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SOCIAL FAMILY An "Aging in Place" Solution for Elderly People

MASTER THESIS, YU SUN, FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE, POLITECNICO DI MILANO SUPERVISOR: GENNARO POSTIGLIONE


SOCIAL FAMILY An "Aging in Place" Solution for Elderly People

MASTER THESIS Yu Sun, 813490 Supervisor: Gennaro Postiglione

Great Thanks to, Professor Gennaro Postiglione for all the effect he did for my Thesis Special Thanks to, Professor Giuliana Costa, Professor Gianni Ottolini, Professor Raffaele Pugliese, And all the people helped me for this Thesis

Faculity of Architecture, POLITECNICO DI MILANO Master of Science in Architecture 2015


CONTENTS

PART I. STUDY OF GLOBAL AND ITALIAN AGING PHENOMENON 5 20 28

Global Aging as Background Aging Italy System of Valuing Elderly's Life — Global Agewatch Index

PART II. STUDY OF AGING HUMAN BODY AND DESIGN SOLUTION 42 52 74

Aging of Human Body From Aging Body to Design — Elderly Living Space Design Catalog Design Case Study

PART III. RESEARCH OF ITALIAN ELDERLY LIVING CONDITION AND THE "SOCIAL FAMILY" SOLUTION 102 114 124 138

Elderly Living Condition in Italy Social Family for the Elderly Programme Case Study Sharing Spaces Case Study

PART IV. RESEARCH OF MILAN ELDERLY LIVING CONDITION AND DESIGN SOLUTION 156 164

Elderly Living in Milan Site Choose in Milan

PART V. RESEARCH OF THE SITE 188 198 206 214 222 228

Research of the Site's History Research of Basic Characteristic of the Building Research of Existing Problems of the Building Research of Possibile Programme of the Building Research of the People Living in the Building Research and New Programme for Different Dwellings

PART VI. DESIGN 248 264 284

Masterplan Design "Social Family" Unite Design Interior Design for Elderly Space in a "Social Family" Unit

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GLOSSARY


PART I. STUDY OF GLOBAL AND ITALIAN AGING PHENOMENON

CHAPTER 1. GLOBAL AGING AS BACKGROUND


Global Aging of Population

1. Developed country, or "more economically developed country", is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations. 2. Developing country, also called a lower developed country or underdeveloped country, is a nation with an underdeveloped industrial base, and low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

Aging of population (also known as demographic aging, and population aging) is a summary term for shifts in the age distribution of a population toward older ages. Because of the “increasing longevity” and “declining fertility” the whole world is facing a population aging phenomenon. An increase in longevity raises the average age of the population by increasing the numbers of surviving older people. A decline in fertility reduces the number of babies, and as the effect continues, the numbers of younger people in general also reduce. For the entirety of recorded human history, the world has never seen as aged a population as currently exists globally and population aging is expected to be among the most prominent global demographic trends of the 21st century. Population aging is progressing rapidly in many developed countries1, but those developing countries 2 whose fertility declines began relatively early also are experiencing rapid increases in their proportion of elderly people. This pattern is expected to continue over the next few decades, eventually affecting the entire world. Population aging has many important socio-economic and health consequences, including the increase in the old-age dependency ratio. It presents challenges for public health (concerns over possible bankruptcy of Medicare and related programs) as well as for economic development (shrinking and aging of labor force, possible bankruptcy of social security systems). Also for sure it will influence the living space of human being, since the aging body will have specific requirement of the space that they are living.

Newsart The 2020s are looking grim, Paul Lachine 8


Proportion of People Aged 60-plus Wordwide in 2015, 2030 and 2050 Numbers of 60+ Numbers of 60+

12%

2015

2030 Numbers of 60+

12%

16%

World’s Population 9550 millions

World’s Population 8425 millions

World’s Population 7320 millions

2015

2050

2030 Numbers of 60+ Numbers of 60+

Numbers of 60+

tion s

12%

World’s Population 8425 millions

2030

World’s Population 9550 millions

World’s Population 8425 millions

World’s Population 7320 millions

Numbers of 60+

16%

22%

16%

World’s Population 9550 millions

2050

Numbers of 60+

22%

2050

1. Ageing refers to two dimensions Numbers of 60+ of 22% human ageing, either to the psychological expansion of mind owing the accumulation of new experiences and knowledge on the one hand and on the other hand to physical ageing process of the human body. In this process, the body composition and physiology change due to ageing. Often, ageing first touches the ability move independently, reaching, thinking, hearing, vision, and dexterity.

Over the next several decades, countries especially in the developed world will experience an unprecedented growth in the number of their elderly. According to the population calculation, in just 10 years' time from now on, the number of older people will surpass 1 billion. By 2050, there will be 2 billion older people, nearly 10 times as many as in 1950. The overall percentage of old population world will change from 12% in 2015 to 16% in 2030 and keep rising to 22% until 2050. Far from the increasing of the proportion of population, the total number of population will increase from 7320 millions(2015) to 9550 millions(2050) of the whole world, which means the number of elderly people will have a cross-cutting growth. Generally speaking, In most of the developed countries of the world and in a increasing number of developing ones, population aging1 is now a predominant demographic issue.The age structure of the population, especially in the western countries, has changed from one in which younger people predominated to the one in which older people constituted a big proportion of the total population. In more developed countries, declines in fertility that began in the early 1900s have resulted in current fertility levels below the population replacement rate. So the proportions of older people typically are highest in more developed countries but we cannot ignore that the developing couniries are also aging rapidly these years. And because of the huge amount of people inthe developing countries. In fact, if only counting the number of population, far from affecting only higherincome countries, population aging is happening fastest in developing countries. Currently, more than twothirds of older people live in developing countries. By 2050, this will be four-fifths. All in all, the whole world is in an aging process which will lasting for a long period. The coming 21st century is seeing an unprecedented global demographic transition, with population ageing at its heart. 35 years later most of the countries will have proportion of more than 20% population aged 60-plus, while in some countries it even canbe more that 30%. It is a big trend of the change of the world.

Source: UNDESA Population Division 2013; Population Pyramids of the World 10


Proportion of Population Aged 60-plus by Region in 2015

Proportion of Population Aged 60-plus by Region in 2050

33.6% 26.8%

23.2% 19.8%

24%

11.2% 2015 North America

2050 North America

2015 Europe 2015

2050 Europe 2015

25.1%

2015 Asia

2050 Asia

27.6%

8.9%

20.1% 5.4% 10.6%

2050 Africa

2015 Africa

2015

2015

2015 Latin America and the Caribbean

Percentage of population aged 60+ (2015) Source: UNDESA Population Division 2013; Population Pyramids of the World

2015 Oceania

2050 Latin America and the Caribbean

Percentage of population aged 60+ (2050) Source: UNDESA Population Division 2013; Population Pyramids of the World

2050 Oceania


Proportion of Population Aged 60-plus of Countries in 2015

0-9%

10-19%

20-24%

25-29%

30%+

Proportion of Population Aged 60-plus of Countries in 2050

No Data

Source: UNDESA Population Division 2013 Note: The boundaries shown on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations

0-9%

10-19%

20-29% 0-9%

30%+ 10-19%

No data 20-24%

25-29%

30%+

No Data

Source: UNDESA Population Division 2013 Note: The boundaries shown on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations


Top 10 Countries of population aged 60-plus of 2015 and the increase of 2050

1. The youth bulge is a common phenomenon in many developing countries, and in particular, in the least developed countries. It is often due to a stage of development where a country achieves success in reducing infant mortality but mothers still have a high fertility rate. The result is that a large share of the population is comprised of children and young adults, and today’s children are tomorrow’s young adults.

Top 10 Countries of population aged 60-plus (2014) and the increase of 2050

Japan

43.7

Germany

39.6

Increase 10.9%

32.8

38.7

Finland

31.5

Increase 12.1%

Bulgaria

36.5

Greece

37.9

36.0

2

Increase 4.7 % Increase 9.9 % Increase 11.9 %

27.4

3

40.8

Croatia

Increase 11.3%

27.5

1

Portugal

Italy

Sweden

France

28.5

31.5

Increase 15.7 %

Increase 10.4 %

26.8

4

26.6

5

Percentage of total population aged 60+ (2015)

Increase 2.9 %

Increase 7.0 %

26.0

25.6

25.6

25.1

24.5

6

7

8

9

10

Percentage of total population aged 60+ (2050)

Source: UNDESA Population Division 2013

In just 10 years’ time, the number of older people will surpass 1 billion. By 2050, there will be 2 billion older people, nearly 10 times as many as in 1950. Actually, there are marked differences in the rate of demographic transition between different regions. Sub- Saharan Africa remains the “youngest” region, with 5.4 percent of its population over 60 in 2012, compared with 23.2 percent in Europe, the world’s “oldest” region. Uneven rates of population change mean that alongside ageing, many countries are facing a “youth bulge 1” due to their success in reducing infant mortality. In some countries of sub-Saharan and North Africa, 40 per cent of the population are under 15, with nearly 70 per cent under 30. However, all regions are ageing. Percentages can mask the actual numbers of older people. In Africa, there will be 215 million people aged over 60 by 2050 –13 times the number there are today. Japan is currently the only country in the world with 30 per cent of its population aged 60 or over. By 2050, 64 countries will have nearly one in three people aged 60 or over. In many developing countries, the transition to an older population is happening much more quickly than it did elsewhere. While it took 115 years for the older population of France to double (from 7 to 14 percent between 1865 and 1980), Brazil will make the same transition in just 21 years (between 2011 and 2032). By 2050, 64 countries will have nearly one in three people aged 60 or over. If we focus on the “Top 10 countries of population aged 60-plus in 2015”, it is easy to recognize that they are all European countries except Japan. It proves Europe is the most aged region. Among them, Italy ranks number 3 which have 27.4% population over 60. As countries all over the world are experiencing an aging progress, till 2050 most of these counties will have an obviously increase of the elderly people. Portugal will increase fastest to reach 40.8% in 2050, and it will become one of the only two countries reach more than 40 per cent elderly population, together with Japan. WhileSweden is the only top 10 countries which will not reach 30 per cent of its population aged 60-plus. While increasing the proportion of population aged 60plus we cannot ignore that the longer life expectancy of human being is another key point of aging population. 16


Life Expectancy of the World from 1950 to 2050

1. Life expectancy is a statistical measure of how long a person or organism may live, based on the year of their birth, their current age and other demographic factors including gender.

Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy 100

90

80

70 60

50

40

30

The life expectancy 1 of the world is keeping increasing in the few decades because of scientific and technological advances, industrialization, socioeconomic development, improved communication, better hygiene and increased food intake. The rising life expectancy within the older population itself is increasing the number and proportion of people at very old ages. The “oldest old” (people aged 85 or older) constitute 8 percent of the world’s 65-and-over population: 12 percent in more developed countries and 6 percent in less developed countries. Till 2050 the newborns can except to live to 83 years in developed regions and 74 years in developing regions, the world average will be around 78 years. By 2050, it will be 83 and 75 years respectively. Life expectancy at age 60 reflects the overall mortality level of a population over 60 years. In 2013, the global population aged 60 years can expect to live another 20 years on average, 2 years longer than in 1990. Life expectancy at age 60 in high-income countries (23 years) is 6 years longer than that in low-income and lower-middle income countries (17 years). Life expectancies at age 60 were longer and the increases larger in high-income countries. In such countries, life expectancy at age 60 had increased by almost as much as life expectancy at birth – around three years for both men and women. In all countries, people who have reached the age of 60 can expect to live into an older age.

20

10

0 1950 1955 1960 1965

1970

1975

1980

Life expectancy of developed regions

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Life expectancy of the world

2020

2025

2030

2035

2040

2045

2050

Year

Life expectancy of developing regions

Source: UNDESA Population Division 2013; World Population Prospects 14


CHAPTER 2. AGING ITALY


Aging of Population in Italy

1. A population pyramid, also called an age pyramid or age picture diagram, is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population (typically that of a country or region of the world), which forms the shape of a pyramid when the population is growing.

