Rural landscape as heritage: the World Rural Landscape Initiative

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ISCCL

ICOMOS-IFLA

WORLD RURAL LANDSCAPES A worldwide initiative for global conservation and management

Rural landscape as heritage: the World Rural Landscape Initiative Lionella Scazzosi ABC Department, Politecnico di Milano International Scientific Committee of Cultural Landscapes ICOMOS – IFLA (ISCCL), World Rural Landscape Initiative (WRLi) Scientific Coordinator Milan, November 5th


THE CONTEXT

WORLD RURAL LANDSCAPES A worldwide initiative for global conservation and management

THE CONTEXT Why a Rural Landscape Initiative Rural landscape is: ― ― ― ― ―

a product of men + nature a landscape (physical object + social cultural perception) a resource (productive, social, environmental, cultural, economic,.) a tangible and intangible cultural heritage dynamic phenomen (“evolving cultural landscape”)

Nowadays it is threatened by: ― huge changes due to pressures of development and increased urban population ― abandonment of the land ― intensive agricultural practices ― loss of traditional and local knowledge


THE CONTEXT

WORLD RURAL LANDSCAPES A worldwide initiative for global conservation and management

In this context the International Scientific Committee on Cultural Landscapes ICOMOS-IFLA (ISCCL) has launched in 2012 (Fontainebleau 26 Oct-2 November 2011) the

World Rural Landscape Initiative to promote a Recommendation on World Rural Landscapes Three main reasons: ― the need for a common discussion ― not international documents that concern rural landscape at a world scale — “organically evolved landscapes” (sub.“continuing landscapes”) (as defined by UNESCO) need more clarifications, in term of methodologies and actions

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THE PURPOSE

WORLD RURAL LANDSCAPES A worldwide initiative for global conservation and management

THE PURPOSE of the Initiative  Define a concept of rural landscape, valid for all cultures, in order to enable a common dialogue  Establish general principles about knowledge, conservation and management of these landscapes to ensure the safeguarding of its values.  Provide a place for international, public-private and interdisciplinary cooperation, through the creation and administration of: a website, an online workplace and a collaborative network.  Act to prevent the loss of traditional knowledge ​and local values, and reinforce their importance by recognizing and disseminating them.  Promote research on issues related to the conservation and management of rural landscapes and encourage the development of practical actions.  Raise people’s and stakeholders’ awareness of the importance of safeguarding rural landscapes and their values.

A MAIN DOCUMENT AT WORLD LEVEL (as an umbrella) and SOME DOCUMENTS AND INITIATIVES AT INTERNATIONAL, NATIONAL, LOCAL LEVELS

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THE SCOPE

WORLD RURAL LANDSCAPES A worldwide initiative for global conservation and management

By Rural Landscape we mean “all productive landscapes in relation with the use of the land, both in the past and today” It embraces all activities, wherever they are carried out: on the ground, in the air, underground, in the water, etc. It includes not only cultivated areas, but also places which have been and/or are the expression of activities that have been and/or are closely linked to it (woodlands, pastures…).

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Agrarian landscape: it refers to everything that is related to agriculture (from the Latin “ager”) Pastoral landscape: it consists in livestock breeding, linked to seasonal movements of nomadism and transhumance Forestry landscape: it refers to the landscapes where trees are planted or managed for productive purposes Fish farming: it refers to the landscapes where the fish is bred for productive purposes Others (Salt, Truffles, Mining, ….)?

PERAPHS ALL RURAL LANDSCAPES ARE « MIXED » (agricolture+ woodland+cattles+…..) 5


THE SCOPE

WORLD RURAL LANDSCAPES A worldwide initiative for global conservation and management

Rural landscape includes areas not only still mainly used for production, but also degraded or abandoned areas, or places recently transformed by modernization (???). Landscape embraces large rural spaces, as well as peri-urban areas and agricultural (landscape) fragments within built areas. Rural Landscape concern not only outstanding places, but includes all areas.

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THE SCOPE

WORLD RURAL LANDSCAPES A worldwide initiative for global conservation and management

Rural landscape is a “SYSTEM” of relationship (functional, spatial, visual, symbolic, …) between its components (e.g. village, terraces, cultivations, woods, pastures, routes, water elements, … ) (It’s not a list of components)

Short transhumance. System of settlements and use of ground (agriculture, forest and pasture) related to seasonal movement of cattle, organized in two or three stations depending on local altitude.


THE STRUCTURE

WORLD RURAL LANDSCAPES A worldwide initiative for global conservation and management

Main Document Principles

•Definition •Field of application /scope •Rural landscape as a resource •Rural landscape as tangible and intangible cultural heritage •Identification, characterisation, •Evaluation •Persistence and changes, transformation. Criteria •Principles and tools for a rural landscapes policy •Methodological key points to define a policy on agrarian landscapes •Decision process and management

Annex I Atlas and White Book

• Atlas of Rural Landscapes ( types, classification; description, general mapping, iconography…) • White Book (general information : policies, economic and social problems, weakness and opportunities, management, ... ) •for geographic Regions (Europe, North America, Asia, Australia, …)

Annex II Guidelines

• Methodological and operational issues (suggestions and best practices): •Cataloguing and mapping criteria and modalities •Preservation, conservation, transformation, etc. • Evaluation : concept s of aesthetic value, integrity, authenticity, tradition etc. •Interpretation : suggestions • Identification and management process

Glossary

Bibliography

•Definition of a common terminology : few basic terms (for researchers, institutional users, people, ....):

• Rural landscape definitions • History of rural landscape • Methodologies •…………………….


FIRST RESULTS

WORLD RURAL LANDSCAPES A worldwide initiative for global conservation and management

FIRST RESULTS  Developing a common glossary (draft)  Constructing a World Rural Landscape Atlas and comparing policies and tools to transmit and manage cultural values of rural landscapes (work in progress)

 The Resolution of Milan - 5 November 2014


FIRST RESULTS

WORLD RURAL LANDSCAPES A worldwide initiative for global conservation and management

GLOSSARY  Landscape  Rural different from “agrarian” and “agricultural”

 Evolving landscapes and Continuing landscapes  Conservation = management of changes ATLAS Method and structure will show you later THE RESOLUTION OF MILAN During the ISCCL working group meeting in Milano (4-5 November 2014) a first step toward the Document of Principle, the Atlas and the Glossary is made. A short Declaration with some principles is approved to involve international and local organizations and people interested in the Initiative.


PERSPECTIVES

WORLD RURAL LANDSCAPES A worldwide initiative for global conservation and management

The World Rural Landscapes Initiative aims not only to recognize rural landscapes, but also to develop conservation and management policies that can be applied to them. It intends to be an opportunity for a further analysis and debate among experts and stakeholders who - at various levels - have to do with rural landscape as a historic and cultural heritage, and who participate in the definition of policies.

Rural landscape as cultural heritage is a people construction: communities, decision-makers, farmers, experts, citizens, and so on, have all individual and collective responsibility (aware or not aware) in relation to the cultural heritage. Policies to transmit cultural heritage can use different concept and related actions: protections, preservation, maintenance, restoration, reconstruction and adaptation. Pro-active and

management activities are essential because the dynamism of rural landscapes.

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! www.worldrurallandscapes.org


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