COUNTY.

LOGAN PROVIDENCE 250 250

200 200

150 150

LOGAN NORTH LOGAN SMITHFIELD

100 100

PROVIDENCE HYRUM

HYDE PARK

50 50

IVE IONA L SE RVIC ES HEA LTH CAR ART E /ENT ERTA INME ACC NT OMM ODA TION S/FO OD

EDU

CAT

INIST RAT

NAL ESSI O

PRO F

TATE L ES

REA

RMA TION

L

INFO

ADM

WHO

NIBLEY

LESA LE

MILLVILLE

TRA

DE

MENDON

0

RETA I

0

WELLSVILLE

HYRUM WELLSVILLE

TEAM MEMBERS: M. McCLELLAN, L. ROBINSON, C. DEVRIES, L. WARD, A. BARBER

ALL DATA FOR THIS PAGE WAS COLLECTED FROM CENSUS. GOV, AND FROM INFORMATION DISTRIBUTED THROUGH THE USU LAEP OFFICES.

A. HUMPHERYS, T. STODDARD, L. PEDERSEN, B. ERICKSON, TEAM #4 A PROPOSAL TO IMPROVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN CACHE VALLEY


IMPROVING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH RECREATION AND TOURISM WHAT DOES CACHE VALLEY HAVE TO OFFER? SUMMERFEST ARTS FAIR OLD LYRIC REPERTORY UTAH FESTIVAL OPERA CACHE VALLEY CRUISE-IN FESTIVALS OF THE AMERICAN WEST STOKES NATURE CENTER HYRUM CITY MUSEUM HISTORIC DOWNTOWN LOGAN CAINE LYRIC THEATRE NORA ECCLES HARRISON MUSEUM OF ART ART ON THE LAWN USU ATHLETIC EVENTS AMERICAN WEST HERITAGE CENTER

LOTOJA WASATCH BACK MS 150 BIKE TOUR TOP OF UTAH MARATHON HIKING BIRD WATCHING BIKING CANOEING FALL COLORS ROCK CLIMBING SNOWMOBILING SKIING HUNTING FISHING ATV RIDING

AND MANY MORE

HOW TO CAPITALIZE ON CULTURAL AND RECREATIONAL ASSETS:

CREATE AN IDENTITY: CEDAR CITY AND MOAB ARE GOOD EXAMPLES OF CITIES THAT HAVE ESTABLISHED STRONG IDENTITY’S IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE MAJOR INDUSTRIES OF THE AREA. CACHE VALLEY HAS AN ABUNDANCE OF CULTURAL AND RECREATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES THAT COULD ESTABLISH A STRONG IDENTITY FOR THE AREA.

IMPROVE MARKETING STRATEGIES: CITIES ARE USING VARIOUS MEANS TO PROMOTE TOURISM. THESE ARE A FEW EXAMPLES OF WELL DESIGNED WEB SITES THAT CITIES ARE USING. OTHER METHODS ARE TELEVISION ADS AND BILLBOARDS. CACHE VALLEY IS FULL OF CULTURAL AND RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES, BUT LITTLE MARKETING IS DONE THROUGH OUGHT THE REGION TO PROMOTE IT.

TEAM MEMBERS: M. McCLELLAN, L. ROBINSON, C. DEVRIES, L. WARD, A. BARBER

A. HUMPHERYS, T. STODDARD, L. PEDERSEN, B. ERICKSON, TEAM #4 A PROPOSAL TO IMPROVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN CACHE VALLEY


THINGS THAT COULD INFLUENCE THE FUTURE OF CACHE COUNTY ONE MAJOR PLAYER IN THE FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF CACHE COUNTIES ECONOMIC GROWTH WILL OCCUR ALONG MAIN STREET FROM LOGAN TO SMITHFIELD, AND FROM THE MACEYS TO THE HYRUM.

THIS IS OUR OPPORTUNITY

THIS IS WHAT WILL HAPPEN IF WE DON’T PLAN.

WHAT CAN WE DO DIFFERENTLY IN CACHE COUNTY?

OFFICE RETAIL RESIDENTIAL OPEN SPACE WE CAN DESIGN FOR MORE MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT AS THIS SALT LAKE PROJECT SHOWS.

MIXED USE AREAS HELP TO IMPROVE ECONOMIC GROWTH. THEY PROVIDE LOTS OF DIFFERENT HOUSING TYPES AS WELL AS BRING PEOPLE CLOSER TO COMMERCIAL AND RETAIL POSSIBILITIES. MIXED USE AREAS ALSO HELP TO REDUCE TRAFFIC.

TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT IS ANOTHER STRATEGY THAT WOULD HELP TO BOOST OUR ECONOMY, AS WELL AS CREATE MORE INTERESTING TYPES OF SHOPPING.

TEAM MEMBERS: M. McCLELLAN, L. ROBINSON, C. DEVRIES, L. WARD, A. BARBER City Creek, Salt Lake

BY PLANNING FOR FUTURE BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY GROWTH WE CAN LOCATE THEM SO THAT IT WILL BOOST OUR ECONOMY, AND NOT PUT INCREASED STRAIN ON OUR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM.

A. HUMPHERYS, T. STODDARD, L. PEDERSEN, B. ERICKSON, TEAM #4 City Creek, Salt Lake A PROPOSAL TO IMPROVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN CACHE VALLEY


Basic Information About Cache Valley Economics • Cache Valley’s economy is based on three major industries: USU, Agriculture, and Manufacturing

ECONOMIC LINKAGES Community Assets Knowledge Industries

Knowledge Industries

R&

D

USU

Tourism

Cultural Heritage

D

Ag

R&

R& .E D si xte on n -

Educated Population

• The future of Cache Valley can capitalize on these base industries by building upon valley assets.

History & Heritage

AG.

MANUF.

Natural Resources

• As development occurs, careful planning will help to stimulate the economy as well as help to preserve the natural resources and needs of the valley.

m

ris

beauty, educated population, rich heritage and history, and natural resources.

w At M ar tra k ct io et ns

Direct to Consumer Markets

• Valley assets include: scenic

Ne

. g A

u o T

• The economy will benefit the most if all of the three major

industries can work with the valley assets to create new base industries such as tourism and knowledge based professions.

Key Players Pros • Quality Jobs • Produces Educated work force • Largest employer in the valley • Business Grower • Provides community activities

Pros • 26% of county output • Ranks Top in the State for Products Produced • Promotes Diversity • Ag lands constitute roughly 101000 acres of open space in the valley

Cons • Limited growth capacity

USU

Pros • Provides 18.2% of the jobs in the valley • Produces exportable goods • Reduces dependence on outside providers Cons • Deteriorates air quality

Cons • Prohibits growth

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Secondary Players

and the potential they provide for economic expansion Potential • Entrepreneurs • Exportable Research

Potential • Recreation • Provides Identity

Educated People

Potential • Pride in Local Businesses • Agri-Tourism

History

Scenic Beauty TEAM MEMBERS: M. McCLELLAN, L. ROBINSON, C. DEVRIES, L. WARD, A. BARBER

Potential • Recreation • Extraction

Natural Resources A. HUMPHERYS, T. STODDARD, L. PEDERSEN, B. ERICKSON,

TEAM #4 A PROPOSAL TO IMPROVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN CACHE VALLEY


JOB GROWTH

IMPROVING QUALITY OF LIFE

GOAL

Entertainment is a major factor in improving the way of life. By having areas of entertainment for people to enjoy, they are less likely to leave the town and travel somewhere else. A greater range of business’s will provide a better quality of life for the individuals of the area. Creating better places of employment will allow citizens to stay in the community and provide a better sense of community. Relying upon the cultural ethnicity of the local area will help generate strong vibrant sense of community. Shopping centers are also essential to the growth and sense of community. By providing places of relaxation and recreation,the happiness and well being of the general population will be improved.

Create an environment that provides a stable quality workforce, a positive busines climate, an improved quality of life, and attractive housing.

OBJECTIVE • • • •

Improve quality of life Increase job opportunities Identify potential mixed use areas Create hypothetical mixed use scenario in urban and rural settings

METHOD

• Expand Innovation Campus • Create an environment that encourages citizens to stay within the valley for entertainment stimulating their own economy • Balance work, home, and play through mixed use development • Increased entertainment opportunities • High density housing • Employment opportunities for higher educated (USU graduates)

REQUIREMENTS FOR A SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC COMMUNITY Labor force - Work force that is educated and diverse will create a stable and high quality economy. Business Climate - A comfortable work environment that satisfies the need for eating options and outdoor recreation; while supporting a positive competitive job market. Top Left:http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/english/about/pics/27708_theatre_interior_1020.jpg Bottom Left: http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1422/554452992_ e06ae627f2.jpg Middle: http://alumweb.mit.edu/clubs/s-texas/doc/EventHighlights/RockClimb00/RockClimbing2000%2004.jpg Top Right: http://farm2.static.flickr. com/1092/655353764_478b470042.jpg\ Bottom Right:http://www.lasvegasnevada.gov/images/Centennial_Hills_Community_Center.jpg

Sources:

Housing - Attractive, diverse homes available to a variety of different income levels; proximity to high and low order needs.

CURRENT DEVELOPMENT DILEMA Current development patterns for the Innovation Campus area indicate the necessity for mixed use planning, to provide the labor force with affordable housing options in years to come.

Government agencies can be used as a resource to help build the community making it a safer, better place to live for everyone. These agencies can help allocate funding for recreation facilities for cities.

Current building values Logan, UT

INNOVATION CAMPUS

MAIN STREET

1400 NORTH

Current annual income and average home values for the state of Utah, Logan City/ Cache County, and Salt Lake County. In most instances there is not enough affordable work force housing. There is a need to provide more affordable housing throughout Cache County. Sources: Right: http://www.lasvegasnevada.gov/images/Centennial_Hills_Community_Center.jpg Top Left: club radius z.about.com/d/phoenix/1/0/ Y/b/1/clubradius01.jpg

In order to help improve the way of life in a town, relationships should be established. People should feel needed and wanted in an area. By focusing on the assets of the town or city instead of the needs it can be done. Going to the community, individuals can find a treasure chest worth of skills that could be used to build relationships that encourage people to stay in the area. Crucial to the success of building relationships is, not over looking any individual in the community. Utilizing the unique skills of the individuals will help strengthen the community. Relationship building strengthens and creates a positive change in the community.

Source: Guidebook For The Development of Workforce Housing

Through the life cycle depending on the stage of life people choose different types of housing. One starts out in an apartment, upgrades to a larger home to accommodate family, then returns to the smaller home when the children leave. Providing a variety of housing options allows a couple to move around within the same community.

Sources: Top Left: http://www.baldwinparkfl.com/web/images/restaurants_pic.jpg Bottom Left:http://www.baldwinparkfl.com/web/images/ restaurants_pic.jpg Right: http://myurbancity.com/wp-content/uploads/meeting-park-central-square-440x336.jpg Source: Guidebook For The Development of Workforce Housing

JOB GROWTH TEAM 5 Chris Tatton, Jamie Farnsworth, Carmen Castillo, Deanne Shupe, Nathan Felton, Whit Morris, Preston Hopkin, David Runkel, Kevin Wilbur, Rodney Boudrero


1400 NORTH

LOGAN PROPOSED MIXED USE

1800 NORTH

1400 NORTH

800 EAST

INNOVATION CAMPUS 400 EAST

left: Example of high density housing with a green space common area.

right: Mixed use commercial and residential.

Source: http://sf.curbed.com/uploads/2008_01_55laguna2jpg

Source: http://www.cbre.com/usa/us/,o/lansing/property/whitehills

left: Residential above professional office or commercial space. right: Residential above professional office or commercial space.

Source: http://sf.curbed.com/uploads/2008_01_55laguna5jpg

Greenbelt and trail system running through mixed use areas.

Outdoor concert venue in the park.

JOB GROWTH TEAM 5 Chris Tatton, Jamie Farnsworth, Carmen Castillo, Deanne Shupe, Nathan Felton, Whit Morris, Preston Hopkin, David Runkel, Kevin Wilbur, Rodney Boudrero


mendon PROPOSED MIXED USE

LEGEND CENTER STREET PROPOSED HIGH DENSITY HOUSING

100 SOUTH

PROPOSED LOW DENSITY HOUSING

100 EAST

MAIN STREET

PROPOSED OPEN SPACE

PROPOSED ENTERTAINMENT PROPOSED GREEN LINKS

Source: http://www.jacksonhole.com/mtn.summer.index.asp

Source: http://www.jacksonhole.com/mtn.summer.index.asp

These street front shops along the main avenue provide the citizens of Jackson Hole with amenities and revenue from tourism, but still maintain the rural feel of the community.

Establishing a strong central hub is important for small communities like Mendon. Local entrepreneurs are provided an opportunity to establish businesses in a location that acts as the backbone of the community, and reinforces the early stages of developing a downtown business district. The town square in Jackson Hole pictured above, provides the community with these benefits.

Source: www.ci.gillette.wy.us/

Source: http://www.cityofgreenriver.org/

Trail networks are an excellent way for small municipalities to provide recreational opportunities for their citizens, prevent development in fragile ecosystems and increase revenue through tourism. This example comes from a project along the Scots Bottom nature preserve in Green River Wyoming.

Main street businesses in Gillete Wyoming

JOB GROWTH TEAM 5 Chris Tatton, Jamie Farnsworth, Carmen Castillo, Deanne Shupe, Nathan Felton, Whit Morris, Preston Hopkin, David Runkel, Kevin Wilbur, Rodney Boudrero


MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ADVANTAGES FOR THE COMMUNITY

DESIGNING FOR MIXED USE

Mixed use development may have a number of economic and social advantages over single use development, such as: • Meeting increased demand for accommodation close to town centre amenities and services • Creating an interesting, vibrant street life by bringing together a diverse range of people and activities • Increasing demand and support for local businesses • Reducing transport costs in terms of time, money, and energy consumption • Creating a safer environment by combining facilities used at different times of the day • Catering to people’s changing live’s / work needs

Mixed use development provides living spaces close to amenities, making it highly desirable to potential tenants.

