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Faculty of Environment Department of Archaeology Archaeometry laboratory

Cultural landscape committeeIran ICOMOS

Kharman Project- ANR UMR-7209CNRS/MNHN

Rural landscapes À l'est de l'EdenWorld : état de la recherche sur la néolithisation November 2014-Milan de l'Iran et du sud de l'Asie centrale Rural landscapes of Iran

Homa Irani Behbahani, Haeedeh Laleh, Marjan Mashkour, Margareta Tengberg, Zahra Lorzadeh


contents

1

• Environmental characteristics

2

• Historical background and archaeological evidences

3

• Rural landscape in Iran: diversity and sustainability

4

• Rural landscape: evaluation and management


Iran in the Middle East

Middle Paleolithic 200000B.P.

Early Paleolithic

1000000B.P . .

Mesolithic 18000 B.P.

Late Paleolithic 40000B.P.

Neolithic 8000B.C.

Chalcolithic 5500 B.C.

Bronze age 3300 B.C.

Iron age 1500550 B.C.

Achaemenid Empire 550-330 B.C.

Sasanian Empire 224-651 A.D.

Seleucid Period 330-130 B.C.

Parthian Empire 130 B.C.224 A.D.

Islamic Era 651- A.D.present


Environmental characteristics

Natural

Cultural

• Physical •Climatic •Biological •Natural resources

Diversity in different aspects

•Languages and dialects •Ethnics Diversity in •Rituals and customs different aspects •Symbols and signs •Material culture


Physical and geographical maps of Iran


Climatic and ecological conditions in Iran

Rain- and snowfall

Temperatures

Climatic confort


High Faunal Diversity


Human adaptations to specific environmental conditions Nomadisme and transhumance

Irrigation

Wells of an underground channel (kareez), SE Iran

Cleaning of a kareez, Baluchistan


Ethnic and linguistic composition in Iran


Possibility of local domestciation of cereals and Bovids

Einkorn

Emmer Barley

Boar Sheep Goat Aurochs


Chronology of the Neolithic spread- 12000 – 6000 BP

Caucasus Early 6th mill. BC

S Central Asia 6000 BC

NE Iran

? Qazvin plain

7000 BC

7000 BC

Central Zagros

?

Khuzistan 7600 BC

Southern Zagros 7500 BC

Central Baluchistan 6th/5th mill. BC?

SE Iran 5500 BC

SW Pakistan 5th mill. BC

Earliest known BC dates of the Neolithic spread eastwards


Jeitun 6000 BC

ZAGROS

SOUTHWEST CENTRAL ASIA

Sang-i Caxmaq* 7000 BC

Sheikh-e Abad 10 000 BC Ganj Dareh 8000 BC Chia Sabz** 8600 BC Yafteh* 30 000-20 000 BC Chogha Golan Qaleh Rostam* 7000 BC 10 000 BC Kelek Asad Morad* 8500 BC Mushki* 6400 BC Rahmat Abad* 7500 BC

Sites with bioarchaeological remains studied by M. Mashkour and/or M. Tengberg *14C dates paid (in part) by UMR 7209, **14C dates provided by A. Zazzo


3300 BC.

700 BC.

Earth

Grain

Susa-Iran, 3000-2800 BC., Tablet proto-Elamite An account of horses and equides

Orchard Plough

The evolution of the Sumerian cuneiform from pictogram to syllabic alphabet 3300 to 700 BC.

Susa-Iran, 3300 BC., tablet picturing Agricultural parcel, irrigation canals and fosse


Susa-Iran, 3300 BC., Seal impression with knitting scene

Susa-Iran, 3300 BC., seal impression garnering crops in attics or cellars


Miniatures representing different phases of agriculture, 12th and 13th AC.


1199 A.D.

865- 927 A.D.

1058 A.D.

1688 A.D.

1368 A.D.

Written sources related to botanic, zoology and agricultural knowledge


Nishapur-Khorasan

Shirvan-Khorasan

Desert, farmland and pastoral areas in Iran


Underground waters (Qanat)


Khorasan

Different rural landscapes in Nishapur(Khorasan)


70 Qajar Village (18th A.D.)

300 Pre-Qajar Village

303

273

Historical village (pre-Qajar and Qajar)

contemporary village

village pâturage terre aride jardin cultivÊ terre cultivÊe

Number of historical villages in Nishapur (Khorasan) based on the textual evidences


Distribution of the historical mills in Nishapur Based on the archaeological surveys

Remains of mills in Nishapur (Khorasan)