Italy is one of the oldest countries in the world. The proportion of the 65+ populations is, according to ISTAT (2011) 20.1 percent, a value that grew by 37 percent in the last 20 years and almost doubled in less than fifty years. In the early 1990s, there were 8.7 million older people living in Italy, which had risen to 11.9 million by 2008; a net increase of 3.2 million individuals. And as it showed before 16.7million people over 60 live all over the country, which is 27.4% of the whole population in 2014. It will become 34.6% till 2030 and keep increasing to 38.7% in 2050 around 24.2million. And at the same time, Italy is a country that is aging quickly, considering that over the past decade the amount of elderly has increased, as well as the “very old,� (over eighty), who constitute about 6% of the Italian population. Life expectancy has also increased; in 2012 men reached 80 years old and women 85 years old. On the other hand, the birth rate is among the lowest in Europe, the average number of children per woman is 1.42. Within the next 20 years a ratio of two elderly people for every young person will be reached, and the average life expectancy of 43.7 years (14% of the population is 0-14 years of age, 65.3% is 15 -64 years, 20.6% aged 65 and over) will rise again. That will lead the country to an old society. From the development of population pyramids1 of Italy, we can easyly noticed that in the population of 60-plus is the only part which is becoming bigger and bigger. With the trend of population decrease in Italy, the average age of Italian become higher from 45.5(2015) to 47.2(2030) and reach 50.3 till 2050.

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1. The Italian National Institute of Statistics is a public research organisation. It has been present in Italy since 1926, and is the main producer of official statistics in the service of citizens and policy-makers. It operates in complete independence and continuous interaction with the academic and scientific communities.

The so-called "processo di invecchiamento", ageing process, and its effects on the structure of the Italian population is currently in the spotlight. Some studies report that the continued ageing of the population is effecting the health of the country as a whole. Despite the fact population growth has slowed in the last few years, the Italian population continues to increase, exceeding 60 million people in 2015. However, Italy's problem stems from the fact that 27.6% of its population are people aged 60 years or over. The Italian National Institure of Statistics1, ISTAT, has forecast a high rise in the average age of the Italian residents, increasing from from 43.5 years of age to 49.8 years in 2050. Another result of this trend in population ageing will see the percentage of the elderly in the population increase to 30.9%. This situation is the cause of some concern for several reasons:a decreased percentage of younger adults in the population reduces the amount of consumer spending. Studies have shown that young adults spend almost twice as much as those over 65 on areas such as clothing and leisure. This is particularly significant for the popular lower-end retailers whose main consumers are the younger groups in the population. Another concern is that with an increasedly older population the country's services and infrastucture will be directed towards and by the older population. This in turn will worsen the problem by reducing incentives for younger individuals and families to remain or settle in Italy. The reduction in the number of young people in the population also decreases the number of new skilled workers available to drive the economy forward. The fact that the whole country is aging make people should pay more attention to the elderly people. In this visualization, the number of people in the working segment(25-60) decreases with time, while the number of old/retired people(60+) remains constant, thereby showing the increase in burden of carrying the older generation on the working segment. So the elderly need more and more be cared by themselves.

22


Proportion of People Aged 60-plus in Italy in 2015, 2030 and 2050 Numbers of 60+

Population Pyramids of Italy 2015, 2030 and 2050 2015

27.6%

Numbers of 60+

34.6%

Numbers of 60+

37.8%

100+

Population:61142000

95-99

Male

90-94 95-89

Female

80-84 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 65-59

Italy’s Population 61.2 millions

Italy’s Population 61.1 millions

Italy’s Population 60.0 millions

50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9

2015 Numbers of 60+

27.6%

2050

2030 Numbers of 60+

34.6%

Numbers of 60+

37.8%

0-4

7.5%

5%

2.5%

2.5%

0

5%

7.5%

2030 100+

Population:61211000

Male

95-99 90-94

Female

95-89 80-84 75-79 70-74 65-69

Italy’s Population 61.2 millions

Italy’s Population 61.1 millions

Italy’s Population 60.0 millions

60-64 65-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19

2015 Numbers of 60+

tion ns

27.6%

2050

2030 Numbers of 60+

34.6%

Numbers of 60+

10-14 5-9 0-4

7.5%

5%

2.5%

2.5%

0

5%

7.5%

2050

37.8% 100+

Population:60014000

Male

95-99 90-94

Female

95-89 80-84 75-79 70-74

Italy’s Population 61.2 millions

Italy’s Population 60.0 millions

65-69 60-64 65-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24

2030

2050

15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4

Source: UNDESA Population Division 2013; Population Pyramids of the World

7.5%

5%

2.5%

0

2.5%

5%

Source: Population Pyramids of the World

7.5%


27.6% people aged 60+

Aging Society of Italy from 2015 to 2050

Life Expectancy of the Italy from 1950 to 2050

2015

People aged 60-plus: 27.6% People aged 25-59: 60.4%

34.6% people aged 60+

34.6% people aged 60+

53.6% people aged 25-59

53.6% people aged 25-59

Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy 27.6% people aged 60+

100

2030

60.4% people aged 25-59 90

80

34.6% people aged 60+

People aged 60-plus: 34.6% People aged 25-59: 53.6%

34.6% people aged 70 60+ 60

53.6% people aged 25-59

50

53.6% people aged 25-59 40

27.6% people aged 60+ 60.4% people aged 25-59

30

2050

20

10

People aged 60-plus: 37.8% People aged 25-59: 50.2%

34.6% people aged 60+

34.6% people aged 0 60+ 1950

53.6% people aged 25-59

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

Source: UNDESA Population Division 2013; Population Pyramids of the World

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

2035

2040

2045

2050

Year

53.6% people aged 25-59

Life expectancy of female in Italy 60.4% people aged 25-59

1980

Life expectancy of Male in Italy

Life expectancy of all the people in Italy

Source: UNDESA Population Division 2013; World Population Prospects


"Global AgeWatch Index" is a new index that measures the wellbeing of older people all overthe world. It has brought together a unique set of internationally comparable data based on older people’s income status, health status, education and employment, and enabling environment where there is internationally comparable data. The aim of the Index is both to capture the multidimensional nature of the quality of life and wellbeing of older people, and to provide a means by which to measure performance and promote improvements.

CHAPTER 3. SYSTEM OF VALUING ELDERLY'S LIFE GLOBAL AGEWATCH INDEX


Global AgeWatch Index

1. The Active Ageing Index is a joint project of the European Commission’s Directorate General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.

The Global AgeWatch Index (referred to as “the Index”) is the first analytical framework that uses the latest comparative and quantitative data available internationally to measure and monitor key aspects of the economic and social wellbeing of older people globally. It is inspired by the examples of the latest Human Development Index as well as the 2012 Active Ageing Index1 of the European Commission and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) in its selection, development and use of multi-perspective quantitative indicators. As such, we expect the Index to become an important research and analysis framework for practitioners and policy-makers alike, as it will facilitate cross-national comparative research on the quality of life and wellbeing of older people, and help identify data and knowledge gaps on issues of ageing. The Global AgeWatch Index initiative falls in line with the recommendations of the 2013 report of the United Nations High-level Panel on the Post-2015 Development Agenda, A New Global Partnership: Eradicate Poverty and Transform Economies Through Sustainable Development (United Nations 2013). The report calls for a “data revolution”, a new international drive towards improving the quality of statistics available to people and governments around the world. The report affirms that better quality data will be essential for monitoring a new development framework and for holding governments accountable. The overarching purpose of the Global AgeWatch Index is to promote the development of policies and programmes that will improve the quality of life and

29

wellbeing of current and future generations of older people. The Index has been constructed by assembling accessible, statistical indicators from internationally comparable data sources on a country-by-country basis on the wellbeing of their older people. The concept behind the Index is that it is necessary for decision-makers in both the public and private sectors to have at their disposal a framework to monitor in a multidimensional manner the wellbeing of older people. Such a framework will prompt policy-makers both to want to formulate policy and to base their interventions on the evidence of indexes of older people’s wellbeing, thus ensuring progress towards improving the quality of life and wellbeing of their country’s older citizens. One of the strong motivations for the Index is the lack of age-disaggregated information across countries, leading to a poor understanding of the circumstances of older people in many countries. For this reason, the Index has been constructed to measure issues of core concern to older people using data that is publicly available in comparative international data sets. The conceptual grounds of the Index are based on our review of literature on the measures of wellbeing of older people, particularly those arising from the seminal work of Amartya Sen on the concept of capabilities (see, for instance, Sen, 1999). It is believed that real progress towards promoting the quality of life and wellbeing of older people can only be made by looking at the multiple dimensions of income security and health status, the opportunities for work and education, and by generating an enabling environment for older people providing social support, personal freedom, physical safety and access to basic public services such as transport. The methodology involves constructing four domainspecific indexes which are aggregated into the overall Index. Thus, all indicators chosen have been organised under four domains to cover key aspects of older people’s wellbeing: (1) Income security (2) Health status (3) Employment and education and (4) Enabling environment. The indicators chosen for these domains represent pertinent perspectives of quality of life and wellbeing of older people for which reliable and internationally comparable recent data is currently available.

30


1. The World Health Organization (WHO; /huː/) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with international public health.

Domains and Indicators of the Global AgeWatch Index

The multidimensional nature of quality of life and wellbeing of older people is captured using four domains. The above considerations led the following four domains to capture the multidimensional nature of older people’s wellbeing, with each domain consisting of two to four indicators: 1. Income security (using direct indicators of personal wellbeing) 2. Health status (using direct indicators of personal wellbeing) 3. Employment and education (used as a proxy of coping capacities of older people) 4. Enabling environments (using indicators of enabling features of communities in which older people live which have been prioritised by older people). 1. Income security A regular, decent level of income in old age is important for sustaining quality of life and wellbeing of older people. Inadequate pension income reduces an individual’s standard of living to below a decent level, especially when the pension is their only source of cash income. Absolute lack of income often leads to other forms of deprivation and experience of discrimination, humiliation and rejection. Lack of income impinges on other social domains, and also combines adversely with other factors that are associated with the ageing process, including frailty and declining functioning.

31

For these reasons we chose to measure older people’s income security through pension income coverage, poverty rate in old age, and relative welfare of older people. The differences in the standard of living of older people across countries are proxied by GDP per capita. That said, analyses of older people’s income, while important, capture only a partial picture of their personal wellbeing. Other factors such as health, housing, access to the labour market and lifelong learning, access to public services, social support and physical safety become ever more important in determining wellbeing in old age. 2. Health status Maintaining health in old age not only has a direct bearing on people’s personal wellbeing but also improves their ability to achieve other aspects of wellbeing. Health is a core domain in measuring older people’s wellbeing. Advancing age is linked to increasing physical frailty which is associated with rising risks of the onset of ill health and disability. The aspirations of most individuals and societies are to maintain health in old age. Access to quality health and social care has a direct bearing on people’s personal wellbeing as they age. Keeping healthy also affects older people’s ability to achieve other outcomes linked with their wellbeing, such as the standard of living attained from given levels of resources (as implied by Sen’s notion of sources of variations across individuals). The other critical wellbeing outcome affected by health is the capacity to live independently and on a self reliant basis. According to the World Health Organization1 (WHO), health is “a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”; thus, we consider mental health to be an important dimension to be captured within this domain. We therefore decided to measure health status using the three indicators of life expectancy at age 60, healthy life expectancy at 60 and psychological wellbeing.

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1. Social competence is a complex, multidimensional concept consisting of social, emotional (e.g., affect regulation), cognitive (e.g., fund of information, skills for processing/acquisition, perspective taking), and behavioral (e.g., conversation skills, prosocial behavior) skills, as well as motivational and expectancy sets (e.g., moral development, self-efficacy) needed for successful social adaptation. Social competence also reflects having an ability to take another's perspective concerning a situation, learn from past experiences, and apply that learning to the changes in social interactions.

3. Employment and education Employment and education stand out as important enabling attributes of older people, as they enhance resilience and coping capacities within the constraints and opportunities of societies in which older people live. Drawing further insights from the capability approach, as well as the gerontology literature on the concept of vulnerability, we included a domain that could describe elements of the coping capacities and resilience of older people, hence our choice of employment and education. In using these two attributes, the importance of the life-course perspective is also realised, as earlier life experiences can be proxied by educational attainment of older people. Many older people place importance on their work capacity and engagement with the labour market. The employment rate of older people indicates their access to the labour market and therefore their ability to supplement pension income with wages, as well as access to a work-related support network. Thus, the employment rate is used as a proxy for the economic empowerment of older people. Educational attainment is another enabling attribute as it enhances older people’s social abilities, their access to work and also their functional competencies within the constraints and opportunities of societies in which they live. 4. Enabling environment The critical elements of the enabling environment chosen are social connectedness, physical safety, and freedom of choice and access to good transport, as these are identified important by older people themselves. The 2013 Human Development Report introduced the 1 concept of “social competencies ”, referring to what social institutions in a country can do. These institutions are those aspects of societies and environments that affect individuals but cannot be assessed at the individual level because they are based on relationships often summarised in the objectives of social cohesion and inclusion. Social cohesion between younger and older generations is an important element in assuring an

enabling environment for older people. Social cohesion is also associated with positive attitudes to ageing and to older people by those of different generations, which contribute to an enabling social network and agefriendly environment. Likewise, policies and programmes that support older people’s capacity to be connected with their communities are highly valued. Older people want to be able to live independently; they wish to feel safe in their environment, be connected with their communities and have access to good public transport. We identified an enabling environment for older people as a combination of their social connections, physical safety, civic freedom and access to public transport.