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ADVANTAGES FOR THE DEVELOPER • Higher rates of occupancy due to greater density • Rapid development of a site’s potential by reducing the risk of oversupplying the market with a single building type • Synergy of uses can create a vibrant urban destination, resulting in greater immediate returns and increased long-term appreciation of property values

A courtyard can minimize transmission of noise to residential areas and provides a usable outdoor space

A floor of offices between residential and commercial uses can provide an effective buffer

When planning a mixed use development, a careful site analysis will help to determine if the location is one that will be suitable. Such an analysis should consider whether the services and facilities required by potential commercial and residential occupants are available in the area. Such services include: • Shops, banks, grocery stores • Public transport • Schools and health care facilities • Open space / recreation areas • Off-street and on-street parking • An existing residential population Town centres will generally provide at least some of these facilities, as well as adequate foot traffic for shops and other businesses located on the ground floor level of the mixed use development.

Landscaping elements such as planting or changes in level may be used as buffers within a development.

Locating mixed use developments in Town Centres helps contain sprawl and allows occupants to be close to existing services and facilities.

COMPATIBILITY AND ARRANGEMENT • Wherever possible, disturbance-producing businesses should be located as far away as possible within the development from residential and public areas. • In mixed use developments where such separation is not practical, for example, apartments located directly above restaurants, cafes or bars, the following techniques may help minimize adverse effects. • Buffers are devices that may be used to protect a building, or part of a building, from disturbance produced in another part of the development.

RELATIONSHIP TO THE STREET Locate mixed use development at the street edge to give the street a sense of definition and enclosure • Design ground floor spaces or rooms to directly address the street and to accommodate “active” (non-residential) uses • Orient the backs of new buildings towards the backs of existing buildings • Locate primary entrances along the main street elevation • Wherever possible, design windows to look directly onto the street

FORM AND SCALE Design a mixed use development to enhance public space, including the street or street corner on which it is located. • Ensure that the building front faces out and across the street, and that the rear of the building faces the rear of other buildings. • Pay careful attention to the design of the rear of the building and its relationship to any adjacent access ways or buildings. • Make certain that the development’s design bears a strong relationship to the human scale. • Carefully consider how the ground and lower levels relate to public spaces and the street. • Use articulation and architectural detail to keep areas of blank wall to a minimum and break up any excessive bulk of a building.

SERVICING Provide adequate service facilities as an integral component of any mixed use development • Design service areas to provide easy access for service contractors, rubbish and recycling trucks, and other large vehicles • Make certain that service areas do not detract from the development’s visual appeal • Locate rubbish storage and recycling areas away from habitable spaces

MANAGEMENT Managing a mixed use development may be more complex than managing a single use development because: • Different uses have different lease times • Different uses require different types of services (car parking, rubbish collection, etc.) • Different uses may generate different effects (noise, traffic etc.)

Adapted from: “Good solutions guide for mixed use development in town centres” by North Shore City Council. http://www.northshorecity.govt.nz/your_neigbourhood/Urban-design/Design-guidelines/Mixeduse.htm

However, such difficulties may be minimized at the outset of a project through good design and the choice of compatible uses.

JOB GROWTH TEAM 5 Chris Tatton, Jamie Farnsworth, Carmen Castillo, Deanne Shupe, Nathan Felton, Whit Morris, Preston Hopkin, David Runkel, Kevin Wilbur, Rodney Boudrero


State

of

Agricultural Lands

in

Cache Valley

Regional Context You got to do more than just live in the country to be a farmer. -Will Rogers

Utah’s Threatened Lands

Agricultural to Urban Continuum:

(Source: American Farmland Trust)

Agricultural Lands are For More than Just Farmers Agriculture Landscapes: Greater Wildlife Diversity & More Recreation Options Urban Landscapes: Urban Wildlife & Recreation

The diligent farmer plants the trees, of which he himself will never see the fruit -Cicero

The only difference between a pigeon and the American farmer today is that a pigeon can still make a deposit on a John Deere. -Jim Hightower

In the Rocky Mountain Region, almost 127,000 acres of farmland are lost each year

Valley Continuum

-American Farmland Trust

Graphic by Kris Kvarfordt

Protecting Utah agriculture protects our food supply, our environment, and our heritage -Cary G. Peterson, Utah Commissioner of Agriculture and Food

Farmland Types in Cache Valley

As farmers are reaching their retirement age, the United States will see the biggest turnover of land and finances in the next 20 years -RFD, www.rfdtv.com

(Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service)

Prime Farmland

The average farmer’s age in Cache Valley is 54 1/2 -Jon Hartman, NRCS

Approximately 35% of Cache County’s Economy is driven by Agriculture.

Soils of Statewide Importance

-Josh Runhaar, Cache County Planner

Each year, almost 600 acres of agriculture lands are lost in Cache Valley -Utah Association of Conservation Districts

Cache Valley agriculture is focused on milk production--90% of this milk is processed and exported outside of the valley

Soils of Local Importance

-Sustainable Development Assessment Team 2005

Pass it onto somebody that will keep that land in production and look at different options -Joe Furhiman, Cache Valley Farmer

We have a binder full of thank you letters from our neighbors across the valley, thanking us for preserving their viewshed. -Vicki White

Keeping the farm alive makes the community so much better -Jake Zollinger Photo: Bachspics, www.flickr.com

Team 6. Reducing the Loss of Agricultural Lands Advisor: Kris Kvarfordt

Team Captains: Lindsay Winkler & Colleen Corballis

Team Members: James Gedge, Matt Heins, Dustin Hislop, Nick Reed, Ryan Smith, and Scott Urie


Current Development Patterns: Does

it

Need

to

Be This Way?

Have you Seen This? (Source: City of Logan)

Loss of Agricultural Land From the 1990s to 2006 & Projected Loss from 2006 to 2040*

*2040 agricultural loss is projected based on current growth patterns (Source: Envision Utah, Utah AGRC)

1990s

2006

Preston, Idaho

Franklin, Idaho

Lewiston to Richmond, Utah

Smithfield to Hyde Park, Utah

Logan, Utah

Wellsville, Hyrum, Nibley, and Millville, Utah

Team 6. Reducing the Loss of Agricultural Lands Advisor: Kris Kvarfordt

Team Captains: Lindsay Winkler & Colleen Corballis

Team Members: James Gedge, Matt Heins, Dustin Hislop, Nick Reed, Ryan Smith, and Scott Urie

2040


MANAGING

BOTH

SIDES

OF THE

FENCE:

THE URBAN-AGRICULTURE INTERFACE Agriculture-Friendly Development

The Urban-Agriculture Interface The urban-agriculture interface occurs where agricultural land use is adjacent to residential land use. Conflict often arises in these areas due to incompatible activities. USAwaterquality.org

Interface Conflicts For the Farmer For the Resident • • • • • • •

Complaints Liability Trespassing Theft and Vandalism Circulation Construction Activity Erosion and Stormwater • Pets

• Odors (Manure and Chemicals) • Noise • Dust • Slow Vehicles • Lights • Unusual Hours of Operation

Subdivision Planning

Building Design

• Clustering Homes to Maximize • Sensitive Placement of Agricultural Land Preservation Backyards and Patios • Clustering and Locating Homes • Double Paned Windows to Maximize Open Space • Rainwater Collection Buffers • Road Placement Minimizing Dead Ends Abutting Agricultural Land • Stormwater Management During Construction • Stormwater Collection via Detention Features, Preferably Adjacent to Agricultural Land • Use of Pervious Surfaces • Incorporation of Buffers in Design Phase

DallasNews.com

Slide Scale Zoning Slide Scale Zoning: The number of development rights varies with the size of the farm parcel. Application of slide scale zoning for open space: Ex.1. Development without slide scale zoning Ex. 2. 100 acre tract with 10, 5 acre lots and 50% open space Ex.3. 100 acre tract with 19, 1.5 acre lots and 70% open space.

Example 3

Example 2

Example 1

Adapted from Rural by Design Randall Arendt

Buffers as a Planning Tool Buffers Buffers are constructed or natural barriers separating incompatible land uses in order to mitigate the presence of disturbances such as sounds, smells, dust and chemicals.

Natural Buffer

Types of Buffers • • • •

Natural Features (Slope, Waterways, Vegetation) Compatible Open Space (Golf courses, Recreation) Temporary Buffers (Long-Term Construction Projects) Constructed Natural Buffers (Stormwater Management, Vegetation)

Open Space Buffer

Incorporating Buffers • Preserve Existing Natural Buffers such as Vegetation, Topography, and Waterways • Plan for Community Open Space adjacent to Agricultural Land • Locate Larger Lots Adjacent to Agricultural Land as Additional Separation and Potential for Buffers • Locate Stormwater Management Features Adjacent to Agricultural Land

Residential/Trail Buffer

Sources: Guide to Edge Planning http://www.gov.bc.ca/ Planning Guidelines http://www.nrw.qld.gov.au/land/planning/

Reducing the Loss of Agricultural Lands Advisor: Kris Kvarfordt

Team Captains: Lindsay Winkler & Colleen Corballis

Team Members: James Gedge, Matt Heins, Dustin Hislop, Nick Reed, Ryan Smith, and Scott Urie


Managing both Side of the Fence: Farmers’ Tools to Preserve Cache Valley’s Farmland Options for Achieving Financial Goals & Keeping Farmland in Cache Valley Zoning and Smart Development

• Maintain Existing Topographic Features and/or Vegetation as Buffers, see Below • Cluster Development for Maximum Protection of Agricultural Lands • Maintain Fencing between Agricultural and Residential Lands

How Do You Protect Your Land?

Existing Site Farmer Wants to Subdivide to Stay in Business But Cannot Afford to From an Economic or Personal Perspective

Private Options to Protect your Land -Agricultural Conservation Easements -Estate Planning -Land Trusts

Traditional Development Farmer Works with a Traditional Developer to Subdivide His or Her Property

Federal Easement Programs -Farm and Ranch Lands Protection Program -Grassland Reserve Program -Wetlands Reserve Program

Alternative Design Consider Buffers between Residential and Agricultural Lands to Increase the Value of the Experience for the Farmer

Farmer Works with a Developer to Subdivide Around Existing Agriculture; Economic Needs are Satisfied and Agriculture Property Can Remain Active

State Programs That Support Easement Purchases -Critical Lands Conservation Fund -LeRay McAllister Critical Land Conservation Fund

Those Who are Leading The Way in Farmland Conservation Brooke Ranch Trust for Public Lands Conservation Easement Since 2003 Left: Vicky White, Owner of Brooke Ranch Right: Development on the Northwest side of the Brooke Ranch

Private Organizations with Supporting Funds -Ducks Unlimited -National Fish and Wildlife Foundation -Pheasants Forever -Trout Unlimited -Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation

Fuhriman Ranch Farm and Ranch Land Protection Program Since 2004 Left: John Fuhriman, Owner of Fuhriman Ranch Right: Landlocked, this development is on the west side of the Fuhriman Ranch

Zollinger Tree and Fruit Farm Trust for Public Lands Conservation Easement Since 2006 Left: Jake Zollinger, Son of Ron Zollinger & Future Owner of Zollinger Tree and Fruit Farm Right: Landlocked, this development is on the southeast side of the Zollinger Farm

Team 6. Reducing the Loss of Agricultural Lands Advisor: Kris Kvarfordt

Team Captains: Lindsay Winkler & Colleen Corballis

Team Members: James Gedge, Matt Heins, Dustin Hislop, Nick Reed, Ryan Smith, and Scott Urie

Federal Programs -Agricultural Management Assistance -Conservation Reserve Program -Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program -Conservation Security Program -Debt for Nature -Environmental Quality Incentives Program -Partners For Fish and Wildlife Program -Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program


LEGEND 2000-2009 1990-1999 1980-1989 1970-1979 1960-1969 1950-1959

Development Trends in Cache Valley The population of Cache Valley is projected to double within twenty-five years. This dramatic influx of new residents will put severe pressure on the valley’s infrastructure, environment, and society and, unless we plan now to accommodate this growth, may have negative and severe impacts on the quality of life valley residents currently enjoy.

These impacts include choking traffic congestion, loss of prime farmland, destruction of important wildlife habitat, despoliation of scenic views, encroachment into sensitive lands, and reduction of recreational opportunities. This map illustrates development in Cache County in ten-year intervals, beginning in 1950. We can see that beginning in the 1980s, development began to expand rapidly, pushing farther into the rural areas surrounding the communities. If this trend continues, many of the open spaces and significant lands in the valley will be developed over the next several decades.

These posters look at

ways to decrease land consumption without negatively impacting the quality of life for valley residents, while still accommodating for the projected population growth.

While development appears to account for only a small percentage of the land-use in the valley, much of the total land in the Valley is undevelopable areas, such as mountainsides. Some of the most sensitive land is the valley floor, which is largely all buildable, and could rapidly be consumed by development. If all the agricultural lands in the valley floor were developed, an incredible 40% of all the land in the valley would be covered in development, a scenario that would most likely be unsustainable.

