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Project ALPTER - Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme Co-funded by the European Union

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Living Terraced Landscapes

Perspectives and strategies to revitalise the abandoned regions

14-15 February 2008, Ljubljana, Slovenia


INTRODUCTION Dear Guests, dear Conference Participants Welcome to Ljubljana! On behalf of the organisers, we would like to extend our warmest greetings to all of you taking part in the final ALPTER project conference “Living Terraced Landscapes: Perspectives and strategies to revitalise the abandoned regions.” As announced, the issues we have selected to discuss at this conference are primarily linked with the themes developed during the Interreg IIIB Alpine Space project ALPTER “The Terraced Landscapes of the Alpine Arc”. Terraced landscapes were formed by use of a method of growing crops on the sides of hills or mountains by planting on graduated plains built into the slope. Although a labour-intensive cultivation method, it has been employed effectively to maximize arable land in variable terrains and cultures by reducing soil erosion and water loss. In several regions agricultural terraces cover the mountains from base to peak. The most prominent examples of terrace cultivation are found in China, Japan, the Philippines, and other areas of Oceania and Southeast Asia; around the Mediterranean; in parts of Africa; and in the Andes of South America. The ALPTER project an Interreg III B project dealing with the terraced landscapes of the Alpine arc - has proven that terrace cultivation can be found in other regions such as sub-Mediterranean hills, Dinaric areas and Alpine hills. In modern times, the neglect of constructed terraces has had dire consequences for them in terms of structural decay: e.g. the loss of productive land, increase of natural hazards, disappearance of a rich cultural heritage, and loss of attractiveness for tourism. The conference focuses on efforts to find ways to revive interest in terraced landscapes, to define recovery processes and to define implementation efforts for the maintenance of terraced landscapes. Themes Natural hazards Landslides are caused by the abandonment of terraced areas, posing a recurrent hazard to human life and livelihood. Terrace constructions are direct methods of preventing landslides, as they include modifying slope geometry, installing structures such as retaining walls, and rerouting surface and ground water drainage.

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The aim of the theme is to share views, research experiences and practices, putting emphasis on following questions: What are precautionary means to prevent natural hazards? How efficient are various methods of preventing landslides? Which constraints must be confronted when reducing landslide hazards? Agricultural production The construction of terraces not only extends the arable land, but also creates protected microclimates where particular varieties can flourish. Terraced landscapes originate from the demands of high-altitude agriculture and of gaining additional land in circumstances that elsewhere would not have seemed worth the effort. Furthermore, the cultivation of terraces nowadays raises many technical and marketing problems that must be considered in order to sustain the present farming activities. The aim of the theme is to share views, research experiences and practices, putting emphasis on following questions: Are agricultural techniques such as terracing still increasing productivity? Are agricultural techniques such as terracing merely a simple modification of the old techniques? What kind of engineering problems does terracing present? How are improvements in farming techniques and the introduction of new crops influencing terracing? Tourism promotion Since the ‘90s, the dual goal of economic development through tourism and protection of the environment has been promoted. A variety of landscapes, climatic conditions and cultural diversity, often accompanied by renowned cuisine, support the world’s leading tourist destinations. In our view, terraced landscapes are one of the most beautiful cultural landscapes, contributing to the identity and recognition of the local culture. The aim of the theme is to share views, research experiences and practices, putting emphasis on following questions: Could tourism be a development strategy for the terraced areas? What kind of sustainable tourism, which fosters economic growth while preserving the quality of the environment, could be encouraged in terraced landscapes? What kinds of other support for local economies and local communities could be applied?

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Strategies and policies Contemporary planners seek to balance the conflicting demands of economic growth, environmental sensitivity and aesthetic appeal. Successful implementation of a plan usually requires and increasingly involves private sector participation in public private partnerships. Subsidies to terraced landscapes could be instituted on the grounds that their preservation is in the public interest. The aim of the theme is to share views, research experiences and practices, putting emphasis on following questions:: What kinds of measures, undertaken by which different institutions or government bodies, could influence professional planning of terraced areas? What kinds of policies are needed to preserve the terraced landscapes? What kind of methods are demanded for establishing control of successful implementation of a plan? This Book of abstracts has five sections: the first four lead you through the four main themes of the conference, while the last part covers presentations of activities within various European programmes. We would like to express our gratitude for supporting the Conference to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food of the Republic of Slovenia, Municipality of Brda and the Chamber of Agriculture and Forestry of Slovenia. The full list of those who co-financed the APLTER Final conference, can be found at the end of this book. We hope you will find this Conference stimulating and that you will have a pleasant stay in our capital city, Ljubljana. The personal contacts and links made here in Ljubljana should generate better co-operation between different institutions, local authorities and professionals. Organising committee: Lučka Ažman Momirski University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture Barbara Černič Mali Urban Planning Institute of Republic of Slovenia Luca Lodatti Venice Region

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Project ALPTER - Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme Co-funded by the European Union

PROGRAMME

International Conference Living Terraced Landscapes Thursday 14 February from 7:30 - 9.30 9.30  

10.00  10.15 

10.40 11.00 11.20 11.40 12.00

12.20 12.40

13.00 14.30 14.45 15.00 15.20

15.50

16.10 16.30 16.50 17.10

Arrival of participants and registration (The White Hall)

Opening of the conference Welcome by Branka Tome, the State Secretary of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food of the Republic of Slovenia Welcome by Peter Vrisk, the President of the Chamber of Agriculture and Forestry of Slovenia Welcome by the organisers & Introduction to the conference ALPTER results presentations Franco Alberti, Regione Veneto, Italy, Mauro Varotto, University of Padua, Italy 1st Panel: Natural hazard, General framework & Chair: Mihael Ribičič, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engeneering, Anja Musek, Načrtovanje in oblikovanje s.p., Slovenia: »Sustainable slope and geotechnical works« Gerardo Brancucci, University of Genoa - POLIS Department, Giola Gibelli, Francesca Neonato, Italy: »Characterization of terraced areas finalized to assessment of landslide hazard« Ana Petkovšek, Jure Klopčič, Bojan Majes, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Slovenia: »Terraced landscapes and their influence to the slope stability« Coffee break Mateja Jemec, Marko Komac, Geological Survey of Slovenia, Slovenia: »Landslide susceptibility in Slovenia on general and vineyard related landslides« Blaž Komac, Matija Zorn, Anton Melik Geographical Institute, Scientific Research Centre, Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Art, Slovenia: »Landslide hazard in the Goriška Brda hills« Andrea Ninfo, Paolo Mozzi, Department of Geography, University of Padua, Italy: »Hazard evaluation in terraced areas of the Brenta Valley: A LiDar based approach« Tiziana Apuani, Emanuele Catelli, Marco Massetti, Daniele Pedretti, Alessio Conforto, University of Milan, Department of Earth Sciences, Italy: »The infiltration process in a terraced slope; Experimental and numerical analysis of hydrogeological and geotechnical aspects« Lunch (The Garden Hall) Anuška Štoka, Joint Technical Secretariat: »Best practice examples and new priorities and opportunities in the Alpine Space« Fabio Croccolo, Italian Ministry of Transports and Infrastructures: »The Italian participation in the “Alpine Space” Programme: Results and perspectives« Margarita Jančič, Tomaž Miklavčič, National Office for Interreg III B and CADSES, Slovenia: »Endogenous potentials and capitalisation of results of Interreg III B« 2nd Panel: Agricultural production, General framework & Chair: Eric Roose, former director of research of IRD, centre of Montpellier, France: »Terracing in Africa: Typology, efficiency, limits and perspectives« Lučka Ažman Momirski, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture, Drago Kladnik, Anton Melik Geographical Institute, Scientific Research Centre, Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Slovenia: »Terraced landscapes in Slovenia« Coffee break Andreja Škvarč, Ivan Kodrič, KGZS Institute of Agriculture and Forestry, Nova Gorica, Slovenia: »Vineyards and orchards on terraces in Primorska region« Simona Hauptman, Roman Štabuc, KGZS Institute of Agriculture and Forestry, Maribor, Slovenia: »The possibilities of revitalisation of the terraced vineyards in Podravje« Andrej Rebernišek, Stanislav Leskovar, KGZS Institute of Agriculture and Forestry, Ptuj, Slovenia: »Is it possible to maintain vineyards on steeper slopes with mini terraces?«


