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6KVGNHQVQ 0T  

SCHLESIEN-LIEGNITZ-BRIEG, HERZOGTUM Georg Wilhelm, 1672-1675. Dukat 1674. 3,45 g. F. u. S. 1959; Fb. 3216; Kopicki 5519 (R4).


AUKTION 233 Raritäten aus Polen, Pommern und Schlesien Die Sammlung "Polonica Reconciliata", Teil 1

Münzen und Medaillen der Päpste Eine bedeutende Spezialsammlung

Münzen und Medaillen aus aller Welt ZEIT

Montag, 17. Juni 2013 Dienstag, 18. Juni 2013

ORT

Steigenberger Hotel Remarque Osnabrück, Natruper-Tor-Wall 1

17.30 Uhr - 18.30 Uhr 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr 14.00 Uhr - 18.30 Uhr Mittwoch, 19. Juni 2013 10.00 Uhr - 11.30 Uhr

AUKTIONS-TELEFON

+49 (0)541 60 96 633

AUKTIONS-FAX

+49 (0)541 60 96 634

Auktionen 232-235, Juni 2013 17. JUNI 2013

Auktion 232 Münzkunst des Mittelalters Friedensmedaillen des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts Deutsche Münzen und Medaillen Auktion 233 Raritäten aus Polen, Pommern und Schlesien Die Sammlung "Polonica Reconciliata", Teil 1

18. JUNI 2013 18./19. JUNI 2013

Münzen und Medaillen der Päpste Münzen und Medaillen aus aller Welt

19. JUNI 2013

Auktion 234 Goldprägungen

20. JUNI 2013

Deutsche Münzen ab 1871 Russische Münzen und Medaillen

21. JUNI 2013

Auktion 235 Orden und Ehrenzeichen aus aller Welt u. a. Sammlung Großherzogtum Baden


Zeitplan/Timetable Auktion 232

Montag, 17. Juni 2013

Münzkunst des Mittelalters Friedensmedaillen des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts

10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 1 bis Nr. 358

Deutsche Münzen und Medaillen

14.00 Uhr - 17.30 Uhr Nr. 359 bis Nr. 950

Auktion 233

17.30 Uhr - 18.30 Uhr Nr. 1001 bis Nr. 1074

Raritäten aus Polen, Pommern und Schlesien, Teil 1

Dienstag, 18. Juni 2013

Münzen und Medaillen der Päpste

Münzen und Medaillen aus aller Welt

10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 1101 bis Nr. 1678 Kirchenstaat: Römischer Senat - Sedisvakanz 1700 14.00 Uhr - 18.30 Uhr Nr. 1679 bis Nr. 2491 Kirchenstaat: Clemens XI. - Johannes Paul II., Lots, Bleibullen, Literatur Habsburgische Erblande, Europa: Albanien - Rumänien Mittwoch, 19. Juni 2013

10.00 Uhr - 11.30 Uhr Nr. 2492 bis Nr. 2845 Europa: Schweden - Ungarn, Übersee, Habsburgische Erblande, Deutschland

Auktion 234 Goldprägungen

11.30 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 3001 bis Nr. 3300 Europa: Albanien - Spanien 14.00 Uhr - 18.00 Uhr Nr. 3301 bis Nr. 4012 Europa: Tschechien - Ungarn, Übersee Donnerstag, 20. Juni 2013

Deutsche Münzen ab 1871

10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 5001 bis Nr. 5691

Russische Münzen und Medaillen

14.00 Uhr - 18.30 Uhr Nr. 6001 bis Nr. 6590

Auktion 235 Orden und Ehrenzeichen aus aller Welt u. a. Sammlung Großherzogtum Baden

Freitag, 21. Juni 2013

10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr Nr. 8001 bis Nr. 8603 Sammlung Baden, Deutschland, Europa: Albanien - Frankreich (Teil 1) 14.00 Uhr - 17.00 Uhr Nr. 8604 bis Nr. 9121 Europa: Frankreich (Teil 2) - Vatikan, Übersee

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Sehr geehrte Münzfreunde, das Interesse für historische Münzen und Medaillen ist unverändert stark, wie unsere Auktionen im Januar in Berlin und im März in Osnabrück gezeigt haben. Sie als unsere Kunden haben dazu beigetragen, dass zahlreiche Raritäten von der Antike bis zur Moderne erfolgreich versteigert werden konnten. Für Ihr Vertrauen danke ich Ihnen sehr und freue mich, dass Sie die Arbeit und das Engagement unserer Mitarbeiter schätzen. Mehrfach sind wir nach der Berechnung des Auktionsaufgeldes und der Mehrwertsteuer gefragt worden. Wie in der Presse bereits angekündigt wurde, wird die ermäßigte Mehrwertsteuer auf Münzen in Höhe von 7 % im Zuge der Harmonisierung innerhalb der Europäischen Union zukünftig wegfallen.

F ititzz Ru Fr R do dolff Küünnke kerr

Sie als Sammler muss das aber nicht beunruhigen, denn das Aufgeld einschließlich Mehrwertsteuer von bisher 23 % bleibt für Sie unverändert bestehen. Dies gilt für unsere Kunden in Deutschland und allen Ländern der Europäischen Union (Kunden in Drittländern wie z. B. Norwegen, Russland, Schweiz, USA zahlen ein Aufgeld von 20 %, wenn die Münzen durch uns exportiert werden). Die Beibehaltung des Aufgeldes ist möglich, weil zukünftig durch Anwendung der sogenannten Differenzbesteuerung nur unsere Marge (bestehend aus Aufgeld und Einlieferungsprovision) mit dem zurzeit gültigen Mehrwertsteuer-Satz von 19 % besteuert wird. Für das Jahr 2013 gibt es allerdings neben der Differenzbesteuerung immer noch den ermäßigten Steuersatz von 7 %. Anlagegold-Münzen und Goldbarren sind wie bisher steuerfrei. Ich bedanke mich für Ihr Interesse und wünsche Ihnen viel Freude beim Studium unserer Auktionskataloge. Mit herzlichen Grüßen,

Dear Coin Enthusiasts, Interest in historical coins and medals is as strong as ever, as our auctions on January 31 in Berlin and in March 2013 in Osnabrück showed. As our customers, we thank you sincerely: you helped make it possible to successfully auction countless rarities from ancient to modern coins and medals. I thank you sincerely for your trust, and I am very happy that you appreciate the work and commitment of our employees. It has been announced in the press that the reduced value-added tax on coins, currently at 7 %, will, in the future, be eliminated in line with the tax harmonization taking place in the European Union. As a collector, however, you should not be worried, because the current surcharge – including value-added tax – of 23 % will remain unchanged for you. This applies for our customers in Germany and all countries of the European Union (customers in other countries such as Norway, Russia, Switzerland and the USA will pay a surcharge of 20 % when we export the coins). The retention of the surcharge is possible because in the future, due to the application of the so-called »discrepancy-taxing« or »margin scheme«, only our margin (consisting of surcharge and deposit commission) will be taxed at the current valueadded tax rate of 19 %. For the year 2013, however, in addition to the discrepancy-taxing the reduced tax rate of 7 % will remain effective. Investment gold coins and gold ingots will continue to be tax-free. I thank you for your interest, and wish you an enjoyable experience in perusing our auction catalog. Best Wishes,

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE

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Besichtigung/On View Die Besichtigung des Auktionsgutes kann nach vorheriger telefonischer Absprache erfolgen. Auction lots may be viewed by appointment only.

Online-Katalog/Online Catalogue Betrachten Sie unsere Auktionskataloge im Internet! Unter www.kuenker.de und www.sixbid.com haben Sie die Möglichkeit, Abbildungen zu vergrößern, Ihre Gebote direkt abzugeben und die Ergebnisse der Auktionen abzurufen.

KUENKER.DE

Please browse our auction catalogues at www.kuenker.com or at www.sixbid.com! You will have the possibility to zoom all images, to place your bids and to view all auction results online.

Künker-Service Wir sind mittlerweile mit neun eigenen Standorten in Deutschland und Europa vertreten. So können wir Ihnen unseren beliebten Künker-Service auch in Ihrer Nähe anbieten. Unsere Leistungen vor Ort: • Persönliche Beratung und Betreuung in Ihrer Nähe. • Sie können Ihre Münzen direkt einliefern oder verkaufen, ersteigerte Münzen abholen und sich nach Vereinbarung Einlieferungen auszahlen lassen. • Sie können sich von unserem Kooperationspartner auf den Künker-Auktionen vertreten lassen. We are now represented with nine locations in Germany and Europe so that we can also provide you the best service in your vicinity. Our local services: • You always have a point of contact nearby. • You can directly consign or sell your coins, collect purchases and receive by appointment payment for consignments. • You can have our cooperation partner represent you at our auctions.

OSNABRÜCK Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG Gutenbergstraße 23, 49076 Osnabrück Tel. +49 (0)541 96 20 20, E-Mail: service@kuenker.de USt-IdNr./VAT-No: DE256270181

Haupptstsititz Ha ititz in in Osn s abbrüückk

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TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


Standorte/Locations

Drr. H D Huubert rt Ruß

Fraannk Ri Fr Rich chharrds dsen en en

MÜNCHEN Künker Numismatik AG Löwengrube 12, 80333 München Dr. Hubert Ruß Tel. +49 (0)89 242 198 38, service@kuenker-numismatik.de Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG Maximiliansplatz 12a, 80333 München Frank Richardsen Tel. +49 (0)89 242 16 990, frank.richardsen@kuenker.de BERLIN Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG Poststraße 22, 10178 Berlin-Mitte Wollankstraße 117, 13187 Berlin-Pankow Michael Otto Tel. +49 (0)30 247 248 91, michael.otto@kuenker.de

M ch Mi chae aell Ot Otto tttoo

Rolaand nd Trraam mppe

HAMBURG Künker Hamburg, c/o Roland Trampe Roland Trampe Tel. +49 (0)541 96 20 20, roland.trampe@kuenker.de KONSTANZ Künker Konstanz, c/o Michael Autengruber Schulthaißstraße 10, 78462 Konstanz Michael Autengruber Tel. +49 (0)7531 28 44 69, michael.autengruber@kuenker.de

Michaeel Autengruubeer

Petr Kov Pe ovaljo jov

ZNOJMO Künker Znojmo, c/o Petr Kovaljov 17. Listopadu 18, 66902 Znojmo, Tschechische Republik Petr Kovaljov Tel. +42 (0)603 81 10 31, petr.kovaljov@kuenker.de ZÜRICH Künker Zürich, c/o Hess-Divo AG Löwenstraße 55, 8001 Zürich, Schweiz Ulf Künker Tel. +41 (0)44 225 40 90, zuerich@kuenker.de

Alleekkses y O A Onnch chuk ukov kovv

MOSKAU Künker Moskau, c/o Russian Coin Co. Ltd. Lyalin pereulok dom 9, str. 1, of. 3, 105062 Moskau, Russland Aleksey Onchukov Tel. +7 (495) 589 56 10, aleksey.onchukov@kuenker.de

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE

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Was ist für Ihre schriftliche Auktionsteilnahme besonders wichtig?

DEUTSCH

• Bitte senden Sie uns Ihre Aufträge möglichst frühzeitig zu. Wenn uns Ihr Auftrag erst kurz vor der Auktion erreicht, können sich bei der Bearbeitung Fehler einschleichen. Das beiliegende Formular erleichtert Ihnen die Abgabe eines schriftlichen Gebots. Gerne nehmen wir Ihre Gebote per Post, Fax oder Email entgegen. • Wenn Sie noch nicht bei uns gekauft haben, bitten wir Sie, uns als Referenz eine Münzhandlung anzugeben, mit der Sie bereits in Geschäftsverbindung stehen. • Wir gewährleisten die Echtheit aller verkauften Objekte auch über die gesetzliche Frist hinaus.

Sie möchten telefonisch an der Auktion teilnehmen? Die telefonische Teilnahme an der Auktion ist bei uns selbstverständlich möglich. Wir rufen Sie während der Auktion gerne an und helfen Ihnen, die gewünschten Stücke zu ersteigern. Aus organisatorischen Gründen bitten wir Sie, die folgenden Punkte zu beachten:

Ulrich Künker Leiter Kundenbetreuung

• Telefonisches Bieten ist nur bei Losen mit einer Taxe von mind. € 500,– möglich. • Bitte teilen Sie uns mindestens 48 Stunden vor der Auktion mit, zu welchen Stücken Sie angerufen werden möchten. • Bitte achten Sie darauf, dass Sie erreichbar sind, wenn Ihre Stücke versteigert werden. Der Zeitplan in diesem Katalog hilft Ihnen dabei, den Zeitpunkt der Versteigerung abzuschätzen. • Wir empfehlen, zusätzlich zu Ihrem Anrufwunsch auch ein Gebotslimit abzugeben, damit wir für Sie auch dann bieten können, falls die Verbindung nicht zustande kommt. • Bitte beachten Sie, dass telefonisches Bieten eine unsichere Variante der Auktionsteilnahme sein kann. Wir können keine Garantie für das Zustandekommen der telefonischen Verbindung übernehmen. Wenn Sie sicher gehen wollen, besuchen Sie bitte unsere Auktion persönlich oder geben Sie uns ein schriftliches Gebot.