Global AgeWatch Index

Domains 1. Income Security Indicators Pension income 1. 1 coverage 1. 2

Poverty rate in old age

Relative welfare 1. 3 of older people

2. Health Status

2. 1

Pension income coverage

3. Employment and Education 3. 1

Employment of older people

4. 1

Social connections

Healthy life Educational status Physical 2. 2 expectancy at 60 3. 2 of older people 4. 2 living condation 3. 3

Psychological wellbeing

4. 3 Civic freedom

1. 4 GDP per capita

4. 4

Direct "outcome" indicators of older people's wellbeing

Proxy of enableing attributes/capabilities of older people

Source: Global AgeWatch Index 33

4. Enabling Environment

Access to public transport

Enabling social environment of society


Global AgeWatch Index Map

Ranking of Countries according to "Global AgeWatch Index"

The map shows how countries are ranked in the Global AgeWatch Index. Colours on a spectrum from light blue to dark blue represent the rankings from 1 to 91. Grey is used for countries that are not included in the Index.

Overall Value System Overall value system

90. 5/1

00

Income Security

80

00

0 /10 .6

80

0 /10 .6

90. 5/1

Overall value system Employment and Education

00 /1

91 .5

00 /1

87 .6

91 .5

00 /1

Health Status Enabling Environment Value of each Domains

00 /1

87 .6

Global AgeWatch Index rankings Global AgeWatch Indexofrankings Global AgeWatch Indexof rankings the top 10 of countries of the top 10 countries population aged the of top 10 countries population population agedof 60-plus (2014) aged Percentage of Elderly Rank; GAIR:Global AgeWatch Index Rank) 60-plus (2014) (PER: 60-plus (2014)

67 .8/

80 .4/

00 /1

77 .5/

00 /1

80 .5/

82 .1/

00 /1

55 .3/

8 78 0.5/ .8/

0 10

0 10

00

00

78 .8

00

78 .8/

77 .5/

75 .2/

00

75 .6

00 /1

00

00 /1

00

00 /1

80 .4/

82 .8/

75 .2/

50 .6/

88 .0/

0 10

00

00 /1

75 .6

82 .8/

82 .1/

0 10

70 .7/

00

0 10

70 .7/

00

78 .6

0 10

65. 4/1

PER No.10 GAIR No.16

00

00 /1

78 .6

00

0 10

78 .3/

00

70 .8

50 .6/

00

00

78 .8

76 .0/

0 10 4/

0 10

70 .8

19 . 74. 2/1

79. 4/1

00

55 .3/

00 /1

00

40 .0/

76 .0/

76. 1/1

0 10 3/

6. Portugal

0 10

0 10 7/

PER No.9 GAIR No.37

3

0 10

65. 4/1

70 .7

00

00 /1

0 10 9/

59. 8/1

PER No.5 GAIR No.56

65 .

0 10

Source: Global AgeWatch Index

43 .

0 10 5/

58. 5/1

0 10 4/

PER No.8 GAIR No.2

0 10

0 10 6/

76. 1/1

PER No.7 GAIR No.67

0 10 9/

70 .7

PER No.6 GAIR No.73

24 .

1

20 .

0 10

58. 9/1

100

Finland

33 .

0 10

France

9. Sweden

0 10 5/

1

90

78. 6/1

2

80

0 10 8/

3

4

5

6

Source: Global AgeWatch Index

70

0 10

0 10

79. 4/1

60

43 .

PER No.4 GAIR No.15

6

0 10 7/

50

49. 6/1

40

0 10

Portugal

5. Croatia

0 10

19 .

58. 9/1

7

30

62 .

58. 5/1

2

Greece0.

0 10 3/

8

20

0 10 6/

0 10

Bulgaria

Italy

Sweden 0 10 5/

9

25.1

10

49. 6/1

10

24.5

1

78. 8/1

0 10 3/

19 .

0 10

24 .

PER No.3 GAIR No.39

Croatia

0 10

Global AgeWatch Index Ranking

56 .

PER No.2 GAIR No.5

Greece

0 10

78. 6/1

62 .

0 10 8/

0 10

Finland

Germany

0 10 8/

0 10

78. 8/1

56 .

PER No.1 GAIR No.9

0 10

Italy

Japan

0 10 8/

0 10

Germany

00

Japan


Italy AgeWatch Result 100

Legend

80

Country domain value

60

100

80

60

40

20

40

Income Security

20

Employment and Education

0

20

40

60

80

100

Enabling Environment

40

100

Legend

60

100

20

60 80

60

40

20

0 20 40 60 80 100

0 20

20 20

100

Legend

40

80

100 40

Country domain value

80

60

20

40

60

80

Country domain value

20

Regional average

Employment and Education

Health Status Income Security Enabling Environment Employment and Education

40 100 60

Health Status

Ranking of different domain of Italy Enabling Environment

80

Regional average

Income Security

Country Country Regional Regional domain value average average Employment and Education domain value

40 Income 60 Security 80 100

Income Security

No.25 77.5/100

100

Employment and Education No.69 24.6/100

Health Status Enabling Environment

AgeWatch Index of Italy

Health Status

20

80

Regional average

Health Status Enabling Environment

Italy ranks moderately on the Global AgeWatch Index, at 39 overall. According to the “Global AgeWatch Index�, in the four domains of value, Italy performs best in the health domain (6), with values above the regional average on life expectancy indicators. And it performs well in the income security domain(25) with pension coverage of 81% elderly population (over 65, according to data of Istat). It ranks low in the capability domain(69), with a below average employment rate (40.4%) and rate of educational attainment among older people (41.4%). However the weakest domain of Italy is enabling environment(74), with lower values of regional average of Europe. That means if we want to offer better life condition for the elderly in Italy, the domains of capability as well as enabling environment are the main points we need to put effort on. Despite this demographic profile, Italy remains quite underdeveloped in terms of public policies aiming at coping with ageing consequences, specifically long-term care needs but also regarding the issue of housing and housing needs in old age, which can be consider as one of main reasons lead to the problem of enabling environment.

No.6

78.7/100

No.74 58.5/100

Source: Global AgeWatch Index 38


9. Report on Ageing Survey in RA, Yerevan, Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs of RA, National Statistical Service of RA and UNFPA Armenia, 2009 10. 'A life of dignity for all: accelerating progress towards the Millennium Development Goals and advancing the United Nations development agenda beyond 2015’, Report of the Secretary-General, July 28 2013

References

11. OECD, Pensions at a Glance 2009: Retirement Income Systems in OECD Countries, Paris, OECD Publishing, 2009 Books

12. Hoff A, Population Ageing in Central and Eastern Europe: Societal and Policy Implications, Farnham, Ashgate, 2011

1.UNDESA, World Population Prospects: the 2014 Revision

13. M. Scott, M. Scott, Ball, Livable communities for aging populations : urban design for longevity, New York : John Wiley & Sons, 2012

2. Rechel B, Doyle Y, Grundy E and McKee M, How can Health Systems respond to Population Ageing? Health Systems and Policy Analysis policy brief 10, World Health Organization 2009 and World Health Organization, on behalf of the European Observatory on health Systems and Policies, 2009

14. Anderzhon, Jeffrey W, Design for aging: international case studies of building and program, Hoboken: J. Wiley, 2012 15. Erika Lombardi, Italian report on volunteering abroad as a lifelong learning opportunity for senior citizens, Project “Mobility 55 – Mobility in Europe and Active Citizenship for Elderly People”, 2002

3. Bloom D E, Canning D and Fink G, Implications of Population Aging for Economic Growth, PGDA Working Paper No. 64, Program of the Global Demography of Aging, Harvard School of Public Health, January 2011 4. World Health Organization, Global Health Observatory Data Repository, Year: 2013 5. Falkingham J, Baschieri A, Evandrou M and Grant G, Left Behind in Transition? The Well-being of Older People in Tajikistan, CRA Discussion Paper No.91, Centre for Research on Ageing, Southampton University, 2009 6. Missoni E and Solimano G, Towards Universal Health Coverage: the Chilean experience, World Health Report (2010), Background paper 4, World Health Organization, 2010 7.Zaidi A and Rejniak M, Fiscal Policy and Sustainability in View of Crisis and Population Ageing in Central and Eastern European Countries, Policy Brief August 2010

Websites

1. http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/index.htm 2. http://www.helpage.org/global-agewatch/ 3. http://www.pension-watch.net/country-fact-file/nepal 4. http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Excel-Data/mortality.htm 5. http://www.ilo.org/gimi/gess/ShowTheme do?tid=1985 6. http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.688?lang=en) 7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ageing 8. http://populationpyramid.net/italy/ 9. http://ghdx.healthmetricsandevaluation.org/record/

8. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2013). World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision

10. http://www.lifeinitaly.com/moving/senior-living.asp

39

40


PART II. STUDY OF AGING HUMAN BODY AND DESIGN SOLUTION

CHAPTER 1. AGING OF HUMAN BODY


Aging of Human Body

Changing of Human Body When Geting Old Brain Shrink/Degrad Hearing and Vision Decline

1. The endocrine system refers to the collection of glands of an organism that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs.

Endocrine Dysfunction

Muscle Loss

Brain: Certain parts of the brain shrink, especially the prefrontal cortex (an area at the front of the frontal lobe) and the hippocampus; In certain brain regions, communication between neurons can be reduced; Changes in the brain’s blood vessels occur; Damage by free radicals increases (free radicals are a kind of molecule that reacts easily with other molecules). Hearing and Vision Decline: As aging, structures inside the ear start to change and their functions decline. Their ability to pick up sounds decreases. Elderly may also have problems maintaining their balance as sit, stand, and walk. The sharpness of elderly's vision gradually declines. The most common problem is difficulty focusing the eyes on something close. 1 Endocrine Dysfunction: Levels of most hormones decrease with aging. Even when hormone levels do not decline, endocrine function generally declines with age because hormone receptors become less sensitive. Although such decreased function suggests that hormone replacement therapy might be beneficial in older people, such therapy generally does not appear to reverse aging or prolong life. Muscle Loss Changes in the muscle tissue, cause muscles to have less tone and ability to contract. Muscles may become rigid with age and may lose tone.Strength and endurance change. Loss of muscle mass reduces strength. However, endurance may be enhanced somewhat by changes in the muscle fibers.

Source: Alzheimer's Disease: Unraveling the Mystery Aging changes in the bones - muscles - joints, U.S. National Library of Medicine; 44


Physiological Changes of Elderly

Exercise Capacity Decline

Young

Exercise Capacity Decline Exercise Capacity of the people decline when they are getting old. Correlations were found between muscle strength, step test results and walking speed as well as between walking speed and leisure-time physical activity. There was also a correlation between problems in handling the plug in the manual ability test and strength in the key-grip. Old

Balance Function Decline Balance function declines with increasing age, and it is one of the cause of falls in older persons. Strength, cerebellar integrity, vestibulo-cochlear function, hearing and vision all play a role in maintaining balance. As getting old, all this elements decline to varying degrees. Muscle spindle and mechanoreceptor functions decline with pure aging, further interfering.

Balance Function Decline

Young

Old 1. Prostat, a gland surrounding the neck of the bladder in male mammals and releasing prostatic fluid.

Endocrine System Decline

Young

Old

Endocrine System Decline As some research showed endocrine dysfunction plays a major role in the overall aging process. The progressive decline in endocrine system functioning largely reflects a reduced need for hormones by target tissues, a reduced blood supply, and decline in hormone receptors in target tissues. And it is the truth that a reduction in the size of many endocrine glands happen when we getting old. For example, it is not uncommon to pass urine more frequently in the senior years. This is partly due to age1 related changes in the Prostate. The Prostate may not be completely emptied with urination in these cases and a person urinates more often than usual.

Source: Scand J Rehabil Med (1980). "Evaluation of functional capacity in activities of daily living in 70-year-old men and women." Aniansson A, Rundgren A, Sperling L. 46


Intellectual Changes of Elderly

Intelligence Decline

Young

Old

Communication Barriers

Young

Intelligence Decline Intelligence may decline with age, studies on changes in cognition with age generally found declines in intelligence in the elderly. Individual variations in rate of cognitive decline may therefore be explained in terms of people having different lengths of life. Refracting to their behavior, elderly will sometimes do not know exactly what they are doing, the accuracy of behavior declines.