17.30

18:00 19:00

Silvia Stanchi, Michele Freppaz, University of Turin, Department for the Protection and Exploitation of Agro-forestry Resources - DiVaPRA; V. Revel-Chion, Autonomous Region Valle d’Aosta, Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources: »Terraced agriculture: Anthropogenic effects on soil characteristics« Afternoon session ends Opening of the exhibition The Terraces of Goriška Brda by the Mayor of the Municipality of Brda Franc Mužič. Reception sponsored by Wine cellar Goriška Brda and accompanied by Nonet Brda (The Garden Hall)

20.00

Dinner (The Glass Room)

Friday 15 February 9.30  

10.00

10:30

10.50 11:10 11.30 11.50 12.10

Opening Welcome by Viktor Pust, the President of the Chamber of Architecture and Spatial Planning of Slovenia Welcome by Peter Gabrijelčič, the Dean of the Faculty of Architecture, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia ALPTER project presentation - Slovenian results Lučka Ažman Momirski, Drago Perko, Drago Kladnik, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture 3rd Panel: Tourism promotion, General framework & Chair: Christophe Clivaz, University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland, Institute of Economics & Tourism, Switzerland: »Tourism and landscape: Between conflict and common interests« Arne Arnberger, Renate Eder, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Institute of Landscape Development, Recreation and Conservation Planning, Austria: »Tourism potentials and strategies for the terraced landscapes of the Alpine Arc« Jelka Hudoklin, ACER Novo mesto, Slovenia: »Terraced Landscapes: Areas of landscape identity in changing processes« Coffee break Lisa Garbellini, IREALP, Italy: »Tourism offer in terraced areas« Andrée Dagorne, Université de Nice-Sophia-Antipolis; A.D.I., France: »Study of the terraces to a reflection on the European and Mediterranean co-operation« UNESCO activities presentation Philippe Pypaert, UNESCO Regional Office for Science and Research in Europe: »The natural and cultural assets of sound territorial development«

13.00 14.30

14.50 15.40

16:00 16.20 16.40 17.00 17.20

17.40

Lunch (The Garden Hall) 4th Panel: Strategies and policies, General framework & Chair: Enrico Fontanari, IUAV University of Venice, Italy: »Issues in recovering terraced landscapes« Pierre Donadieu, University of La Villette, Paris, France: »Terraced landscapes in Europe: Why, for whom & how?« Franz Höchtl, Claude Petit, Werner Konold, Albert-Ludwigs-University, Faculty of Forest and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Landscape Management, Germany: »The Historical Vineyards Project: Winegrowing, heritage conservation and nature protection in tandem« Liljana Jankovič Grobelšek, Acer Novo mesto d.o.o., Slovenia: »Is living in the vineyards a problem that could be solved?« Coffee break Silvio Werder, Dominik Alig, Bregaglia Region, Switzerland: »Bregaglia: Regional policy and planning« Anton Prosen, Anka Lisec, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Slovenia: »Conservation of terraced landscape as protection of soil against erosion« Marina Pintar, Biotechnical Faculty, Agronomy Department, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, Andrea Knierim, Hubert Wiggering, Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research, Austria: »Research, development and implementation in rural landscapes« Conclusion of the Conference: Luca Lodatti, Veneto Region, Italy

Saturday 16 February 9.00 - 17.30 ALPTER Excursion to Goriška Brda (optional)


TABLE OF CONTENTS 3 INTRODUCTION ABSTRACTS 10 NATURAL HAZARDS General framework & Chair: Mihael Ribičič, Slovenia, Anja Musek, Slovenia:

Sustainable slope and geotechnical works Gerardo Brancucci, Giola Gibelli, Francesca Neonato, Italy:

Characterization of terraced areas finalized to assessment of landslide hazard Ana Petkovšek, Jure Klopčič, Bojan Majes, Slovenia:

Terraced landscapes and their influence to the slope stability Mateja Jemec, Marko Komac, Slovenia

Landslide susceptibility in Slovenia on general and vineyard related landslides Blaž Komac, Matija Zorn, Slovenia:

Landslide hazard in the Goriška Brda hills Andrea Ninfo, Paolo Mozzi, Italy:

Hazard evaluation in terraced areas of the Brenta Valley: A LiDar based approach, Tiziana Apuani, Emanuele Catelli, Marco Massetti, Daniele Pedretti, Alessio Conforto, Italy:

The infiltration process in a terraced slope: Experimental and numerical analysis of hydrogeological and geotechnical aspects

17 AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION General framework & Chair: Eric Roose, France:

Terracing in Africa : Typology, efficiency, limits and perspectives Lučka Ažman Momirski, Drago Kladnik, Slovenia:

Terraced landscapes in Slovenia Andreja Škvarč, Ivan Kodrič, Slovenia:

Vineyards and orchards on terraces in Primorska region Simona Hauptman, Roman Štabuc, Slovenia:

The possibilities of revitalisation of the terraced vineyards in Podravje Andrej Rebernišek, Stanislav Leskovar, Slovenia:

Is it possible to maintain vineyards on steeper slopes with mini terraces? Silvia Stanchi, Michele Freppaz, V. Revel-Chion, Italy:

Terraced agriculture: Anthropogenic effects on soil characteristics

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23 TOURISM PROMOTION General framework & Chair: Christophe Clivaz, Switzerland:

Tourism and landscape: Between conflict and common interests Arne Arnberger, Renate Eder, Austria:

Tourism potentials and strategies for the terraced landscapes of the Alpine Arc Jelka Hudoklin, Slovenia:

Terraced landscapes: Areas of landscape identity in changing processes Lisa Garbellini, Italy:

Tourism offer in terraced areas

27 STRATEGIES AND POLICIES General framework & Chair: Enrico Fontanari, Italy:

Issues in recovering terraced landscapes Pierre Donadieu, France:

Terraced landscapes in Europe: Why, for whom & how? Franz Höchtl, Claude Petit, Werner Konold, Germany:

The Historical Vineyards Project: Winegrowing, heritage conservation and nature protection in tandem Liljana Jankovič Grobelšek, Slovenia:

Is living in the vineyards a problem that could be solved? Silvio Werder, Dominik Alig, Switzerland:

Bregaglia: Regional policy and planning Anton Prosen, Anka Lisec, Slovenia:

Conservation of terraced landscape as protection of soil against erosion Marina Pintar, Slovenia, Andrea Knierim, Hubert Wiggering, Germany: Research, development and implementation in rural landscapes

34 PRESENTATIONS

Anuška Štoka, Joint Technical Secretariat:

Best practice examples and new priorities and opportunities in the Alpine Space Fabio Croccolo, Italy:

The Italian participation in the “Alpine Space” Programme: Results and perspectives Margarita Jančič, Tomaž Miklavčič, Slovenia:

Endogenous potentials and capitalisation of results of Interreg IIIB Andrée Dagorne, France:

Study of the terraces to a reflection on the European and Mediterranean co-operation Philippe Pypaert, UNESCO Venice Office, Italy:

The natural and cultural assets of aound territorial development

40 COFINANCING ORGANIZATIONS Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food of the Republic of Slovenia Municipality of Brda Chamber of Agriculture and Forestry of Slovenia Wine cellar Goriška Brda Acer d.o.o. Novo Mesto Geological Survey of Slovenia

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Name of the author:

Mihael Ribičič Institution & country:

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engeneering, Slovenia E-mail address:

mihael.ribicic@ntf.uni-lj.si Name of the author:

Anja Musek Institution & country:

Načrtovanje in oblikovanje Anja Musek s.p., Slovenia E-mail address:

anjamusek@gmail.com

KEYSPEAKER

NATURAL HAZARDS

Sustainable slope and geotechnical works When the terrain is reshaped for example into terraces it is often necessary to prevent landslides or erosion processes by creating a new stable shape of terrain or building geotechnical retaining walls. These kinds of interventions can often lead to damage of natural or cultural landscape and other consequences that are not in compliance with sustainable development. By attentive planning that is based not only on geotechnical ground characteristics, but also on principles of sustainable development it is possible to minimise the impact on the environment caused by the new construction. The principles of sustainable design that can be applied in geotechnical construction are mostly: • To consider the ecological content – designing in compliance with the local flora, fauna, ground, bedrock, materials, climate conditions, topography; usage of avtohton plants, conserving existent flora and fauna; • To consider the cultural content – placement and design of a new construction in keeping with one found in existing cultural landscape, usage of vegetation and other elements that exist in the local cultural landscape, usage of local materials for geotechnical construction, inclusion of local community into a design and building process; • Visual sustainability – geotechnical element is placed in a way that makes it less visible or not visible (e.g. reinforcing ground with geotextile, vegetation coverage) In the paper there will be positive and negative examples and their influence on the landscape presented.

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Key words:

terraces, sustainable design, ecology, cultural landscape


Name of the author:

Gerardo Brancucci Institution & country:

University of Genoa - POLIS Department, Italy E-mail address:

brancucci@arch.unige.it Name of the author:

Gioia Gibelli

Institution & country:

Studio Gibelli E-mail address:

gioiagibelli@studiodiprogettazione.net Name of the author:

Francesca Neonato Institution & country:

Polytechnic of Milan E-mail address:

info@pnstudio.net

NATURAL HAZARDS

Characterization of terraced areas finalized to assessment of landslide hazard The Interreg Project, named ALPTER has conducted a series of researches in Liguria. As a result the following operations have been carried out: • A regional census of terraced areas aimed at finding a valuation, as much precise as possible, of the regional terraced area consistency. • In sample basins, such as the Bisagno Valley, the Argentina Valley and an area named S.Bernardino (Cinque Terre) we carried out detailed studies, aimed at the characterization of terraced sides. As a result, the Applied Geomorphology Laboratory, (that operates at the University of Genoa POLIS Department), is going to carry on these studies. • Operating plan: drafting of a manual that suggests how to face emergencies.

Key words:

terraced areas, lanslide hazard, Liguria

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Name of the authors:

Ana Petkovšek, Jure Klopčič, Bojan Majes Institution & country:

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Slovenia E-mail address:

apetkovs@fgg.uni-lj.si, jklopcic@fgg.uni-lj.si, bmajes@fgg.uni-lj.si

NATURAL HAZARDS

Terraced landscapes and their influence to the slope stability Using the example of the recovery lot in Medana - Goriška Brda, Slovenia, the authors present the processes that influence the flysch bed rock deterioration and consequently the increasing thickness of the soil cover on the terraced slopes. Even all other conditions being equal, the thicker soil covers on the slopes consequences the lower safety against sliding. Terrace constructions can on one hand improve stability and prevent landslides, as they include modifying slope geometry, installing structures such as retaining walls, and rerouting surface and ground water drainages. On the other hand, terrace constructions on natural flysch slopes strongly affect the flysch bedrock by loosing it and allowing surface water to percolate much faster and deeper into the ground, accelerating the processes of natural weathering. Flysch bedrock in Medana consists mainly of soft clay-stones and marls which are very sensitive to water and can deteriorate very fast after tillage and landscaping. The resulted soils are lean to fat clays with some coarse grained particles. Commonly the weathered soils exhibit 40 – 80 % reduction in strength. Because of the low permeability of the unaffected flysch bed rock at the bottom, the percolating water causes the saturation of the soil cover and the ground water level increases. The increase in the underground water level causes an increase of pore pressures, a reduction of effective stresses and a decrease in the strength of the cover. Due to the higher level of ground water, also the cone of capillary rise increases. The paper presents the results of parametric stability studies, performed to prove the correctness of the solutions accepted at the recovery lot Medana. Literature: MAJES, Bojan, PETKOVŠEK, Ana, LOGAR, Janko. 2002. The comparisson of material properties of debries flows from Stože, Slano blato and Strug landslides. Geologija, let. 45, št. 2, str. 457-463. MIKOŠ, Matjaž, FAZARINC, Rok, PULKO, Boštjan, PETKOVŠEK, Ana, MAJES, Bojan. 2005. Stepwise mitigation of the Macesnik landslide, N Slovenia. Nat. hazards earth syst. sci. (Print), 5, str. 948-958.

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Key words:

terraced landscape, slope stability, Goriška Brda, Medana


Name of the authors:

Mateja Jemec, Marko Komac Institution & country:

Geological Survey of Slovenia, Slovenia E-mail address:

marko.komac@geo-zs.si, mateja.jemec@geo-zs.si

NATURAL HAZARDS

Landslide susceptibility in Slovenia on general and vineyard realted lanslides

Each year Slovenia suffers from relatively huge damage due to landslides or more precise slope mass movement phenomena. In extreme events such as it was the one on 18th September 2007, this damage reaches several tens of million of euros. This was the main reason to perform analyses on conditional and triggering factors that influence slope mass movement occurrences in Slovenia. Beside the analytical results, also spatial mathematical model of landslide susceptibility was calculated for the whole of Slovenia at scale 1 : 250 000. In addition to the analyses on the national scale, some analyses were performed on vineyard areas that resemble the terraced landscape the most. Some results will be presented in the paper.

Key words:

terraced landscapes, landslide susceptibility, Slovenia

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Name of the authors:

Matija Zorn, Blaž Komac Institution & country:

Anton Melik Geographical Institute, Scientific Research Centre, Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Slovenia E-mail address:

matija.zorn@zrc-sazu.si, blaz.komac@zrc-sazu.si

NATURAL HAZARDS

Landslide hazard in the Goriška brda hills Using the example of the flysch Goriška Brda hills the authors present the modelling of landslide hazard. The intensity and distribution of the processes are established by comparing indirectly determined landscape elements and the actual situation (Natek et al. 2003; Zorn, Komac 2004). We have elaborated a hazard map for landslides using on the basis of the data on 800 landslides that occurred with intensive precipitation in 1998. Goriška Brda is a range of hilly ridges in western Slovenia that covers 140 km2 with altitudes from 300 to 800 meters. The ridges are mostly sedimentary flysch rock composed of layers of sandstone, marlstone, slate claystone, and limestone or calcarenite ranging from a few centimeters up to half a meter thick. Natural conditions in Goriška Brda allow intensive agricultural production while numerous factors also make human activities impossible or difficult in some areas. Landslides present a constant problem in Goriška Brda, affecting viticulture on slopes (Grimšičar 1962; Vrišer 1956). Based on the landslide hazard map, we can state that the map is useful for spatial planning up to the settlement level and is a good foundation for detailed geomorphological mapping of landslide hazard areas. Landslide hazard must also be seriously taken into consideration in the construction of new roads and buildings, the determination of new settlement areas, and the expansion of settlement areas that to a great extent already respect the natural conditions since they have a long history of existence. Literature Grimšičar, A. 1962: Inženirsko-geološke razmere v Goriških brdih. In: Pavlovec, R. (ed.), Geološke razmere v Goriških Brdih. Ljubljana, Geološki inštitut Slovenske akademija znanosti in umetnosti. Natek, K., Komac, B., Zorn, M. 2003: Mass movements in the Julian Alps (Slovenia) in the aftermath of the Easter earthquake on April 12, 1998. Studia Geomorphologica Carpatho-Balcanica 37. Kraków. Vrišer, I. 1956: Morfološki razvoj v Goriških brdih. Geografski zbornik 4. Ljubljana. Zorn, M., Komac, B. 2004: Deterministic modelling of landslide and rockfall risk. Acta geographica Slovenica 44/2. Ljubljana.