Was passiert nach der Auktion? Barbara Westmeyer deutschsprachige Kundenbetreuung

Telefon: +49 (0)541 96 20 20 Fax: +49 (0)541 96 20 222 Gebührenfrei: 0800 58 36 537 E-Mail: service@kuenker.de Internet: www.kuenker.de Montag – Donnerstag 8.30 – 17.00 Uhr Freitag 8.00 – 15.30 Uhr

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• Der Versand der Auktionsware startet sofort nach Beendigung der Auktion und dauert in der Regel 8 Tage. • Alle Kunden, die an unserer Auktion schriftlich teilgenommen haben, erhalten innerhalb von 2 Wochen nach der Auktion unsere Ergebnisliste gratis. • Alle Ergebnisse sind spätestens einen Tag nach Auktionsende auf unserer Internetseite verfügbar.

Sie möchten Ihre Münzen in unsere Auktion einliefern? Sollten Sie sich zum Verkauf Ihrer Münzen entschlossen haben, kommen Sie zu uns. Seit 1985 beweisen wir mit derzeit 4 Auktionsterminen und ca. 15 Katalogen pro Jahr unsere Kompetenz und Zuverlässigkeit. Wichtige Informationen für Sie im Überblick: • Ihre Münzen werden von unseren Experten nach neuestem numismatischem Standard bestimmt und in hochwertigen Farbkatalogen präsentiert. • Wir verfügen mit mehr als 10.000 Kunden über eine der besten Kundendateien weltweit. Im Durchschnitt verkaufen wir mehr als 95 % der Stücke einer Auktion, nicht selten erzielen wir dabei Rekordzuschläge. Für nicht verkaufte Objekte werden keine Gebühren erhoben. • Ab der Übergabe an uns sind Ihre Münzen mit dem doppelten Schätzwert versichert. Unsere Kundenbetreuung bespricht gerne mit Ihnen wie Ihre Stücke sicher zu uns gelangen können. • Ihre Einlieferung wird Ihnen sofort nach der Übernahme quittiert. Spätestens 5 Wochen vor der Auktion erhalten Sie eine Auflistung Ihrer Stücke inkl. Katalognummern und Schätzpreisen. • Unmittelbar nach der Auktion erhalten Sie die Ergebnisliste und können dann alle erzielten Preise feststellen. Den Auktionserlös erhalten Sie innerhalb von 45 Tagen nach der Auktion.

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


Important facts for a written participation in the auction • Please send us your instructions as early as possible. The likelihood of errors occurring increases if we receive your instructions only shortly before the auction. The enclosed form should make it simple for you to submit a written bid, you may send your bids by mail, fax or e-mail. • If you are a new customer who has not yet purchased from us, we do request references. Please name a coin dealer with whom you have already done business. • The genuineness of all objects sold is warranted beyond the statutory length of time.

ENGLISH

Do you wish to participate by telephone? You are welcome to participate in our auction by telephone. We are glad to call you during the auction and to assist you in bidding for your items. Please take notice of the following conditions: • Telephone bidding is accepted exclusively on lot numbers with estimates at 500 Euro or above. • Please inform us at least 48 hours in advance if you wish to register for telephone bidding, even for single lots. We do need 48 hours to schedule all incoming requests. • Please be available, when your lots will be sold. The time schedule in the catalogue will help you to estimate the approximate time when your items are going to be sold. • When you register for telephone bidding, we recommend to leave a written bid in addition. This bid will only be executed, should the telephone bidding be interrupted or not be achieved. • Please be aware that telephone bidding is a risky way of participation in our auction. We do not assume liability should the telephone line be interrupted or not be achieved. We advise you to attend the auction in person or to send written bids.

Nadine Zuber English, Deutsch

What occurs after the auction? • The shipment of all auction goods starts immediately after the completion of the entire auction week and it usually takes 8 days to be completed. • All auction results are available on our website one day after the end of the auction week. • All clients who submitted bids for the auction will automatically receive the list of auction results free of charge within two weeks after the end of auction.

Do you wish to consign your coins to our auction? Should you decide to sell your coins, we are ready to assist you. Since 1985 we have earned our bona fides in conducting over 4 auctions and in publishing 15 catalogues per year. In the following you will find the most important information on consigning: • We guarantee the professional handling of your consignment following the latest numismatic level of expertise including its presentation in colour catalogues of outstanding quality. • We possess one of the best customer lists worldwide. On average we sell more than 95 % of all items in our auction, and it is not unusual for us to achieve record hammer prices for lots submitted. Unsold items incur no fees. • Once the coins are consigned they are covered by our insurance at double the estimate. Upon consultation with our customer service we try to advise you on the safest way of shipping for your coins. • Your delivery will be confirmed in writing immediately on receipt. At least five weeks before the auction, you will receive an exact list of your objects with the relevant catalogue numbers and descriptions. • Within a week of the end of auction, you will receive a list of auction results in order to see what prices were reached for each individual lot. As a consignor, you will receive the auction proceeds within 45 days after the end of auction.

Marion Künker English, Deutsch

Phone: +49 (0)541 96 20 20 Fax: +49 (0)541 96 20 222 E-Mail: service@kuenker.de Website: www.kuenker.com Monday –Thursday 8.30 AM – 5 PM Friday 8 AM – 3.30 PM

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE

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Votre participation par écrit – Les points essentiels

FRANCAIS

• Veuillez nous faire parvenir vos ordres le plus tôt possible. Si vos ordres nous parviennent juste avant la vente aux enchères, des erreurs risquent d’être commises lors de leur traitement. Le formulaire ci-joint vous aidera à rédiger facilement votre offre. Vous pouvez nous envoyer vos ordres par la poste, par fax ou par e-mail. • Si vous n’avez encore fait aucune acquisition chez nous, nous vous prions de nous indiquer une ou deux références d’autres maisons numismatiques où vous avez déjà acheté. • L’authenticité des pièces vendues est garantie même au-delà des délais légaux.

Vous voulez participer par téléphone? La participation par téléphone est bien sûr possible. Nous vous appelons volontiers pour vous aider à acquérir les pièces voulues. Pour des raisons d´organisation veuillez noter les points suivants:

Alexandra Elflein, M. A. Français, Deutsch, English, Italiano

• La participation par téléphone est possible seulement pour les lots estimé à plus de 500 Euros chacun. • Veuillez nous informer au moins 48 heures avant la vente de la liste des pièces pour lesquelles vous voudriez être appelé. • Veuillez prendre soin d´être joignable quand vos pièces seront mises en vente. L’ordre de vente dans ce catalogue vous aidera à estimer l´heure de la vente. • Vue les risques de la participation téléphonique, nous vous recommandons néanmoins d’indiquer une limite maximale pour chaque lot, pour que nous puissions enchérir pour vous, même si la communication téléphonique serait interrompue ou ne pourrait pas être établie. • La participation par téléphone présente des risques, et nous déclinons toute responsabilité dans le cas où la communication téléphonique serait interrompue, ou bien ne pourrait être établie.

Ce qui se passe après la vente Kmar Chachoua Français, Deutsch, English, Arabic

Tél. +49 (0)541 96 20 20 Facs. +49 (0)541 96 20 222 E-Mail: service@kuenker.de Site: www.kuenker.de Lundi à Jeudi de 8h30 à 17h00 Vendredi de 8h00 à 15h30

• L´expédition des biens va commencer immédiatement après la fin de la vente complète, et prend généralement 8 jours. • Tous les clients qui ont participé à l’une de nos ventes aux enchères recevront gratuitement une liste de résultats dans les deux semaines qui suivent. • Les résultats seront disponibles sur notre site internet, au plus tard un jour après la fin de la vente.

Vous voulez confier vos monnaies pour nos ventes aux enchères? Contactez nous si vous envisagez de vendre vos pièces. Notre compétence et fiabilité est prouvée depuis 1985 par actuellement 4 ventes aux enchères et environ 15 catalogues par an. Le plus important pour vous est que: • Vos pièces seront décrites par notre équipe d’experts selon les standards numismatiques les plus récents, et elles seront présentées dans des catalogues de haute qualité en couleurs. • Nous avons un des meilleurs fichiers-clientèle du monde avec plus de 10.000 clients. Nous vendons en moyenne plus de 95% de la vente aux enchères, et obtenons souvent des prix records. Les monnaies invendues n’encourent aucun frais. • Notre service clientèle est disponible pour vous conseiller pour l’envoi de vos pièces, et dès leur réception vos pièces seront assurées pour le double de la valeur d´estimation. • Vous recevrez une liste détaillée des pièces fournies au moment de la prise en charge puis, au plus tard cinq semaines avant la vente aux enchères, vous recevrez leur liste exacte avec les numéros de catalogue correspondants. • Immédiatement après la vente aux enchères, vous recevrez la liste des résultats et pourrez prendre connaissance des prix obtenus. Vous recevrez le produit de la vente dans les 45 jours après les enchères.

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TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


I punti piú importanti per la Sua partecipazione per iscritto • La preghiamo di farci pervenire i Suoi ordini al piú presto possibile. Se i Suoi ordini ci arrivano poco prima dell´inizio dell´asta possono verificarsi errori. Il formulario allegato Le faciliterá l´invio dei Suoi ordini per iscritto. Ci puó far pervenire i Suoi ordini per posta, per fax o per email. • Se non ha mai acquistato presso di noi, La preghiamo di volerci indicare a titolo di referenza il nome di uno o due commercianti numismatici presso i quali è giá cliente. • L’autenticità di tutti gli oggetti venduti viene garantita anche oltre i termini previsti dalla legge.

ITALIANO

Desidera partecipare telefonicamente alla nostra asta? La partecipazione telefonica è naturalmente da noi possibile. La chiameremo durante l´asta e La assisteremo volentieri per ottenere l´aggiudicazione dei pezzi desiderati. Per motivi di organizzazione La preghiamo di voler tenere conto dei seguenti punti: • La partecipazione telefonica è possibile solo per lotti stimati con almeno 500,– € l´uno. • La preghiamo di volerci comunicare almeno 48 ore prima dell´inizio dell´asta per quali pezzi desidera essere chiamato. • La preghiamo di aver cura di essere raggiungibile telefonicamente al momento in cui vengono messi all´asta i pezzi che Le interessano. Lo schema orario in catalogo La aiuterá a stimare a che ora verranno messi all´asta i pezzi che Le interessano. • Consigliamo di indicare sempre assieme alla richiesta di partecipazione telefonica anche un´ importo massimo, per permetterci di fare per Lei l´offerta anche nel caso in cui la telefonata non fosse possibile. • La partecipazione telefonica è un modo incerto di partecipare alle aste. Non assumiamo nessuna responsabilità se per esempio la linea telefonica è occupata o interrotta o se Lei non sará raggiungibile per altri motivi.

Sonia Russo, M. A. Italiano, Deutsch, English, Español

Cosa succede dopo l´asta? • La spedizione del materiale d´asta comincia subito dopo la fine dell´intera asta e termina normalmente entro 8 giorni. • Tutti i clienti che hanno partecipato all´asta ricevono entro 2 settimane dopo l´asta la lista dei prezzi di realizzo. • I prezzi di realizzo sono visionabili sul nostro sito internet al piú tardi un giorno dopo la fine dell´intera asta.

Vuole consegnarci le Sue monete per una nostra asta? Ci contatti se ha deciso di vendere le Sue monete. Dal 1985 la nostra competenza ed affidabilità è dimostrata da attualmente 4 aste e circa 15 cataloghi all´anno. Quali sono i punti di maggior importanza per Lei:

Cristina Welzel Italiano, Deutsch, English, Français

Tel.: +49 (0)541 96 20 20 Fax: +49 (0)541 96 20 222 E-Mail: service@kuenker.de Internet: www.kuenker.de Lunedì a giovedì dalle 8.30 alle 17.00 Venerdì dalle 8.00 alle 15.30

• Le Sue monete vengono valutate dal nostro staff di esperti secondo i piú attuali standard numismatici e vengono presentati in cataloghi di alto valore a colori. • Con piú di 10.000 clienti disponiamo di una delle migliori banca dati clienti del mondo. In media vendiamo oltre il 95% del materiale d´asta realizzando spesso prezzi da record. Per i pezzi invenduti non ci sono nessune spese da pagare. • Dal momento della consegna le Sue monete sono assicurate per il doppio del valore di stima. Il nostro servizio clientela Le consiglierá volentieri come farci avere le Sue monete nel modo piú sicuro. • La Sua consegna Le verrá immediatamente quietanzata al momento della resa dei pezzi. Al piú tardi 5 settimane prima dell´asta riceverá una lista dettagliata dei Suoi pezzi con i numeri di catalogo ed i prezzi di stima. • Subito dopo l´asta riceverá la lista con i risultati d´asta dalla quale potrá subito controllare i prezzi realizzati. Riceverá l´importo di realizzo entro 45 giorni dopo la fine dell´asta.