Land Cover/Land Use (in acres)

Wetlands 51,000 7%

Developed 55,500 7%

Forest 100,000 13%

Water 9,000 1%

Grain Crops 86,950 12%

Conservation Reserve Program 21,874 3%

Shrub/Rangelands 276,000 36%

Row Crops 18,850 3%

Orchards / Vineyards 4,960 1%

Grass / Pasture / Haylands 126,000 17%

Team 7: Reducing Land Consumption in Cache Valley

Julia Christensen, Benjamin George, Pamela George, Adam Heaton, Adam Howard, Chris Hupp, Corbin Rasmussen, Andy Stringfellow, & Zac Vane


Projected Land Consumption Potential

Current Developed Areas

Development at Current Trends in 25 years

Smart Growth Development

implementation toolbox of smart growth strategies ANNEXATION Annexation

is the legal merging of a territory into another body.

This

occurs when either a municipality wants to expand its land to incorporate outside areas for new development or, when owners of land outside a city want to have the benefits of being part of a municipality.

Typically

this

Benefits: • May help reduce sprawl development • May limit the exploitation of sensitive lands • May reduce the cost of transportation and other services • Can create a plan that will encourage sustainable development

is already being considered in most of developable areas.

Stricter

Cache Valley

Annexation

as a way to expand

annexation requirements are also a way

for the county and municipalities to reduce land consumption by making

(www.wra.org) They are required by municipalities as a condition for the approval of a development and to permit its progress. Impact fees also must be reasonable, which has been determined to be fees assessed for capital improvements needed as a direct result of the impact in

Benefits: • Helps synchronize development with infrastructure needs • Improves the quality of life for the entire community

Drawbacks: • The process can be lengthy and expensive • Consensus can be difficult to achieve

Drawbacks: • Increased cost of housing • Are often challenged in the courts by developers

annexation a harder process to approve, thereby limiting the growth of a municipality’s developable land.

Some benefits and drawbacks of stricter annexation requirements include:

Drawbacks: • Increases property value • Developers may favor nearby

An

environmental

quality

review

(decided

requires

developers

to

integrate

by the county or municipalities) into their

decision-making processes by considering the environmental impacts of their proposed actions, and reasonable alternatives to those actions.

If a

Transfer of Development Rights

Transfer of development rights is a market-based technique that facilitates

development is determined not to have any significant adverse environmental

the voluntary transfer of development from places where a community

impacts, then no further action is needed before starting development.

would like to discourage development (sending areas) to places where a

If

community would like to encourage development (receiving areas).

a development is determined to have potentially significant adverse

environmental impacts, then an environmental impact statement would be required before development could proceed.

Sending

areas

may

be

lands

with

significant

environmental,

scenic,

cultural, historical, or recreational values; or other areas as deemed communities

with

less

stringent

annexation requirements

COMPREHENSIVE PLAN A

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY REVIEW environmental values

Benefits: • Encourages regional collaboration • Promote infill and revitalizes the down town area • Centralizes the service areas and infrastructure needed • Reduces consumption of land and water

of the new development.

the future

process can take a few months to a couple of years to complete and must be approved by the majority of the residents being annexed.

new development.”

comprehensive plan is a land use document that establishes the way a

municipality will grow based on decisions of transportation, identification of

Benefits: • Helps preserve sensitive areas and wildlife corridors • Provides more oversight to development

by the community.

Drawbacks: • Increases time to develop • Incurs increased development costs

Case studies: • Montgomery County, MD has the most successful TDR program in the country. The county has permanently preserved over 38,000 acres of farmland using TDR’s.

sensitive areas, recreational needs, utilities, housing, air and water quality, and other considerations.

The plan should also include consideration of the values and goals of the community. The plan is meant to serve as a guiding document in development issues within the municipality. A comprehensive

Impact Fees

plan should be done as an overall strategy with all the municipalities in

communities on developers or builders to pay for capital improvements

Cache Valley to preserve the agricultural feel and heritage of the valley.

“Impact fees are financial contributions (i.e., money, land, etc.) imposed by within the community, that are necessary to service and accommodate the

Receiving

areas should be located in areas which have

been deemed favorable for additional development because of proximity to urban development and services.

• New Jersey Pinlands, NJ, adopted in 1980, is the most ambitious TDR program in the country, encompassing one million acres of land and allowing transfers between 60 different municipalities. The total area preserved increased to 15,768 acres as of the end of 1997.

Team 7: Reducing Land Consumption in Cache Valley

Julia Christensen, Benjamin George, Pamela George, Adam Heaton, Adam Howard, Chris Hupp, Corbin Rasmussen, Andy Stringfellow, & Zac Vane


Principles of Smart Growth: North Logan Case Study 1 - Consideration of adjacent property - open space enhances adjacent park and river

2 - Development

to be focused around city centers, increasing walk-ability

and creates sense of community.

3 - Preserve benches through land trust or TDRs - protects sensitive wildlife habitat and scenic viewshed. 4 - Creation of conservation easements - protects the waterways creating better water quality. 5 - Cluster development - multiple cluster developments create large areas of open space and preserve rural image. Current land-use map

Preserved Open Areas City Center

Smart Growth Implementation Zone

Future land-use map - Based on Current Trends

Future land-use map - Based on Smart Growth

implementation toolbox of smart growth strategies • New York, NY became the first community in the United States to adopt TDR provisions when it approved its Landmark Preservation Law in 1968. The program was designed to prevent the demolition or conversion of liveperformance theatres in the Broadway theater district.

URBAN GROWTH BOUNDARY More

than

100

cities and counties throughout the

United States

have adopted

some form of a growth boundary. A “line in the land,” as some may call them, drawn around an urban area outside of which moderate to high-density development is prohibited.

Urban

growth boundaries or

UGBs

are becoming one of the most

This map indicates urban growth boundaries by using existing municipal boundaries. These serve as good urban growth boundaries to contain urban sprawl within the cities themselves. Actual growth boundaries could take years to determine, but these existing boundaries could serve the same purpose until actual UGBs are determined.

popular planning tools in the nation as a way to curb suburban sprawl and protect

Source: Strafford Regional Planning Commission, Fact Sheet, Dover, NH, May 14, 2009.

open space. This planning tool is considered to be a long-term management option

Benefits: • Creates an economic mechanism that drives conservation • Provides financial returns for landowners who conserve their land • Simultaneously encourages urban growth and redevelopment

often established for

15-20

year periods between evaluation periods.

UGBs

have become quite controversial in the past few years as many cities have begun to illustrate the impact of this management tool. while

discouraging rural development

used correctly, in the

right areas and with good coordination, they can be a powerful tool to reduce rampant land use.

Listed

below are some pros and cons that have been found

through several case studies where

Drawbacks: • Significant amounts of time and expertise are required to operate TDRs • TDRs are an unfamiliar concept which may require education of the public • Because they rely on market pressures, few TDRs may be sold during down times in the real-estate market

When

UGBs have been implemented.

Benefits: • Reduces urban sprawl • Preserves open space and farmland • Reduces infrastructure costs by encouraging

urban revitalization, infill,

- Existing Municipal Boundary -Farmland -Forested Area

and compact development

• Clearly separates urban and rural areas • Ensures the orderly transition of land from rural to urban uses • Promotes a sense of a unified community

Conservation Easements A

conservation easement is a legal mechanism entered into by a landowner to

ensure the conservation of a property.

The

property remains in the hands of

the private owner while the easement is held by an easement holder (oftentimes a conservation group) and is attached to the property title.

The

easement

therefore remains on the property regardless of how many times the property is sold.

Easements are typically tailored to meet the goals and objectives of the property owner.

Drawbacks: • Increases housing and land prices • Reduces housing affordability and production • Increases traffic congestion within the UGB

RURAL GROWTH BOUNDARY

Benefits to landowners: • Protects significant features of the property • Potential tax benefits to property owners • Maintains private ownership of the property

As UGBs remain politically challenging in many areas of the United States, some planners have devised what they believe to be a better strategy by taking the opposite approach by delineating rural areas. These rural growth boundaries, or

RGBs, require the identification of rural areas desired for preservation. These designate what a community wants to preserve with land outside of the RGB being available for development. There are a few cities using this approach to preserve green and open space, thus providing a spine of greenways and open space areas. While less data is available on this approach it could be very effective in Cache Valley at preserving rural open space.

Benefits to the public: • Preservation of significant land • Scenic enjoyment of the general public • Reduction in urban sprawl

Rural Growth Boundaries

are determined by identifying the lands

that you want to preserve and maintaining them as green-space by developing around them.

This

may be a better approach than

creating an urban growth boundary. useful in

Cache Valley

This

strategy could be very

in order to maintain significant wetlands

and farmlands that give

Cache Valley

its distinct character.

Source: www.ieaconline.org

Mixed-use developments

Conservation Land Trusts A

land trust is a non-profit organization that holds property or conservation

easements with the express purpose of preserving them indefinitely.

The

land

trust may purchase the property outright, or they may purchase a conservation easement on the property, the development rights on the property, or any natural resource extraction rights.

The county, municipalities, and private citizens could work in coordination with land trusts to preserve critical lands. You could also create a land trust with the express purpose of preserving agricultural lands. Benefits: • Land, or development rights, will be preserved indefinitely • Could be done on a local scale, by local organizations • Land could still be used for recreation purposes • Preservation of the land improves standard of living, environmental

Mixed-use

developments combine residence, recreation, and commerce in a more

efficient manner.

Mixed-use

developments utilize higher densities to create a

more economical and compact development.

This type of planning results in a higher overall number of units built in an area, while preserving other areas for wildlife, recreation, green space, and agriculture. Design is more important in higher density communities; therefore aesthetics, privacy, open space, and vehicle parking are taken into greater detail and consideration. Benefits: • Preservation of land and open space • Creation of better communities (walkable communities) • Availabiltiy of more affordable housing

and

scenic qualities

Drawbacks: • Costly to implement

Source: www.flickr.com

Source: www.flickr.com

Team 7: Reducing Land Consumption in Cache Valley

Julia Christensen, Benjamin George, Pamela George, Adam Heaton, Adam Howard, Chris Hupp, Corbin Rasmussen, Andy Stringfellow, & Zac Vane

Rural Growth -Urban Boundary -Municipal Boundary -Farmland -Forested Area


IMPROVING SUBURBIA

TYPICAL SUBURBAN DEVELOPMENT, AS SEEN ON THE LEFT, DIVIDES THE LAND INTO SEPARATE NEARLY UNIFORM PARCELS LEAVING NO ROOM FOR PEDESTRIAN CONNECTION NOR A VARIETY OF HOME STYLES AND SIZES. THE DEVELOPMENT ON THE RIGHT USES THE SAME 450 FT SQUARE PIECE OF LAND IN A MORE CREATIVE LAYOUT TO INCLUDE THE SAME NUMBER OF HOMES, IMPROVED PEDESTRIAN CONNECTIONS, MORE OPEN AND GREEN SPACE, AND A VARIETY OF HOME STYLES AND SIZES.

IN MOST HOUSING DEVELOPMENTS THERE IS LITTLE OR NO THOUGHT OF HOUSE PLACEMENT. THERE SHOULD BE THOUGHT INTO HOW HOMES CAN BE PLACED TO USE THE SUN FOR SOLAR GAIN IN THE WINTER AND SUMMER. THOUGHT SHOULD ALSO GO INTO PLACING THE GARAGE AND DRIVEWAY. USING AN ALLEYWAY THAT CONNECTS TO THE BACK OF A GROUP OF HOMES CAN HELP HIDE BIG GARAGE DOORS, UNSIGHTLY CARS AND HUGE DRIVEWAYS. SHARING A DRIVEWAY BETWEEN HOMES CAN REDUCE THE AMOUNT OF HARDSCAPE FOUND IN A COMMUNITY. WHICH IN RETURN REDUCES STORMWATER, SUMMER HEAT RADIATING OFF THE PAVEMENT, AND BUILDING COST.

TYPICAL SUBURB FOUND IN LOGAN. VERY LITTLE OPEN SPACE AND NO CONNECTION.

SUBURB FOUND IN DAYBREAK, UT. NOTICE THE AMOUNT OF OPEN SPACE AND CONNECTIVITY TO ALL AREAS OF THE COMMUNITY.

HAVING LARGE AMOUNT OF LAWN REQUIRES LARGE AMOUNTS OF WATER AND MAINTENANCE TIME. THE AVERAGE HOMEOWNER SPENDS 40 HOURS A YEAR MOWING THEIR LAWN AND 1 ACRE LAWN COSTS $400-700 A YEAR TO MAINTAIN (EPA.GOV).

TYPICAL LOOKING LANDSCAPES FOUND IN SUBURBIA. THIS MAKES THE CURB APPEAL OF THE HOME AND THE NEIGHBORHOOD VERY UNATTRACTIVE.

ADDING A VARIETY OF VEGETATION, TREES AND COLOR TO THE FRONT OF THE HOUSE HELPS TO MAKE THE COMMUNITY MORE ATTRACTIVE AND ADDS VALUE TO THE HOME.

WATER WISE LANDSCAPING CAN MAKE A HOME LOOK JUST AS ATTRACTIVE AS A CONVENTIONAL LANDSCAPE. THE UTAH HOUSE IN KAYSVILLE, UT IS A PERFECT EXAMPLE HOW WATER WISE VEGETATION IS USED TO BEAUTIFY A HOME. THE SHOWCASE OF PLANTING USED HERE REQUIRES 75% LESS WATER TO MAINTAIN IT. THINK OF THE WATER SAVED AND THE MONEY THE HOMEOWNERS CAN SAVE.

PLACING THE GARAGE IN THE BACK OR SIDE OF THE HOUSE WILL GREATLY ENHANCE THE BEAUTY OF THE HOME. THIS TAKES THE FOCUS OFF THE HUGE GARAGE DOOR AND BRINGS ATTENTION TO THE HOUSE AND THE LANDSCAPING SURROUNDING IT. BRINGING THE HOUSE CLOSER TO THE STREET ENHANCES THE BEAUTY AND FEEL OF A STREET AND NEIGHBORHOOD. BY HAVING A FRONT PORCH AND BEING SO CLOSE TO THE STREET, PEOPLE WILL HAVE A GREATER OPPORTUNITY TO INTERACT AND GET TO KNOW OTHER PEOPLE IN THE COMMUNITY.