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Key words:

landslide hazard map, Goriška Brda


Name of the authors:

Andrea Ninfo, Paolo Mozzi Institution & country:

Department of Geography, University of Padua, Italy E-mail address:

andrea.ninfo@unipd.it, paolo.mozzi@unipd.it

NATURAL HAZARDS

Hazard evaluation in terraced areas of the Brenta Valley: A LiDAR based approach The aim of the investigation is to use very precise altimetric Lidar data (1-1,5 point for m2), in order to estimate rock fall and flood hazards in two terraced areas of the Brenta Valley. In the Mattietti area, located on steep hillslope (>35째), hazard is due to the fall of the Material supported by the terraces, as a consequence of wall degradation. A semiautomated method for the calculation of the volume of the terrace material was developed. In the second area, the S.Gaetano alluvial fan, fluvial processes represent the major hazard. We calculated the drainage network from DTM, simulating an hypothetical occlusion on the principal artificial canal (Vallegone), as a consequence of the falling down of terrace walls.

Key words:

terraced areas, Lidar, Brenta valley

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Name of the authors:

Tiziana Apuani, Emanuele Catelli, Marco Masetti, Daniele Pedretti, Alessio Conforto Institution & country:

University of Milan, Earth Science Department, Italy E-mail address:

marco.masetti@unimi.it, daniele.pedretti@unimi.it

NATURAL HAZARDS

The infiltration process in a terraced slope: Experimental and numerical analysis of hydrogeological and geotechnical aspects This work analyses the modalities with which groundwater flow develops and evolves in terraced slopes characterized by dry stone masonry retaining walls. The study is applied to the Pianazzola territory in Chiavenna (Sondrio-Italy). First a morphometric survey of the terraces has been carried out and the state of deformation of the wall described. Then the main physical and hydraulic parameters of the backfill soil have been determined by in situ and laboratory tests. On the base of the collected data, the infiltration process has been analysed by finite element numerical modelling. Numerical modeling has been based on a one year monitoring programme including the measures of pore-water pressures in the vadose zone at eight different depths through automatic tensiometers. Measures has been related to climatic variables (temperatures and precipitation) to perform preliminary analysis of infiltration and exfiltration processes. Groundwater flows, generated by events of intense precipitation, have been reproduced, starting from a homogenous-isotropic slope model, resulting from benching, soil filling and compaction activities. Finally a stress-strain numerical model has been performed to analyse conditions influencing type and amount of deformation.

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Key words:

terraced slopes, hydrology, Pianazzola, Sondrio


Name of the author:

Dr.Eric Roose

Institution & country:

Director of research emeritus, IRD: Institut de Recherche pour le DĂŠveloppement, France E-mail address:

eric.Roose@ird.fr

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

KEYSPEAKER

Terracing in Africa: Typology, efficiency, limits and perspectives Between all the erosion processes known in Africa, the African farmers on the mountains are fearing soil productivity degradation and linear erosion scouring the topsoil and destroying the field surface. They developed mainly two terracing systems : graded irrigated terraces and progressive terraces with stone bund or living hedges. The rare data existing in Mediterranean semi-arid area (Tunisia), in Eastern Africa (Rwanda, Burundi, Ethiopia) in Western Africa (Ivory Coast) and Cameroon, showed the decrease of runoff (average & max), of erosion, but do not necessary increase the yields of crops without complementary fertilization (organic and mineral P + N). If the soil is already deeply degraded, it is possible to restore its productivity, but it has a cost ... For the future, it seems necessary to develop sustainable systems less expensive in labour (stone bunds or living hedges with leguminous scrubs), more fertilizers (mulch, manure + N+P ) and adjust the pH (mulch, ashes, CaCO3) in order to intensify the production and increase the net income.

Key words:

terraces typology, efficiency, erosion , runoff , yield, Africa

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Name of the author:

Lučka Ažman Momirski, Institution & country:

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture, Slovenia E-mail address:

lucija.azman@fa.uni-lj.si Name of the author:

Drago Kladnik

Institution & country:

Anton Melik Geographical Institute, Scientific Research Centre, Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Slovenia E-mail address:

drago.kladnik@zrc-sazu.si

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

Terraced landscapes in Slovenia Slovenia is a country of exceptionally diverse landscapes at the contact of four major European macroregions: Alpine, Pannonian, Dinaric and Mediterranean. Terraces, as a characteristic Mediterranean landscape element, occur in all landscape types, but vary in terms of density, purpose and modern function. Terraces, which define the most characteristic terraced landscape, are most common in the Mediterranean environment, but they are also common in Karst-Dinaric landscapes and winegrowing Pannonian hills, while they are more unusual in mountainous Alpine regions, where they occur especially in transition areas to Mediterranean landscapes. In terms of purpose, we distinguish agricultural, viticultural and fruit-growing terraces. The first type occurs all over the country, while the second and third types are tied to hills with favourable climates for cultivating grape vines and fruit trees. Agricultural terraces are older, and with the declining role of agriculture, social mobility, and an ageing and insufficient agricultural work force, they have lost their former role, with their former fields now almost entirely replaced by meadows. In remote, demographically threatened areas, many are becoming overgrown, or have become completely forested. Wine-growing and the less common fruit-growing terraces are – with the exception of the Mediterranean and some of the Dinaric regions – the product of modern, mechanised farming, and a different valuation of the quality of production in vineyards. This requires greater separation between rows, suitable for the use of farm machines between vines that are set further apart. Such terraces are specific to the Pannonian region of north-eastern and eastern Slovenia.

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Key words:

terraced landscapes, agricultural, viticultural and fruit-growing terraces, Slovenia


Name of the authors:

Andreja Škvarč, Ivan Kodrič Institution & country:

KGZS Kmetijsko gozdarski zavod Nova Gorica, Slovenija E-mail address:

andreja.skvarc@kvz-ng.si, ivan.kodric@kvz-ng.si

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

Vineyards and orchards on terraces in Primorska region Primorska is well known of its landscape and naturalistic beauties and also of its fruit and wine production. Today there are almost 7000 ha of vineyards and 3000 ha of orchards in Primorska region. The grape growing area is divided into four vinegrowing districts, each with different climatic conditions and land structure. The dominant characteristic of hillside vineyards are terraces and there are over 80 % of vineyards in Goriška Brda on terraces and 66% in Vipavska dolina. There are about 20 % of orchards on terraces. In some species (cherries, apricots) there are 50 % of orchards on terraces. At the present days two contradictory trends define the agronomic production on terraces: • the neglect of production on steep hills, on terraces because of high production costs and because of drought and luck of irrigation water in case of fruit production, • reconstruction of terraces with modern techniques for terrain preparation which involve the consideration on the terraces width, the gradient of terrace slope, the use of different mechanisation to maintain the terraces, the slopes and the vines or fruit trees and the roads and connections for safety work with mechanisation. The specialists for vine and fruit production have no influence on the neglect of terraces, but we should have influence on the reconstruction. The aim of our work is to suggest proper methods to make new vineyards and orchards on terraces to make the production more economical.