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE

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Что особенно важно при заочном участии на аукционе?

RUSSKIJ

• Тщательно изучите наш каталог и запишите те лоты, которые Вас заинтересовали. Заполните приложенный формуляр и отправьте нам его заранее по почте, факсу или электронной почте. Мы обращаем внимание на то, что если Ваши ставки придут перед самым началом аукциона либо во время аукциона, то существует вероятность допуска ошибки в процессе обработки заказа. • Если Вы впервые принимаете участие в нашем аукционе, то мы рекомендуем Вам указать Ваш референц – аукционные дома, с которыми Вы уже сотрудничали. Или свяжитесь с нами по телефону +49(0)541 9620268. • Подлинность купленных на нашем аукционе лотов гарантируется нами на протяжении неограниченного времени.

Вы хотели бы принять участие на аукционе по телефону? У нас, конечно, есть возможность организовать Ваше телефонное участие на торгах, но мы бы хотели обратить внимание на следующие пункты: Anastasija Koepsell Russkij, Deutsch

Dzmitry Nikulin Russkij, Deutsch, English

Телефон: +49 (0)541 96 20 20 Факс: +49 (0)541 96 20 222 E-Mail: service@kuenker.de интернет: www.kuenker.de понедельник – четверг 8.30 – 17.00 пятница 8 – 15.30

• Участие в телефонных торгах возможно только для лотов со стартовой ценой свыше 500 евро. • Для участия в торгах по телефону просим Вас связаться с нами не позднее 48 часов до начала аукциона. • Мы хотим подчеркнуть, что телефонное участие на аукционе – не самый безопасный способ: в случае плохой связи, недоступности клиента во время торгов либо других технических проблем мы не несем ответственности. • Мы рекомендуем Вам при участии в торгах по телефону  дополнительно сообщить нам о Вашем лимите на интересующие лоты в случае, если телефонная связь будет невозможна или по техническим причинам прервана.

Что происходит после окончания аукциона? • Результаты аукционов доступны на нашем сайте на следующий день после окончания торгов. • Вы можете лично забрать приобретенные лоты. По окончании торгов мы готовим все необходимые документы на вывоз из Евросоюза. • Почтовые отправки в Россию ( Беларусь, Украину ) осуществляются по предварительной договоренности. Для связи с нами звоните по телефону +49 (0)541 9620268.

Вы хотели бы выставить Ваши предметы на аукцион? Более 160-ти успешно проведенных аукционов, тысячи участников, 4 аукциона в год - эти и другие преимущества, которые говорят в пользу выставления Ваших коллекций на аукцион Кюнкер: • Ваши монеты будут оценены нашими экспертами по самым новым нумизматическим стандартам и представлены в высококачественном цветном каталоге. • Более 10000 клиентов со всего мира оказывают нам свое доверие. В среднем мы продаем более 95% всех выставляемых предметов, при этом зачастую достигая рекордных сумм. • Все Ваши предметы, после передачи их нам, хранятся у нас до начала аукциона застрахованными. Не позднее 5-ти недель до начала аукциона Вы получите по почте подробное описание Ваших лотов с указаннами номерами в каталоге, а также их оценочной стоимостью. • Результаты аукционов также будут высланы Вам по почте после окончания торгов. В течение 45 дней после аукциона Вам будет выплачено Ваше вознаграждение.

10

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


什么是书面竞价要注意的? • 请尽早将您的竞价单寄给我们。如果我们在拍卖前很短时间内才收到您 的竞价单,可能会产生工作上的失误。后面附加的竞价表会辅助您完成 您的书面竞价。我们很愿意通过邮件,传真及电子邮件的方式接受您的 竞价。

CHINESE

• 如果您以前从未参与过我们的拍卖,请将一个与您有过生意往来的钱币 公司作为介绍人告知我们。 • 我们承诺所有拍品为真品,即使过了法律追诉期。

您想通过电话竞拍吗? 您当然也可以参加电话竞价。我们会在拍卖进行时致电给您,并协助您拍得 拍品。我们请您注意以下几点: • 电话竞价只针对估价为500欧元以上的拍品。 • 请在至少拍卖48小时前告知我们您要电话竞价的拍品。 • 请您注意,在您的拍品进行竞拍时,我们能够与您联系上。拍卖目录中 所附的时间表能帮助您推测您的拍品竞拍时间。 • 如果我们不能与您联系上,我们会以您的名义出价到您书面竞价的最高 价,最低不低于我们的起拍价。

Michael Otto Deutsch, English

• L请您注意,电话竞价是一种不保险的参拍方式。我们并不能保证电话线 路的畅通无阻。如果您想确保参拍,请亲临现场或书面竞价。

拍卖售后服务 • 在拍卖结束后我们将立即开始寄出拍品,通常需要8个工作日。 • 所有参加书面竞价的顾客,将在拍卖结束的2周内免费收到我们的拍品成 交价目单。

Phone: +49 (0)541 96 20 20 Fax: +49 (0)541 96 20 222 E-Mail: service@kuenker.de Website: www.kuenker.com Monday –Thursday 8.30 AM – 5 PM Friday 8 AM – 3.30 PM

• 所有拍品成交价目单最晚在拍卖结束一天后登载在我们的主页上。

您想送拍您所收藏的钱币到我们的拍卖会? 如果您想出售您的钱币,请联系我们坤客拍卖公司。自1985年我们就通过一 年四拍和大约每年15本拍卖目录来证明了我们的专业技能和可信度。请过目 以下的重要信息: • 您的钱币将由我们的专家通过最新币识标准来鉴定并刊登到高品质的彩 色目录上。 • 我们拥有全球超过10000个顾客,平均在每场拍卖会上有95%的拍品成 交,并多次创造了新的成交记录。对于没有成交的拍品我们不收取任何 费用。 • 从我们收到您的钱币开始,拍品会以双倍起拍价保险,我们的客户服务 很愿意为您解说您的钱币如何能安全的递交于我们。 • 我们在收到您的钱币后会立即给您开具书面收据,最晚至拍卖开始前5星 期您会收到所送拍品明细清单及其目录号和起拍价。 • 拍卖结束后您会收到成交价目录单并从中确认您的送交拍品成交价。45 天后您会收到您的拍品拍卖所得款项。

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE

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INHALT AUKTION 233 Nr. RARITÄTEN AUS POLEN, POMMERN UND SCHLESIEN DIE SAMMLUNG "POLONICA RECONCILIATA", TEIL 1 Das Königreich Polen König Sigismund III., 1587-1632 König Wladislaw IV., 1632-1648 König Johann Kasimir, 1649-1668 König Michal Korybut, 1669-1673 König Johann III. Sobieski, 1674-1696 König August II., der Starke, 1697-1733 König Stanislaus August, 1764-1795

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Polen unter Zar Alexander II. von Rußland

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Republik Polen

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Die Stadt Danzig

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Die Stadt Elbing

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Die Stadt Thorn

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Das Herzogtum Pommern unter schwedischer Herrschaft Königin Christina, 1637-1654

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Das Herzogtum Schlesien unter böhmischer Lehenshoheit Kaiser Leopold I., 1657-1705 Das schlesische Herzogtum Liegnitz-Brieg Herzog Friedrich II., 1488-1547 Die Herzöge Johann Christian und Georg Rudolf, 1602-1621 Herzog Johann Christian allein, 1621-1639 Herzog Georg Rudolf allein, 1621-1653 Die Herzöge Georg, Ludwig und Christian, 1639-1663 Herzog Christian, 1639-1672 Herzog Ludwig, 1653-1663 Herzog Georg Wilhelm, 1672-1675

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Das schlesische Herzogtum Münsterberg-Oels Die Herzöge Joachim, Heinrich II., Johann und Georg, 1536-1553

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Das schlesische Herzogtum Württemberg-Oels Herzog Sylvius Friedrich, 1664-1697

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Das schlesische Herzogtum Teschen Herzog Adam Wenzel, 1579-1617

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Die schlesische Stadt Breslau 12

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Nr. MÜNZEN UND MEDAILLEN DER PÄPSTE EINE BEDEUTENDE SPEZIALSAMMLUNG Römischer Senat, 1184-1347 Papst Johannes XXII., 1316-1334 Papst Urban V., 1362-1370 Papst Gregor XI., 1370-1378 Papst Johannes XXIII. (Gegenpapst), 1410-1419 Papst Martin V., 1417-1431 Papst Eugen IV., 1431-1447 Papst Nicolaus V., 1447-1455 Papst Calixt III., 1455-1458 Papst Pius II., 1458-1464 Papst Paul II., 1464-1471 Papst Sixtus IV., 1471-1484 Papst Innocenz VIII., 1484-1492 Papst Alexander VI., 1492-1503 Papst Pius III., 1503 Papst Julius II., 1503-1513 Papst Leo X., 1513-1521 Papst Hadrian VI., 1522-1523 Die Sedisvakanz von 1523 Papst Clemens VII., 1523-1534 Papst Paul III., 1534-1549 Papst Julius III., 1550-1555 Die Sedisvakanz von 1555 Papst Marcellus II., 1555 Papst Paul IV., 1555-1559 Die Sedisvakanz von 1559 Papst Pius IV., 1559-1565 Papst Pius V., 1566-1572 Papst Gregor XIII., 1572-1585 Papst Sixtus V., 1585-1590 Papst Gregor XIV., 1590-1591 Papst Innocenz IX., 1591 Papst Clemens VIII., 1592-1605 Die Sedisvakanz von 1605 Papst Paul V., 1605-1621 Papst Gregor XV., 1621-1623 Papst Urban VIII., 1623-1644 Papst Innocenz X., 1644-1655 Die Sedisvakanz von 1655 Papst Alexander VII., 1655-1667 Die Sedisvakanz von 1667 Papst Clemens IX., 1667-1669 Die Sedisvakanz von 1669-1670 Papst Clemens X., 1670-1676 Die Sedisvakanz von 1676 Papst Innocenz XI., 1676-1689

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1103

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1107 1109 1112 1114 1116 1118 1130 1135 1140

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1148 1159 1172

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1176 1189 1204 1215 1217 1220 1227 1230 1242 1253 1284 1315

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Nr. Die Sedisvakanz von 1689 Papst Alexander VIII., 1689-1691 Die Sedisvakanz von 1691 Papst Innocenz XII., 1691-1700 Die Sedisvakanz von 1700 Papst Clemens XI., 1700-1721 Die Sedisvakanz von 1721 Papst Innocenz XIII., 1721-1724 Die Sedisvakanz von 1724 Papst Benedikt XIII., 1724-1730 Die Sedisvakanz von 1730 Papst Clemens XII., 1730-1740 Die Sedisvakanz von 1740 Papst Benedikt XIV., 1740-1758 Die Sedisvakanz von 1758 Papst Clemens XIII., 1758-1769 Die Sedisvakanz von 1769 Papst Clemens XIV., 1769-1774 Die Sedisvakanz von 1774 Papst Pius VI., 1775-1799 Die Sedisvakanz von 1823 Papst Gregor XVI., 1831-1846 Papst Pius IX., 1846-1878 Papst Pius XI., 1922-1939 Papst Pius XII., 1939-1958 Papst Johannes Paul II., 1978-2005 Sammlungen von Münzen und Medaillen der Päpste Päpstliche und italienische Dokumente und Bleibullen Literatur

1593 1596 1614 1618

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1817 1847 1850

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1972 1975 1996 1999

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2005

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2007

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2008

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2013 2014

234 234

2015

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Habsburgische Erblande - Österreich Römisch-Deutsches Reich Kaiserreich Österreich Lots Habsburg Geistlichkeit Die österreichischen Standesherren Altbunzlau

2015 2015 2085 2129 2131 2144

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235 235 246

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MÜNZEN UND MEDAILLEN AUS ALLER WELT

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Nr. Griechenland Großbritannien / Irland Italien Liechtenstein Luxemburg Monaco Niederlande Norwegen Polen Portugal Rumänien Schweden Schweiz Spanien Tschechien Türkei Ungarn Münzen und Medaillen aus Übersee Äthiopien Argentinien Brasilien Chile China Dominikanische Republik Guinea Haiti Hong Kong Japan Kambodscha Kuba Liberia Mauritius Mexiko Neuseeland Peru Sierra Leone Südafrika Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika/USA Vietnam