Communication Barriers Aging can result in communication barriers, such as due to hearing loss and visual impairment. Sensory impairments include hearing and vision deficits. Changes in cognition, hearing, and vision are associated with healthy ageing and can cause problems when diagnosing dementia and aphasia due to the similarities.

Old

Source: Worrall, L.,& Hickson, L. M. (2003). "Theoretical foundations of communication disability in aging", pp. 32–33 in Linda E. Worrall & Louise M. Hickson(Eds.). 48


Physiological Changes of Elderly

Changes of Sleep Patterns

Young

1. REM sleep, Rapid eye movement sleep, or REM, is one of the five stages of sleep that most people experience nightly. It is characterized by quick, random movements of the eyes and paralysis of the muscles.

Old

Depression Problem Depression is one of the psychological problems which elderly are always facing. As people getting older, they may face significant life changes that can put them at risk for depression, such as 'Health problems', 'Loneliness and isolation', 'Reduced sense of purpose' and sometimes even fears. It is not good for people's aging.

Depression Problem

Young

Changes of Sleep Patterns Along with the physical changes that occur as we get older, changes to our sleep patterns are a part of the normal aging process. Sleep occurs in multiple stages including dreamless periods of light and deep sleep, and occasional periods of active dreaming (REM sleep1 ). The sleep cycle is repeated several times during the night and although total sleep time tends to remain constant, older people spend more time in the lighter stages of sleep than in deep sleep. While during the day time elderly used to spend part of time for sleep.

Old

Source: National Sleep Foundation, Report "aging and sleep", 2015 50


CHAPTER 2. FROM AGING BODY TO DESIGN Elderly Living Space Design Catalog

Space

Surface

Partion

Thresholds

Accessibility

Lighting

Furnituries


Space

Space

Strategy Outdoor Space (Balcony)

Strategy Flowability of Space

More open interface of the living space is good for the psychological problems for the elderly, which can help to cure their depression. Staying in the outdoor space can reduce the feeling of 'Loneliness and Isolation'.

Because of the the problem of sensory of deficiencies (especially sight and hearing) and memory problems require that the living space to be more flowability than the normal requirement so as to play a support funcation and limit the loss of self-sufficiency.

Aiming Problem Depression Problem

Aiming Problem Intelligence Decline


Surface (Ground)

Surface (Ground)

Strategy Flat Floor Ground

Strategy Certain Material for Pavement

The floor of elder apartment should better be flat because of the exercise capacity decline. It can avoid accidents caused by the difference height of the floor ground.

Guaranteeing safety is very important for elderly living sapce. Because of the balance function declines, elderly are easier to slip. Using the antiskid material in the areas like washroom, kitchen and even balcony to protect elderly.

Aiming Problem Exercise Capacity Decline

Aiming Problem Balance Function Decline


Surface (Interface)

Surface (Interface)

Strategy More Open Interface

Strategy Better Deadening and Insulation Materials

More open interface of the living space can not only bring natural light in to the living space, but also weaken the architectureal barriers. It can be helpful for elderly to feel relax after long-time stay in the indoor space.

The aging of body is more easier to be distrube by the physical environment like changing of temperature, humidity and noise. So it requires better deadening and insulation materials for the elderly living space for their better life condition.

Aiming Problem Depression Problem

Aiming Problem Exercise Capacity Decline / Changes of Sleep Patterns


Surface (Certain Space)

Surface (Certain Space)

Strategy Define Spaces by Colours

Strategy Warm/Transparent Interface of Bedroom

The colours of walls and objects should provide a strong constrast to clearly define different spaces. For this reason, the primary colours are often advised to use for helping elderly recongnize different space.

Bedroom is perhaps the space elderly spend most of their time inside. So the materail of the interface of bedroom is important for the living condition. Warm material like wood is good for relaxing and manufacturing quiet atmosphere, while the transparent interface can make space so closed.

Aiming Problem Communication Barriers

Aiming Problem Depression Problem / Changes of Sleep Patterns


Partition

Partition

Strategy Separated Servant Space

Strategy Universal Served Space

Deviding the servant space like bathroom, kitchen to give a more precise defination of them. It is good for elderly to limit the loss of notification and do some special design for some certain servant space.

Keeping the served space as an universal one is good for adapting the changeing needs of elderly. The abilities and needs of elderly change faster than other kinds of people, since their body aging. So it is important to keep the served spaces to be suitable for supporting them.

Aiming Problem Intelligence Decline

Aiming Problem Exercise Capacity Decline Note: "Servant and Served Spaces" is a theory by Louis I. Kahn. Served spaces (primary areas) and servant spaces (corridors, bathrooms, etc.)


Thresholds

Thresholds

Strategy Sliding Doors

Strategy Avoiding Steps

It is better to use sliding doors as the separation of different functional spaces for elderly. On one hand it can save space compare with normal swing doors, on the other and it is safer to avoid bumping.

In the indoor space for elderly it is better to use ramp than steps if have to have height difference. Because of balance function decline of elderly or even to make the spaces fully useable for a hanicapped person.

Aiming Problem Exercise Capacity Decline

Aiming Problem Balance Function Decline


Accessibility

Accessibility

Strategy Double Entrances of Bathroom

Strategy Space of Rotary

For facing the endocrine dysfunction of elderly. Entrances from both public space and bedroom is good to fit the frenquence urinates of elderly. At the same time it is good for redistributing indoor space for the flexibility needs.

Beacuse of the intelligence decline of elderly, they alaways have the problem of forgeting 'what to do' or 'where to go'. So leaving the space of rotary in the concer of the separate part of spaces can give elderly a buffer of thinking.

Aiming Problem Exercise Capacity Decline/Endocrine System Decline

Aiming Problem Intelligence Decline


Lighting

Lighting

Strategy Adequate Lightings in Most Space

Strategy Spotlight in Certain Space

For the most of elderly living space, adequate lighting is required, which can eliminate shadeowy areas with no disturbing flashes and reflections. And it is better to be easy to use switches and controls.

For creating a quite atmosphere of some certain space like bedroom, spotlight can be use. Also it is good to have different different kind of lights in different like colour for better defination of them.

Aiming Problem Exercise Capacity Decline / Communication Barriers

Aiming Problem Changes of Sleep Patterns


Furnitures

Furnitures

Strategy Handrails allover Space

Strategy Furnitures for Rest

The physiological changes of elderly lead to some problems related to the progressive difficlulties in daily life, such as the difficulties of movement with the consequent need for handrails and supports to increase the grip and the stability, getting up and sitting down.

In elderly living space, furnitures of rest are required in all kind of spaces, because of the decline of their activity ability. It is helpful for their frequent needs of resting and can also help elderly for other activities such as moving into bathtub.

Aiming Problem Exercise Capacity Decline / Balance Function Decline

Aiming Problem Exercise Capacity Decline / Balance Function Decline


Furnitures

Furnitures

Strategy Requirement of Storage Space

Strategy Multi-size Furnitures

Elderly requires many storage space for their life-long memory. For the requirement of the storage space the most important thing is to make sure that storage is easily accessible, the best range is 60cm--90cm in height.

As the aging of human body, the elderly may need special size of furnitures for better use. So it requires the flexibility of furniture like desk, washbasin, chairs and so on, which can even for disabled.

Aiming Problem Exercise Capacity Decline / Communication Barriers

Aiming Problem Exercise Capacity Decline


CHAPTER 3. DESIGN CASE STUDY


Flat for the Elderly in Masans

Design: Peter Zumthor Location: Chur, Masans, Graubünden, Switzerland Year: 1993 Total Flats: 22

The twenty-two flats of the residential development for the elderly in Masans near Chur are occupied by senior citizens still able to run their own households, but happy to use the services offered by the nursing home behind their own building. Many of the residents grew up in mountain villages around the area. They have always lived in the country and feel at home with the traditional building materials used here – tuff, larch, pine, maple, solid wood flooring and wooden panelling. The residents are welcome to furnish as they please their section of the large entrance porch to the east, which they overlook from their kitchen windows, and they make ample use of this opportunity. The sheltered balcony niches and the living room bow (bay) windows on the other side face west, up the valley, towards the setting sun.

76


West Elevation 0 1

2

5m

East Elevation 0 1

2

5m

Corridor

Kitchen

Kitchen Toilet

Livingroom

Floor Plan 0 1

2

5m

Toilet Livingroom

Bedroom

Bedroom

Balcony

Balcony


PARTION Universal Served Space

THRESHOLDS Using Sliding Doors

PARTION Separated Servant Space

SURFACE More Open Interface / Better Materials


Senior's Residence in Zurich

Design: Miller & Maranta Location: Zurich, Switzerland Year: 2004-2006 Flats: 8 1-room apartments 56 2-room apartments 4 3-room apartments 18 single rooms

This seniors' residence welcomes visitors and residents alike with an atmosphere comparable to a hotel. A semi-contaned courtyard leads into the timber-panelled reception area, which includes a cafe and a fireplace lounge. The cafe is instrumental in drawing public life into the complex while internal spaces and informal comminication and intercation zones ensure that the daily lives of residents remain varied and interesting. The ground floor accommodates the community rooms, while the set-back roof level houses the care facilities where 18 single rooms are arranged in a horseshoeshaped layout around a communal recreation room with adjacent roof terrace. The four remaining storeys are given over to small apartments for independent living. The central corridors, which connect 17 apartments per storey of varying size, widen near the stairwells to form seating niches with views over the entry courtyard. The two-room apartments, with bathroom and kitchen, are accessed via small entry areas which incorporate built-in wall cupbaords. Storey-high glass doors allow the interior spaces to merge with outdoor seating area, while the low-seat window sills allow uninterrupted views to the outside. 82


Standard Floor Plan 0

5

10

20m

Toilet Lobby

Livingroom

Kitchen Bedroom

1 Bedroom Flat Plan 0

1

2

5m

Balcony

Balcony

Livingroom

Kitchen

Bedroom

Lobby

Bedroom

2 Bedroom Flat Plan 0

1

2

5m

Toilet


SPACE Outdoor Space (Balcony)

SURFACE More Open Interface

SPACE Flowability of Space

SURFACE Warm Material as Surface


Housing Development in Zurich with Homes for the Elderly and Owner-Occupied Dwellings

Design: Ballmoos Krucker Architekten Location: Zurich, Switzerland Year: 2004-2006 Flats: 52 sheltered dwellings for seniors (60 plus) 40 two-room flats 12 three-room flats

The competition conditions for the development of this site at the center of Altstetten, a district of Zurich, required the construction of 42 owner-occupied dwellings as well as 52 sheltered homes for the SAW foundation, an organization that supports housing for the elderly. For the elderly dewlling part, the kitchen-cum-living rooms in the sheltered dwellings are oriented to the access balconies, whereas the actual lounge areas and the bedrooms face south, where there are also private balconies. The sanitary spaces can be entered from the kitchen and the bedroom, which meets the needs of older people. A large sliding door between the bedroom and living area allows a more flexible use; and a sliding cupboard permits a certain spatial continuity between the living and dining areas. The entire development is in a reinforced concrete cross-wall form of construction. The foundations consist of flat slabs partly with pile supports. A composite thermal-insulation system was used for the facades. The mineral rendering has a fine horizontal texture and a gleaming metallic finish.

88


Standard Floor Plan 0

5

10

20m

Corridor

Lobby Kitchen

Toilet Bedroom Livingroom

Elderly Flat Plan 0

1

2

5m

Balcony


SURFACE More Open Interface

ACCESSIBILITY Double Entrances of Bathroom

SURFACE Define Spaces by Colours

PARTION Universal Served Space


La Casa in una Stanza (Home in a Room)

Design: Gianni Ottolini, Margherita De Carli, Roberto Rizzi Location: Concept Design (no Site) Year: 1992

This project confronts the problem of equipment for the small cells for single individuals in “protected residences” for senior citizens. An ergonomics study of needs and services and a reflection on the particular symbolic significance of these living spaces lias made it possible to identify some aspects of the subject. On one hand, these concern the pro-blems related to the progressive difficulties that the elderly encounter with the same elementary gestures used in daily life, such as the difficulties of movement with the consequent need for handrails and supports to increase the grip and the stability, getting up and sitting down, reaching the upper or lower parts of the furniture. From this has been derived, in particular, the elevation from the ground of the first useable level and the net containment of the overall height of the furnishings cir-cumscribed by a specific “useability margin”. On the other hand, in contrast to the consolidated and wide-spread hospital-type immediately recognizable by the repertory of objects, materials and colours used, in this project aspects of domesticity were stressed, with emphasis on those characteristics that allow for personalization of the space, leaving the possibility of connecting health equipment (intervenous feeder, patient lifter, rails, etc.) to which have been added other innovative communication devices for summoning aid. 94


Details of all Furniture Design

Plan 0

1

2

5m

Plan / Elevation of Main Furniture 0 0.5

1

2.5m

Comparison between a single (12 square meters) and a double (18 square meters) rooms in an Italian home for the elderly. We see the way the relationshop between the window area and the depth of room changes.