LONG CONCRETE DRIVEWAYS ARE UNSIGHTLY, BUT WILL ALSO INCREASE THE AMOUNT OF STORM WATER RUNOFF. USING A POROUS SURFACE WILL ALLOWS RAINWATER TO SEEP INTO THE GROUND AND HELP TO REDUCE THE AMOUNT OF STORM WATER RUNOFF.

AS SHOWN IN THESE EXAMPLES THE PAVING MATERIAL WILL ALLOW FOR GRASS TO GROW THROUGH TO CREATE A LAWN. AT THE SAME TIME VEHICLES CAN UTILIZE THE SPACE FOR PARKING.

EXAMPLES OF WAYS TO PROVIDE SAFE AND ACCESSIBLE LINKS.

HAVING GOOD CONNECTION AROUND THE COMMUNITY AND HAVING LINKS TO THE SURROUNDING COMMUNITIES IS VERY IMPORTANT. HAVING WELL DESIGNED AND SAFE TRAILS ARE NEEDED FOR OUR CHILDREN TO GET TO SCHOOL, PEOPLE WHO RECREATE AND THOSE WHO NEED TO GET TO A MASS TRANSIT LOCATION.

Team 8 - HOUSING IMPROVEMENT Skyler Westergard, Shannon Webb, Devan Glazier, Lance Tyrrell, Kory Jones, Devin Christensen, Morgan Handley, Hayley Pratt, Layne Jenkins


URBAN HOUSING With a projected doubling of the population in Cache Valley by 2040 there will be an increased need for a variety of housing types. Urban housing will be one of the housing options demanded by a larger population. Integrating this housing with eating, shopping, working, and socializing will be key in the success of this downtown housing. Streetscapes where the pedestrian is the primary focus and the automobile is less intrusive will enable a greater variety of activitiesv and increased opportunity activity both day and night in these areas. This unique type of housing will be demand by college students, young single and married individuals, and anyone desiring to live closer to work and shopping as well as less input into the type of maintenance associated with a large lot single family detached home.

Streetfront/Entrance to alleyway - Some of the key elements are the harmonious indoor/outdoor relationship, the mixed use housing, and the pedestrian oriented design (narrow street, wide sidewalks, different paving for pedestrians.)

Back entrance to alleyway - Some of the key elements are the conceal and reveal of the alleyway into the plaza, the shaded fountain area, the statue focal point, and the rooftop balcony.

Winter Park, FL. Hollie Pratt. Feb. 2009

Garden Court Apartment - Apartment or condo complexes with enclosed courtyards help to create a sense of community, enclosure, and safety. This type of housing can be used as urban infill and provides another housing option for young married or single individuals. It also allows access to open space in an urban setting.

Downtown Street and Shopping Courtyard - Successfull examples of mixed use urban developement where live/work/play is intergrated. The top photo shows a building with retail on street level and a hotel on the second story. The bottom photo is an impressive example of a sunken courtyard when lunch can be had downtown. A primary focus on the pedestrian makes these places successfull.

Main Streets - Streets downtown with included urban mixed use houding should be enhanced to include shade structures, outdoor dining, will designed facades, less traffic, and access to parks.

Team 8 - HOUSING IMPROVEMENT Skyler Westergard, Shannon Webb, Devan Glazier, Lance Tyrell, Kory Jones, Devin Christensen, Morgan Handley, Hayley Pratt, Layne Jenkins


Cache Valley Wildlife & Plant Communities

History Prior to European settlement Cache Valley was a grassland covered with lush bluebunch wheatgrass, sandburg bluegrass, crested wheatgarass , basin wild rye, needlegrass, blue gramma, dandelion, prickley pear, and Indian ricegrass. The west side of the valley was called the big range because of its abundant grass and excellent grazing. Sagebrush was rare. Settlers in the mid to late 1800s converted many of the grasslands to row crops, irrigated pasture, hayfields, and dry crops. Although agricultural crops define a large ortion of the valley floor, the natural vegetation of Cache Valley consists of semiarid shrub and grass covered plains, wetlands, woodland, and shrubland covered hills, and montane forests.

Mountains The mountains are full of forested land that isn’t permanently inhabited by humans. All summer the animals have access to food, water, cover, and mates in the mountains. Cache Valley has already protected it’s mountains and preserved them for the wildlife. The Bear River Mountains on Cache Valley’s east side are mostly owned by the Forrest Service and the Wellsville Mountains on Cache Valley’s west side are mostly owned by the Bureau of Land Management. These are effectively managed like big parks that cater to wildlife.

Foothills The foothills become especially important in the winter when the snow is so deep at higher elevations that the wildlife are forced down the mountain to find food. The foothills are made from unique soils. These soils were created when water ran off of the mountains at high velocities picking up larges sediments. When these sediments hit old Lake Bonneville they sank just past the shore as the water became calmer and had no energy left to continue to carry the large particles any further. Over time this created what Utahan’s call their benches. There are many native plants that are important to wildlife that prefer to live in these areas because of the unique soil, plants like Bigtooth Maple.

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ENDANGERED, THREATENED, AND SPECIES OF CONCERN In 1973, Congress passed the Endangered Species Act for numerous reasons, including 1) various species of fish, wildlife, and plants in the United States had been rendered extinct as a consequence of economic growth and development, 2) other species of fish, wildlife, and plants were so depleted in numbers that they were in danger of becoming endangered or extinct, and 3) species of fish, wildlife, and plants were determined to have aesthetic, ecological, educational, historical, recreational, and scientific value to the Nation and its people (ESA 1973). Currently, there are three categories under the Endangered Species Act, including endangered species, threatened species, and species of concern. Endangered species are taxon listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in which there is danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range. Threatened species are taxon in which there is a likelihood of endangerment within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. Species of concern are taxon in which there is sufficient biological vulnerability to justify it becoming a candidate for listing on the threatened or endangered species list. Within Cache Valley there are no endangered species. However, there are several threatened species and species of concern. The Maguire primrose, Canada lynx, bald eagle, Ute-ladies tresses, and bull trout are threatened species. Species of concern include Yellow-billed Cuckoo, burrowing owl, California floater (mussel), Columbia clubtail (dragonfly), Ferruginous hawk, long-eared myotis (bat), redband trout, river lamprey, sagebrush lizard, western brook lamprey, and gray cryptantha (Utah Division of Wildlif e Resources and Idaho Fish and Game 2006). Toth, R.E., Braddy, K., Guth, J.D., Leydsman, E.I., Price, J.T., Slade, L.M., and Taro, B.S. (2006). Cache Valley 2030 – The Future Explored. Final Project Report No. 2006-1, College of Natural Resources, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322-5200. Photo Credit,

PLANT COMMUNITIES Sagebrush Steppe • Defined by the combination of sagebrush and herbaceous plant species. • Transition zone between grassland and desert shrubland.

Mountain Brush • Composed of small deciduous tree species. • Vegetation cover ranges from 45-75%.

Cross Section of the Valley

A

B

The east slopes of the valley are dominated by a transition zone from mountain brush to shrub steppe. Typical animal species include elk, moose, mule deer, turkey, and pheasants.

The Wellsville Mountains are dominated by the mountain brush plant communities. Typical animal species include; mule deer moose, turkey, pheasant, and goss hawk.

Section A

Danny White

Section B

Danny White

Danny White

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Environmental Quality Danny White - Eric Godfrey - Ben Warren Trevor Kimball - Justin Wilson - Bryan Christensen Allan Perry - Michael Clark

Danny White

Danny White

Danny White


Wildlife and Connectivity

www.alex-anderson.comelkelk-05.jpg

Wilflife of Cache Valley Wildlife provides not only an economic benefit to the valley, but aesthetic and recreational resources. Wildlife viewing areas such as Hardware Ranch Elk Refuge, Oxford Slough National Wildlife Refuge, Riverside Nature Trail, and Cutler Marsh provide recreational opportunities. The Wellsville Wilderness and Mount Naomi Wilderness are designated wilderness areas which provide critical wildlife habitat. The Wasatch-Cache National Forest is part of a critical wildlife corridor for species migration in the western United States which provides a link between the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and the lower Rocky Mountains (BRWIS). As a result of Cache Valley’s unique and diverse landscape, there is an array of wildlife species in terrestrial, riparian, wetland, and aquatic environments.

Habitat Fragmentation Habitat fragmentation is an incalculable problem in many communities throughout the United States, and Cache Valley is no exception. Much of the new development occurring in Cache Valley is happening along the benches. These areas provide exceptional views to homeowners but they also encroach on critical winter grazing habitat for species such as mule deer and Elk. As municipalities continue to encroach into the natural landscape, human interaction with wildlife will increase, and connections to habitat will decrease. This loss of connectivity drastically decreases the amount of land animals have to graze and hunt for food. It also splits up different groups of animals which leads to species degradation because their gene pool has become limited. Some of the causes of fragmentation include: • Fire • City growth • Removal of river buffers • Loss of wetlands • Agriculture • Fences

http://wkkf.org

http://www.stopgapfencing.co.uk/images/deer_fencing.jpg

Environmental Quality Danny White - Eric Godfrey - Ben Warren Trevor Kimball - Justin Wilson - Bryan Christensen Allan Perry - Michael Clark


Riparia

Dakota99

Riparian Systems A riparian area is a terrestrial zone where annual and intermittent water, a high water table, and wet soils influence vegetation and microclimate. Because these areas are next to water, they tend to have more moisture, and also contain plants and soils that reflect wetter conditions. Plant species, such as cottonwood, alder, redtwig dogwood, willow, and others that require more saturated soils are examples that may grow in these areas. Riparian vegetation provides cover for aquatic and terrestrial animals. Shade created by the riparian vegetation moderates water and air temperatures. This vegetation limits water contamination, slows water velocities, and filters and collects large amounts of sediment and debris. Uncontrolled sediments can kill fish and destroy spawning areas. When healthy, vegetated banks in the riparian area act as natural sponges. They help maintain soil structure, allow increased infiltration, and reduce bank erosion. Vegetated streambanks also contribute to aquifer (groundwater) recharge. Precipitation is filtered through the riparian soils and enters underground reservoirs called aquifers. Good cover slows the flow and increases percolation into underground aquifers. Stored water is then available during drier periods to maintain and improve minimum flow levels. A major benefit of this aquifer recharge is maintenance of year-round streamflow. Riparian ecosystems provide the essentials of wildlife habitat—food, water, and cover. In general, the area within two hundred yards of a stream is used most heavily by wildlife. Riparian areas provide migration routes and corridors between habitats for many animals. The riparian area provides cover, food, and water during these movements. Woody plant communities in the riparian area provide cover, roosting, nesting, and feeding areas for birds; shelters and food for mammals; and increased humidity and shade (thermal cover) for all animals. http://www.healthywatersinstitute.org/pdf/VRP Riparian Ecosystem.pdf

Corridor Structure The physical and biological characteristics of corridors such as width, connectivity, plant community, structure, edge to interior ratio, length, and configuration determine how corridors function. Corridor width, connectivity, and plant community architecture are both ecologically and visually the most important of these characteristics. All five corridor functions are enhanced by increased width and connectivity. Corridors with the fewest number of gaps have the highest levels of connectivity. As gap width increases, the number of wildlife species for which the corridor functions as a conduit decreases. Biologist Michael Soule emphasizes the importance of connectivity for maintaining wildlife population viability in highly developed landscapes. Ecologist Richard Forman suggests that there is value in maintaining several parallel connecting corridors or patch .stepping stones. between large patches. Some ecologists caution that corridors can also be conduits for diseases, predators, exotic species, and fire which can threaten populations. However, corridors remain among the best options for maintaining biodiversity in agricultural landscapes.

Toth, R.E., Braddy, K., Guth, J.D., Leydsman, E.I., Price, J.T., Slade, L.M., and Taro, B.S. (2006). Cache Valley 2030 – The Future Explored. Final Project Report No. 2006-1, College of Natural Resources, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322-5200.

The vertical and horizontal structural characteristics of vegetation within a corridor, its architecture, also influence ecological function. The vegetative structure of corridors may vary from a single layer in a grassed waterway to four or more layers in a remnant woodlot or riparian corridor. Vertical structure is a particularly important habitat characteristic for some species of birds. Horizontal structure within corridors also varies. Patchiness (the density of patches of all types) is most common in remnant and riparian corridors. Researchers report a direct correlation between an increase in plant spacing heterogeneity and an increase in bird species diversity. In general, the greater the structural diversity within a corridor, the greater the habitat value for an array of species. Conservation practices that reduce the amounts of sediments, fertilizers, and other pollutants leaving the field in runoff and erosion will support healthy riparian corridors. They will vary by region and land use, but usually include the following recommendations: • Cease cultivation of highly erodible soils on steep slopes. • Use contour farming, strip cropping, etc. to reduce erosion on long slopes. • Be flexible with crop choices - match the crop with a suitable soil type. • Employ minimum tillage systems - no-till, mulchtill, ridge-till, for example. • Practice crop rotation. • Use rest-and-rotation grazing systems. • Promote selective logging. • Use effective waste management practices.