2317 2329 2364

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2423 2431 2439 2460 2467

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283 289 296 296 297 298 303 304 307 307 308 335 338 339 340 343 344 364 345 345 345 345 356 356 356 357 358 358 358 358 359 359 359 360 360 361 363 364 364

Anhang Stichwortverzeichnis/Index siehe Auktionskatalog 234 Liste der vollbesteuerten Münzen

365

Leitfaden zur erfolgreichen schriftlichen Auktionsteilnahme/ Важная информация об участии на аукционе

368

Versteigerungsbedingungen/Terms and Conditions of Auction

372

Numismatische Ausdrücke/Numismatic Terms

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Impressum/Bankverbindungen

376 15


POLEN

 

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1008

-¤0+),1*#00-#5+/+4 

)QNFOGFCKNNG \W  &WMCVGP Q , WPUKIPKGTV CWH FGP *GT\QI $QIKUNCWU XQP 4CF\KYKNN )GJCTPKUEJVGU   $TWUVDKNF T OKV ITQ­GT 2GTÒEMG WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN'KPG CWU 9QNMGP MQOOGPFG *CPF J·NV GKP   5EJYGTV OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ QDGP UVTCJNGPFG 5QPPG WPF FCU #WIG )QVVGU  OO  I   *%\ 4  )1.&44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP9%09CTUEJCW0T

18


POLEN

1009

1,5:1

1,5:1

-¤0+)/+%*#'.-14;$76 

)QNFOGFCKNNG \W  &WMCVGP Q ,   WPUKIPKGTV CWH UGKPG *QEJ\GKV OKV 'NGQPQTC 6QEJVGT (GTFK   PCPFU +++ XQP ¤UVGTTGKEJ /+%*#'. & Û ) Û 4': Û 21. Û / Û & Ü .+6 Û 475 Ù 2475 Ù /#5 Ù   $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN'.'1014# /#4+# 4')+0# 21.10+“ Û   )GMTÌPVGU$TWUVDKNFXQP'NGQPQTCNKO-NGKFOOI*%\  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV 5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT)QNFRCVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T FQTV6KVGNUVÒEM 





'NGQPQTC /CTKC ,QUGHC XQP ¤UVGTTGKEJ YWTFG CO  /CK  KP 4GIGPUDWTI IGDQTGP +O #NVGT XQP  ,CJTGP   JGKTCVGVGUKGKP.GODGTIFGPRQNPKUEJGP-ÌPKIWPF)TQ­HÒTUVXQP.KVCWGP/KEJCGN-QT[DWV9KUPKQYKGEMK&KGUGT YCT GTUV GKP ,CJT \WXQT IGIGP XKGT -CPFKFCVGP XQP GKPGT /GJTJGKV FGU RQNPKUEJGP #FGNU IGY·JNV WPF IGMTÌPV   YQTFGP&KGCNU#FGNUTGRWDNKMFGTRQNPKUEJGP-TQPGWPFFGU)TQ­HÒTUVGPVWOU.KVCWGPDG\GKEJPGVG7PKQPDGKFGT 5VCCVGPDGUVCPFXQPDKUWPFWOHCUUVGKPKJTGTITÌ­VGP#WUFGJPWPIFCUJGWVKIG2QNGP.KVCWGP.GVVNCPF 9GK­TW­NCPFWPF6GKNG'UVNCPFU4WUUNCPFU4WO·PKGPUWPFFGT7MTCKPG&KG'JGOKVFGORQNPKUEJGP-ÌPKIYCT GKPG UEJYGTG <GKV HÒT 'NGQPQTC FGPP UEJQP DCNF PCEJ FGT *QEJ\GKV DKNFGVG UKEJ GKPG DTGKVG 1RRQUKVKQP IGIGP FKG   4GIKGTWPIURTCZKU FGU -ÌPKIU &KG 8QTYÒTHG TGKEJVGP XQP IGKUVKIGT 5EJY·EJG DKU JKP \W *QOQUGZWCNKV·V WPF   +ORQVGP\ 'NGQPQTC XGTUWEJVG PCEJ CW­GP KJTG 9ÒTFG \W DGJCNVGP WPF XGTYGKIGTVG LGINKEJG 5VGNNWPIPCJOG\WFGP IGOCEJVGPW­GTWPIGP*KP\WMCOFGTXGTNWUVTGKEJG1UOCPKUEJ2QNPKUEJG-TKGI  FGTKO(TKGFGPXQP $WE\CE\ FWTEJ RQNPKUEJG )GDKGVUCDVTGVWPIGP DGGPFGV YGTFGP MQPPVG 0CEJ FGO 6QF KJTGU 'JGOCPPGU CO   0QXGODGTMGJTVGUKGKPKJTG*GKOCV\WTÒEMWPFJGKTCVGVG,CJTGUR·VGTKJTG,WIGPFNKGDG*GT\QI-CTN8 XQP.QVJTKPIGP  #WUFGT'JGIKPIGP-KPFGTJGTXQTFCTWPVGT.GQRQNF *GT\QIXQP.QVJTKPIGP  FGUUGP5QJPCNU-CKUGT(TCP\+5VGRJCPFGP6JTQPDGUVGKIGPUQNNVG

1010



1,5:1

1010

6CNCTC$TQODGTI2TQDGKP5KNDGTXQP/*QFGTOCPPI/+%*#'.Ù&Ü)Ù4':Û 21.10+#47/ Ù  )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN   WPVGP9CRRGPOKV5VGTPFCJKPVGT\YGK5EJNÒUUGNIGMTGW\VÛ/Ù&Ù.+67#0+#'4755Ù24755Ù    )GMTÌPVGU XKGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP OKV /KVVGNUEJKNF \W FGP 5GKVGP FKG IGVGKNVG 5KIPCVWT /  *  

/KEJCGN*QFGTOCPP9CTFGKPKP$TQODGTI /KVINCVVGO4CPF-QRKEMK 4   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPC MN5COONGTRWP\GKO4CPFMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0KGOE\[M9CTUEJCW0T

19


POLEN

1011

2:1

2:1

-¤0+),1*#00+++51$+'5-+ 

&WMCVGPQ,$TQODGTII+1#0Ù+++&Ù)Ù4':21.Û/Ù&Ù.+6Û4Ù24Ù)GJCT PKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN51.+&'1.#75/1014).14+# )GMTÌPVGUXKGTHGNFKIGU9CRRGPOKV/KVVGNUEJKNFWOJGTFKG-GVVGFGU1TFGPUXQO)QNFGPGP8NKGU(D

4CTG -QRKEMK 4   )1.&8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV)GYGNNV5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0KGOE\[M9CTUEJCW0T

1,5:1

1012

1,5:1

-¤0+)#7)756++&'456#4-' 

&WMCV  &TGUFGP &KEMCDUEJNCI XQP FGP 5VGORGNP FGU JCNDGP &WMCVGP  I )GJCTPKUEJVGU   $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN)GMTÌPVGU XKGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP OKV /KVVGN   UEJKNF\WFGP5GKVGP2CNO\YGKIGFCTWPVGTFKG5KIPCVWT+Û)Û5Û ,QJCPP)GQTI5EJQODWTI/ÒP\ OGKUVGTKP&TGUFGP (Dp-CJPV-QRKEMK 4  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV 9KP\5COONGTRWP\GKO(GNFFGT8QTFGTUGKVGYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1013

1013 1,5:1

-¤0+)56#0+5.#75#7)756 

-QPX6CNGT  (5 9CTUEJCW  I )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF   1TFGPUUVGTP)GMTÌPVGU XKGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP OKV IGMTÌPVGO /KVVGNUEJKNF \W FGP 5GKVGP 2CNO WPF   'KEJGP\YGKIWOJGT1TFGPUDCPFOKVFGT#WHUEJTKHV241(+&'.')''6)4')'OKV1TFGPUUVGTP FCTWPVGTFKGIGVGKNVG5KIPCVWT(5 (TKGFTKEJ5[NO/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP9CTUEJCW &CX -QRKEMK 4   W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI-CDKPGVVUVÒEM2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPC5VGORGNINCP\  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0KGOE\[M9CTUEJCW0T

20


POLEN

1014 1,5:1

1,5:1



-W)TQUEJGP  ) -TCMCW  I $ÒUVG T)GMTÌPVGU XKGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP OKV IGMTÌPVGO   /KVVGNUEJKNF\WFGP5GKVGP.QTDGGT\YGKIGFCTWPVGTFCU/ÒP\UV·VVGP\GKEJGP)-QRKEMK 4   45GJTUEJÌPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1015

1,5:1



1,5:1

 -QPX6CNGT  (5 9CTUEJCW  I $ÒUVG T)GMTÌPVGU XKGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP OKV IGMTÌP   VGO /KVVGNUEJKNF \W FGP5GKVGP2CNOWPF'KEJGP\YGKIWOJGT1TFGPUDCPFOKV1TFGPUUVGTPFCTWPVGT FKG IGVGKNVG 5KIPCVWT ( Ü  5 Ü (TKGFTKEJ 5[NO /ÒP\OGKUVGT KP 9CTUEJCW   -QRKEMK   

4  W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI-CDKPGVVUVÒEM 2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPC'TUVCDUEJNCI5VGORGNINCP\  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0KGOE\[M9CTUEJCW0T

1016



1,5:1

1016

-QPX6CNGT9CTUEJCW2TQDGKP(GKPUKNDGTXQP,2*QN\J·WUUGTI$ÒUVGTCO*CNU CDUEJPKVV FKG 5KIPCVWT + Ü 2 Ü * Ü ,QJCPP 2JKNKRR *QN\J·WUUGT 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGT KP 9CTUEJCW     9CCIG/KVINCVVGO4CPF-QRKEMK 4  44'VYCUTCWJGT5EJTÌVNKPIXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0KGOE\[M9CTUEJCW0T

21


POLEN

1017

1,5:1



1,5:1

 -QPX6CNGT  '$ 9CTUEJCW  I $ร’UVG T)GMTรŒPVGU XKGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP OKV IG   MTรŒPVGO /KVVGNUEJKNF \W FGP 5GKVGP 2CNO WPF 'KEJGP\YGKI WOJGT 1TFGPUDCPF OKV 1TFGPUUVGTP FC   TWPVGT FKG IGVGKNVG 5KIPCVWT ' รœ  $ ร› 'RJTCKO $TGPP /ร’P\OGKUVGT KP 9CTUEJCW     /KV4CPFUEJTKHVยบ27$.+%#'ยบ2+)075ยบยบรรยบยบ(+&'.ร›-QRKEMK 4   ยWยญGTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI-CDKPGVVUVร’EM 2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPC'TUVCDUEJNCI5VGORGNINCP\  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0KGOE\[M9CTUEJCW0T

1018

1,5:1



-QPX6CNGT  '$ 9CTUEJCW  I $ร’UVG T)GMTรŒPVGU XKGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP OKV IGMTรŒPVGO   /KVVGNUEJKNF\WFGP5GKVGP2CNOWPF'KEJGP\YGKIWOJGT1TFGPUDCPFOKVFGT#WHUEJTKHV241(+&' .')''6)4')'OKV1TFGPUUVGTPFCTWPVGTFKGIGVGKNVG5KIPCVWT'ร›$ร› 'RJTCKO$TGPP/ร’P\ OGKUVGTKP9CTUEJCW /KV4CPFUEJTKHVf27$.+%#'f2+)075f 4CWVG  4CWVG  4CWVG  f(+&'.&CX-QRKEMK 4  ยWยญGTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI-CDKPGVVUVร’EM /KVYKP\5COONGTRWP\GKO4CPFRTCEJVXQNNG2CVKPC5VGORGNINCP\  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0KGOE\[M9CTUEJCW0T

22

1,5:1


POLEN

1019

1,5:1



1,5:1

 -QPX6CNGT  '$ 9CTUEJCW  I $ÒUVG T)GMTÌPVGUXKGTHGNFKIGU9CRRGPOKVIGMTÌP VGO /KVVGNUEJKNF \W FGP5GKVGP2CNOWPF'KEJGP\YGKIWOJGT1TFGPUDCPFOKV1TFGPUUVGTPFCTWPVGT FKGIGVGKNVG5KIPCVWT'Û$Û 'RJTCKO$TGPP/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP9CTUEJCW -QRKEMK 4  W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI-CDKPGVVUVÒEM2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\ 