ACCESSIBILITY Space of Rotary

FURNITURES Furnitures for Rest

FURNITURES Requirement of Storage Space

FURNITURES Handrails allover Space


13. Theodore Goldsmith, Aging by Design: How New Thinking on Aging Will Change Your Life, Azinet Press, May 2014 14. Kathleen Dowling Singh, The Grace in Aging: Awaken as You Grow Older, Wisdom Publications, August, 2014

References

15. Joan Chittister, The Gift of Years: Growing Older Gracefully, BlueBridge, September, 2010 16. Michael Gurian, The Wonder of Aging: A New Approach to Embracing Life After Fifty, June 18, 2013 Books

17. Roger B. McDonald, Biology of Aging, Garland Science, July 2, 2013

1. U.S. National Library of Medicine, Aging changes in the senses, Aging changes in the bones - muscles joints, 2008

18. Thomas Durisch, Peter Zumthor: Buildings and Projects, 1985-2013, Scheidegger and Spiess, May, 2014

2. National Institute on Aging, Alzheimer's Disease: Unraveling the Mystery, 2009 3. John E. Morley, Effects of Aging on the Endocrine System, 2007

19. Florian Kirfel, Daniel Reisch, Otto Kapfinger, Quintus Miller, Paola Maranta, Jean-Luc von Aarburg, Architectural Concrete in Detail: Four Buildings by Miller & Maranta, Quart Architektur, October, 2014

4. Aniansson A, Rundgren A, Sperling L, Scand J Rehabil Med (1980). "Evaluation of functional capacity in activities of daily living in 70-year-old men and women." , 2004

20. Gianni Ottolini, Il progetto delle residenze speciali : spazi e arredi, Unicopli, 2008 21. Eckhard Feddersen, Insa Ludtke, Helmut Braun, Stefan DresskeLiving for the Elderly: A Design Manual, Birkhauser, 2012

5. Richard lv. Besdine, MD, FACp, AGSF, and Difu Wu, Aging of the Human Nervous System: What Do We Know?, 2008 6.Worrall, L.,& Hickson, L. M., "Theoretical foundations of communication disability in aging", pp. 32–33 in Linda E. Worrall & Louise M. Hickson(Eds.), 2003 7. Lawrence Robinson, Melinda Smith, M.A. and Jeanne Segal, Depression in Older Adults and the Elderly National Sleep Foundation, Report "aging and sleep", 2015 8. Angelo Bianchetti, Needs of senior citizens, 1993 9. Thomas Durisch, Peter Zumthor: Buildings and Projects, 1985-2013 , 2015 10. Christian Schittich, In Detail: Housing for People of All Ages, 2007 11. Eckhard Feddersen, Living for the Elderly, 2009 12. Luisa Gatti, Manfredo Manfredini, Roberto Rizzi, Spazi e arredi per le residenze speciali, 2002

99

Websites

1. http://blog.buildllc.com/2010/03/elderly-housingdesign-in-europe/2. http://www.helpage.org/globalagewatch/ 2. http://www.detail.de/inspiration/wohnsiedlung-mitalters-und-eigentumswohnungen-in-zuerich-100958. html 3. http://www.schnetzerpuskas.com/en/project-selection/ hospitals-retirement-and-care-homes/spirgartenzuerich.html 4. http://www.archdaily.com/tag/peter-zumthor 5. https://architecturality.wordpress.com/tag/servedservant/

100


PART III. RESEARCH OF ITALIAN ELDERLY LIVING CONDITION AND THE "SOCIAL FAMILY" SOLUTION

CHAPTER 1. ELDERLY LIVING CONDITION IN ITALY


Where Elderly Live in Italy

1.6% 3.7% 2.5 %

Italy Living Condition of Elderly in Italy

%

.6

80.

6%

11

%

1% 80.

80.

8%

14

.4

10

.7%

Southern Italy 1.8% 2.2% 1.2%

1.5% 4.3% 3.0 %

Centre-Northern Italy

1. LTC (Long-term care) is a variety of services which help meet both the medical and nonmedical needs of people with a chronic illness or disability who cannot care for themselves for long periods of time.

1.9% 4.0% 3.8 %

Lombardy

%

.2

80.

1%

10

Social Home care (2008) IA (Attendance Allowance) Health Home care (2009) Nursing homes and Day care centers (2009)

Own house

Source: Source: ISTAT, “Feeling well, feeling at home? Older adults living in non-standard housing solutions in Northern Italy”, Giuliana Costa

Italy can be described as a “property led housing regime country”: more than 80% of households are homeowners. The situation for elderly is more or less the same, which means the majority of old people in Italy live in their own house. While it remains quite underdeveloped in terms of public services such as homecare, nursing homes and day care centers. Residential care homes or supported living services are not spread all over the country, the “Social home care” and “Health home care” only cover 1.6% and 3.7% of the elderly over 65years old in Italy. While the Nursing homes and day care centers, which are strongly medical, oriented and are targeted at the most dependent older adults. They are considered nowadays as a “last option” to be used when all other arrangements are exhausted and only allow 2.5% of the elderly (65+) to live inside. 1 Yet, if we differentiate between the coverage of LTC services in the Centre-North of Italy and in the South, we can see that the availability of services in the Centre-North is closer to Central Europe, especially in Lombardy, the richest and most populated region of Italy. whereas the situation is dramatically lower in the South. Because of the traditional Italian “care responsibility culture”, that the young generations of a family always have to take care of the older ones, it becomes very difficult for family members to opt out of caring. While at the same time the special residential solutions for elderly have not been developed: older people in Italy resettle quite rarely to new or adapted homes, residences or supported living facilities because there

104


Phenomenon of Youth Living in Parental Home in Italy

49%

1983 Percentage of Youth aged 1834 lived in the parental home

81%

Aged 18-24

59%

Aged 25-29

29% 59%

Aged 30-34 2010 Percentage of Youth aged 1834 lived in the parental home

2010 Percentage of Youth aged 18-24, 25-29,30-34 lived in the parental home

Source: Source: ISTAT, "Leaving home and housing prices -- The experience of Italian youth emancipation", Francesca Modena, Concetta Rondinelli

1. The Italian National Institute of Statistics is a public research organisation. It has been present in Italy since 1926, and is the main producer of official statistics in the service of citizens and policy-makers. It operates in complete independence and continuous interaction with the academic and scientific communities.

are very few such options available. Both reasons above lead to the scarcity of public services such as homecare and residential facilities, and older adults normally stay in their homes even if they are not appropriate anymore for their needs. Italians leave home relatively late compared with other countries. The late transition to adulthood relates to both cultural and economic factors. First of all, as a country which has a culture of attaching importance of families, Italians are more willing to take care of their family. Secondly, for the youth, The choice of leaving the parental home depends on both the cost of independent leaving and the individual's ability to pay that cost (Haurin et al. 1997). The recent economic crisis amplified the difficulties for young cohorts: in 2009 the youth unemployment rate (15-24) was about 25% (Istat 2010), with increasing disadvantages for the younger cohorts in receiving future pension benefits. The combination of these institutional and market changes has had serious negative consequences for the younger generation in Italy (Berloffa and Villa 2010): young people are more dependent on their parents’ resources and tend to postpone emancipation choices (delay in family formation and fertility decisions), with clear consequences for the present and future wellbeing of society. The postponement of youth emancipation has a long tradition in Italy. In 1983, 49% of young people aged 1834 lived in the parental home; in 2009 the percentage of co-resident children was 59%, among them 43% were employed (Istat1 2010). Most children stayed at home until the age of 24 (81%), the percentage being not negligible for older cohorts: 59% for the group aged 25-29 (69% for males and 49% for females), and 29% for those aged between 30 and 34 (30% for males and 20% for females) (Istat 2010). Because of this "Youth living with elderly" in Italy, elderly people are more will to aging in there own house, not only to be cared by the young generation but also to stay with thier family even if they are not appropriate anymore for their care, just for the "feel at home".

106


Sharing the Space Between Different Generation

Parental Home Living in Italy

when child was young

when child grow up

Change of Space Use

Source: ISTAT 2010, "Leaving home and housing prices -- The experience of Italian youth emancipation" Francesca Modena, Concetta Rondinelli

1. Boomerang generation is a term applied to the current generation of young adults in Western culture. They are so named for the frequency with which they choose to cohabitate with their parents after a brief period of living on their own – thus boomeranging back to their place of origin.

More recent data published by the Italian National Institute of Statistics suggest that something has changed in the Italian context. The percentage of people citing economic conditions as the main reason for staying at home has increased (34% in 2003 and 40% in 2009) owing to the difficulty of finding a suitable dwelling and a job. As a consequence, the transition to adulthood is becoming less a result of individual choices and more a compromise between a growing desire for independence and the need for protection against the poverty risk (Istat 2010). The increase is overwhelmingly driven by economics. As young people people fail to find well-paying (or any) jobs, they also fail to achieve economic independence and full adulthood in the face of Western gerontocracy. This emasculation is particularly humiliating for men, who are disproportionately affected. Increasingly, young “adults” in the West are becoming inactive, single and economically dependent “big babies” forever living with their parents. Part of them are also called "Boomerang generation1", which are children who don't leave home permanently after school or university. They got highly education but they are not able to live independently without the economical help from their parents. The transition to adulthood is a complex process in which youths who have been dependent on parents throughout their childhood start taking definitive steps to achieve measures of financial, residential and emotional independence, and to take on more adult roles as citizens, spouses, parents, managers and workers. The phonemenon of youth living in parental home ask for the living space for elderly in Italy to adapt to the special need of multiple generations’ need. The relationship between children and their parents change from be cared to share the space. While at the same time, as the difference of lifestyle for different generations becoming bigger, the requirement of space for different generations are quite different, consider about how to share the living space become another influence point of organize the elderly house in Italian case.

108


Phenomenon of Losing Care from Young Generation

Traditional care from young generation

Care

Losing care from young generations

Care

According to the health condition report (ISTAT 2013), the number of persons with functional limitations is estimated at over 3 million, of which over 80% are elderly people. So over 2.4 million elderly have functional limitation and need to have some care service. So elderly is the group of people who should be better taken care of. While the high own ship of house in Italy,the traditional preference for caring at home, the will of elderly people to stay in their original homes as long as possible, makes most of the elderly to choice their own house to spend their old life and be cared by the young generations. So still in Italy the care for elderly people is on families duty. However, nowadays because of the wave of economic migrants and the economic depression all over the country, the young generations in Italy go aboard to find their job.The number of Italians ages 25 to 39 with college degrees registering with the national government as living abroad every year has risen steadily, from 2,540 in 1999 to about 4,000 in 2008. The research-institute Censis estimates that 11,700 college graduates found work abroad in 2006 — that's one out of every 25 Italians who graduated that year. According to a poll by Bachelor, a Milanese recruitment agency, 33.6% of new graduates feel they need to leave the country to take advantage of their education. A year later, 61.5% feel that they should have done so. So more and more elderly cannot be taken care of their children, because of the leaving of young generations. And lots of the youth still living in the country are not able to take care of the elderly of their family. It becomes a unneglectable reason for Italian “care responsibility culture” and makes the elderly to risk living alone. The data from ISTAT shows the increasing trends over past 40 years (1970–2010) in the proportion of both women and men aged 65 and older in the private household population living alone in Italy. With a complete time series we observe that the proportion of women living alone in this time period almost doubled in Italy (from 22 to 40 percent), so as the men (from 6 to 14 percent).

Source: "Arrivederci, Italia: Why Young Italians Are Leaving" Stephan Faris, 2012 110


Living Arrangement of Elderly in Italy

Proportion of women/men aged 65 and over living alone in private households: 1970–2010 40

40%

35

36% 36% 32%

30 25 20

22%

15 10 5

6% 7%

9%

14% 13%

0

Women 1970

1980

Men 1990

2000

According to the living arrangements of elderly in Italy, loneliness is a problem affecting a large number of elderly. The number of over 65 women living alone is three times the number of men. This is due to the longevity of women and the higher number of single among them. It is also interesting that many people live in households with not relative people, as a joint member; among them the 7% of elderly women. This solution is sometimes necessary as long as elderly become less self-sufficient. Living with no relative people is pretty helpful not only for the elderly themselves but also for the social who really need place to stay, especially in the country like Italy, which elderly used to own their own house and used to share their living space with others. On one hand, single elderly can find someone to take care of them in certain kind of situation, the other hand, It can also be a way to solve some certain kind of social problem.