Typical riparian section

NRCS, USDA (August 1999), Part 614.4 - Conservation Corridor Planning at the Landscape Level: Managing for Wildlife Habitat. Part 190 – National Biology Handbook (Chapter 3) httpwww.bearriverinfo.orgdatasitesimagesLRUWRL4.jpg

Environmental Quality Danny White - Eric Godfrey - Ben Warren Trevor Kimball - Justin Wilson - Bryan Christensen Allan Perry - Michael Clark


Wetlands

Ralph Maughan

What is a wetland? Each wetland is made up of three basic components: 1. Water: a. Wetlands are located were dry lands meet the natural water level for that area b. Water levels can fluctuate during the year- sometimes even appearing to be dry 2. Hydric Soils: a. Soil that is saturated with water b. High water content in soil means low oxygen levels c. Low oxygen levels cannot support most woody trees and shrubs d. Usually has characteristically dark colors or even rust colored stains e. Unstable soil characteristics make them unsuitable for building foundations 3. Plants: a. Hydric soils can only support specialized plants called hydrophytes b. There are two types of hydrophytes: i. Aquatic: plants that grow in water and have parts that float on the surface (pondweed and water lily) ii. Emergent: plants that can root in submerged soils, yet grows above the water (cattails, reeds, and sedges)

What are the benefits of wetlands? Benefits to Humans: 1. Wetlands purify potential drinking water from toxins and chemicals 2. They slow flood waters decreasing damage and erosion downstream 3. They control droughts by providing moisture for evaporation 4. Wetlands provide natural aesthetic beauty and educational recreation Benefits to Animals: 1. Wetlands provide food sources for all levels of the food chain 2. Varied vegetation serves as breeding grounds for mammals, fowl, and fishes 3. Water serves as resting areas for migratory birds 4. Grassy areas protect and feed large game animals during all seasons keeping them away from residential and commercial How does a wetland work? 1. Wetlands are located in natural depressions were water concentrates 2. Wetlands buffer and slow fast paced waters reducing erosion and destruction 3. Slowed water speeds allows sediments and pollution to filter out of the water 4. Plants, animals, and microbes in the water breakdown pollutants to benign forms 5. Purified water continues downstream What causes wetland degradation? 1. Heavy amounts of pollutants or chemicals 2. Unauthorized dumping near wetlands 3. Draining wetlands for construction projects like housing or roads 4. Damming rivers upstream that reduce water levels in wetlands How do we preserve wetlands? 1. Adherence to Federal Laws that limit building in and around wetlands 2. Constructing or restoring wetlands as natural wetlands are destroyed for building 3. Reducing wetland disturbances within certain distances called ‘buffers’ 4. Promoting wetlands by visiting and recreating in designated areas Often wetlands are misunderstood as ‘wastelands’. The truth is, they are some of the most vital parts of a landscape!

Recomendations There are many laws in place currently that help maintain and protect wetland functions. However, laws and regulations won’t always protect wetlands without community involvement. Citizens should consciously reduce their impact on wetlands by limiting pollutants that they put into the water. They should also dump only in designated areas established for dumping. Visiting wetlands as a family and observing their natural beauty and the wide variety of wildlife will also help encourage future generations to care for increasingly important wetland habitats. Sources: Lock, Patricia A. Utah’s Wetland Workbook, Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1993

Typical mountain wetland section

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Wetland Values, Concepts and Methods for Wetland Evaluation, Institute for Water Resources, Fort Belvoir, Virginia, Feb. 1979 Montana Watercourse, A Landowners’ Guide to Montana Wetlands, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, Sept. 2001 Kusler, Dr. Jon A., Our National Wetland Heritage, Environmental Law Institute, Washington, D.C., May 1984

Typical marsh section

Environmental Quality Danny White - Eric Godfrey - Ben Warren Trevor Kimball - Justin Wilson - Bryan Christensen Allan Perry - Michael Clark


PRESERVING SCENIC BEAUTY BACKGROUND

MIDDLEGROUND

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There is a lot of considerations that go into making a beautiful piece of art. It involves complex things like scale, proportion, dominace and progression, rythym, unity with variety, integrity, and human emotional response. A more quantifiable way to look at landscape art in particular is to look at the foreground, middleground, and background. Scenes that have all three elements in nice proportions are generally more scenic, althought the other elements are important as well. Sometimes it’s easy to take scenic views in our own communities for granted because we get so used to them. When taken for granted these scences can be destroyed by new development. Perhaps a barn or an old fence gets torn down and it was integral to a certain viewshed. When this happens it is a tragety. As Cache Valley grows it could become important for communities to identify their visual resources and take measures to protect them so thier children can enjoy them as well.

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FOREGROUND

COMPOSITION http://chineseartstore.com/catalog/images/medium/a406-fall-cranes-chinese-mountain-landscape-painting-detail.jpg

Environmental Quality Danny White - Eric Godfrey - Ben Warren Trevor Kimball - Justin Wilson - Bryan Christensen Allan Perry - Michael Clark


Cache Valley Open Space

OPEN SPACE IN CACHE VALLEY SHEET NUMBER 1 OF 5 Aubrey Christensen, Andrew Croft, Andrew Evans, Katie Gomm, Jeff Hamarstom, Josh Kunlzer, JD Mcwhinnie, Scott Nelson, Luke Wester Advisor: Kris Kvarfordt


Why Should We Preserve Open Space?

A

KEY Bonneville Shoreline Trail

Natural Open Space

Waterbody Open Space (riparian, wetlands, lakes)

Parks

Public Open Space (churches, schools, cemetaries)

Open space conservation: A. ecourages health and excercise

B. preserves scenic beauty

Awareness is growing in America that a healthy and active lifestyle is the best preventative cure to our nation’s struggle with obesity. Obesity is a national epidemic that is becoming more prevalent in children and adults.

Cache Valley is known for it’s scenic beauty. Anyone who has visited Cache Valley in the fall knows just how beautiful it can be. There are breathtaking views surrounding Cache Valley on every side. During the summer people come to Cache valley to hike, mountain bike, camp, bird watch, canoe and to enjoy the natural beauty that Cache Valley is know for. Open space plays an important role in the quality of live for Cache valley citizens.

From 1990 to 2005, Utah’s obese population percentage increased from 9.3% to 20%.1 Physical inactivity exacts an enormous public health toll. Lack of physical activity is thought to be a primary factor in more than 25% of all chronic disease deaths and 10% of all deaths.2 One estimate suggests that 32-35% of all deaths in the United States that are attributed to coronary heart disease, colon cancer, and diabetes could be prevented if all members of the population were physically active.3 The Surgeon General recommends that all people over age two accumulate at least 30 minutes of endurancetype activity, of at least moderate intensity, on most- preferably all- days of the week.4 The wellsville mountains provide a great opportunity for recreational activity. The Bonneville Shoreline trail would be a great way to encourage people to get out and get some excercise. * The information in the “encourages health and excersice” section comes from the Cache County-wide Trail & Parkway Master Plan (draft) 1. (Burbidge, S.K. (2006a). Public Health and Transportation: Planning for Active Modes along Utah’ s Wasatch Front. Salt Lake City: Wasatch Front Regional Council. Available online at www.wfrc.org 2. Utah Department of Health. (2004). Utah Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Salt Lake City. 3. Killingsworth, R. E., & T.L. Schmid (2001). “Community Design and Transportation Policies: New ways to promote physical actiity.” The Physician and Sportsmedicine. 29(2). 4. United States Department of Health and Human Services (1996). Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General.Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and HumanServices, Centers for Disease Control, NationalCenter for Chronic Disease Prevention andHealth Promotion, & The President’s Council onPhysical Fitness and Sports.

Cache Valley

Hyrum reservoir (See map letter A) provides many recreational opportunities as well as providing a place where Cache Valley citizens can go to enjoy the natural beauty of the valley. Preservation of open spaces such as this are critical to protect the scenic beauty of the valley. In order to preserve the natural areas and the scenic beauty of Cache Valley, it is imperative that open space is preserved. Careful planning with the help of Cache Valley citizens is needed to ensure that future generations will be able to enjoy Cache Valley’s beauty just as we do now. Hyrum Reservoir

is economically beneficial It has become clear in recent years that open space greatly benefit’s the economic development of a city. Creating open space in a city increases residential property value, achieves a more aesthetically pleasing area for homes and businesses and stimulates the local economy and growth. As done in this concept plan for a Daybreak, UT residential block in New York City (Left) the architect was able to create open space in a very dense city setting. By applying the principles of smart growth, revitalizing cities and protecting open space the developer produced a functional and enjoyable space. Having an understanding of the value of open spaces and its ability to improve and stimulate an area is essential in establishing successful open spaces for the present and into the future. In learning from the example and seeing that this can be accomplished in such a tight space is hope and guidance that this can be done in Cache Valley. With putting careful planning and thought into the needs of the valley it is felt that very beneficial open spaces can be created and preserved to over all improve Cache Valley.

Conceptuall plan block l ffor a New York k City residential d l bl k

OPEN SPACE IN CACHE VALLEY SHEET NUMBER 2 OF 5 Aubrey Christensen, Andrew Croft, Andrew Evans, Katie Gomm, Jeff Hamarstom, Josh Kunlzer, JD Mcwhinnie, Scott Nelson, Luke Wester Advisor: Kris Kvarfordt


Wetland Open Space Preservation Wetland Conservation

Picture courtesy of JD Mcwhinney

Our natural water bodies here in Cache Valley make up a substantial proportion of the valley floor and provide an amazing variety of habits for numerous types of wildlife. Everything from fish, to birds, to amphibians, all call these water bodies home. Wetlands, lakes, and riparian zones are some of the most important areas that need to remain open. A Wetland is a high productive, complex ecosystem that supports specially adapted vegetation and wildlife. Experts in vegetation, soil and water conditions are needed to tell whether or not a property is a wetland area.

Wetland Uses

Picture courtesy of JD Mcwhinney

Picture courtesy of JD Mcwhinney

Wetlands are very useful natural elements and have many beneficial uses such as storm water retention. In the case of a lOO-year storm certain elements need to be considered. Using a wetland as storm water retention cuts down on the cost of having to build more retention areas. Wetlands also act as a filtration system that can then be used as public water. The City of Logan operates 460 acres of lagoons and 240 acres of wetlands. These polishing wetlands clean about 14 MDG a year. Wetlands provide a natural nursery for fish, which in turn provides the community with food. Plants that have adapted to wetland conditions are known as ‘hydrophytes’or water plants. ‘Hydrophytes’ in wetlands also provide erosion control for surrounding areas. Wetlands also provide an incredible amount of outdoor recreation. Canoeing, fishing and more are just a few of the many fun options for the whole family. Trails also allow for a multitude of opportunities. Trails can not only connect areas, but also teach us about wetlands. They can also provide connections to other trails and places. Just the thrill of getting away from the rigors of city life and viewing wildlife is usually the biggest draw to these areas. If there are no wetlands, then there is no wildlife and thats just one less reason to get outside and be physical.

Protection

Picture courtesy of Kris Kvarfordt

Picture courtesy of Kris Kvarfordt

The U.S. army Corps of Engineers has created standards and enforcement of wetland law. The corps has created a forum establishing a clear national wetlands protection goal and delegates primary responsibilities to the state. The loss of wetlands is a major concern. Development is usually the typical reason for the loss of wetlands. Areas are pumped dry and then filled into to create a flat area to build. This has major ramifications which may not be immediately seen. Another reason for the loss of wetlands is an increase in cattle grazing which can lead to the reduction of plants that prevent erosion of the shores. Picture courtesy of Kris Kvarfordt

Waterbody Open Space (riparian, wetlands, lakes)

Picture courtesy of Kris Kvarfordt

There is usually a practice called mitigation that occurs when a developer wants to build in a wetland. What happens is that the developer is required to create the same amount of wetlands they took out some other place. While that sounds fine we need to keep in mind that with the loss of the natural wetlands replacing them with artificial wetlands is never going to be the same. A human recreated wetland will behave close to the natural one, but the quality will just not be there. Things like the soil and the ecosystem take years to develop. Also in many cases artificial wetlands have no long-term studies to see whether they will last or be as beneficial to wildlife. Large areas of wetlands are more beneficial in most cases then smaller spread wetlands.

Linkages

http://www rewilding org/eco wild html http://www.rewilding.org/eco-wild.html

Bear River meander

Linkages are the paths that wildlife takes to move around and they are critical to wildlife. By removing wetlands and creating roads and fences we are cutting down these pathways. There is a tendency to create small pockets of wetlands or natural areas and think that will work but there is no connection between them. There are a few good rules to remember. Bigger is better, the less divided the better, and the less things like roads that cut into the area the better. By using these rules we can make sure that wildlife has ample opportunities to move.

Picture courtesy of Kris Kvarfordt

OPEN SPACE IN CACHE VALLEY SHEET NUMBER 3 OF 5 Aubrey Christensen, Andrew Croft, Andrew Evans, Katie Gomm, Jeff Hamarstom, Josh Kunlzer, JD Mcwhinnie, Scott Nelson, Luke Wester Advisor: Kris Kvarfordt


Riparian Corridor Management

Connecting Logan to Blacksmith Fork

Existing Logan River Trail

Existing corridor connection

Blacksmith Fort Corridor

KEY

Principles and Practices

Proposed buffer with pedestrian trail

Principle #1 Understand the property is part of a larger system. -It is important to understand the ecology of riparian corridors. - Actions must be designed to minimize adverse impacts upstream, downstream and on site.

Proposed linkage between corridors Riparian corridor

Principle #2 Logjams, Bank Erosion and Flooding are Natural Processes -Leave most logjams in place to slow river flow, reduce erosion and preserve and maintain existing habitat.