1020

1,5:1



1,5:1

&WMCV  '$ 9CTUEJCW  I $ÒUVG T8KGT <GKNGP 5EJTKHV FCTWPVGT ,CJTGU\CJN WOJGT .QT   DGGT\YGKIG WPVGP FKG IGVGKNVG 5KIPCVWT ' Û  $ Û 'RJTCKO $TGPP /ÒP\OGKUVGT KP 9CTUEJCW     (D-QRKEMK 4   )1.&5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP&T$WUUQ2GWU0CEJH(TCPMHWTV/CKP0T

1021



1,5:1

1021

-QPX6CNGT  /8 9CTUEJCW  I $ÒUVG T)GMTÌPVGU XKGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP OKVIGMTÌPVGO /KVVGNUEJKNF \W FGP 5GKVGP 2CNO WPF 'KEJGP\YGKI WOJGT 1TFGPUDCPF OKV 1TFGPUUVGTP FCTWPVGT FCU   IGVGKNVG/ÒP\UV·VVGP\GKEJGP/Ü8Ü/KV4CPFUEJTKHVf27$.+%#'2+)075f 4CWVG f 4CWVG f (+&'.&CX-QRKEMK 4  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0KGOE\[M9CTUEJCW0T

23


POLEN

21.'0706'4<#4#.':#0&'4++8104755.#0&

1022



1022

1,5:1

)QNFOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVFGT5VCFV.GODGTI JGWVG7MTCKPG CWHFKG,CJTHGKGTFGT7PKQPXQP .WDNKPKPFGTFKG8GTGKPKIWPIXQP2QNGPWPF.KVCWGPDGUEJNQUUGPYWTFG)GMTÌPVGUFTGKHGNFKIGU9CR RGP5GEJU <GKNGP 5EJTKHV /KV 4CPFRWP\G ( WPF \YGK YGKVGTGP 2WP\GP  OO  I   *%\ FQTVPWTKP<KPP  )1.&8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV 9QJNGKP\KIGUDGMCPPVGU'ZGORNCT-N4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP9%09CTUEJCW0T

4'27$.+-21.'0

1024

1,5:1

1,5:1



 /CTGM  9CTUEJCW 2TQDG KP 5KNDGT WPUKIPKGTV XQP 9 9CUKGYKE\  I ,É\GH 2KNUWFUMK   )GMTÌPVGT #FNGT 9GTVCPICDG WPF ,CJTGU\CJN WOJGT \YGK .QTDGGT\YGKIG$ÒUVG 2KNUWFUMKU N   /KVINCVVGO4CPF2CTEJKOQYKE\2G 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV 2TCEJVGZGORNCT2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP9%09CTUEJCW0T

1023

1,5:1



/CTGM9CTUEJCW2TQDGKP-WRHGTWPUKIPKGTVXQP99CUKGYKE\I,É\GH2KNUWFUMK )GMTÌPVGT #FNGT 9GTVCPICDG WPF ,CJTGU\CJN WOJGT \YGK .QTDGGT\YGKIG$ÒUVG 2KNUWFUMKU N   /KVINCVVGO4CPF2CTEJKOQYKE\2C 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV 2TCEJVGZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP9%09CTUEJCW0T

24

1,5:1


POLEN

1025 1,5:1

1,5:1



/CTGM9CTUEJCW2TQDGKP/GUUKPIWPUKIPKGTVXQP99CUKGYKE\I,É\GH2KNUWFUMK )GMTÌPVGT #FNGT 9GTVCPICDG WPF ,CJTGU\CJN WOJGT \YGK .QTDGGT\YGKIG$ÒUVG 2KNUWFUMKU N /KV   INCVVGO4CPF2CTEJKOQYKE\2E 8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV 2TCEJVGZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP9%09CTUEJCW0T

1026

1,5:1



1,5:1

/CTGM9CTUEJCW2TQDGKP$TQP\GXQP-.CU\E\MCI)GMTÌPVGT#FNGT\WFGP5GKVGP 9GTVCPICDG UQYKG *COOGT WPF <CJPTCF$TWUVDKNF GKPGT LWPIGP $·WGTKP N /KV INCVVGO 4CPF   2CTEJKOQYKE\2C 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV 2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG-WRHGTRCVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\ 

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP9%09CTUEJCW0T

1,5:1



1027

1,5:1

 )TQU\G  9CTUEJCW 2TQDG KP $TQP\G WPUKIPKGTV XQP , #WOKNNGT  I $GKFGTUGKVU 9GTVCP   ICDG KP \YGK <GKNGP 5EJTKHV FCTWPVGT ,CJTGU\CJN WOJGT -TCP\ CWU $NWOGP WPF )GVTGKFG   /KVINCVVGO4CPF2CTEJKOQYKE\2C  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV -CDKPGVVUVÒEM5VGORGNINCP\ 

1028

1,5:1



1,5:1

<NQV[EJ9CTUEJCW2TQDGKP5KNDGTWPUKIPKGTVXQP55\WMCNUMKI/KMQNCL-QRGTPKM )GMTÌPVGT #FNGT$TWUVDKNF FGU -QRGTPKMWU HCUV X X OKV GTJQDGPGT .KPMGP WPF .WRG KP FGT 4GEJVGP   /KV4CPFUEJTKHV5#.754'+27$.+%#'5724'/#.':2CTEJKOQYKE\2C  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2QNKGTVG2NCVVGOKPDGTÒJTV  25


POLEN

1,5:1



1029

1,5:1

<NQV[EJ9CTUEJCW2TQDGKP$TQP\GXQP#/CFG[UMKI)GMTÌPVGT#FNGT9GTVCPICDG WPF ,CJTGU\CJN&KG $ÒUVGP GKPGU $CWGTP WPF UGKPGT $·WGTKP PGDGPGKPCPFGT N WOJGT -TCP\ CWU   (TÒEJVGPWPF)GVTGKFG/KVINCVVGO4CPF2CTEJKOQYKE\2C  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV 2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP9%09CTUEJCW0T

1030

1,5:1

1,5:1



 <NQV[EJ  9CTUEJCW 2TQDG KP 5KNDGT WPUKIPKGTV XQP 5 .GYCPFQYUMK  I 8GTHCUUWPI   8CTKCPVG OKV  2GTNGP CWH FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG )GMTÌPVGT #FNGT&KG RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG 2QNQPKC VJTQPV PCEJ T   WPF GORH·PIV GKPGP /CPP FGT KJT FKG PGWG 8GTHCUUWPI ÒDGTIKDV /KV INCVVGO 4CPF &CX  XCT   2CTEJKOQYKE\M 442TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ 

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP9%09CTUEJCW0T

1031

1,5:1



 <NQV[EJ  9CTUEJCW 2TQDG KP 6QODCM WPUKIPKGTV XQP 5 .GYCPFQYUMK  I 8GTHCUUWPI   8CTKCPVG OKV  2GTNGP CWH FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG )GMTÌPVGT #FNGT&KG RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG 2QNQPKC VJTQPV PCEJ T   WPF GORH·PIV GKPGP /CPP FGT KJT FKG PGWG 8GTHCUUWPI ÒDGTIKDV /KV 4CPFUEJTKHV 5#.75   4'+27$.+%#'5724'/#.':&CXXIN FQTVKP5KNDGT 2CTEJKOQYKE\C  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV 2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG-WRHGTRCVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\ 

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP9%09CTUEJCW0T

26

1,5:1


POLEN

1032

1,5:1

1,5:1



 <NQV[EJ  9CTUEJCW 2TQDG KP 5KNDGT XQP 5 .GYCPFQYUMK  I 8GTHCUUWPI 8CTKCPVG OKV    2GTNGP CWH FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG )GMTÌPVGT #FNGT&KG RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG 2QNQPKC VJTQPV PCEJ T WPF GOR   H·PIV GKPGP /CPP FGT KJT FKG PGWG 8GTHCUUWPI ÒDGTIKDV /KV 4CPFUEJTKHV 5#.75 4'+27$.+%#'   5724'/#.':&CXXCT2CTEJKOQYKE\2C  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV 2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

1033

1,5:1



1,5:1

<NQV[EJ9CTUEJCW2TQDGKP5KNDGTWPUKIPKGTVXQP'9KVVKII0KMG)GMTÌPVGT#FNGT ,CJTGU\CJN WPF 9GTVCPICDG)GHNÒIGNVG 0KMG UEJYGDV T OKV CWUIGUVTGEMVGT .KPMGP FGPCWUIGUVTGEMVGP 4GEJVGP #TO J·NV UKG PCEJ QDGP /KV 4CPFUEJTKHV 5#.75  4'+27.+%#'  5724'/#  .':   2CTEJKOQYKE\2C 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV -CDKPGVVUVÒEM2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCRQNKGTVG2NCVVG 

1,5:1



1034

1,5:1

 )TQU\G  9CTUEJCW 2TQDG KP 5KNDGT XQP 9 ,CUVT\GDQYUMK  I )GMTÌPVGT #FNGT9GTVCP   ICDGKP\YGK<GKNGP5EJTKHV/KVINCVVGO4CPF2CTEJKOQYKE\2G  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV -CDKPGVVUVÒEM2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCRQNKGTVG2NCVVG  27


POLEN

1035 1,5:1



1,5:1

 <NQV[  9CTUEJCW 2TQDG KP -WRHGT XQP , #WOKNNGT  I )GMTÌPVGT #FNGT9GTVCPICDG   WOJGT-TCP\CWU(TÒEJVGPWPF)GVTGKFG/KVINCVVGO4CPF2CTEJKOQYKE\2E  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8GTOWVNKEJPWT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV 2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP9%09CTUEJCW0T

1036

1,5:1

1,5:1



 <NQV[EJ  9CTUEJCW CWH FKG ,CJTHGKGT FGT 4GXQNWVKQP 'TJCDGPGU )GRT·IG  I )G   MTÌPVGT #FNGT 9GTVCPICDG WPF ,CJTGU\CJN(CJPG FCTCWH \YGK <GKNGP 5EJTKHV FCTWPVGT XKGT <GKNGP   5EJTKHV&CX-QRKEMK 4 2CTEJKOQYKE\D 448QT\ÒINKEJ 

1037

1,5:1



1,5:1

 <NQV[EJ  $TÒUUGN CWH FGP $GUWEJ FGU RQNPKUEJGP /KPKUVGTU / ,CEMQYUMK KP FGT $TÒUUGNGT   /ÒP\G2TQDGKP$TQP\GXQP'9KVVKII0KMG(ÒPH<GKNGP5EJTKHV)GHNÒIGNVG0KMGUEJYGDV T OKV CWUIGUVTGEMVGT .KPMGP FGP CWUIGUVTGEMVGP 4GEJVGP #TO J·NV UKG PCEJ QDGP /KV INCVVGO 4CPF   2CTEJKOQYKE\XIN2 FQTVOKV4CPFUEJTKHV  44*GTTNKEJG-WRHGTRCVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP9%09CTUEJCW0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP9%09CTUEJCW0T

28


POLEN

1038

1,5:1

1,5:1



 <NQV[EJ  9CTUEJCW 0KMG  I )GMTÌPVGT #FNGT 9GTVCPICDG WPF ,CJTGU\CJN)GHNÒIGNVG   0KMG UEJYGDV T OKV CWUIGUVTGEMVGT .KPMGP FGP CWUIGUVTGEMVGP 4GEJVGP #TO J·NV UKG PCEJ QDGP   /KV4CPFUEJTKHV5#.754'+27.+%#'5724'/#.':-QRKEMK 4 2CTEJKOQYKE\G 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV2TCEJVGZGORNCT *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP9%09CTUEJCW0T

1039



-NKRRG\W<NQV[EJ9CTUEJCW2TQDGKP5KNDGTXQP<6T\EKPUMC-COKPUMCI4QOWCNF 6TCWIWVV)GMTÌPVGT#FNGT$ÒUVG6TCWIWVVUHCUVXX/KVINCVVGO4CPF2CTEJKOQYKE\2C  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV-CDKPGVVUVÒEM2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



1040



-NKRRG \W  <NQV[EJ  9CTUEJCW 2TQDG KP 5KNDGT XQP 5V 1UVTQYUMK  I ,É\GH 2KNUWFUMK   #FNGT 9CRRGP WPF 9GTVCPICDG WOJGT 5VTCJNGPMTCP\$ÒUVG 2KNUWFUMKU N /KV INCVVGO 4CPF 2CTEJK   OQYKE\2 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV 2TCEJVGZGORNCT2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\  29


POLEN

1041

1,5:1

1,5:1



 <NQV[EJ  9CTUEJCW 2TQDG KP 5KNDGT WPUKIPKGTV XQP 9 ,CUVT\GDQYMUK  I )GMTÌPVGT   #FNGT9GTVCPICDGKP\YGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVWOJGT#VVTKDWVGFGT.CPFYKTVUEJCHVFGU*CPFYGTMUWPFFGT 9KUUGPUEJCHV/KVIGTKHHGNVGO4CPF2CTEJKOQYKE\2C  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV (GKPG2CVKPC2TCEJVGZGORNCTXQPRQNKGTVGP5VGORGNP 2TQQHNKMG  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2&#2QUGP0T