Key words:

terraces, vineyards, orchards, neglect of production, reconstruction of terraces, Primorska

19


Name of the authors:

Simona Hauptman, Roman Štabuc Institution & country:

KGZS Institute of Agriculture and Forestry Maribor, Slovenia E-mail address:

simona.hauptman@kmetijski-zavod.si, roman.stabuc@kmetijski-zavod.si

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

Possibilities for revitalising terraced vineyards in Podravje Among the 85% or 439,000 hectares of Slovenian agricultural land area situated on slopes, there are also 17,192 hectares (3.9%) of Slovenian vineyards. Viniculture is developed in three highly productive wine regions: in the west is the Primorska region, in the south is Posavje, and in the east Podravje. In Slovenia we raise vines – because of various conditions for production – both on vertical and terraced vineyards, so we have 63% vertical and 37% terraced vineyards. The majority of the terraces are located in Primorje (60%), Podravje (28%) and Posavje (12%). In Podravje, a region well known for its wine production orientation, the evolution of terraced vineyards took place from 1960 to 1990. After this period, wine production on terraces stagnated and began to drop due to the changing political and harsher economic conditions. Because of climate change, the humid climate of Podravje has become arid, and thus terraces on the steeply sloping regions are the only good way to provide for the existence of wine grape production. The reconstuction of terraces, and with it the connected cultural landscape of the steep hill regions in Podravje, we see only in the machinery of a new generation of modern terraces which will, together with the implementation of new technologically oriented production methods, insure the concurrent economical production of ecologically produced wine grapes of high quality. The reality of the terraces’ renaissance can become important in the long term – not only for maintaining wine production, but also for maintaining its keepers and developers – as a symbol of the extraordinary quality expected of an ecological wine production. Thus it could become a focus and an opportunity for well-rounded and specially developed tourism in the steep hilly vineyard production areas of Podravje.

20

Key words:

terraced vineyards, reconstruction of terraces, Podravje


Name of the author:

Andrej Rebernišek Institution & country:

KGZS Institute of Agriculture and Forestry Ptuj, Slovenia E-mail address:

andrej.rebernisek@kgz-ptuj.si

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

Is it possible to maintain vineyards on steeper slopes with mini terraces? The data of the grape and wine producers register (the period between 2001 and 2005) show the strong decrase in producing the grapes and restoring the demanding steep vineyard areas. The costs of making a vineyard of a terrace system amount to 25.562,00 € (the terrace plane being 3 m and 0.9 m distance in a row), 38.288,00 € with the narrow terraces (the terrace plane 1.7 m, in a row 0.9 m), and 32.639,00 € for the terraces in the vertical (between the rows 2.4 m, in a row 0.9 m). The whole income with the purchase price 0.50 € per kg of grapes amounts to 2.521,00 €/ha for the terrace vineyard, 4.157,00 €/ha for the narrow terraces, and 5.243,00 €/ha for the vertical vineyard. The contribution for covering of the constant expenses (that is rough cover) amounts to -351,00 €/ha for the terraces, 404,00 €/ha for the narrow terraces, and 978,00 €/ha for the vertical vineyard. According to economical pointers the most economically favourable solution for the overgrowing and abandoning steep vineyard areas is to make the narrow terraces.

Key words:

vineyard, the amount of grapes, technology of production, economy of production, vineyard reconstruction

21


Name of the authors:

Silvia Stanchi, Michele Freppaz Institution & country:

DiVaPRA, Facoltà di Agraria, Università degli Studi di Torino, Italy E-mail address:

silvia.stanchi@unito.it, michele.freppaz@unito.it Name of the author:

Agnelli A.

Name of the author:

Drusi B.

Institution & country:

DEIAFA, Facoltà di Agraria, Università degli Studi di Torino, Italy Name of the authors:

Galliani C., Revel-Chion V. Institution & country:

Assessorato Agricoltura e Risorse Naturali, Regione Autonoma Valle d’Aosta, Italy E-mail address:

Institution & country:

Saprov, Facoltà di Agraria, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Italy E-mail address:

c.galliani@regione.vda.it, v.revelchion@regione.vda.it Name of the author:

Zanini E.

Institution & country:

a.agnelli@univpm.it

DiVaPRA, Facoltà di Agraria, Università degli Studi di Torino,Italy E-mail address:

Ermanno.zanini@unito.it

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

Terraced agriculture: Anthropogenic effects on soil characteristics Terraces are characterising elements of the agricultural landscape in Europe. Due to their historical and aesthetic meaning, they represent a resource for agriculture and tourism, but at the same time a challenge for land conservation and management. In the past, terraced slopes became privileged sites for human settlement and agricultural activities. At present, they are often used for high quality productions, growing on soils with very typical chemical and physical properties. In fact, the filling material used for terraces building is a man-made substrate, where pedogenesis can act, leading to soils with a strong human influence. The role of terrace soils is fundamental not only for agricultural quality, but also for natural hazard prevention, although scarcely investigated. This research focuses on terrace soils properties, conservation and management. We report some examples from the NW Italian Alps (Valle d’Aosta), where terraced slopes are characterised by ancient origin and a strong anthropic influence. Soil development is generally limited, with coarse textures and often a good productive attitude. When abandoned, terraces are however subject to almost immediate decay, due to erosion processes and slope failures. The different effects of land degradation at hill slope scale may be mitigated through terrace management practices such as presence of spontaneous herbaceous vegetation cover, soil moisture conservation, and drainage optimization. Such aspects require careful planning and conservation measures that can be collected in “best practices” guide lines for farmers, landowners and decision-makers.

22

Key words:

terraced agriculture, terrace soil, erosion, terrace management, Valle d’Aosta


Name of the author:

Christophe Clivaz

Institution & country:

University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland / Institute of Economics & Tourism E-mail address:

christophe.clivaz@hevs.ch

TOURISM PROMOTION

KEYSPEAKER

Tourism and landscape: Between conflict and common interests Landscape constitutes the “raw material” of tourism: the importance of landscape for tourism is underlined by all specialists. Tourism thus has developed primarily in areas which are characterized by an original and attractive landscape. The paramount importance of landscape is confirmed by the results of surveys carried out on tourists in order to discover the principal motivations for their choice of destination. At the same time, tourism is a great “devourer” of landscape. Over the last 30 years, numerous studies have been devoted to the destructive effects of mass tourism. These studies highlight the damage caused to the landscape, in terms of aesthetics as well as ecology. This permanent tension between commercial valorization of landscape for tourism on the one hand, and protection of landscape on the other, persists today. It is even exacerbated by the consequences of global warming. Regarding the Alps, intensively exploited areas such as winter sports resorts are confronted with growing environmental problems which constitute crucial challenges for their future commercial exploitation for tourism. As for protected or rural areas, they are subjected to increasingly substantial tourist pressure as a result of visitors showing growing interest for “soft” forms of tourism (agro-tourism, ecotourism, adventure tourism, etc.).