Existing buffer with pedestrian trail

Principle #3 Riparian buffers are critical. -Buffers help filter storm water runoff and reduce the ability of flood water to erode stream banks. Principle #4 What Happens to the Land Determines the Quality of the Water: Knowledge, Education and Advocacy - Be active in your community regarding the impacts of development. Encourage and support implementation of local community ordinances, policies and initiatives to better manage storm water and to protect (possibly expand) water resources, riparian corridors, natural areas and greenways. Principle #5 ASK FOR ADVICE! -Always evaluate site conditions and choose the appropriate method to solve the problem. -Make sure there is a real problem

* Image from the Superior Watershed Partnership

OPEN SPACE IN CACHE VALLEY SHEET NUMBER 4 OF 5 Aubrey AubreyChristensen, Christensen,Andrew AndrewCroft, Croft,Andrew AndrewEvans, Evans, Katie KatieGomm, Gomm,Jeff Jeff Hamarstom, Hamarstom,Josh JoshKunlzer, Kunlzer, JD JDMcwhinnie, Mcwhinnie,Scott ScottNelson, Nelson,Luke LukeWester Wester Advisor: Advisor:Kris KrisKvarfordt Kvarfordt


Tools for Preserving Open Space CONSERVATION EASEMENTS Conservation easements provide Cache Valley LANDOWNERS a way to PROTECT THEIR LAND FROM UNWANTED DEVELOPMENT. A conservation easement allows landowners to transfer certain rights; such as DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS to another party while retaining ownership. All conservation easements are VOLUNTARY and unique according to the owner’s wishes. Many landowners receive a federal income TAX DEDUCTION as a financial benefit for conserving valuable

LAND TRUST Creating a land trust is a vital tool needed to protect cache valley open space. Land trust save open space by PURCHASING OR RECEIVING SIGNIFICANT LANDS that has value to be conserved. Land trusts have the ability to work RAPIDLY in response to the rapid growth rate.

ZONING Cache valley can use zoning as a tool to preserve open space by using NON-EUCLIDEAN ZONING. This type of zoning would allow for communities that have clusters of higher densities and SAVE OPEN SPACE.

CASE STUDIES EXAMPLES OF SUCCESSFUL OPEN SPACE PLANNING Taken From Open Space Case Studies: Process Not Product Open Space Planning, A Guide For Municipalities chesco.org

Chapter 5: Open Space Case S tudies: Process not Product

North Coventry Township still possesses extensive woodlands.

CONCLUSION Developers can be given an incentive to protect open space through specific zoning ordinances.

“The South Coventry zoning ordinance permits developers to build units with or without protecting open space. However, the developer has the opportunity to build more units if open space is protected. This is a marketbased approach. Developers who set aside most of a tract as open space are rewarded by having an opportunity to build and sell more houses. Conversely, developers who choose not to set aside open space, are only able to build a limited number of units. This form of cluster zoning is also consistent with the Cluster Subdivision Design Guide, published by the Chester County Planning Commission (CCPC) in 2003 (pg. 8).”

CONCLUSION Careful planning and zoning can create an environment which permits farmers to protect their land.

In 1997, West Fallowfield adopted effective agriculture zoning which only permits very low density development within an agricultural zoning district. Agriculture is protected by very low densities because of the reduction of opportunities for non-farm uses. This type of zoning was pursued because agriculture remained as the township’s principle industry and was recognized as “the primary land use to be protected”. A 25-acre minimum lot size was determined along with a Residential Neighborhood district to accomodate future residential growth not viable in the AG District. An Agricultural Security Area was created by the township in 1990 and now has 159 parcels covering 5,600 acres.

CONCLUSION Planning can be made more effective by working with organizations that are able to supply related background information. Making the ordinances clear and easy to understand can be key.

North Conventry’s success in natural resource planning was due to their willingness to work with organizations that were able to provide background information on natural resources and innovative planning techniques (p.13). A dual review of their updated plan by the township engineer and a watershed association resulted in sound regulations from an engineering perspective as well as sustainable watershed management techniques. A key to their success was placing all their resourceoriented provisions in one article of the zoning ordinance not scattered through the document. This made the ordnance clear and easy to understand for local residents and homebuilders.

OPEN SPACE IN CACHE VALLEY SHEET NUMBER 5 OF 5

101

Aubrey Christensen, Andrew Croft, Andrew Evans, Katie Gomm, Jeff Hamarstom, Josh Kunlzer, JD Mcwhinnie, Scott Nelson, Luke Wester Advisor: Kris Kvarfordt


Rec. it up in Cache Valley!! Cache Valley has an abundance of recreational activities that makes one wonder why it is we have it so good. During the day, you can climb the Wellsville Mountains, conquering the steepest range in the Nation, and later on take a canoeing trip down the Bear River keeping track of the various types of birds found nestled along the way. The same night, you can kick off those hiking boots and slip into some heels for a night at the Ellen Eccles Theatre entertained by the finest talent in Cache Valley. The change of seasons bring about a new array of activities. In the fall, a nice scenic drive through Sardine Canyon leaves you amazed at the colors painted along the mountainside. With a blanket of snow, snowshoeing, cross-country skiing, snowmobiling and sledding are all possibilities. There are so many opportunities available to us. The point comes down to recognizing and preserving all of these great opportunities for the future to come. Through our study to find ways to improve the recreational needs of Cache Valley, we found ourselves flooded with expertise help and wisdom of many works published. Many Master Plans and studies have been conducted with qualified solutions. It was felt by us, that we could not proceed without acknowledging their work and encouraging one to turn to them for reference. These documents contain findings of studies, and subsequent goals of the valley, county, and towns. http://flickr.com/photos/photo-john/2536791150/

works cited.

Cache Valley SDAT: A Report by the Sustainable Design Assessment Team Created in 2005. Source: www.aia.org

This document outlines the needs and demands of Cache Valley. Providing access to recreational opportunities and creating pedestrian-friendly community and residential streets were both mentioned. Recommendations were also given, such as, construct a multi-use trail parallel to highway 89/91, between the Western Heritage Center and Nibley City, in order to accommodate north/south movement of pedestrians and bicycles.

http://flickr.com/photos/12150532@N04/2793283760/

Bear River Greenway Master Plan Created Fall 2004. Source: Utah State University LAEP Department

A regional greenway plan was developed composed of five treatment zones (ecological, rural, urban, county-wide, and riverfront) for the Bear River study region. Implementation techniques, sources, and recommendations by township are suggested on how to approach these zones through development, preservation, and restoration strategies. This document can serve as a guiding document in larger-scale regional collaboration. Just as the Bear River is a regional link, this plan may serve as a link between individuals and communities, setting out common visions and goals for the betterment of Cache Valley area.

Alternative Futures Study: Little Bear River Watershed Created in 2007. Source: Toth, R.E., Covington, Z., Curtis, E.C, Luce, A.J. Alternative Futures Study Little Bear River Watershed. Final Project Report No. 2007-1, College of Natural Resources, Utah State University.

The purpose of this document was to find what exists in the Little Bear River watershed and what could possibly exist. It talks about the history of the trappers down to the pioneers and goes on discussing the two reservoirs, Hyrum Dam and Porcupine Reservoir. It also mentions where federal and state land are adjacent to riparian areas, and wetlands. The document states current recreational amenities in the Little Bear River area. There is also a map of proposed trails for the area. Another map illustrated prime camping areas, and other areas that are not as developed. It suggest places for prime recreation opportunities. Recommends areas for snowmobiling.

Parks & Recreation Master Plan Cache County Created in 2004. Project for 2010. Craig Kelsey, 2003.

This document contains great information on the current conditions and inventory of the valley in perspective of what is available through both active and passive recreation. It also contains information on what areas are of priority for future recreational planning according the public’s input gathered. Parks and recreational standards are listed and critiqued according the National Recreation and Park Association and available as a reference tool. A final great resource this document is useful for is the suggested steps of implementation provided to help a community create action.

Cache County-wide Trail & Parkway Master Plan Source: www.cachecounty.org/trails; Tim Watkins-Cache County Trails Coordinator-at tim. watkins@cachecounty.org

This plan addresses the future development and growth of Cache Valley in response to the public demand for a network of pathways that connect neighborhoods to parks, schools, natural areas, commercial areas, and other desired destinations. Great educational resources are provided to help recreation committees and planning commissions integrate trail and parkway planning into their community general plan, zoning, and development approval processes as follows such as potential parkway benefits, legal considerations/suggestions, and illustrations for implementation.

Cache Metropolitan Planning Organization Long Range Pedestrian/Bicycle Plan Created in 1999. Source: www.cachempo.org/bike%20Ped.html

This document states what the Logan Urbanized Area would like to improve and implement for pedestrians and bicyclists. It identifies short and long term needs and appropriate solutions. Safety standards and goals are outlined. It also contains an overview of each town’s plans for pedestrian and bicycle circulation. Recommendations are given for implementation. The document contains cost estimates.

Logan: Parks, Recreation, Trails, and Open Space Master Plan Update Created in 2005. Source: www.loganutah.org/parks_and_rec/dept_information/master_plans.cfm

This document updates the goals created in the Logan City Master Plan. The authors want to complete projects that have been started or proposed from the 1995 master plan. It discusses the intent to create additional indoor recreational opportunities for winter months. A survey finds that trails are a recreational priority for citizens. An illustration identifies proposed trails and parks. The document states that short term, there are few funds for this plan, but committee members are trying to promote the plan for funding.

North Logan City, Utah: Parks and Recreation Master Plan Created in 2005. Source: www.ci.north-logan.ut.us/General%20Plan/General%20Plan%20Index.htm

This document states the city’s intent to implement recreational goals; and also proposes additional parks. The master plan suggests linking parks with trails and creating playgrounds that are safe and accommodate people with disabilities. The document contains cost estimates.

http://flickr.com/photos/photo-john/498822467/

Improving Recreation in Cache Valley JoEllen Grandy, Chris Harrild, Jeremy Webb, Jacob Lott, Glenden Bytheway, Shannon Ellsworth, Cameron Munford, Shaun Moser, & Jeff Curtis


RECREATION: THE MULTIPLE LAYERS OF CONNECTIVITY

www.ohiogreenways.net/ greenways.htm

Link: Railroads

“Links are the heart of the greenway system. They are the linear connections for people and wildlife. Hubs are the anchor of the system. They provide a base or destination for people and Link/Hub: Floodplain wildlife. Sites are smaller features than hubs which serve as points of interest, origins or destinations”(Kumble).

Future Hub: Proposed Parks Link: Wetlands Link: Multi-useTrails

Link: Rivers/Canals

Link: Existing Parks

Site: Protected Aglands

Link: Lakes/Reservoirs

Bear River Aerial

(Kumble) Kumble, Peter, Project director and et. al. Bear River Greenway Master Plan. Utah State University Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning. Fall 2004.

Improving Recreation in Cache Valley JoEllen Grandy, Chris Harrild, Jeremy Webb, Jacob Lott, Glenden Bytheway, Shannon Ellsworth, Cameron Munford, Shaun Moser, & Jeff Curtis


RECREATION: HOW TO PLAN FOR GROWTH IN TERMS OF CONNECTIVITY “To be most effective, jurisdictions should design and preserve these connections prior to development, rather than trying to shoehorn in linkages afterwards”(Lewis). “When tied to guidelines for neighborhoods and districts, park design guidelines can create cohesiveness throughout the entire form”(Lewis). “Where residential surveys once pointed to a demand for developed facilities, many citizens now express a preference for flexible spaces” (Lewis). “In order to create healthy, vital cities, parks and open spaces must be well-designed and woven into the urban fabric”(Lewis).

2040: Forecasted growth numbers and areas

Bear River Aerial (Kumble)

Lewis, Megan. General Editor. From Recreation to Re-creation. American Planning

Improving Recreation in Cache Valley JoEllen Grandy, Chris Harrild, Jeremy Webb, Jacob Lott, Glenden Bytheway, Shannon Ellsworth, Cameron Munford, Shaun Moser, & Jeff Curtis


Think Recreation for the Future links: blue & greenways Greenways are natural areas that normally follow a landscape feature such as a river, scenic route, or rail-road trail. In simpler terms it is a system of interconnected open spaces, for example, three parks connected by a trail. Blueways are greenways that are only accessed by water, namely a river. These two types of systems can create an environment for exercise or recreational activities that are away from dangerous roads. They can create a connection from a park to another park, or a park to a neighborhood, or a river to a park. There are many options that could be created, it is only up to our imagination and planning. How nice is it to be able to walk along the Logan River parkway? What if there was something like that in your neighborhood? Could greenways connect your neighborhood with a park and a shopping center and the river so you could ride your bike or walk to these places? Could they create a place that you can run, walk, jog, or bike in order to get your exercise?

www.ohiogreenways.net/ greenways.htm

links: scenic by-ways / auto tourism Although the best way to experience Cache Valley is by foot, many people may find it more enjoyable to explore the area by car. The many roads that traverse this valley lead the driver through some of the most scenic and historical areas of this country. The three established scenic and heritage drives in Cache Valley are: Logan Canyon National Scenic Byway, Pioneer National Historic Byway, and Cache Agricultural Heritage Tour. These pictures show some of the scenery that you will see on these drives. But there is a lot more to see and explore besides what can be shown here. These marked routes serve as recreational activities for both locals and tourists. There is a desire to create more scenic byways in the valley which would allow for more scenic and heritage driving for the future.

http://flickr.com/photos/7556709@N06/1359467926/

hubs: active & flexible Hubs are a vital part of any trail system. They create a central meeting place between different trail systems. They also create corridors for existing habitats. Hubs can consist of such places as neighborhood parks, playgrounds, any type of sport fields such as a baseball, football, and soccer. Envision Utah quoted that in 2040, it is proposed to have a Regional population growth of 240,000. The acres consumed with that growth will be 23,000. Following the NRPA (National Recreational Parks Association) standards, a neighborhood park of 15 acres can serve approximately 7,500-15,000 people. We calculate at least 13 new neighborhood parks for the community. We propose a regional park that will act as a central hub for the community. With the estimated growth patterns, locating it near the Benson Marina will serve all the recreational needs of the people. It would also create a strong connection to the greenway and to all of Cache Valley trails. Cache Valley hosts many activities, such as the “Cruise In�, where people from all over the state come to participate. Having a regional park would allow camping, boating, fishing, frisbee golf, even a new central location for the Cache County Fairgrounds.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bear_River_Massacre_Site

Bear River Massacre Site

photo by Jeremy Webb

Historical Franklin

http://flickr.com/photos/10293577@ N03/1448410049/

photo by Jeremy Webb

Benson Marina

Logan Canyon

photo by Jeremy Webb Information provided by Bear River Heritage Area (www.bearriverheritage.com)

Improving Recreation in Cache Valley JoEllen Grandy, Chris Harrild, Jeremy Webb, Jacob Lott, Glenden Bytheway, Shannon Ellsworth, Cameron Munford, Shaun Moser, & Jeff Curtis

Wind Caves


Think Recreation for the Future links: existing easements & connections There are many existing easements found linking Cache Valley from one end of the valley to another through the canal, river, and stream corridors, abandoned and active rail lines, utility lines (power and pipe), existing road right-of-ways and animal or pedestrian trails. Many of the communities here in Cache Valley through proper negotiating with property owners, developers, and companies can create a safe and enjoyable system of pedestrian, biking, blueways, and other such trails.