1042

1,5:1



1,5:1

 <NQV[EJ  9CTUEJCW 2TQDG KP 6QODCM WPUKIPKGTVXQP9,CUVT\GDQYMUKI)GMTÌPVGT #FNGT9GTVCPICDGKP\YGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVWOJGT#VVTKDWVGFGT.CPFYKTVUEJCHVFGU*CPFYGTMUWPFFGT 9KUUGPUEJCHV/KVINCVVGO4CPF2CTEJKOQYKE\2D  8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV 2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



1043



30

-NKRRG\W<NQV[EJ9CTUEJCW2TQDGKP5KNDGTXQP,#WOKNNGTI&TGKOCUVGT)GMTÌPVGT #FNGT&TGKOCUVGTCWHJQJGT5GG/KVINCVVGO4CPF2CTEJKOQYKE\2C  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV 2TCEJVGZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\




DANZIG

1044



-NKRRG\W<NQV[EJ9CTUEJCW2TQDGKP$TQP\GXQP,#WOKNNGTI&TGKOCUVGT)GMTÌP VGT#FNGT&TGKOCUVGTCWHJQJGT5GG/KVINCVVGO4CPF2CTEJKOQYKE\2D  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2TCEJVGZGORNCT5VGORGNINCP\ 

&+'56#&6&#0<+)

1045 1,5:1



1,5:1

&WMCVOKV6KVGN5KIKUOWPFU+++  I<YGK.ÌYGPJCNVGPFCU&CP\KIGT5VCFVYCR RGP WPVGP FKG IGVGKNVG 5KIPCVWT 5  $ 5VCPKUNCY $GTOCP /ÒP\OGKUVGT KP &CP\KI     QDGP \YGK IGMTGW\VG .QTDGGT\YGKIG WPF GKP 9GKPDNCVV)GMTÌPVGU WPF IGJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF 5KIKU   OWPFU+++TOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN&WVMQYUMK5WEJCPGM+++(D-QRKEMKXCT 4   )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1046

1046 1,5:1



4GKEJUVCNGTOKV6KVGN9NCFKUNCYU+8  I/10'6##4)'06'#%+8+6#6+5 )'&#0'05+5<YGK.ÌYGPJCNVGPFCU&CP\KIGT5VCFVYCRRGPWPVGP\WFGP5GKVGPFKGIGVGKNVG5KIPCVWT +  + ,QJCPP ,CEQDUGP XCP 'OFGP /ÒP\R·EJVGT KP &CP\KI   FCTWPVGT FKG ,CJTGU\CJN KP   -CTVWUEJG QDGP -TCP\ OKV 2CNO WPF .QTDGGT\YGKIGP DGUVGEMVf 8.#&+5. Ù +8 Û & Ù ) Ù 4':   21.10Ù/Ù&Ù.+6Ù475Ù2475ÙEÛ0Ù057'%ÙEÛ*Ù4':)GMTÌPVGUWPFIGJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF 9NCFKUNCYU +8 HCUV X X OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN &CX  &WVMQYUMK5WEJCPGM  +   -QRKEMK 4  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2&#2QUGP0T

31


DANZIG

1047

1,5:1



1,5:1

4GKEJUVCNGTOKV6KVGN9NCFKUNCYU+8  I/10'6##4)'06'#%+8+6#6+5 )'&#0'05+5<YGK.ÌYGPJCNVGPFCU&CP\KIGT5VCFVYCRRGPWPVGP\WFGP5GKVGPFKGIGVGKNVG5KIPCVWT +  + ,QJCPP ,CEQDUGP XCP 'OFGP /ÒP\R·EJVGT KP &CP\KI   QDGP -TCP\ OKV 2CNO WPF   .QTDGGT\YGKIGP DGUVGEMV \W FGP 5GKVGP FKG IGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN   f 8.#&+5. Ù +8 Û & Ù ) Ù   4':21.10Ù/Ù&Ù.+6Ü475Ù2475ÙEÛ0Ù0Û57'%ÙEÛ*Ù4':)GMTÌPVGUWPFIGJCT PKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNF9NCFKUNCYU+8HCUVXXOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN&CX&WVMQYUMK5WEJCPGM ++-QRKEMK 4   8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0KGOE\[M9CTUEJCW0T

1048

1,5:1



4GKEJUVCNGT  OKV 6KVGN ,QJCPP -CUKOKTU    I <YGK .ÌYGP JCNVGP FCU &CP\KIGT   5VCFVYCRRGPWPVGP\WFGP5GKVGPFKGIGVGKNVG5KIPCVWT)4 )GTJCTF4QIIG/ÒP\R·EJVGTKP&CP\KI  FCTWPVGTFKG,CJTGU\CJNKP-CTVWUEJGQDGP-TCP\OKV2CNOWPF.QTDGGT\YGKIGPDGUVGEMV )GMTÌPVGU WPF IGJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF ,QJCPP -CUKOKTU T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN &CX  &WV   MQYUMK5WEJCPGM++NGKEJVXCT-QRKEMK 4   W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCYKP\<CKPGPFGXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2&#2QUGP0T

32

1,5:1


DANZIG

1049

1,5:1

1,5:1



 &WMCVGP Q , OKV 6KVGN ,QJCPP +++ 5QDKGUMKU    I 4')+# %+8+6#5 )'&#05+5   5VCFVCPUKEJV XQP &CP\KI WPVGP JCNVGP \YGK .ÌYGP FCU &CP\KIGT 5VCFVYCRRGP QDGP UVTCJNGPFGT 0COG   ,GJQXCU+1#0Ü+++&Ü)Û4':21.Û/Û&Ü.Ü475Ü24Ü)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNF,QJCPP+++ 5QDKGUMKUTOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNFCTWPVGTFKG5KIPCVWT+Û*Û ,QJCPP*ÌJPFGT NVGTG5VGORGNUEJPGKFGTKP&CP\KI &WVMQYUMK5WEJCPGM(D-QRKEMKp  )1.&8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV.GKEJVG5EJÒTHURWTGPXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0KGOE\[M9CTUEJCW0T

1,5:1

1050



4GKEJUVCNGTOKV6KVGN,QJCPP+++5QDKGUMKU  I<YGK.ÌYGPJCNVGPFCU&CP\K IGT5VCFVYCRRGPWPVGP\WFGP5GKVGPFKGIGVGKNVG5KIPCVWT&. &CPKGN.GUUG/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP&CP\KI  FCTWPVGTFKG,CJTGU\CJNKP-CTVWUEJGQDGP-TCP\OKV2CNOWPF.QTDGGT\YGKIGPDGUVGEMV )GMTÌPVGU WPF IGJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF ,QJCPP +++ 5QDKGUMKU T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN &CX    &WVMQYUMK5WEJCPGM-QRKEMK 4  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV 5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2&#2QUGP0T

33


ELBING

1051

1,5:1



1,5:1

)QNFCDUEJNCI\W&WMCVGPXQPFGP5VGORGNPFGU)TÌUEJGTOKV6KVGN#WIWUVU+++ (TKGFTKEJ #WIWUV ++ XQP 5CEJUGP    I /10 Û #4)'06 Û %+8+6#6 Û )'&#0'05+5 <YGK   .ÌYGPJCNVGPFCU&CP\KIGT5VCFVYCRRGPWPVGPFKGIGVGKNVG5KIPCVWT4'ę 4WFQNRJ'TPUV1GEMGT OCPP/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP&CP\KI FCTWPVGTFKG,CJTGU\CJNQDGP-TCP\OKV2CNOWPF.QTDGGT \YGKIGPDGUVGEMVUQYKGFKGIGVGKNVG9GTVCPICDG&Û)Ú#8)85685Û+++Û4':Û21.Û/Û&Û . Ú 4 Ú 2 4 Û & Ú 5 Û  Û '. )GMTÌPVGU WPF IGJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNF#WIWUVU+++TOKVWOIGNGIVGO /CPVGNWPFFGT-GVVGFGU1TFGPUXQO)QNFGPGP8NKGU&WVMQYUMK5WEJCPGMD(Dp-QRKEMK 4  )1.&8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT)QNFRCVKPCMN2TÒHURWTCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP9%09CTUEJCW0T

&+'56#&6'.$+0)

1052

1,5:1



4GKEJUVCNGTOKV6KVGN/KEJCGN-QT[DWVU  I/10'6##Û018#%+8+6Ü '.$+0)'05Ü8QPGKPGO'PIGNIGJCNVGPGUXGT\KGTVGU5VCFVYCRRGPXQP'NDKPIWPVGP\WFGP 5GKVGP FKG IGVGKNVG 5KIPCVWT  %  5 %JTKUVQRJ 5EJWN\ /ÒP\OGKUVGT KP 'NDKPI   WOJGT   ¤N\YGKIG/+%*#'. Û & Û ) Û  4': Ú 21. Û / & Û . Û 4 Û 24 Û )GMTÌPVGU WPF IGJCTPKUEJVGU   $TWUVDKNFTOKV5RKV\GPLCDQVWPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN&WVMQYUMK5WEJCPGM 4 -QRKEMK 4  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV (GKPG2CVKPCYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTWPF2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP0KGOE\[M9CTUEJCW0T

34

1,5:1


POMMERN

&+'56#&66*140

1053 1,5:1



1,5:1

)TÌUEJGTOKV$ÒUVG5VCPKUNCWU#WIWUVUI8QPGKPGO'PIGNIGJCNVGPGUXGT\KGTVGU5VCFV YCRRGP XQP 6JQTP \W FGP 5GKVGP FKG IGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN    WPF FKG IGVGKNVG 5KIPCVWT 5  $  

5VCPKUNCWU$TÒEMOCPP/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP6JQTP )GMTÌPVG$ÒUVG5VCPKUNCWU#WIWUVUT&WVMQYUMK 5WEJCPGM-QRKEMK 4  W­GTUVUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI 2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

1054

1,5:1

1,5:1



)TÌUEJGTOKV/QPQITCOO5VCPKUNCWU#WIWUVUI8QPGKPGO'PIGNIGJCNVGPGUXGT\KGTVGU 5VCFVYCRRGPXQP6JQTPWPVGP\WFGP5GKVGPFKGIGVGKNVG5KIPCVWT5$ 5VCPKUNCWU$TÒEMOCPP/ÒP\ OGKUVGT KP 6JQTP  )GMTÌPVGU /QPQITCOO 5VCPKUNCWU #WIWUVU \W FGP 5GKVGP FKG IGVGKNVG   ,CJTGU\CJN&WVMQYUMK5WEJCPGM-QRKEMK 4   5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

9GKVGTG/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGPXQP2QNGPHKPFGP5KGWPVGTFGP0TP KP-CVCNQIWPVGT0TWPFKP-CVCNQIWPVGTFGP0TP

&#5*'4<1)67/21//'40 706'45%*9'&+5%*'4*'445%*#(6

1055

1,5:1

1055

-¤0+)+0%*4+56+0# 

 4GKEJUVCNGT  5VGVVKP  I )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF KP XGT\KGTVGO -NGKF JCNDN8GT\KGTVGU   9CRRGP\WFGP5GKVGPFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJN#JNUVTÌO :4 -QRKEMK 4   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI2CWN$TCVTKPI#WMVKQP#FQNRJ*GUU0CEJHQNIGT(TCPMHWTV/CKP0TFGT 5COONWPI.CTU'OKN$TWWP6GKN#WMVKQP#FQNRJ*GUU0CEJHQNIGT(TCPMHWTV/CKP0TWPFFGT 5COONWPIFGT(TGKJGTTGP$QPFG6GKN#WMVKQP0QTFNKPF5VQEMJQNO0T

35


SCHLESIEN

1056



&QRRGNVGT4GKEJUVCNGT5VGVVKPIc%*4+56+0#Û&Ù)Û58'Û)16Û8#0&Û3Û&'5 Û 4')+0 )GMTÌPVGU $TWUVDKNF JCNDN KO 5RKV\GPMNGKFc /10'6# Ú 018# Ú #4) Û &8%#685 Ú   21/'4#0Û$GJGNOVGU9CRRGPXQP\YGKDGJGNOVGPYKNFGP/·PPGTPIGJCNVGP#JNUVTÌO :4  &CX-QRKEMK 4  8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV 9KP\4CPFHGJNGTCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT  'ZGORNCT FGT 5COONWPI FGT (TGKJGTTGP $QPFG 6GKN  #WMVKQP (TKV\ 4WFQNH -ÒPMGT0QTFNKPF  1UPCDTÒEM   0T  