Key words:

Landscape, agro-tourism, eco-tourism, adventure tourism, Alps

23


Name of the authors:

Arne Arnberger, Renate Eder Institution & country:

Institute of Landscape Development, Recreation and Conservation Planning; University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Austria E-mail address:

arne.arnberger@boku.ac.at, renate.eder@boku.ac.at

TOURISM PROMOTION

Tourism potentials and strategies for the terraced landscapes of the Alpine Arc The decline of the primary sector has led to the abandonment of terraced areas. New ways to use and maintain terraced landscapes have been explored. One strategy found is tourism. Additional income through tourism may prevent farmers from stopping or intensifying their activities. Focussing on tourism, one the other hand, includes a shift of the image of terraces as a productive resource to being part of a service-oriented sector. Useful sources of terraced areas for tourism are their landscape beauty, food products, historical heritage, trail and accommodation facilities, the value for nature conservation etc. Although a variety of terraced areas exist in the Alpine Arc, in most cases tourism is not promoted. Very few are famous tourist destinations, some have some forms of tourism, but most are relatively untouched by tourism activities. Among the tourist settings terraces themselves play a different role: For some areas, they form the area image such as for Cinque Terre, for others, terraces are an additional offer for their tourism activities. The most often applied or possible strategies for tourism are ecotourism, rural tourism, agrotourism and cultural heritage tourism. These strategies correspond to the authentic offer of the historical terraced landscapes. Examples for ecotourism are the Cinque Terre National Park in Liguria and the protected terraced area of Ulrichsberg in Upper Austria. Rural tourism is often found in terraced areas with wine production, where land owners are focussing more on selling their products thereby offering accommodation and wine and food tasting structures. However, they are often not promoting the beauty of the terraced landscape and its historical value as a distinct feature for tourism. Other efforts for example in Bregalia focus on the promotion of chestnut and its products and on the combination of environmental education and tourism. An integrated tourism strategy has to be developed taking all the useful entities of terraced areas into account. European-wide efforts can assist in promoting terraced areas and their values for sustainable tourism.

Key words: 24

terraced landscapes, ecotourism, rural tourism, agrotourism, cultural heritage, tourism, Alpine Arc


Name of the author:

Jelka Hudoklin

Institution & country:

Acer Novo mesto, Slovenia E-mail address:

jelka.hudoklin@acer.si

TOURISM PROMOTION

Terraced landscapes: Areas of landscape identity in changing processes In Slovenia, a lot of landscapes of vineyards and orchards and landscapes of fields and grasslands on the terraces are defined as outstanding landscapes. They represent traditional forms of land use, adapted to natural landscape structure, and have great impressive values due to their exceptional man-made land forms, often joined with distinctive forms of settlements and architecture. Their structures vary among the Slovenian regions and they have great importance for national identity and for development of tourism in combination with agriculture. In last decades, all the cultural landscapes have experienced significant changes. On the one hand, the intensity of agriculture is increasing and therefore the structures of terraced landscapes are changing, and on the other hand, some of them are abandoned to afforestation or to spreading of settlements. The evaluation of landscapes and their inclusion in the procedures of spatial planning has a many years’ tradition in Slovenia and the terraced landscapes were object of a few researches. The actual problems, desired state and guidelines for their preservation or maintenance have been defined, in order to maintain the most valuable ones and to prevent changes of their structure or abandoning. The results are taken into consideration when preparing spatial plans on strategic, detailed and executive levels. To achieve more effective implementation of plan directions and to maintain their structure, we will first of all have to ensure better inter-sectoral harmonization primarily among agriculture, preservation of cultural heritage and tourism both in spatial planning and in its implementation (stimulating financial mechanisms, trademarks, raising of awerness etc.).

Key words:

terraced landscapes, evaluation of landscapes, inter-sectoral cooperation, spatial planning

25


Name of the author/s:

Lisa Garbellini

Institution & country:

IREALP, Italy

E-mail address:

lisa.garbellini@irealp.it

TOURISM PROMOTION

Tourism offer in terraced areas The analysis of tourist offer in terraced areas has been developed through a questionnaire about pilot areas submitted to the partners. Through this analysis we gathered information and suggestion about tourist promotion in terraced areas. As for tourist actractiveness, mountains of course has been mentioned by most of the partners. In the second place we find some activities offered to the tourists during their stay: the opportunity of visiting cultural places or of practicing sports. The eno-gastronomy, finally, is mentioned only by two partners, mostly where important cultivations are present. The presence of major tourist centres not far from terraced areas is a point of strength for their promotion. In fact, a trip in a terraced area can be an interesting way to integrate or diversify the tourist offer of major centres. In the pilot areas there is generally a good presence of the basic infrastructures (paths and signals), followed by the accommodation structures. Eno-gastronomy, on the other side, is presently not developed enough. The events that take place in terraced areas are only a few in the pilot sites. The organization of events, particularly linked to the cultivations and local products, can be a good way to promote tourism in the area. In the pilot areas exist dissemination materials but not directly and exclusively concerning the terraced sites. The topic of terraces is often included in other tourism material. Of the 8 pilot areas, 4 area (at least in part) have protection bonds upon them and one is nominated for the UNESCO World Heritage.

26

Key words:

terraced areas, tourism, ALPTER questionnaire


Name of the author:

Enrico Fontanari

Institution & country:

IUAV University of Venice, Italy E-mail address:

henry@iuav.it

STRATEGIES AND POLICIES

KEYSPEAKER

Issues in recovering terraced landscapes Terraced landscapes are important referents of what we call “built landscapes�, terraced fields represent an extensive knowledge on soil and water dynamics built through centuries by farmers. The terraced zones have passed through periods of development, but also phases of decline, often followed by sudden collapses which led to their being progressively abandoned. The reasons for the decline or collapse are many, and this makes it extremely complex to devise strategies for restoring the terrain and making the most of what remains of these important structures. Studies and experimentations in recovery projects represent a research for a response to these rehabilitation objectives. We have to find the way to implement integrated policies and actions in favour of the rehabilitation of these complex structures. The intervention have to unify the multiple functions of production, drainage, hydrogeology, landscape architecture and memory for the task of careful restoration. The challenge consists in overcoming the regret for an unrepeatable past, and in seeking to find a way to go beyond nostalgia and successfully involve local communities in the work of recovery, so that new landscapes can be built as an integral part of cultural, environmental and residential frameworks. The general question to which we try to find an answer is how to make an environment which is as difficult, costly and laborious to manage as that of the terraced areas - fit with the ways and needs of contemporary living, working and especially inhabiting a place. Recognition of territorial values, such as defence against hydrogeological hazards, protection of biodiversity and sustainability of the territorial structure, are indispensable but not sufficient to favour the launch of a process of restoration and rehabilitation of these landscapes. These projects inevitably demand the involvement of local communities in the work of restoration and a combination of different intervention tools, from physical planning to financial incentives, from guidelines and rules of local government to the possibility of introducing new technologies, innovating modes of using the terraces and seeking to exploit their energy value.

Key words:

terraced landscapes, development, decline, spatial planning, local governement policy, new reconstruction technologies

27


Name of the author:

Pierre Donadieu

Institution & country:

University of La Villette, Paris, France E-mail address:

p.donadieu@versailles.ecole-paysage.fr

STRATEGIES AND POLICIES

Terraced landscapes in Europe: Why, for whom and how? I shall put forth the idea that three cultural processes of emplacement in the landscape are in play: naturalisation (abandonment/afforestation), rendering into heritage (multifunctional restoration and rehabilitation – agriculture, animal husbandry and tourism) and creation (urbanisation and habitat restoration). The European Landscape Convention of Florence establishes the concept of terraced landscapes as common or public assets, from the European down to the local level. Decisions to improve terraces by maintaining or recovering trade and craft activities will be shared between two poles of landscape project management: the pole of local self-sustainable development (cf. A. Magnaghi) and the pole of public orders and incentives (top-down).