Isfahan

Different rural landscapes in Isfahan


pigeon-houses, Isfahan


Kashan

Rural landscapes in desert : Kashan and qanat in it’s agricultural system


Fars

Traditional Rain-watered Fig System with more than 10 centuries historical background Estahbanat-Fars


Rice plantation in Fars


Khuzestan

Remains of sugarcane processing , 12th -13th AC., Susa

Sugarcane cultivation in Khuzestan


Different rural landscapes in Gilan (Caspian coast)

Gilan Gian

FOREST SETTLEMENT TEA GARDEN

TERRACED PADDY

Siahkal/Gilan


TEA GARDEN

ESTALKH(SAL)

TERRACED PADDY

RURAL ROAD

SETTLEMENT

HYRCANIAN FOREST


Local people use vernacular technics

Harvest Festival

Women play an important role in farming

Work song : traditional songs women sing while working


1935-37

2014

1977

Sustainable land use Ancient city of Susa- Khuzestan


1935-37

1977

Sustainable land use Sasanian city of Gur, Firouzabad-Fars

2014


1935-37

1977

Sustainable land use

2014

Sasanian city of Takht-e Soleyman- West Azerbaijan


1935-37

1977

Sustainable land use Sasanian city of Bishapur, Kazerun-Fars

2014


Investigation and cognition of Natural and cultural parameters involved in shaping landscapes

Formation and transformation of landscapes through time and space

Landscape characteristics

Landscape operation

Rural landscape evaluation criteria Determining the factors in assessment of landscapes based on the natural and cultural characteristics

Evaluating both natural and cultural potentials in landscapes

An ever-lasting rural landscape Actualizing the evaluated potentials in landscapes

Conservation and management of rural landscapes

- Perpetual and lucrative interaction between man and nature - Sustainable life and land use


Selected Bibliography •Abu Abdullah Hakem Nishāburi, Tārikh-e Nishapur, ed. M. R. Shafiei Kadkani, Tehran: Āgah, 1375 Š./1996 •Eʿtemād-al-Salṭana, Matla’ al-šams, 3 vols., Tehran: Sherkat-e Ofset Iran, 1358 Š./1980 •Mirza Ḥosayn ‚Abd al-Karim Darrudi, Ketābče Neyšabur, ed. R. Ja’fariyān, Mashhad: Astan Qods Rażavi, 1382 Š./2003 •Vesel, Ž., “Les traités d’agriculture en Iran,” Studia Iranica, 15/1, 1986, pp. 99-108. •Subtelny, M.E, “A Medieval Persian Agricultural Manual in Context: The Irshād al-zirāʿa in Late Timurid and Early Safavid Khorasan,” Studia Iranica, 22/2, 1993, pp. 167-217. •Subtelny, M.E., “Mīrak-i Sayyid Ghiyāsò and the Timurid Tradition of Landscape Architecture: Further Notes to a Medieval Persian Agricultural Manual,” Studia Iranica, 24/1, 1995, pp. 19-60. •Subtelny, M.E., Le Monde est un Jardin: aspects de L'histoire culturelle de L‘Iran médieval, Association pour l'avancement des études iraniennes, Paris, 2002 •Laleh, Haeedeh etal., Le paysage culturel et urbain de la ville ancienne de Nishapur depuis l'époque sassanide jusqu’à l’époque Qajare, 1390 Š/ 2012, Rapport non publié, Centre de recherche de Nishapur, ICHTO •Gerster, Georg, Paradise Lost, Persia From Above, Phaidon, 2009 •Afšār, I., “Fehrest-nāma-ye ahamm-e motūn-e kešāvarzī dar zabān-e fārsī”, Āyanda 8/10, 1361 Š./1982, pp. 686-94. •Afšār, I., “Rasāʾel-ī az moʾallef-e Eršād al-zerāʿa,” FIZ 13, 1344 Š./1965, pp. 7-6 •Gray ,Basil, La Peinture persane, Skira, 1962 •Naissance de l'ecriture: cuneiformes et hieroglyphes : [catalogue d’exposition], Galeries nationales du Grand Palais, 7 mai-9 aout 1982

•Huyghe, Edith , Les routes du tapis, Paris, Gallimard , 2004 •Mohammad-e Zakariā-ye Rāzi, Mofid al-Khavas, library of Astan Qods Rażavi, No. 5135 •Ibn Bukhtishu, Manafi' al-Hayawan, Bibliothèque nationale de France, No. 2782 •Schmidt, Erich F., Flights Over the Ancient Cities of Persia, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1940


Rural landscapes of Iran  

WRL Meeting Milan, 2014

Rural landscapes of Iran  

WRL Meeting Milan, 2014

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