2010

Population aged 65 and over by living arrangements and sex of household population in 2010 100 90 80

7%

4%

27%

30%

70 60 50

30%

40

53%

30 20

36%

10 0

13%

Women Living alone Living with offspring (with or without the spouse)

Men Living with partner only Other arrangements

Source: Istat, Indagine Multiscopo sulle Famiglie 2010 112


CHAPTER 2. SOCIAL FAMILY FOR THE ELDERLY


Reasons Why Elderly Shouldn't Live Alone

Elderly Shouldn't Live Alone

Disorderliness

Unsafty

Disability and Disease

Depression and Lonliness

Elderly living alone will bring several problems: 1. Disorderliness As seniors age, they experience the loss of friends and loved ones. Such losses can lead to withdrawal from social life. Potentially, it can also lead to lapses in self-care and hygiene. No longer taking care of their hygiene and withdrawing socially. Their living space will become more and more disorderliness in this case. 2. Unsafty Many older adults are healthy, but can no longer live alone safely.Dangerous obstacles including staircases, slippery tile, and tall shelving can loom large for a senior. Also, large yards with uneven terrain, poorly lit rooms or small bathrooms in the home of an aging loved one may also prove difficult. Falling down can be detrimental for older adults. As a person ages, he is at a high risk for bone fractures due to progressive loss of bone mass. 3.Disability and Disease Health problems can make it hard to live alone. As people getting older, it will become easier to catch diease. The quality of life and ability to live independently are jeopardized because of this. Elderly will badly need someone to take care of them when they are sick or have physical problem of theie body. 4.Depression and Lonliness As a person ages, he or she may not be comfortable living alone anymore. Common signs of this discomfort can include “night fright�, depression, and feelings of isolation. In this case they need social care, such as communicating more to others to fight with the mental problem.

Source: "5 Signs an Elderly Person Shouldn't Be Living Alone", Tom Scheve 116


Example of "Social Family" in Italy

Share the free living space

Forming "Social Family" for Elderly Free Living Space Share

1. Social Family: Living with not relative people in the same apartment. Forming a family-like relationship in the living space. Each of members offers the positive ability or facility they have and get what they need from others. 2. "Badanti" are immigration from other countries to Italy, who are doing the job of caring for elderly people.

Social Family

Example of "Social Family" Free Living Space Free Living Space Share

Social Relation/ Social Care

Share

Elderly

Students

Social Relation/ Social Care

Elderly

Money

Young Worker

Material

Living Space

Ability

The elderly living alone give the opptunity for different groups of people because of the living space thay can offer. At the same time other kind of people can have the possibility to share different social resources with each other. It is a good way to make a social net like community not only good for the elderly, but also for other groups of people who need place to live in. While the social problem for different group of people 1 offer the possibility for forming a "social family ", which can based on the living space of elderly. The high proportion of elderly living alone gives the possibility of sharing space to the ones who need in the whole society. While at the same time it is good for them to get certain kind of care from others. For example, in the last decade families have been widely supported by migrants that work as personal assistants coopted in the private market, commonly 2 called “badanti ”. They are mainly women coming from less developed countries to care for elderly people in a co-residential regime. The take up rate of this solution is around 15% in the population 65 and over. The big “success” of migrant personal assistants in Italian welfare is connected to the fact that many older adults own their homes and have some space to host a personal assistant who works almost on a full time basis; the personal assistants gain by being provided with shelter (a home to live in) and do not need to spend money on rent, at least in the first phase of their migration experience. And it happens to the group of elderly are almost not independent at all. But for the most elderly who olny need help in some certain cases, it can be other possibility to form the " social family".

118


Possible relationship of "Social Family"

Social Relation/ Social Care

Social Relation/ Social Care

Social Relation/ Social Care

Linked Relation

Social Relation/ Social Care

Net Relation

1. A community is a social unit of any size that shares common values. Although embodied or face-to-face communities are usually small, larger or more extended communities such as a national community, international community and virtual community are also studied.

What is more, once the elderly and other people form a "social family", it will be good for the depression problem of elderly for having other menbers in the living environment . And the form of "social family" can be really different according to the kinds of people who are inside the “family”. First form can be called as “ Linked” in which elderly just offer the living space, and receive care from other group of people. Second one is “Triangle Relation” in which involved more group of people and can share other social resource besides care and space. And if more and more kind of people joint this "social family", and will form relationship more like a community1 within a "Net Relation". People share different social experience which based on the same space they live in.

Triangle Relation 120


Forming "Social Faimily" for Elderly

As the elderly are becoming less independent when they getting old, they may need somebody to offer care for a better life. The solution of living with not relative people offers a good example for saving this problem. I would like to call this kind of living situation “Social Family”. Each of the “family” members offers the positive ability or facility they have and get what they need from others.

Forming "Social Family"

Partner to live together Single Elderly

Share with relative people

Elderly Partner

Sure

Free living space

Share living space with Partner Benefits for elderly

Use the free living space

Living with Children Elderly

Living with Offspring

Sure

Moving out of children for new family

Living only with offspring

Possibility of losing offspring

Single Elderly Free living space

The more elderly share their free living space the more social resources we can save

Living alone

Elderly Couple

Child

Become living alone

Use the free living space

Free living space

Single Elderly Free Free living living space space

Keep alone

Use the free living space

Leaving the old living space (low quality/expensive)

Possibility of share

Use the free living space

Share with not relative people Single Elderly

Single Elderly

Student

CareFree living

Sure space

or

Single Elderly

Young Worker

CareFree

living

Sure space

or

Single Family Free living Sure space

Care

People who needs living space to live together Share with not relative people

Share with students

Share with “Young Worker”

Share with single family

Share living space with not relative people (who have the requirement)


CHAPTER 3. PROGRAMME CASE STUDY


"Welcoming a student in your house" Project

Organization: MeglioMilano Location: Milan Year: 2004 - 2015

1. MeglioMilano is a not-for-profit organisation, founded in 1987 by the Camera di Commercio of Milan, the Confcommercio of Milan and the Automobile Club of Milan, and by all the Universities of the city of Milan.

1

“Welcoming a student in your house” is a co-housing model between independent elderly people and university students from outside Milan. MeglioMilano’s initiative is based on a very simple idea: find lodging for students in the homes of elderly people who have a spare room. The young people do not pay rent as such, but contribute to the expenses of house-sharing by paying a monthly sum of about € 250-280, as well as performing practical tasks and providing company for the elderly person who, in addition to suffering less from loneliness, can enjoy the satisfaction of still feeling useful. MeglioMilano collects and processes the requests for participation and learns more about those young and not-so-young who wish to take part in the experience. It organizes meetings and offers assistance throughout the learning and house-sharing process. The indicators which are of greatest help when assigning the pairings are expectations from the experience, certain personality traits, tastes and general habits. MeglioMilano gets to know the elderly people who wish to offer lodgings through meeting them in their homes, and observing the young people in joint meetings. The organisation brings together people who get along well, favouring the pairings of people of the same gender.

126


Elderly Total Participants 1000

Students Total Participants 4500

1.

Realized Group 650

Care Sure

Data since 2004 Elderly Total Participants 1000

Students Total Participants 4500 Realized Group 650

Care Sure

Data of 2015 (from 01.01.2015 to 01.06. 2015)

Students Total Participants 150

Elderly Total Participants 60 Realized Group 40

Elderly Total Participants 60

Students Total Participants 150

Care Sure

Realized Group 40

Care Sure

Universities students from in this program (from beginning till now)

Legend Università statale di Milano Politecnico di Milano Università cattolica di Milano Other Universities

28% 38% Percentage of students from different universities

10%

24%

Prevent loneliness in the elderly people.Offer them a small income.Increase their feeling of safety, enabling them to remain independent and at home as long as possible. Facilitate the finding of accommodation at favourable financial conditions for students, offering them a new alternative to the lack of student housing. The organisation therefore offers to the young people their own room in the home of an elderly person, in exchange for company and a small fee.

Depending on the offers received, attempts are made to ensure that the young people are as near as possible to their university or workplace, thereby reducing journey times and leaving as much free time as possible to spend studying or to rest. During the months of house-sharing, MeglioMilano regularly organizes single or group get-togethers so as to assess the degree of satisfaction with the experience. The house-sharing is regulated by a hospitality agreement which lasts six months at least. There is the possibility to renew the house-sharing agreement for the desired period or to rescind the agreement in the case of mutual dissatisfaction. The experience of the Hosting a student project1 arose from an analysis of the Milanese situation, conducted by MeglioMilano, which showed the high number of residents aged over 65 (about 400,000), often alone, and the number of off-site and commuting university students (in 2010 about 80,000) who would live in Milan if only they could find a solution to the expensive rents on the free market. Since 2004 over 650 house-sharing agreements have been established of which only eight were discontinued due to incompatibility. During this whole period, they had 4500 students and 1000 ederly person that were avalaible for this proposal. On 2015 MeglioMilano have 40 elderly person that are living with students.(number of rooms: 40) Only from the beginning of 2015 they have received 150 calls by students and 60 by elderly persons who are available for this program. According to the document that MeglioMilano offered, the typical cohabitation is made by two elderly women and go on for more than one year. In general the elderly persons in this program are 72 years old and most of them are independent. While the students that available for this experience are from Lombardia, Sicilia, puglia and Veneto. Among them 28% students attend the Università statale di Milano.Politecnico di Milano is in second position, which has 24% of the students from it. And Università Cattolica di Milano contributes 10% of all the students in this program.

128


Zona Figino - il Borgo Sostenibile

Organization: Polaris & Fondazione Housing Sociale Location: Milan Year: 2013

1. Fondazione Housing Sociale was created in 2004 to develop the Social Housing Programme, conceived by Fondazione Cariplo to carry out real estate projects of a social nature.

1

The project Borgo Sustainable contains the construction of a residential complex in Figino, historic district west of the city of Milan. The Borgo Sustainable provides residential units to be leased and to be bought, for a total number of 323 apartments of various sizes and types. Within the space of the offer are some special types which are maisonettes and apartments with studio. The architectural design, the result of an international design competition sponsored by Polaris and Social Housing Foundation, was developed by four architectural firms. The project includes a public walkway in the green along which you have all the buildings. This path connects the entire area of ​​Borgo Sustainable, on the one hand is the new pedestrian square, on which are commercial spaces and services, and on the other hand is the new public park. The project therefore provides for the realization of a mixed fabric intended to accommodate various functions, except the residential. There will also be space for additional services to housing, used to sharing activities for new residents.

130


Social house relationship

1. Fondazione Cariplois a philanthropic entity that gives grants to third sector organizations for the realization of social projects.

"Rent together" relationship

Single Family SingleSingle FamilyFamilyYoung Young Couple Couple Young Couple Single Family Young Couple SingleSingle FamilyFamily Young Young Couple Couple

ElderlyElderly

Elderly

YoungYoung Student Student

OwnerOwner Owner

Single Elderly YoungSingle Student ElderlyElderlyYoungYoung Student Student FamilyFamily

Young Student

Single Family

ElderlyElderly

Different Group of People Live Separately

Different Group of People Rent the Same House

Young

YoungYoungStudent Student Student Elderly

Someone as owner of a house then rent to the others

"Buy-Rent" relationship

These projects are confined to a path of partnership 1 between the City, the Fondazione Cariplo and Fondazione Housing Sociale initiated in 2005, which it is hoped will continue experimenting with innovative ways of planning and housing management. The social housing project of Borgo Figino is aimed at developing an integrated manner in the social dimension of the village and encourage the relational networks and sustainable lifestyles and environment. Borgo sustainable also means developing elements of attraction for the rest of the city by promoting an identity of Figino, which is represented by the relationship between residence and green. The draft Figino is structured on two scales of intervention: a supra and a neighborhood. The supralocal scale is represented by the relationship between the area of intervention, the BoscoincittĂ and the system of parks and surrounding rural realities: the Park of Fountains of Rho, the forest of Quinto Romano and the Forest of Giretta. The reasoning on the green, in Figino has value in view of a continuation of the green areas planned for the Expo 2015. The generating element of the project is the open space designed as a flow of activities not only among two edges constructed adjacent barracks Santa Barbara and the deposit ATM, but also between the city and built the system of transition towns where there are the main elements of urban green. The green courtyard is the space where the confluence of the streams of different outdoor activities, from the tanks for vegetable growing private public in sports, going through the motions of the earth and the changes in color and smell of the tree species chosen for the characterization of the spaces private to public use. It is a visual progression establishing a harmonious relationship with the volumetric changes of the buildings (tower elements and linear) and is held together by the gallery on the first floor running the length of the block and provides access to the residential towers.