0CEJWPUGTGP4GEJGTEJGPKUVXQPFKGUGT8CTKCPVGFGUGZVTGOUGNVGPGP&QRRGNVCNGTUPWTPQEJGKPYGKVGTGU'ZGORNCT DGMCPPV FCU KP FGT #WMVKQP XQP (GNKZ 5EJNGUUKPIGT CO  /CK  KP $GTNKP WPVGT 0T  XGTUVGKIGTV YWTFG   #WH FGO 'ZGORNCT FGT DGTÒJOVGP 2QOOGTPUCOONWPI FGU )TGKHUYCNFGT -QOOGT\KGPTCVU 2QIIG #WMVKQP   .*CODWTIGT(TCPMHWTV0T GPFGVFKG8QTFGTUGKVGPNGIGPFGOKV4')+0#

9GKVGTG/ÒP\GPXQP2QOOGTPHKPFGP5KGKP-CVCNQIWPVGTFGP0TP

&#5*'4<1)67/5%*.'5+'0 706'4$¤*/+5%*'4.'*'05*1*'+6

1057

2:1

2:1

-#+5'4.'121.&+ 

)QNFCDUEJNCI\WGKPGO&WMCVGPXQPFGP5VGORGNPFGU)TÌUEJGN1RRGNPI&QRRGNCFNGT OKV IGMTÌPVGO 9CRRGP CWH FGT $TWUV4GKEJUCRHGN OKV 9GTV\CJN \W FGP 5GKVGP FKG IGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN   (W5p XIN *GTKPGMp XIN   )1.&8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV8GTOWVNKEJ7PKMWO8QT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2&#2QUGP0T

&#55%*.'5+5%*'*'4<1)67/.+')0+6<$4+')

1058 1,5:1

1,5:1

*'4<1)(4+'&4+%*++ 

&WMCV   I $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN8KGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP QDGP ,CJTGU\CJN   (W5(D-QRKEMK 4   )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT$GTNKP0TWPFFGT5COONWPI*GPT[8-CTQNMKGYKE\ #WMVKQP6TKVQP+80GY;QTM0T

36


SCHLESIEN

1059

&+'*'4<¤)',1*#00%*4+56+#070&)'14)47&1.( 

&QRRGNVG 4GKEJUVCNGTMNKRRG  4GKEJGPUVGKP  I /ÒP\XGTYCNVGT %JTKUVQRJ 6WEJOCPP   ê&Ù)Ú+1#0Û%*4+56Û'6Û)'14)Û48&Û(4#Û&KG\YGKIGJCTPKUEJVGP*ÒHVDKNFGTFGT$TÒ FGTOKVWOIGNGIVGP(GNFDKPFGPWPF-QOOCPFQUV·DGPGKPCPFGTIGIGPÒDGT&8%Û5+.Û.+)ÚÚ'6Û $4')ÚÛ&TGKHCEJDGJGNOVGUXKGTHGNFKIGU9CRRGP\YKUEJGPFGT*GNO\KGTFKGIGVGKNVG5KIPCVWT%6 .KNKG JQEJIGUVGNNV%JTKUVQRJ6WEJOCPP/ÒP\XGTYCNVGTKP4GKEJGPUVGKP &CX(W5 -QRKEMKp XIN 4 FQTVCNU4GKEJUVCNGT   8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV9QJNGKP\KIGUDGMCPPVGU'ZGORNCT -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP 

1060

1,5:1

1,5:1

*'4<1),1*#00%*4+56+#0#..'+0 

4GKEJUVCNGT  *4 $TGUNCW  I 'KUGPUEJPGKFGT *CPU 4KGIGT )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV   WOIGNGIVGT (GNFDKPFG \W FGP 5GKVGP FKG IGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN   &TGKHCEJ DGJGNOVGU XKGTHGNFKIGU   9CRRGP WPVGP \W FGP 5GKVGP FKG IGVGKNVG 5KIPCVWT *  4 Û *CPU 4KGIGT 'KUGPUEJPGKFGT KP $TGUNCW    &CX(W5-QRKEMK 4   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  'ZGORNCT FGT 5COONWPI -NCWU 2TQRR #WMVKQP (TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT$GTNKP0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP 9KPVGT&ÒUUGNFQTH0T

37


SCHLESIEN

1061

1,5:1

1,5:1

*'4<1))'14)47&1.(#..'+0 

&QRRGNVGT4GKEJUVCNGT.KGIPKV\I/ร’P\OGKUVGT%JTKUVQRJ%CPVQTรช&ร™)ร›)'14)+85ยบ 48&1.2*85ยบ&8:ยบ5+.'5+ย“ยบ)GJCTPKUEJVGU*ร’HVDKNFTOKVXGT\KGTVGO5RKV\GPMTCIGPWPFWO IGNGIVGT (GNFDKPFG.+)0+%'05+5 ร› '6 Y $4')'05+5 ร› << รš &TGKHCEJ DGJGNOVGU XKGTHGNFKIGU   9CRRGP\YKUEJGPFGT*GNO\KGTFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJNรš<<&CX#(W5p XIN FQTVCNU4GKEJUVCNGT -QRKEMKp XIN4FQTVCNU4GKEJUVCNGT   8QPITQยญGT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ร’INKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2&#2QUGP0T

1062

1,5:1



1,5:1

4GKEJUVCNGT  .KGIPKV\  I /ร’P\OGKUVGT %JTKUVQRJ %CPVQT )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV   XGT\KGTVGO 5RKV\GPMTCIGP WPF WOIGNGIVGT (GNFDKPFG&TGKHCEJ DGJGNOVGU XKGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP &CX   (W5-QRKEMK 4   44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJรŒPpXQT\ร’INKEJ 

'ZGORNCT FGT 5COONWPI -NCWU 2TQRR #WMVKQP (TKV\4WFQNH-ร’PMGT$GTNKP0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP 9KPVGT&ร’UUGNFQTH0T

38


SCHLESIEN

1063

1,5:1

1,5:1

&+'*'4<¤)')'14).7&9+)70&%*4+56+#0 

4GKEJUVCNGT  $TKGI  I /ÒP\OGKUVGT %JTKUVKCP 2HCJNGT WPF 9CTFGKP\GKEJGP 86 &KG FTGK   IGJCTPKUEJVGP $TWUVDKNFGT FGT $TÒFGT OKV WOIGNGIVGP (GNFDKPFGP WPF -QOOCPFQUV·DGP PGDGPGKPCPFGT   XX&TGKHCEJDGJGNOVGUXKGTHGNFKIGU9CRRGPWPVGP\WFGP5GKVGPFKGIGVGKNVG5KIPCVWT86&CX (W5-QRKEMK 4   &KGUGT,CJTICPIKUVXQPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV&WPMNG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT$GTNKP0T

1064 (doppelt)

1,5:1



1,5:1

&QRRGNVGT 4GKEJUVCNGT  $TKGI  I /ÒP\OGKUVGT %JTKUVKCP 2HCJNGT &KG FTGK IGJCTPKUEJVGP   *ÒHVDKNFGTFGT$TÒFGTOKVWOIGNGIVGP(GNFDKPFGPWPF-QOOCPFQUV·DGPPGDGPGKPCPFGTXX&TGKHCEJ DGJGNOVGUXKGTHGNFKIGU9CRRGP&CX(W5-QRKEMK 4   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(GKPG-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  39


SCHLESIEN

1065 (doppelt)

1,5:1

1,5:1



&QRRGNVGT 4GKEJUVCNGT  $TKGI  I /ÒP\OGKUVGT %JTKUVKCP 2HCJNGT ê & Ù ) Ú )'14)+85 Ú   .8&18+%85Û'6Û%*4+56+#085Û(4#6Ù&KGFTGKIGJCTPKUEJVGP*ÒHVDKNFGTFGT$TÒFGTOKVWO IGNGIVGP(GNFDKPFGPWPF-QOOCPFQUV·DGPPGDGPGKPCPFGTXXÊ&7%'5Û5+..'5+Ù.+)0+%'05Ù

/ÒP\OGKUVGT\GKEJGP $4')'05+5Û'6Û91.#8+Ù&TGKHCEJDGJGNOVGUXKGTHGNFKIGU9CRRGP &CX(W5-QRKEMK 4   8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI-NCWU2TQRR#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT$GTNKP0TWPFFGT5COONWPI 8KTIKN/$TCPF6GKN#WMVKQP.GW<ÒTKEJ0T

1066

1,5:1

1,5:1

*'4<1)%*4+56+#0 

&WMCVGP%$5$TKGICWHUGKPGP6QFI/ÒP\OGKUVGTWPF9CTFGKP%JTKUVQRJ$TGVVUEJPGK FGT)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGT(GNFDKPFG)GMTÌPVGT#FNGTFGP-QRHPCEJNIGYCPFV FCTWPVGTFKG5KIPCVWT%$5 %JTKUVQRJ$TGVVUEJPGKFGT/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP$TKGI (W5 (D-QRKEMK 4  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV 5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT)QNFRCVKPCOKPIGYGNNVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2&#2QUGP0T

40


SCHLESIEN

1067

1,5:1

1,5:1

*'4<1).7&9+) 

&WMCV$TKGII9CTFGKP'NKCU9GKUU)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGT(GNFDKPFG QDGP -TQPG&TGKHCEJ DGJGNOVGU XKGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP WPVGP \W FGP 5GKVGP FKG 5KIPCVWT '  9  

'NKCU9GKUU9CTFGKPKP$TKGI (W5(D-QRKEMK 4   )1.&44*ÒDUEJG)QNFRCVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2&#2QUGP0T

1068

1,5:1

1,5:1

*'4<1))'14)9+.*'./ 

&WMCV I)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGT(GNFDKPFG)GMTÌPVGT#FNGTXXFGP -QRHPCEJNIGYCPFV(W5(D-QRKEMK 4   )1.&W­GTUVUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI -CDKPGVVUVÒEM5VGORGNINCP\

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2&#2QUGP0T

1069



1069 1,5:1



4GKEJUVCNGT%$$TKGII/ÒP\OGKUVGTWPF9CTFGKP%JTKUVQRJ$TGVVUEJPGKFGT)GJCTPKUEJ VGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGT (GNFDKPFG)GMTÌPVGT #FNGT X X FGP -QRH PCEJ N IGYCPFV \W FGP   5GKVGP FKG IGVGKNVG 5KIPCVWT ² %  $ ² %JTKUVQRJ $TGVVUEJPGKFGT /ÒP\OGKUVGT KP $TKGI    &CX(W5-QRKEMK 4   4-CDKPGVVUVÒEMXQPHGKPUVGT'TJCNVWPI(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPI-NCWU2TQRR#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT$GTNKP0T

41


SCHLESIEN

&#55%*.'5+5%*'*'4<1)67//ª056'4$'4)1'.5

1070 1,5:1

1,5:1

&+'*'4<¤)',1#%*+/*'+04+%*++,1*#0070&)'14) 

&WMCV4GKEJGPUVGKP#WUDGWVGFGT4GKEJGPUVGKPGT)TWDGP'KUGPUEJPGKFGT,QJCPP$WEJJGKOI 8GT\KGTVGU XKGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP OKV /KVVGNUEJKNF QDGP FKG ,CJTGU\CJN&GT JGKNKIG %JTKUVQRJGTWU   OKVFGO,GUWUMKPFCWHFGO#TOUVGJVXX\WFGP5GKVGPFKG5KIPCVWT+$ 'KUGPUEJPGKFGT,QJCPP$WEJ JGKO (W5(D-QRKEMK 4 /ÒUGNGTXIN FQTVQJPG5KIPCVWT   )1.&W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI 2TCEJVGZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP9%09CTUEJCW0T

&#55%*.'5+5%*'*'4<1)67/9ª466'/$'4)1'.5

1071

*'4<1)5;.8+75(4+'&4+%* 

4GKEJUVCNGT  52 1GNU  I )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV ITQ­GT 2GTÒEMG 5RKV\GPLCDQV WPF   .ÌYGPMQRHUEJWNVGT8KGTHCEJDGJGNOVGUXKGTHGNFKIGU9CRRGPOKV/KVVGNUEJKNFWPVGP\WFGP5GKVGPFKG IGVGKNVG 5KIPCVWT 5  2 5COWGN 2HCJNGT /ÒP\OGKUVGT KP 1GNU   &CX  ( W 5    -QRKEMK 4  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI 5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2&#2QUGP0T

&#55%*.'5+5%*'*'4<1)67/6'5%*'0

1072

*'4<1)#&#/9'0<'. 