Bear River Greenway Master Plan. Utah State University. LAEP Department

Cache County-wide Trails & Master Plan, Tim Watkins.

links: bike paths & pedestrian While many people in Logan use bikes as a form of transportation to commute to work or school, they are equally if not more used for recreational purposes. Many locals and visitors use the numerous mountain biking trails and paths found in the neighboring Wasatch Mountains. Unfortunately, at this time, there are not a lot of existing bike and pedestrian trails in the valley to facilitate and provide safety to the many bikers in the area. There is, however, much available space and opportunities where bike and pedestrian trails should be considered for future implementation. Bike and pedestrian trails are a great asset to Cache Valley already, but they could tremendously improve the recreational aspect of our communities. Below are some examples of ways bike and pedestrians paths can be constructed. They range from the worst solutions at the top to the best solutions at the bottom. Bear River Greenway Master Plan. Utah State University. LAEP Department

hubs: public lands There are many recreational opportunities that surround us here in Cache Valley. The majority of these activities are found in the Wasatch-Cache National Forest that borders the valley to the East. These lands, which are managed by the USDA Forest Service, are accessible to the public for uses such as: hiking, backpacking, camping, mountain biking, rock climbing, four wheeling, horseback riding, snowmobiling, snowshoeing, skiing and snowboarding to name a few. The majority of these activities take place along Logan Canyon, but there are also many recreational activities that can be found elsewhere in the Wasatch-Cache National Forest and also in the Naomi Wilderness and Wellsville Wilderness that also border the Cache Valley. The map to the right shows several of the trails and other facilities managed by the Forest Service, which are accessible to the public. In the future, we hope to see added pedestrian/bike trail connections to these areas and also greater linkage to the existing trails where possible. We are so fortunate to live in a valley where outdoor recreation is literally a walk away, and so let us make the most of it.

-not a good solution -no path is dangerous for drivers and bikers

-a better solution -painted line isolates bicyclist from traffic

-best solution where space allows -best used along right-of-ways and greenways

Improving Recreation in Cache Valley JoEllen Grandy, Chris Harrild, Jeremy Webb, Jacob Lott, Glenden Bytheway, Shannon Ellsworth, Cameron Munford, Shaun Moser, & Jeff Curtis


New Communities What is Community? - By the mid-1950’s there were nearly 100 distinct definitions of community. - Whether it is a biotic, human, or social community the concept is the same – a group that is organized around common values, living and interacting within a close geographic region

“In building a community today, we do not face the enormous physical difficulties confronted by our ancestors. But the path to improving our communities and the quality of life for ourselves and our children is nonetheless fraught with difficult decisions and complicated ideas.” – Jon M. Huntsman, Jr.

Why is Building Community Important? - A community accommodates the social, environmental, financial and safety needs of residents by providing diverse opportunities, allowing residents to remain within the community throughout their life stages. - A community can allow residents to be healthy and active by increasing the opportunity to walk or bike to nearby businesses and open space. - When designed efficiently a community will allow the residents to have easy access to goods and services that meet their daily needs, decreasing the amount of

time spent commuting in a car.

Average Daily Vehicle Miles Traveled in Cache County 3,0 00 ,00 0 2,5 00 ,00 0

- An UGB is a line drawn around a city that prohibits development outside that boundary. - UGBs are designed to slow or prevent sprawl, accommodate growth for a designated period of time and are used to

guide infrastructure development. - UGBs may increase

the price of existing developable and alreadydeveloped land. As a result, housing on that land becomes more expensive. - Notable US cities which have adopted UGBs include Portland, Oregon; Boulder, Colorado; Twin Cities, Minnesota; Virginia Beach, Virginia; Lexington, Kentucky; San Jose, California; and Miami-Dade county

1,5 00 ,00 0 1,0 00 ,00 0 50 0 ,0 0 0 0

19 88 19 89 19 90 19 91 19 92 19 93 19 94 19 95 19 96 19 97 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03 20 04 20 05 20 06 20 07

Urban Growth Boundaries

2,0 00 ,00 0

Use of Existing Rail Lines “We found that an average white male living in a compact community with nearby shops and services is

expected to weigh 10 pounds less than his counterpart in a lowdensity residential-only subdivision.” – Lawrence Frank

- To decrease

the number of vehicle miles traveled, all of the areas proposed

for development are near the existing rail lines that run through the valley. - Using the existing rail lines will decrease the initial investment for additional mass transit options. - A rail system, especially if combined with a bus system, would dramatically decrease air pollution.

Group 12 - New Communities Jen Wilcox, Laurie Hurst, Ben Wilson, Mike Hancock, Tyson McMurdie, Cameron Bodine, Molly Mortensen, Emily Nelsen


Proposed Communities Phased Development - The proposed areas have been divided into sections of approximately

500 acres, which can accommodate approximately 7,000 residents depending on the type of development. - This division will allow development to occur in phases, accommodating growth as needed, and as budgets will allow.

Consider the Following - Zoning in each community needs to include various types of housing, such as: * Mixed-Use - housing above retail * Small lot Single-Family homes * Large lot Single-Family homes * Apartments & Condominiums * Duplexes & Row Homes * Townhomes & Multi-Family homes - Won’t high density affordable housing increase crime? Although researchers have looked for a link between high-density housing and crime, not one study has

shown any relationship between population density or housing density and violent crime rates. In looking at non-violent crime, the effect of density is insignificant once residents’ incomes are taken into account. In other words, lower income neighborhoods have more crime, regardless of density. (Los Angeles Housing Dept.)

Group 12 - New Communities Jen Wilcox, Laurie Hurst, Ben Wilson, Mike Hancock, Tyson McMurdie, Cameron Bodine, Molly Mortensen, Emily Nelsen


Proposed Communities - Detailed Location #1

Location #2

- This area near Preston was selected for its proximity to the existing rail lines, which will create a community for those commuting

- This development could be part of the city of Richmond, or could create an

daily to Logan, or other parts of the valley

identity of its own by focusing on the rail connection and commuting residents

- Adding to the existing infrastructure would keep costs low

- The existing bus system

Location #3

Location #4

- Developing the areas next to Amalga will allow use of the existing infrastructure, and provide

- Smithfield is growing, creating a great opportunity to develop at a higher

additional commercial opportunities

provides transportation options for commuters

density

- We propose an

- Due to the close proximity to the Utah State campus it is important to consider the

additional rail line to be

student commuter, and

added, running East/West, along the existing road to increase connectivity

integrate opportunities for them within the community

Location #5

Location #6

- This development is an excellent gateway into the valley using the rail system, which in the future could connect with the

- With an additional East/ West rail connection along the existing highway this development would offer

FrontRunner system - The additional development would add

job and commercial opportunities for Newton residents, decreasing the time spent commuting

easy access to the university - Development would

increase commercial opportunities for Mendon residents, decreasing the need to commute long distances

Location #7

Location #8

- Development of this location would create a strong gateway into the valley from the south

- Development would offer easy access to the university and alternate housing

- Creates alternate

- Commercial

transportation

opportunities would

opportunities for Wellsville residents that commute for work or school

options

increase, decreasing the need to commute - Adding to the existing infrastructure would keep costs low

Group 12 - New Communities Jen Wilcox, Laurie Hurst, Ben Wilson, Mike Hancock, Tyson McMurdie, Cameron Bodine, Molly Mortensen, Emily Nelsen


Development Options Suburban Development - Typically low-density, auto-oriented, singleuse developments lacking in context and distinction as a unique community - Most suburban developments do not create walkable communities, and increase the number of vehicle miles traveled per day by residents

Benefits

Constraints

- Cheaper to design and develop

- Lacks of place

interest and sense

- Consistent zoning and neighborhood structure

- Daily auto

trips increase

- Increase in impermeable - Easier for city to maintain infrastructure

- Large amount of land

- Consistent with the

“American Dream� - Lower purchase

surfaces

price

consumed - More yard maintainance for homeowners

New Urbanism - Emphasis on beauty, aesthetics, human comfort and creating a sense of place - A mix of shops, offices, apartments, and homes on site * Mixed-use within neighborhoods, blocks, and buildings - Pedestrian friendly street design * Buildings, porches, windows and doors are close to street, hidden parking lots and garages - Connectivity

Benefits - Higher residents

quality of life for

- Less driving and traffic congestion - More foot traffic for local businesses - Increased

sales - Less

spent on infrastructure

- Walkable

Constraints - Higher

- Sustainability * More walking, less driving

property taxes

- Higher initial costs due to planning and design up front - Loss of property

rights

Examples - Daybreak, Utah - Stapleton, Denver - Ocean Springs, Mississippi - Seaside Village, Florida

Group 12 - New Communities Jen Wilcox, Laurie Hurst, Ben Wilson, Mike Hancock, Tyson McMurdie, Cameron Bodine, Molly Mortensen, Emily Nelsen


Development Options Low Impact Development - Preserve disturbances

open space and minimize land

- Protect sensitive natural processes - Identify and infrastructure�

features and natural

link on-site and off-site “green

- Incorporate natural features (Wetlands, Riparian Corridors, Mature Forests) into site designs - Customize analysis

Benefits - Reduces land clearing and grading costs - Reduces infrastructure

costs (streets, curbs, gutters,

Constraints - Lacks of place

- Decentralize and micromanage water at its source

storm

interest and sense

sidewalk)

- Daily auto

- Balances growth needs with environmental protection

- Increase in impermeable

- Preserves and protects

- Large amount of land

amenities

site design according to the site

trips increase

surfaces consumed

- Preserves trees and natural

vegetation

- More yard maintainance for homeowners

Transit Oriented Development - A mix of uses at various densities within a halfmile radius, or walking distance, of a transit stop - A regional node containing a mixture of uses including office, residential, retail, and civic uses - Designed to include the easy

use of bicycles, scooters, and rollerblades as

daily transportation options

Benefits - Reduced household spending on transportation - Reduced and driving

traffic congestion

- Better places to live, work, and play - Greater residents

mobility for all

Constraints

- Each TOD must offer a range of housing, preferably mixed-use but also should include singlefamily and higher-density housing.

- Large investment for municipalities to ensure transit connections are available -New concept of development for the valley -Smaller

lots and higher densities may be unattractive

to homebuyers

- Higher, more stable property

values

Group 12 - New Communities Jen Wilcox, Laurie Hurst, Ben Wilson, Mike Hancock, Tyson McMurdie, Cameron Bodine, Molly Mortensen, Emily Nelsen


Additional Information Sustainability

“We have seen the enemy and he is us.� – Walt Kelly

- Concentrate Development and Mix Uses - Increase Job and Business Opportunities - Advance Equity

Most people will walk a distance of approximately

- Make Efficient Decisions - Protect

Land and Ecosystems

one-quarter mile (1,320 feet)

- Use Natural Resources Wisely

before turning back or opting to drive or ride a bike rather than walk. - Sustainable

- Expand Housing Opportunities - Provide Transportation Choice - Promote Clean

Energy

Urbanism

- Plan Regionally

Envision Utah - Regional balance and health * Address region-wide accessibility * Reduce auto dependency * Increase walkability

issues

- Choice of housing *Diverse community *Ability to live in the same community as life stages change - Choice of sites for commercial opportunities * Shopping opportunities within walkable distances of home * Job opportunities without lengthy commutes

Implementation - To the right are basic sketches showing implementation of the development options. 1 - Low Impact Design. * Large portions of the native landscape was left to maintain plant and animal habitat

1

2

3

4

2 - Transit Oriented Development * A strong connection with the rail line and the highway create opportunities to commute using mass transit options. 3 - New Urbanism * Housing is mixed with commercial to create a strong city center. 4 - The Next Step * Once the zoning has been identified the buildings can be placed, the plan is then detailed further and becomes a master plan.

Group 12 - New Communities Jen Wilcox, Laurie Hurst, Ben Wilson, Mike Hancock, Tyson McMurdie, Cameron Bodine, Molly Mortensen, Emily Nelsen


What Is Infill? Infill is creating new housing, mixed use buildings, and facilities from current unused land or existing buildings within urban areas. This type of development allows new opportunities of rebuilding and expansion within developed areas, while keeping existing resources available. “Infill development is the key to accommodating growth and redesigning our cities to be environmentally and socially sustainable.” (Bay Area Article) Types of Infill When developing on vacant space in urban areas, space is at a minimum; many times infill development replaces parking lots and existing structures. Three possible types of infill are Commercial, Residential, and Mixed Use. Mixed use combines Residential, Commercial, and Recreation in one site.