132


Local Community Area Model

Architect: Riken Yamamoto & Fieldshop1 Location: Concept Design (no Site) Year: 2012

1. Riken Yamamoto has already published several articles and ideas about collective living and the housing community, and has been working on this subject steadily from an early moment in his career onward. For example the designs for the Hotakubo Housing and the Inter-Junction City already show many of the ideas in the Community Area Model already. Also the Shinonome Canal Court housing projects try to deal with functional flexibility and communal spaces between private homes.

The Community Area Model is a research project by Riken Yamamoto & Field Shop for a more resilient housing community. It is not a typology that focusses not just on the ageing society and elderly people specifically, but it proposes a general rethinking of living communities in the city and in the suburb. The basis of the research is Riken Yamamoto's conviction that the nuclear family, the entity on which all housing projects are based, is no longer the right unit of measurement. He pleads for a housing environment that celebrates diversity, in lifestyles and household composition, but also functionally: all kinds of smallscale functions are integrated within the living area such as shops, restaurants, offices, daycare, communal living rooms etc. All are stacked on top of each other offering also a wide variety of enclosed and open spaces and flexibility in use. The lives of people will be more turned outward, not just as part of a nuclear family but of a bigger community. Elderly people but also children can play a natural role in this environment, being supported by a wider network of sharing, micro-economics and sustainable ‘new neighbouring’.

134


From "One House = One Family" to "Community Area Model"

Washroom

Bedroom

Kitchen Living room

Balcony

Bedroom Bedroom Washroom Washroom Kitchen

Kitchen

Living room Balcony Living room Balcony

Washroom

Bedroom Bedroom

Kitchen

Washroom

Kitchen

Living room Living roomBalcony Balcony

Bedroom Bedroom Washroom Washroom Kitchen

Living room Balcony Living room Balcony

Transfor Daycare, Classrooms, Workshops, Offices, Resturant, Platform

Living room

Balcony

Kitchen Washroom

Bedroom

Balcony Living room Balcony Living room

Kitchen

Kitchen

Washroom Washroom Bedroom Bedroom

"One House = One Family"

Balcony BalconyLiving room Living room Kitchen

Kitchen

Washroom Bedroom Washroom Bedroom

Kitchen

Washroom

Kitchen

Balcony

Living room

Daycare, Classrooms, Workshops, Offices, Resturant, Platform

Balcony Living room Balcony Living room

Kitchen

Bedroom

Kitchen

Washroom Washroom Bedroom Bedroom

Balcony

Living room

Kitchen

Bedroom

"Community Area Model"

Washroom

1. The ‘One House = One Family’ system, or ideology, was first established in Europe in the 1920’s. This system assumes a single family unit to inhabit a single residential unit. In the 1920’s the aftermath of the First World War and the large number of working class labourers gravitating toward cities created a huge demand for inexpensive mass housing.

Riken Yamamoto refers in his article “Limitations of the 1 ‘One House = One Family’ System” to both Europe and Japan, detecting some similarities in its post war housing development and current social challenges. There are now the increase of private communal housing initiatives show a distrust in the role of the government and an increased urge to self-organise communities. However, despite the enthusiasm of policy makers towards these private initiatives, their significance as ‘the solution’, for a large variety of social issues including elderly care, still has to be proved. As the basic principles of the ‘one house=one family’ system were based on the household’s autonomy and closed nature, the principles are already invalid. To make matters worse, there is a major contradiction in the way that ‘closed’ housing are still produced, whilst households are unable to maintain their autonomy and closed nature from within. Tragic incidents which keep occurring within these ‘one house=one family’ households are in fact outcries coming from the failing system itself. There is an urgent need to consider an alternative system which would eventually replace the outdated ‘one house=one family’ system. The radically new idea for housing communities in the urban and suburban realm that they have now proposed , claiming that the urban system as we know it, with its mono-functional mass-housing based on the nuclear family, is no longer feasible and even an obstacle in solving social problems. In this concept for the Community Area Model they open up the traditional family house in a multi-colour patchwork of private, semi-private and communal spaces that is able to contain various lifestyles and households as well as many different functions in addition to the housing community such as daycare, classrooms, workshops, offices, places to eat together and meet each other. In this idea for communal living the divisions between public and private, work and home, economically productive and consumptive, strong and vulnerable, all dissolve in a more natural symbiosis. The community is resilient and sustainable because of its diversity and manifold relations, and it is easy to imagine that child care or elderly care can be easily adopted within.

136


CHAPTER 4. SHARING SPACES CASE STUDY


Totally Live Totally together Totally Live together

Live Together

Space for elderly

Public Space

Space for others

Space for elderly

Public Space

Space for others

Space for elderly

Public Space

Space for others

Different Forms of Sharing Space with the Elderly in the Dwellings

Totally Live together

Live Separate form Separate Live Partly others Live Separate form From Others others Live Separate form others

Simi-public space of elderly Simi-public space

Public Space

of elderly Simi-public space of elderly

Public Space

Public Space

of Young Simi-public space of Young

Space for elderly

Space for others

Space for elderly

Space for others

Space for elderly

Space for others

Simi-public space of elderly Simi-public space

Live Totally Separation Live Totally Separation

Simi-public space of Young Simi-public space

of elderly Simi-public space of elderly

Simi-public space of Young Simi-public space of Young Simi-public space of Young

Live Totally Separation

Live Totally Separate

Space for elderly

Space for others

Space for elderly

Space for others

Space for elderly

Space for others

After discovering the possibility of share the living space of elderly with other group of people. Then main problem turns to how can they share space. First form is “Living totally together” which will happen in dwellings like Integrated housing facilities as multiple-generation homes. They are supposed to offer older people a social environment that encourages their integration into society, much more than specialized senior facilities ever could. At the same time they allow seniors to remain in their own homes longer, where they can continue to lead highly selfdetermined lives. Yet Integrated Living does not remain restricted to the inte-gration of the elderly. Other changes in our society require new residential concepts for elderly to lving with no-relation people from the society. So the second form is “Living partly together”. As traditional family bonds dissolve before our eyes, the classic nuclear family as a communal household is being replaced ever more frequently by singles, childless pairs and singleparent families. Stripped to its principles, Integrated Living means different groups of the population living together under one roof, and for the elderly who have their own flat which is too big for just themselves, it will be good to share it with others. The third form is “Living totally Separate”, as such, different residential forms in the same building. The goal is mutual enrichment and support. Integrated Living means communal residences, housing for multiple genera¬tions, barrier-free housing, homes for families; in the extreme it can also allude to the spatial proximity of living and working or leisure activities.

140


Palladiumflat

Design: Johannes Kappler Architekten Location: Groningen, Netherlands Year: 2005-2007 Flats: 44 apartments for the generation of over 50

This project differs slightly from traditional sheltered housing schemes. The building is designed for users above 50 who previously lived in a detached house, and are looking for a new environment suited to their needs as they grow older. Each flat was intended to for the use of an older population; however the design is well suited for younger adults as well. Each flat is free of columns allowing the space to be flexible and adapt as the needs of the user change. All flats are designed for accessibility and are adaptable to the needs of residents with impaired mobility. The design aims to create a similar environment to that of suburban housing. Privacy and generous amounts of outdoor spaces were incorporated into the design to create a homey feeling for residents. Instead of balconies, each flat has a south-facing conservatory that can be closed off and a large glass frontage to the north that can be opened as desired. The building is situated on the site to allow each apartment equal amounts of natural day lighting. Each flat looks out to the city on the north and the tranquil community gardens to the south.

142


Space for elderly

Public Space

Space for others

Totally Live together

Form1 Totally Live Together

Simi-public space of elderly

Simi-public space of Young

Public Space

Live Separate form others Space for elderly

Space for others

Simi-public space of elderly

Simi-public space of Young

Live Totally Separation

Isometric View Partion of Spaces Space for others

Space for elderly

Kitchen

Reading Room Toilet

Toilet

Livingroom

Bedroom

Standard Flat Plan 0

5

10

20m

Balcony

Bedroom


Multi-generational House in Stuttgart

Design: Kohlhoff & Kohlhoff Location: Stuttgart, Germany Year: 1999-2001 Flats: 10 shared living units for seniors

This elongated five storey construction can be found in one of Stuttgart's most densely populated western districts. A publicy accessibile green zone is concealed with this peripheral development in the midst of the urban environment. Apart from an advisory centre and a public cafe, a child care centre and apartments for seniors have been incorporated into this scheme, with the goal of enhancing interaction between the various user groups and counteracting social isolation. Thus a new district centre was created combining a multitude of different uses. The remaining storeys accommodate the living units for seniors which are sheltered from traffic noise by the protecting access balconies erected to the north. Each unit is designee for two residents; with separate entrance foyer, bathroom and living space. The shared kitchen with dining area and the small south-facing conservatory are located between the two private bedrooms.

146


Simi-public space of elderly

Public Space

Simi-public space of Young

Live Separate form others Space for elderly

Space for others

Form2 Live Partly Separate From Others

Simi-public space of elderly

Simi-public space of Young

Live Totally Separation

Space for others

Space for elderly

Isometric View Partion of Spaces

Balcony Bedroom

Bedroom Livingroom

Toilet

Standard Flat Plan 0

5

10

20m

Kitchen

Toilet


Multi-generational House in Vienna

Design: Franziska Ullmann and Peter Ebner Location: Vienna, Austria Year: 1998-2001 Flats: 30 assisted living apartments 12 mini-lofts 6 maisonettes 26 2-room appartments 13 3-room appartments

"We are taking our parents with us", is the motto of this multi-generational housing development in southern Vienna. Taking on the role of a district centre, it has a tightly-woven structure of shops, medical practices and various dwelling types for all generations. The dwellings are organised in pairs in the upper levels, the access walkways create timber-clad bays which accommodate the kitchens. Small corner windows provide views out into the interconnecting walkway. Private niches shelter the entry doorways and 45 cm wide metal grids create psychoÂŹlogical screens in front of the windows. The actual layouts of the apartments are open in structure, allowing even bedridden residents to take part in daily life. It is also possible for residents to take advantage of the in-house Red Cross care services, when necessary.

150


Simi-public space of elderly

Simi-public space of Young

Live Totally Separation

Space for others

Space for elderly

Form3 Live Totally Separate

Isometric View Partion of Spaces

Balcony

Balcony

Bedroom Bedroom Toilet

Livingroom

Toilet

Kitchen

Shared Flat Plan 0

5

10

20m

Livingroom

Kitchen


12. Eckhard Feddersen, Insa Ludtke, Helmut Braun, Stefan DresskeLiving for the Elderly: A Design Manual, Birkhauser, 2012 13. Jon A. Sanford, Universal Design as a Rehabilitation Strategy: Design for the Ages, Springer Publishing Company, March, 2012

References

14. Cynthia A. Leibrock, Debra D. Harris, Design Details for Health: Making the Most of Design's Healing Potential, Wiley, March, 2011 15.Riken Yamamoto, Thinking While Creating, Creating While Using, Toto Publishers, 2003 Books

1. Benjamin Rose Institute on Aging, "Signs an Older Adult Shouldn’t Live Alone" ,2014 2. Istat, Indagine Multiscopo sulle Famiglie 2010 3. Francesca Modena, Concetta Rondinelli, "Leaving home and housing prices -- The experience of Italian youth emancipation", 2011 4. Stephan Faris, "Arrivederci, Italia: Why Young Italians Are Leaving", 2010

Websites

1. http://www.meglio.milano.it 2. http://www.lifeinitaly.com/moving/senior-living.asp 3. http://www.fhs.it 4. http://www.riken-yamamoto.co.jp

5. Christian Schittich, In Detail: Housing for People of All Ages, 2007 6. Fondazione Housing Sociale, Nuove forme per l'abitare sociale : catalogo ragionato del concorso internazionale di progettazione di housing sociale per le aree di via Cenni e Figino a Milano, 2011 7. Raffaele Pugliese, La casa sociale: dalla legge Luzzatti alle nuove politiche per la casa in Lombardia, 2005 8. Perkins Eastman, Building Type Basics for Senior Living (2nd edition), 2013 9. Hoff A, Population Ageing in Central and Eastern Europe: Societal and Policy Implications, Farnham, Ashgate, 2011 10. M. Scott, M. Scott, Ball, Livable communities for aging populations : urban design for longevity, New York : John Wiley & Sons, 2012 11. Anderzhon, Jeffrey W, Design for aging: international case studies of building and program, Hoboken: J. Wiley, 2012