28

Key words:

terraced landscapes, abandonment, restoration, urbanisation


Name of the authors:

Franz HĂśchtl, Claude Petit, Werner Konold Institution & country:

Albert-Ludwigs-University, Faculty of Forest and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Landscape Management, Germany E-mail address:

franz.hoechtl@landespflege.uni-freiburg.de, claude.petit@landespflege.uni-freiburg.de, werner.konold@landespflege.uni-freiburg.de

STRATEGIES AND POLICIES

The Historical Vineyards Project: Winegrowing, heritage conservation and nature protection in tandem Terraced landscapes such as traditional, terraced vineyards are amongst the most endangered European landscapes, because they deviate greatly from modern agri-technical production standards. They are most commonly threatened by the following fates: abandonment and subsequent subjection to succession, or else they are transformed to desert vine-steppes as part of intensive land consolidation measures. The Vineyard Project represents an attempt to formulate measures to counter this development. Six excellent examples of historical winegrowing landscapes in southern Germany and in the Swiss Rhone Valley, all situated in urbanrural exchange zones, have been selected as study sites. The overall aim of the project is to rouse and reinforce the awareness of users, and of nature and heritage conservationists, in relation to the high socio-cultural, economic and ecological value of the historical wine-producing landscape in order to counteract both land consolidation and complete abandonment. The project is mainly sponsored by the German Environmental Foundation (DBU, OsnabrĂźck) and the Bristol-Foundation (Zurich). Adopting a transdisciplinary approach, on the basis of criteria corresponding equally to both use and conservation demands, a practice orientated guideline for the conservation and management of the traditional vineyards shall be developed. This guideline shall harmonise the interests of winegrowers, and nature and heritage conservationists, in order to pave the way towards integrative tending of the landscape. The presentation will highlight the methodological concept and the first results of this ongoing project, focusing particularly on the synergies of heritage and nature conservation in traditional winegrowing landscapes.

Key words:

terraced vineyards, heritage conservation, nature conservation

29


Name of the author:

Liljana Jankovič Grobelšek Institution & country:

Acer Novo mesto d.o.o., Slovenia E-mail address:

liljana.jankovic@acer.si

STRATEGIES AND POLICIES

Is living in the vineyards a problem that could be solved? Traditional landscapes of vineyards of the southeast, east and northeast Slovenia and also vineyards on the terraced landscapes are known by an „inconvenient“ feature. In the past our planning strategies stimulated a very negative phenomenon – not only sprawl around cities and towns but also sprawl through the landscapes of vineyards. This took place through the whole period after the 2nd world war and especially after adopting the Agricultural law in 1984. The law restricted urbanisation on the best agricultural land, so the expansion of settlements has been quite limited. Since most of the Slovenian citizens before the war were rural, it was convenient to replace country living with urban-rural combination. The consequence is that a lot of urban residents have their own vineyard houses. Not because they are all winegrowers, but to relax, to recreate and even to live there. So the degradation of the vineyard landscapes is done by much too dense urbanisation that affects and constantly changes the traditional landscapes of vineyards. While the expansion of cities and towns is still restricted, we do not have instruments effective enough to end the trend of building weekend and residential houses in the vineyards. As a matter of fact, a lot of vineyard houses have been built illegally without proper building permissions. Now it’s high time for renovation. There are great opportunities in the field of tourism and recreation outdoors. The new residential houses must not be permitted, but country tourism ought to be stimulated. Dense residential areas must be renovated as villages, new “landscape” sprawl must be limited. The paper will present the situation and plans for the Dolenjska region, local community of Novo mesto.

30

Key words:

terraced landscapes, vineyards, sprawl, building policy, Dolenjska region


Name of the authors:

Silvio Werder, Maurizio Michael Institution & country:

Bregaglia Region, Switzerland E-mail address:

werder@gis-plan.ch, maurizio.michael@bluewin.ch

STRATEGIES AND POLICIES

Bregaglia: Regional policy and planning Policy and planning are of central importance for the implementation of spatiallyrelevant and nature-related projects and measures. In this paper, the socio-economic problems and their consequences in the Val Bregaglia are described, as are with what political and planning measures these can be countered. As a result of the necessity for agricultural cultivation, Bregaglia is greatly affected by succession. Also, as an outlying region, it has to contend with such phenomena as migration, which is typical of this type of region. However, at a political level, a lot is being done in Bregaglia to counteract these problems. In this paper, we go briefly into the most important projects and planning principles, showing that a lot has already been done in Bregaglia and that a lot will be done in future.

Key words:

planning policy, agricultural cultivation, socio-economic problems

31


Name of the authors:

Anton Prosen, Anka Lisec Institution & country:

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic, Engineering, Slovenia E-mail address:

aprosen@fgg.uni-lj.si, anka.lisec@fgg.uni-lj.sir

STRATEGIES AND POLICIES

Conservation of terraced landscape as protection of soil against erosion The need for sustainable land management and soil protection is becoming more and more important all over the world. The history of land management goes back to the centuries when man settled permanently for the first time and began to cultivate land. The approach to cultivation of arable land has changed throughout history, but historical approaches and past cultivation methods are still reflecting in today’s rural landscape. One of such phenomena is terraced landscape, which is present also in Slovenian rural areas due to unfavourable relief characteristics for the agricultural production. Because of land fragmentation, also as the consequence of terrain configuration, several approaches have been developed, such as land consolidation, land change etc., in order to improve the structure of land holdings. In our article we emphasize the importance of the holistic approach to the problem solving of land fragmentation, where all three pillars of the sustainable spatial development has to be taken into account: social, economic and environmental. Referring to the terraced landscape the importance of suitable approach in solving the problem of land fragmentation is pointed out. Experiences in Slovenia show that global climatic change is strongly affected the land and soil, which is often reflected in soil erosion, landslides. From this perspective, the importance of conservation of terraced landscape is illustrated, which has to be taken into account in rural land planning and rural land management.

32

Key words:

terraced landscapes, land fragmentation, sustainable spatial development


Name of the author:

Marina Pintar

Institution & country:

Biotechnical Faculty, Agronomy Department, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia E-mail address:

marina.pintar@bf.uni-lj.si Name of the authors:

Andrea Knierim, Hubert Wiggering Institution & country:

Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany E-mail address:

aknierim@zalf.de, wiggering@zalf.de

STRATEGIES AND POLICIES

Research, development and implementation in rural landscapes Rural areas in Europe are evolving under powerful boundary conditions such as economic and political globalisation, socio-cultural transformations and increasing natural hazards, in particular due to climate change. Regional land use is increasingly determined by global market oriented primary production; requirements on highquality, custom-tailored foodstuffs, but also on plant ingredients, renewable and energy resources as well are increasing all over the world. Landscapes are shaped by overregional, even international trends and drivers like infrastructural, energy or housing needs, tourism, recreation etc. Favourable future perspectives for rural regions need a balanced enforcement of competitiveness and social cohesion. To maintain and to develop economically sound the unique diversity of European landscapes and with this, the diverse identities and visual characteristics of rural areas, joint efforts of multiple actors are decisive. Innovations both technical as well as institutional, have to be designed, implemented and evaluated in order to attain competitive rural regions and sustainable ways of landscape use. Science has not the primary role in landscape development but frequently an initiating one. The tasks of science in this regard are to (i) assess actual and optional land uses, combining multi-disciplinary indicators and judgements, (ii) support transdisciplinary foresight analysis and trend assessment procedures and (iii) to investigate and develop competitive innovations for sustainability related challenges. However, to be able to prove the applicability, practicability and the sustainability effects of selected land use strategies for entire regions, the consistent integration of research projects and development projects with coordinated implementation strategies is necessary.

Key words:

rural landscapes, competitive rural regions, land use

33


Name of the author:

Anuška Štoka

Institution & country:

Joint Technical Secretariat Alpine Space, Germany E-mail address:

anuska.stoka@rosenheim.de

PRESENTATIONS

Best practice examples and new priorities and opportunities in the Alpine Space The valorisation of regional products, which are considered as “territorial capital”, could be the response, the answer to the question: ‘What can be done after landscape recovery interventions?’ In the “Territorial Cooperation Programme Alpine Space 2007-2013”, in its Operational Programme, it is specified that linking cultural landscapes to regional products could be a feasible solution. It is very important that the territory, the history and cultural heritage are preserved, but also that we have an integration with production sectors, with the economic sectors. The Operational Programme of the “Territorial Cooperation Programme Alpine Space 2007-2013” calls for balanced territorial development, preservation of cultural and natural assets, environmental diversity and cultural landscapes; more concretely: the valorisation of the heritage, the conservation and integrated management of biodiversity and cultural landscapes are the main field of activities under Priority 3. In the contribution presented during the Alpter Final Conference held in Ljubljana best practice examples from the projects co-funded in the “Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme 2000-2006” will be presented with insight in concrete actions carried out by the project partners in order to enable the capitalisation of results. The added value of transnational cooperation will be particularly stressed.