Multiple Family Housing

http://www.architecturalhouseplans.com

Advantages of Infill • Reduce traffic and congestion of streets, by Single Family Housing placing apartments, shopping, and public areas close together. • Mixed use development allows for housing that is closer to employment opportunities. • A more vibrant downtown area that is pedestrian friendly. • Allows room for growth, without expanding city limits. • Revitalizes unused land and structures to enhance the safety of a community. • Lower development costs, with existing utilities, http://www.planningsolutionsinc.com roads, and infrastructure already available. • Allows for planned greenspace within urban Mixed Use Building areas.

Examples of infill in Cache Valley

Team 13: Infill Development Jordan Kofoed, Sherri Jones, Mark Hirschi, Logan Moore, Jeffery Benson, Elizabeth Cosper, Maren Nilsen, Virgilio Feliz Ignacio


Infill Development in Cache Valley

Possible and current infill sites in Logan. The current infill project, represented by the pink box, is detailed to the right. The case study, in yellow, is detailed below.

Case Study Block 600 North and 200-400 West

Before proposed infill development.

This 2.51 Acre lot in Logan, has been subdivided as an infill project with 14 homes and a common open space. Costs of development here are considerably lower than a typical new construction project, for utilities already service the area. (Plan Courtesy of Keith Christensen).

After proposed infill development.

The view to the right illustrates the mixture of densities and housing types that an infill project can accommodate to make it a viable community in terms of mixed income and family size.

Perspective facing East end of plot.

Perspective facing Northwest corner

Team 13: Infill Development Jordan Kofoed, Sherri Jones, Mark Hirschi, Logan Moore, Jeffery Benson, Elizabeth Cosper, Maren Nilsen, Virgilio Feliz Ignacio


Team 13: Infill TeamDevelopment 13 Jordan Kofoed, Sherri Jones, Mark Hirschi, Logan Moore, Jeffery Benson, Elizabeth Cosper, Maren Nilsen, Virgilio Feliz Ignacio


THE GATEWAY TO CACHE VALLEY: THE SOUTH CORRIDOR.

Historically, Cache Valley has been a gathering place for Native Americans, fur trappers, mountain men and pioneers due to its relative abundance of fresh water, deep fertile soil and bounty of wildlife. When the pioneers arrived, they farmed the dark soils that are unique to our valley, and it has been an important part of Cache Valley’s economy, identity and character ever since. However, as time goes on fewer people are using the land for agriculture. The old farms are sold, replacing important agricultural land with subdivisions, large chain retail stores and further development. The identity of Cache Valley is shaped by these important and unique lands, and the southern portion of the valley has retained a large portion of this character. People who drive in from the south round the curve at the mouth of Sardine Canyon and see the valley open up, revealing a lush green landscape of agricultural fields, river corridors and small towns that are nestled between beautiful towering jagged mountains peaks. Visitors come from many places to see, feel and experience the mountain oasis that is Cache Valley. What makes this valley so special? The mosaic of agricultural lands, historic landscapes and structures and rivers surrounded by dense, mature vegetation are what identify the entire valley, and if we lose these lands, we have lost what makes Cache Valley unique. These irreplaceable lands are what make this valley one of Utah’s most treasured jewels, and they cannot be allowed to disappear.

Contributions of Agricultural Land • • •

Agricultural land provides open space and contributes to the rural character of Cache Valley by creating a familiar, picturesque matrix of land patterns. It cleanses, purifies and recharges the ground water. It protects biodiversity by providing higher quality wildlife habitat than areas of residential, commercial and industrial development. Cache Valley SDAT 2005 Photos courtesy of USU Special Collections and digital archives

This graphic illustrates the series of perceived spaces that are experienced as users travel the corridor. Notice the sequence of spaces that vary in size and dimension. The diversity in spatial quality creates interest and provides a pleasant and intriguing drive. The spaces are defined by clusters of buildings, stretches of development, and tree lined riparian corridors. These obstacles limit extended visual access to surrounding areas,thus forming viewsheds that exemplify the varied landscape that keeps the interest of viewers as they travel on the road that transects Cache Valley. After the panoramic scene presented when exiting Sardine Canyon, the valley floor presents crop rows, barns, and wide field on field views framed by steep montain faces. Heading into Nibley, the incidence of residential landscape and development increases. Nevertheless, fields continue to create an open view. Business development and larger housing communities creep towards the road as it transitions into Main Street.

A PROPOSAL TO SAVE THE SOUTH ENTRY CORRIDOR INTO CACHE VALLEY SARAH NELSON, ANGELIE ANDERTON, BROCK ANDERSON, NATALIE WATKINS, JEREMY NELSON, JASON COOPER, ABEL LISH


THE SOUTHERN GATEWAY IS IN DANGER OF LOSING ITS PICTURESQUE CHARACTER.

These figure ground studies represent the growth from 1993 to the present day. If we follow the current trend, a large portion of the development will occur along the South Corridor of the Cache Valley, greatly impacting both the viewsheds and unique sense of place. By the year 2040, Cache Valley’s population will have nearly doubled, giving us a total of almost 224,000 people. Following traditional development patterns, a doubled population will mean doubled development. If we want to preserve the integrity of our landscape, it is critical to alter our development patterns and to plan wisely for this future population growth.

These before and after photos demonstrate the potential for the wrong kind of development to have a negative impact on the Southern Corridor, visually and otherwise. Further development along the corridor will inhibit the “place making” agrarian scene that acts as a window into the unique history and character of Cache Valley. Losing this will diminish experiential opportunities for both locals and travelers the unique sense of place that endear our hearts to our mountain home. Un-checked development in the form of retail business, manufacturing plants, residential stamp houses, and billboards will destroy the perception of open agricultural space and create a tunel like drive into Logan and beyond. The South Corridor is the gateway to Cache Valley and acts as an instrument in making it not just a place to live, but a place we love to call our home, and its essence must be preserved though the valley population continues to grow.

This series of photos depicts the progression of density and spatial quality as one travels into Logan along the highway. Following our current development patterns, the South Corridor is likely to be built out primarily with commercial development. The arrival of billboards will dramatically alter the viewshed from the corridor and detract from the significant lands.

A PROPOSAL TO SAVE THE SOUTH ENTRY CORRIDOR INTO CACHE VALLEY SARAH NELSON, ANGELIE ANDERTON, BROCK ANDERSON, NATALIE WATKINS, JEREMY NELSON, JASON COOPER, ABEL LISH


ALTERNATIVES & IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES. Status Quo Development By the year 2040, Cache Valley’s population is projected to have nearly doubled, giving us a total of almost 224,000 people. With traditional development patterns, a doubled population would double the land use. We have estimated that ¾ of our projected population growth may settle in the south end of the valley. Following current development patterns, the character of the south entry corridor will have changed dramatically with the decimation of the mosaic of significant lands.

Alternatives: Density and Radial Growth Density is the key to preserving our significant lands. High density development may seem out of keeping with the character of the area today, but it is essential to accommodate our doubled population in the smallest possible area to preserve the areas we deem valuable to our sense of place. 2,000 acres of 10 dwelling units/acre 1,500 acres of 4 DU/acre 1,000 acres of half-acre lots

Alternatives: Density and New Community Development of a new community would take some of the pressure off of the existing towns. This new town would need to consist mostly of high density, mixed-use development, with good access to nearby amenities that would help to limit frequent trips to Logan and thereby avoid traffic congestion. This alternative utilizes the same amount of acreage as the previous one. The benefit of creating a new community is that the current established communities will become less built out, and will be able to retain some of the character that they have now.

Implementation Considerations: Cluster Development Cluster development is an excellent way to preserve the surrounding landscape. It provides green space amenities and recreational opportunities for the residents and allows for the preservation of agricultural lands and wildlife habitat. It also has the added bonus of increasing property values.

Design Guidelines and Architectural Standards • • • • •

Maximize setbacks Minimize access points Design guidelines that encourage development that is in keeping with the local rural character (paint colors, materials, etc.) Visual buffers—plant material can be used in front of structures to hide them as well as behind them to act as a backdrop— buffers could be used to mask unsightly views along the corridor Structures on slopes should have rooflines that mimic the natural slope

A PROPOSAL TO SAVE THE SOUTH ENTRY CORRIDOR INTO CACHE VALLEY SARAH NELSON, ANGELIE ANDERTON, BROCK ANDERSON, NATALIE WATKINS, JEREMY NELSON, JASON COOPER, ABEL LISH


WHAT WILL A TRIP FROM LOGAN TO SMITHFIELD BE LIKE IN 2040? WILL I KNOW AND HOW WILL I KNOW WHETHER I AM IN LOGAN, HYDE PARK, NORTH LOGAN, OR SMITHFIELD?

REACTION 2009

SMITHFIELD SHARED CITY BORDER

SPRAWLING

Development Gap Buildings Landmark Paving Change City Boundary Rural Fence

www.roadsidephotos.com/rp/arches.htm

outdoors.webshots.com/photo/13895705260655992...

To maintain visual separation between cities, features such as landmarks, breaks in paving patterns, vegetation groupings, and elements following the border may be employed. A city may also create a sense of place with the use of unified forms. Features that can contribute to this feeling include the following: signage and lighting; cultural and historical design styles; patterns in landscape and architecture; and other utility structures. The picture on the above left shows an archway that marks the entrance to a city. The picture on the above right shows a row planting of trees lining the property limits. To the left is an illustration that represents the common border of two cites and a number of options to vidually indicate the separation.

RURAL

DISJOINTED

WHAT WILL I SEE? The two pictures on the left illustrate a side-by-side comparison of the existing highway and the highway as it could be. The features that are shown in the lower picture include signage that is consistent and natural colors that help tie in with the rural feel of the area. Varying the building set backs from the highway interupts the repetition for a more engaging expericence. Also contrasted here is the frontage vegetation. The trees add color and shade while providing concealment for the buildings. The terraced planting on the buildings reflect the defining cache valley mountains. Rural stye fencing also reiforces the character of the corridor.

JUMBLED

HAPHAZARD

www.summitpost.org/images/medium/299799.JPG

CONFUSING

www.golercdc.org/cmt/15.html

Above is an illustration of a typical median planting which adds visual variety and lane separation. Breaks in the median and frontage planting may reveal A view of the mountains.

BUSY

LOGAN

LOGAN TO SMITHFIELD CORRIDOR Becca Buckley, Ben Levenger, Colin Olson, Phillip Christensen, Kevin Linsley, Jeremiah Pratt , Osmer Beck (T.L.), Carlos Licon (F.A.)


WHAT WILL A TRIP FROM LOGAN TO SMITHFIELD BE LIKE IN 2040? REACTION 2040

WHAT WILL THE DRIVE, RIDE, BIKE, OR WALK BE LIKE? Smithfield

SMITHFIELD CONNECTED

Copious curb cuts that dot the highway edge result in congestion which worsens as the population of Cache Valley increases. To reduce delay and increase flow: remove curb cuts where possible, add acceleration and deceleration lanes, change signal phasing or timing, and provide primary business access on side streets. (“Traffic Impact Study, Access Management and Curb Cut Regulations”, Monroe Ohio City Plan).

600 South

Legend Street Intersection Curb Cuts

Hyde Park Ln

Hyde Park

SEMI-RURAL

2500 North

UNIFIED

The Complete Streets Act of 2008 has been introduced and may be passed as legislation. The implementation of Complete Streets would accomodate "safe and contiguous travel for all users—pedestrians (seniors, persons with disabilities, children), cyclists, transit users, and cars." This would result in more transportation options and stronger, more active communities. (http://land.asla.org/2008/1216/missouri.html)

North Logan

1800 North

Logan

WILL I WANT TO LIVE HERE? ORGANIZED Roof terrace housing 2 levels of housing above, with roof terraces and door stoops

Offices above Retail at street level

Parking recessed 1/2 level

Mixed-Use Cross Section (http://dot.ci.tucson.az.us/projects/stone/pdfs/mixeduse.pdf)

PLANNED

Mixed-use developments effectively manage and reduce the effects of increased population density. Sucsessful mixed use sites incorporate shops and services that support and meet the needs of both the ajacent neighborhoods and the site residents. Shops and services near users in mixed use centers offers a wise alternative to urban sprawl and traffic congestion.This close link between work, shopping, and home life creates a synergy and sense of community that is desired by residents and business-owners alike. http://www.djc.com/special/development2000/hofius.html

The left diagram illustrates the current and projected development patterns and resulting loss of open space. The diagram on the right illustrates the same idea with more planning to maintain linkages between green spaces. The subsequent connected system illustrated on the right will greatly enhance the rural character and aesthetic quality of the Logan - Smithfield corridor area.

AESTHETIC

(http://www.greenspacedesign.org/home.html)

How is Green Space Different From Open Space? Open Space

Green Space

Any type of open land

Preplanned and preserved open land

Isolated parcels of open land

An interconnected system of open land

Value may not be known or apparent

Determined to have cultural, ecological, developmental, agricultural and/or recreational value

RELAXING

LOGAN

Green Space Legend

City

1993

2003

Future

(http://www.greenspacedesign.org/home.html)

LOGAN TO SMITHFIELD CORRIDOR Becca Buckley, Ben Levenger, Colin Olson, Phillip Christensen, Kevin Linsley, Jeremiah Pratt , Osmer Beck (T.L.), Carlos Licon (F.A.)

Profile for USU Landscape Architecture & Environmental Planning

Cache valley charrette 2009  

Cache valley charrette 2009  

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