153

154


PART IV. RESEARCH OF MILAN ELDERLY LIVING CONDITION AND DESIGN SOLUTION

CHAPTER 1. ELDERLY IN MILAN


Elderly in Milan

Elderly and their living condition in Milan

35.3%

Gallaratese District with highest percentage of elderly(>65) in Milan, 2013

27.3%

14.1% Milan Percentage of elderly (>65), 2013

Rogoredo District with lowest percentage of elderly(>65) in Milan, 2013

Elderly people >65

People <65

Milan is the chief town of the Province of Milan and of the Lombardy Region. With 1,324,110 inhabitants. It is the second larger Municipality by population in Italy, after Rome. Milan is also the centre of the largest metropolitan area in Italy, and one of the largest in Europe. According to the data of Istat 2013, about 27.3% of population in Milan are 65 years old or over, which is even a bit more than the average of Italy. Among them, the oldest district is Gallaratese with 35.3% elderly people (>65) and the district with lowest percentage elderly (>65) is Rogoredo with 14.1%.In the last three decades of the last century the city of Milan lost almost 500 thousands inhabitants, passing from 1,732,000 in 1971 to 1,256,211 recorded at the 2001 census. In the same decades the percentage of inhabitants aged 0-14 was almost cut in half, whereas the proportion of over 65s was almost doubled. During the last decade the city gained back almost 70 thousands residents, settling at 1,322,750 in 2010; while the quota of the elderly has continued to increase, up to 26.6% and reach 27.3% in2013. The well known, long-term process of ageing of population that characterises Italy is observable at the Municipal level in Milan as well. At the same time Milan is also facing the problem of aging population. As Milan is the richest city in Italy among regional chief-towns, most of the elderly people have their own house. Most of them live with their offspring (32%) or just with their partners(38%), however, there still single elderly living alone (25%). This gives the possibiity for them to share their living space with others.

Source: Istat, 2010 158


Population Aged 65 and Over by Living Arrangements in Milan

Special Group of Residents in Milan

Residents from outside Milan 15.2%

5%

7.8%

Residents from foreign country

Residents from other regions of Italy

25% 32% Percentage of different arrangement

Residents of Single Family 6.8%

4.1%

38% Single parent with one child

Single parent with more than one child

Residents of Student 13.8%

Living alone Living with offspring (with or without the spouse)

Source: Istat, 2010

Living with partner only Other arrangements

Source: Istat, 2010


Sharing Living Space in Social Housing

Sharing Space by Elderly in Milan

Other group of people Other group of people

Moving in Moving in

Free Living Free Living Space Space

Single Elderly Single Elderly

An apartment belongs to an old people in a social housing

Existing of free living space in an elderly's aprtment

Results of share living space

Single Single Elderly Elderly Care Care Sure Sure

Single Single Elderly Elderly Care Care Sure Sure

Single Single Elderly Elderly Care Care Sure Sure

1. The QS Best Student Cities ranking is the organization combines data relating to universities, student community, affordability, quality of life and employer reputation, to highlight 50 of the world's best locations for students. 2. Social housing is an umbrella term referring to rental housing which may be owned and managed by the state, by nonprofit organizations, or by a combination of the two, usually with the aim of providing affordable housing.

Considering about the population structure of Milan, there are groups of special people living in the city. First of all is the group of people from outside Milan. As bing considered as the economic and financial capital of Italy, Milan is attracting people from different parts of Italy and even all over the world. so within the whole population of Milan there are 15.2% from other countries (including the one who has or does not have work) and 7.8% from other regions of Italy. Secondly can be students. Milan has been ranked number 24 1 according to the QS Best Student Cities Ranking 20132014, making Milan the first listed Italian city, so there are many students studying in the Milan city (13.8% of the city population). Both working or studying in Milan, people need place to stay, while most of the students and workers don't have so much money and it will be better for them to get a place place to stay cheaply. At the same time, there existing the third kind of people like single family (10.9%) which require care more than normal families. And this kind of fimilies are also a part cannot be neglected in Milan society. For sharing the living space, the so-called “Casa 2 Popolari” or “Social housing ” as a recent name can be good bases. Because both kinds of residential building have the idea of sharing public space or even living spaces for the special social group, who have kind of special problem like “requirement of care”, “requirement of living space by spending less money”, “requirement of living in groups” and so on. Also considering the fact there is number of elderly living in this kind of building, it will be a great opportunity for sharing the living spaces from elderly to others in a “Social housing”. 162


CHAPTER 2. SITE CHOOSE IN MILAN


URE UCT STR

PUBLIC SPA CE

Evaluate the "Social Housings" in Milan from Different Period

In order to find a "Social Housing" which will be possible to redesign for fitting the requirement of the elderly and other kinds of special people's needs. I introduce a evaluate system that has mainly three aspects, “Structure, Facility and Public Space” to select a dwelling not only have the physical positions suitable but also the potentiality to form a community inside of the specific dwelling for different groups of people, especially for the elderly. Structure In the transformation of the interior of an apartment a relatively simple construction system will make it easier for the re-division of the interior space. While at the same time helping the reorganizing the public space in the whole building. Facility Facilities like activity room, laundry or even restaurant are, on one hand, very important for the people living inside feel like a community, on the other hand they are also necessary for the more convince redesign of some space. Public Space Public space like playground, public terrace and public garden will be a very important potential for forming a sharing atmosphere. It can be space to give the “Social Housing” a social characteristic.

166

FACILITY


Period 1900-1920: Secondo quartiere popolare della Società Umanitaria

Architect: Giovanni Broglio Address: Viale Lombardia, Milano, Area Loreto Year: 1908 - 1909

The district was made three years after the construction of the first class area of the ​​ Humane Society "twin" of Via Solari as a continuation of the project for the delivery of residential buildings popular new concept in favor of the workers in Milan. The construction of the district was completed in just over a year and houses were delivered 21 November 1909 to the first twelve hundred tenants. The district occupies one block on a land area then known as "The Rottole", today avenue Lombardy, to the northeast outskirts of the city; It was developed at the time of construction in twelve residential buildings by a total of 214 apartments of different combinations (16 lodgings by a local, 19 by a local and service, 8 by a local and a half, 10 by two accommodation rooms, 45 2 local service, 4 to 2 and a half rooms, 74 apartments of two rooms and a half with the service, 38 rooms with three rooms and service. Similar to the case with the housing via Solaro (now Via Solari), also the popular neighborhood of Viale Lombardia answers the need to build new housing for the most humble strata of the population, however, following the most modern sanitation, new convictions regarding the health of the environment and domestic design to provide new housing in this absolutely innovative public services and not before imaginable in houses built for the workers. 168


STRUCTURE Masonry wall, not flexible

PUBLIC SPACE Existing open space, not well used

FACILITY Just public service rooms


Period 1920-1940: Quartiere IFCP Fabio Filzi

Architect: Franco Albini,Renato Camus, Giancarlo Palanti Address: Viale Argonne, Via Birago, Via Illirico, Milano Year: 1935 - 1938

The project for the district Fabio Filzi is the outcome of a competition for the design of three new housing estates banned by the Fascist Public Housing (Ifacp) in 1932. The lot is now understood by the architects as a basic unit of the urban structure in which the arrangement of the buildings is ordered in parallel rows along the solar axis (North-South) with the subsequent opening of the block to the city. Principles inspired by criteria of hygiene, geometric simplicity and savings determine the distances between the hosts, calibrated to ensure proper housing sunshine in every season, while open spaces have regular shapes and are achieved through the inclusion of groups in scale perimeters of linear blocks. The building type of base consists of stairwells that distribute 3 apartments per floor with dimensions set dall'Ifacp in 25, 45, and 55 square meters, whose basic module consists of a block bathroom-kitchen that opens onto the living room, which Overlooking a loggia, it doubles as a dining room and hallway between rooms.

172


STRUCTURE RC farme, flexible

PUBLIC SPACE Existing open space, not well used

FACILITY No any facilities


Period 1940-1960: Incis Apartment building in QT8

Architect: Piero Bottoni Address: Viale De Gasperi, Piazza Stuparich, Milano Year: 1953 - 1958

Like in the concept for the Home-garden, ample, wideopen garden areas were set aside at the entrance to each flat on the various floors and they were ensured on the west side by large balconies, connected to the stair/lift blocks, to which they are anchored. These powerful elements are the organising motif of the faรงade and, at the same time, highlight the internal logic of the organism: its being made up of five towers placed side-by-side. As in other examples of his work, Bottoni added a change of pace on the eastern faรงade, utilising screen panels (corresponding to the kitchen) to unsure a sense of lightness (in a deliberate contrast with the organism's mighty physical presence) along with a delicate hint of colour obtained with a ceramic tile cladding. Here, Bottoni realises one of the chromatic variations in architecture: a motif he dealt with for the first time in 1927 and reappears here and there in his architectural projects. As in other projects, Bottoni paid great attention to the public areas on the ground floor, planning a nursery for 60 children and other spaces such as a meeting room and a consumers cooperative. The cooperative never became operational; similarly, the nursery did not last for long.

176


STRUCTURE RC farme, flexible

PUBLIC SPACE Single slab building, no open public space

FACILITY Public terraces in the vertical distribution


Period 1960-1990: Corso XXII Marzo, 23

Architect: Gianni Celada, Valeria Fossati, Gioachino Luise, Adriano Oddo, Guido Veneziani Address: Corso XXII Maezo, Via Fiamma, Via Calvi Year: 1980 - 1992

This building is located in Corso Marzo XXII, coming from the Madonnina that is overlooking the city, it has a quiet late 19th century facade on most part of the whole building. However, at the corner with Via Calvi a 20th century brutalist concrete piece, just next to a prototypical Beruto building block. That is the part which was built in 1980s as a "Casa Popolari". When you come closer, passing the pharmacy, you will notice that this corner has a wide entrance to a courtyard and a totally new place. It is a typical example of building transformation, which make the structure system of the building as an RCform mixed with masonry wall and the courtyard is acting as the core of public spaces. Transformations will also take place behind the facades: in the buildings, the rooms and of course the lives of the people that live and work behind them. But the living condition is not so good in this building course it was just designed as a "living machine".

180


STRUCTURE RC farme + Masonry wall, flexible

PUBLIC SPACE Big open public space surrounded by building

FACILITY Public activty room located in the center of the building


Evaluation of Different Choices Secondo quartiere popolare

Quartiere IFCP Fabio Filzi

Incis Apartment building in QT8

Corso XXII Marzo, 23

FACILITY

Best Choice

FACILITY

FACILITY

PUBLIC SPA CE

PUBLIC SPA CE

PUBLIC PUBLIC SPAC SPA E CE

FACILITY

PUBLIC SPA CE

PUBLIC SPA CE

LIITLYITY FAFCAIC

FACILITY

PUBLIC SPA CE

PUBLIC SPA CE

FACILITY

CILIT T FA Y FACILIY

PUB IC PUBLLIC S A SPP ACCE E

PUBLIC SPA CE

CIILLIITTY AC Y FFA

FACILITY

PUBLIC SPA CE

PUBLIC SPA CE

FACILITY

FACILITY

PUBLIC SPA CE

URE UCT STR

URE UCT STR

URE UCT STR

URE UCT STR

URE UCT STR

URE UCT STR

URE UCT STRUCTURE STR

URE UCT STR

URE UCT STR

URE UCTTURE STRUC STR

URE UCT STR

URE UCT STR

URE UCT STR

FACILITY

PUBLIC SPA CE

della Società Umanitaria


References

Books

1. Raffaele Pugliese, La casa popolare in Lombardia, 1903-2003, 2005 2. Raffaele Pugliese, Marco Lucchini, Milano cittĂ d'acqua: nuovi paesaggi urbani per la tutela dei Navigli, 2011 3. Fondazione Housing Sociale, Nuove forme per l'abitare sociale : catalogo ragionato del concorso internazionale di progettazione di housing sociale per le aree di via Cenni e Figino a Milano, 2011 4. Andrea Branzi, "Franco Albini", Motta Architettura, May 2012

Websites

1. http://www.celadaarchitetti.it/celada/1980-1993-milano 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/QT8 3. http://dati.comune.milano.it

185

SOCIAL FAMILY An "Aging in Place". Solution for Elderly People - VOL 1  

Aging of population (also known as demographic aging, and population aging) is a summary term for shifts in the age distribution of a popula...

SOCIAL FAMILY An "Aging in Place". Solution for Elderly People - VOL 1  

Aging of population (also known as demographic aging, and population aging) is a summary term for shifts in the age distribution of a popula...

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