Key words: 34

cultural landscapes, regional products, territorial development, preservation of cultural and natural assets, environmental diversity, Alpine Space


Name of the author:

Fabio Croccolo

Institution & country:

Ministry for Infrastructures, Italy E-mail address:

fabio.croccolo@infrastrutturetrasporti.it

PRESENTATIONS

The Italian participation in the “Alpine Space” Programme: Results and perspectives Italy is carrying out a fundamental role in the realization of the Alpine Space Programme objectives. Our participation, thanks to the active participation of the territorial partners involved in the approved projects and to the technical support provided by the Ministry of Infrastructures, is assuring the success of project initiatives of fundamental importance for the strengthening of the European Cohesion policy. The latter finds out in the EU Programmes like INTERREG – that has reached the third edition in the 2000-2006 programming period – and is starting the 2007-2013 programming period as the “Territorial Cooperation” Objective – one of the most innovative pillar to support social and economic development in Europe. Actually, in all INTERREG Programmes – although they involve different areas – the main problems connected to territorial development are tackled with an international perspective, which promote not only the definition of common objectives and results, but also, and particularly, the sharing of methodologies and analysis tools, as to say of “knowledge”. This approach has two relevant effects: on the one hand it contributes to improve the sectorial policies carried out at local level, thanks to the participation of foreign partners who share and test solutions to similar problems; on the other hand it allows to contribute to the realization of the “European Strategy for Occupation” launched in Lisbon, which identifies in the “knowledge economy” one of his qualifying elements.

Key words:

territorial development, sectorial policies, European Strategy for Occupation, Alpine Space

35


Name of the authors:

Margarita Jančič, Tomaž Miklavčič Institution & country:

Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning, European Affairs and Investments Directorate International Relations Division E-mail address:

margarita.jancic@gov.si, tomaz.miklavcic1@gov.si

PRESENTATIONS

Endogenous potential and capitalisation of results of Interreg IIIB Transnational territorial cooperation in Europe in the frame of European Community Initiatives and Programmes has a rather long tradition already. Interreg Programmes of the previous programming period have become an independent Objective of European Cohesion Policy in the 2007 – 2013 periods. The main attention of our contribution to the ALPTER project final conference is highlighting main differences between the old and new programmes trough changed priorities, project types and in particular results expected from the future projects. Endogenous potential of European regions such as knowledge, skills, natural and cultural richness or quality of the environment give further possibilities for enhancing development of territories and jobs creation. The programmes for territorial cooperation are aiming to enhance and capitalize existing potentials of their territories and shall contribute to the creation on new endogenous potentials by supporting networks of excellence on the transnational scale and partnerships with key players and stakeholders and new partners. Landscapes are an essential part of cultural heritage of each Member state. Europe’s diverse landscapes are increasingly considered as an asset and a developing potential that on one hand needs to be maintained and protected and on the other capitalized as a resource for new development opportunities. New approaches shall be introduced in this respect and a transnational cooperation projects are the right environment for doing that. The variety and quality of results of Interreg IIIb programmes projects gives a good starting point for new generation of projects of transnational cooperation. Numerous networks were established in previous period, experiences in transnational cooperation as well as in project implementation were gained what shall be exploited in the future. This experiences and results shall be further capitalised and upgraded in the programming period 2007 – 2013. Wherever relevant, implementation projects taking up this results and achievements will be encouraged.

36

Key words:

territorial cooperation, landscapes, Interreg IIIB


Name of the author:

Andrée Dagorne

Institution & country:

Université de Nice-Sophia-Antipolis, France

PRESENTATIONS

Study of the terraces to a reflection on the European and Mediterranean co-operation The Alpter project brings together eight European partners about the necessary safeguard and rehabilitation  of the sectors managed in terraces. In two cases this research is done in areas close but separated by a political border, place of confrontations until the XXème S: High-Roya and Italian Piedmont, Venezia and Slovenian country of Gorica. Today a many common features and  indices of collaboration and  activities make these areas  futures or euro-countries or euroareas. This European project thus made it possible to insist on a common answer, at the same time old and contemporary, populations with the “tyranny of the slopes”.

Key words: terraces, relief of strong energy, euro-country, geographical information system

37


Name of the author:

Philippe PYPAERT

Institution & country:

UNESCO Regional Office for Science and Research in Europe E-mail address:

p.pypaert@unesco.org

PRESENTATIONS

The natural and cultural assets of sound territorial development Since the signature of the EU Treaty in Maastricht, in 1992, which clearly integrates the concept of sustainable development, the EU Environmental Strategy is oriented towards the achievement of such a goal by assuring in particular: • a better integration of environmental concerns in policies and territorial development (principle of integration); • a more effective participation of all socio-economic actors involved in the planning and implementation of such development (principle of subsidiarity). While a little bit neglected in the past, land use planning and territorial management are directly concerned today by such an orientation. The European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) itself, adopted in 1999, is intended to ensure a more balanced and sustainable development of the Union territory, in accordance with the basic objectives of Community policy. It is considered as an essential instrument which can help improve the coordination of Community policies as well as better direct and/or limit their territorial impact (spatial effects). In this context, the importance of regional and local efforts directed to the implementation of sustainable territorial development is increasingly recognized, and the wise use of proper methodological and conceptual frameworks to foster integrated planning procedures warmly encouraged (see in particular the CoE - CEMAT). To this end, huge experimental efforts in a network of ‘pilot areas’ to test innovative territorial development approaches are still urgently needed. In the frame of its environmental programmes in the SEE Region, UNESCO-BRESCE has undertaken a programme of activities aiming at the promotion of the safeguarding of cultural and natural heritage in South Eastern Europe (including cultural landscapes terraced sites perfectly illustrate), as part of a larger environmental integration effort which transversally involves all the key development activities and well reflect the multi-faceted mandate of the Organization.

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Key words:

sustainable territorial development, cultural and natural heritage


CO-FINANCING ORGAN


NIZATIONS


Final Conference of the project “The terraced Landscapes of the Alpine Arc” (ALPTER). The project was co-financed in the framework of EU programme Interreg IIIB Alpine Space. Conference coordinator: • Barbara Černič Mali, Urban Planning Institute of the Republic of Slovenia Conference Scientific Committee coordinator: • Lučka Ažman Momirski, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture Organising committee: • Lučka Ažman Momirski, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture • Barbara Černič Mali, Urban Planning Institute of Republic of Slovenia • Luca Lodatti, Venice Region Scientific committee: • Gerardo Brancucci, University of Genova • Guglielmo Scaramellini, University of Milano • Arne Arnberger, University of Vienna Publisher: University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture Zoisova 12, 1000 Ljubljana Slovenia


Editors: Lučka Ažman Momirski Barbara Černič Mali Design: Tomaž Berčič Gašper Mrak Print: Studio Graffit d.o.o. Circulation: 100 copies Ljubljana, February 2008

Project ALPTER - Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme Co-funded by the European Union


Project ALPTER - Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme Co-funded by the European Union

International Conference Living Terraced Landscapes

14-15 February 2008, Ljubljana, Slovenia


Living Terraced Landscape