42

&QRRGNVGT 4GKEJUVCNGT   I /ÒP\OGKUVGT *CPU 6WEJOCPP FGT NVGTG ã #&#/85 Ù   9'0%'5.#85 f &8: f 6'5%*+0 f )GJCTPKUEJVGU *ÒHVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGT (GNFDKPFG KP FGT   4GEJVGP5VCDKPFGT.KPMGP*GNOãÜ5#2+'0+'ÚÝÚ&+'(+&'06+#Ú*Ú)GMTÌPVGT#FNGT FGP-QRHPCEJNIGYCPFV&CX#(W5-QRKEMK 4   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV*ÒDUEJG2CVKPC5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCTFGT#WMVKQP2&#2QUGP0T


SCHLESIEN

&+'5%*.'5+5%*'56#&6$4'5.#7

1073

1,5:1

1,5:1



&QRRGNVG &WMCVGPMNKRRG  OKV 6KVGN XQP /CVVJKCU CWH FKG -TÌPWPI 'T\JGT\QI (GTFKPCPFU \WO   DÌJOKUEJGP-ÌPKII-TQPGÒDGTIGMTGW\VGP2CNO\YGKIGPFCTWPVGTFCU/QPQITCOO(++WPVGP FCU XKGTHGNFKIG $TGUNCWGT 9CRRGP OKV /KVVGNUEJKNF \W FGP 5GKVGP FKG IGVGKNVG ,CJTGU\CJN   )GMTÌPVGWPFIGJCTPKUEJVG$ÒUVGXQP/CVVJKCUT(W5(D-QRKEMK 4  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV.GKEJVIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ  'ZGORNCT FGT 5COONWPI .QWKU ' 'NKCUDGTI #WMVKQP #OGTKECP 0WOKUOCVKE 4CTKVKGU 0GY ;QTM #RTKN    0TWPFFGT-TQKUQU%QNNGEVKQP#WMVKQP5VCEM U0GY;QTM0T  

&CU/QPQITCOO(++CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGFGUXQTNKGIGPFGP5VÒEMGUUVGJVHÒT(GTFKPCPF++FGT\WO-ÌPKI XQP$ÌJOGPIGMTÌPVYWTFG

1074

1,5:1



1,5:1

4GKEJUVCNGTOKV6KVGN.GQRQNFU+/ÒP\OGKUVGTWPF'KUGPUEJPGKFGT*CPU4KGIGT2TQDGKP5KNDGT I8GT\KGTVGUXKGTHGNFKIGU$TGUNCWGT9CRRGPOKV/KVVGNUEJKNF)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNF.GQRQNFU +TOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNWPFFGT-GVVGFGU1TFGPUXQO)QNFGPGP8NKGU/KVINCVVGO 4CPF&CXp(W5-QRKEMK 4  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPC  'ZGORNCT FGT 5COONWPI -NCWU 2TQRR #WMVKQP (TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT$GTNKP0TWPFFGT#WMVKQP (TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM0T

9GKVGTG5VÒEMGXQP5EJNGUKGPHKPFGP5KGKP-CVCNQIWPVGTFGP0TPWPF UQYKGKP-CVCNQIWPVGTFGP0TP 43


JOHANNES XXII.

/ª0<'070&/'&#+..'0&'42256' '+0'$'&'76'0&'52'<+#.5#//.70) &KG#PQTFPWPIFGTR·RUVNKEJGP/GFCKNNGPGTHQNIVGPCEJFGP9GTMGPXQP/QFGUVK/KUGNNKWPF2CVTKIPCPK &KG/ÒP\GPUKPFPCEJFGO5VCPFCTFYGTMXQP/WPVQPKUQTVKGTV

4¤/+5%*'45'0#6

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

1101

)TQUUQCPQPKOQQ,  4QO$KCIIK 4 /WPVQPK  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI5EJÌPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



2#256,1*#00'5::++

)GDWO%CJQTU COUÒFYGUVNKEJGP4CPFFGUHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP<GPVTCNOCUUKXU  IGUV&G\GODGT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG,CESWGU&W½UG 2QPVKHKMCV#WIWUVņ&G\GODGT

   



,QJCPPGU ::++ JCVVG UGKPGP 5KV\ KP #XKIPQP 6TQV\ 8GTURTGEJGP DCNF YKGFGT KP 4QO \W TGUKFKGTGP   HGUVKIVGGTFKGR·RUVNKEJG*GTTUEJCHVKP#XKIPQPWPFKPFGTHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-WTKG<GKVUGKPGU#OVGUDG HCPFGTUKEJKO-QPHNKMVOKV.WFYKIFGO$C[GTP'TMQPPVGDGKFKGUGOP·ONKEJPKEJVFGPR·RUVNKEJGP #PURTWEJCWH/KVDGUVKOOWPI\WT-ÌPKIUYCJNFWTEJUGV\GP7OUQJGHVKIGTGPVYKEMGNVGUKEJFGT-QPHNKMV CNU.WFYKIUEJNKG­NKEJFGP-CKUGTVKVGNGTJCNVGPYQNNVG0CEJGKPGO2TQ\GUUKO,CJTÒDGTFCU'KP ITGKHGP .WFYKIU KP +VCNKGP YWTFG GT XQO 2CRUV IGDCPPV WPF CWHIGHQTFGTV FKG 4GKEJUMTQPG CD\WNGIGP   .WFYKI DG\GKEJPGVG ,QJCPPGU CNU -GV\GT FKGUGT GPV\QI LGPGO 4GKEJUNGJGP WPF FCU DC[TKUEJG 'TDG   <CJNTGKEJG 5EJTKHVUVGNNGT MQPPVGP UKEJ KP FKGUGO -QPHNKMV XGTYKTMNKEJGP UQ CWEJ /CTUKNKWU XQP 2CFWC   #O  NKG­ UKEJ.WFYKIQJPGR·RUVNKEJG$GUV·VKIWPI\WO-CKUGTMTÌPGPWPFGTMN·TVG,QJCPPGU HÒTCDIGUGV\V5VCVVFGUUGPYWTFG0KEQNCWU8GKPIGUGV\VFGTUKEJCDGTUEJQP,QJCPPGUWPVGTYGTHGP OWUUVG.CPIHTKUVKIMQPPVGUKEJFGT#PURTWEJFGT2·RUVGCWH/KVDGUVKOOWPIDGKFGT-ÌPKIUYCJNPKEJV FWTEJUGV\GP +P FGT )QNFGPGP $WNNG XQP  YWTFG FKG 9CJN FGU -ÌPKIU CNNGKPFGP-WTHÒTUVGP\WIG UVCPFGP  

)GIGPCPFGTG#PUKEJVGPIKPI,QJCPPGU::++JCTVXQTUQCWEJIGIGPFKGFGT(TCP\KUMCPGTKO#TOWVU UVTGKV5GKPG/GKPWPIFGTŋ8KUQDGCVKHKECŌ)QVVMÌPPGGTUVPCEJFGO'PFIGTKEJVIGUEJCWVYGTFGP\QI KJO FGP <QTP FGT -CTFKP·NG WPF 7PKXGTUKV·VGP \W FKG KJP FGT *·TGUKG DGUEJWNFKIVGP 'TUV MWT\ XQT   UGKPGO6QFYKFGTTKGHGTFKGUG/GKPWPI&GTUVTKMVG(KUMCNKUOWUWPVGTUGKPGT#OVU\GKVDTCEJVGFGT-KT EJGKPFGT(QNIG\GKV7PJGKN  

3WGNNG8QPGU.WFYKI,QJCPPGU::++KP-CURGT9 *IWC .GZKMQPFGT2·RUVGWPFFGU2CRUV VWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

 44

/ÒP\UV·VVG2QPVFG5QTIWGU

1102

)TQUUQVQTPGUGQ,2QPVFG5QTIWGU$KCIIKp/WPVQPK

4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP




URBAN V.

2#25674$#08

)GDWOKP)¾XCWFCP KOUÒFNKEJGPHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP<GPVTCNOCUUKX  IGUV&G\GODGT#XKIPQP DGGTFKIVKP/CTUGKNNG $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG)WKNKCWOG)TKOQCTF 2QPVKHKMCV5GRVGODGTņ&G\GODGT 5GNKIURTGEJWPICO&G\GODGT

    



7TDCP8IKNVCNU4GHQTORCRUV#NU$GPGFKMVKPGTYQNNVGGTFKG-KTEJGPCEJFGO1TFGPUIGFCPMGPHQTOGP WPF FCU <WUCOOGPYKTMGP XQP -CKUGT WPF 2CRUV HÌTFGTP 'T HÌTFGTVG FKG 7PKXGTUKV·VGP WPF ITÒPFGVG   \CJNTGKEJG PGWG YKG \$ KP -TCMCW 2¾EU WPF 9KGP .GV\VGTG KUV JGWVG FKG ITÌ­VG WPF ·NVGUVG PQEJ   DGUVGJGPFG 7PKXGTUKV·V KO FGWVUEJURTCEJKIGP 4CWO 7TDCP 8 RHNGIVG -QPVCMV \W FGO *WOCPKUVGP   (TCPEGUEQ2GVTCTEC7PVGTUGKPGT#OVU\GKVMQPPVGFCU2CRUVVWOUKEJņYKGFGTKP4QOPKGFGT NCUUGP+O*WPFGTVL·JTKIGP-TKGI\YKUEJGP'PINCPFWPF(TCPMTGKEJXGTUWEJVG7TDCPUKEJKPFGT4QNNG FGU (TKGFGPUUVKHVGTU 'T OCEJVG UKEJ Y·JTGPF UGKPGT #OVU\GKV FGU 0GRQVKUOWU XGTF·EJVKI 5Q UGV\VG GT   UGKPGP$TWFGT#PINKE)TKOQCNFCNU$KUEJQHXQP#XKIPQPWPFCNU-CTFKPCNGKP+PFGT-WTKGUC­GPXKGNG $GPGFKMVKPGT WPF .GWVG CWU )¾XCWFCP CNU UGKPG 8GTVTCWVGP 5EJQP FKG 9CJN \WO 2CRUV XGTFCPMVG GT   DGFGWVUCOGP-CTFKPCNUHCOKNKGP+O*KPDNKEMCWH8GTYCNVWPIUGV\VGUKEJ7TDCPIGIGP2HTÒPFGPJ·WHWPI WPFHÒTFKG4GUKFGP\RHNKEJVGKP  

3WGNNG8QPGU.WFYKI7TDCP8KP-CURGT9 *IWC .GZKMQPFGT2·RUVGWPFFGU2CRUVVWOU (TGKDWTI WC 5



/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

1103

$QNQIPKPQTQOCPQQ,4QO$KCIIKp/WPVQPK

45GJTUEJÌP



49KP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



1104 1,5:1



/ÒP\UV·VVG#XKIPQP

)TQUUQQ,#XKIPQP$KCIIKp/WPVQPK

1,5:1

45


JOHANNES XXIII.

2#256)4')14:+

)GDWO4QUKGTUF 'INGVQPU KOHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP.KOQWUKP IGUV/·T\4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG2KGTTG4QIGTFG$GCWHQTV 2QPVKHKMCV&G\GODGTņ/·T\

  



)TGIQT:+YCTGKP0GHHGFGUHTÒJGTGP2CRUVGU%NGOGPU8+#NU-CTFKPCNFKCMQPXQP5CPVC/CTKC0WQXC KP4QOMQPPVGGT\CJNTGKEJG2HTÒPFGGTNCPIGP  

&KG 2QNKVKM )TGIQTU :+ JCVVG FCU <KGN FKG -WTKG YKGFGT PCEJ 4QO \WTÒEM\WHÒJTGP &KGU IGNCPI KJO   CWEJCO&KG'ZKNJGTTUEJCHVFGT2·RUVGKP#XKIPQPYCTFCOKV\W'PFG,QJP9[ENKHH\QIUKEJ OKV UGKPGP .GJTGP FGP <QTP FGU2CRUVGU\WUGKPGT5·V\GYWTFGPXQP)TGIQTXGTDQVGP#W­GPRQNK VKUEJUEJNKEJVGVG)TGIQT(TKGFGP\YKUEJGP-CKUGT-CTN+8WPFFGOWPICTKUEJGP-ÌPKI.WFYKIUEJCHHVG FKGU CDGT PKEJV KO *WPFGTVL·JTKIGP -TKGI \YKUEJGP 'PINCPF WPF (TCPMTGKEJ 2TQDNGOG KPPGTJCND FGT   -WTKGMQPPVG)TGIQT<GKVUGKPGU.GDGPUPKEJVNÌUGP&KGUHÒJTVGPCEJUGKPGO6QF\WO#DGPFN·PFKUEJGP 5EJKUOC KP FGO FCU 2QPVKHKMCV XQP OGJT CNU GKPGO 2CRUV DGUGV\V YCT WPF XQP FGPGP UKEJ LGFGT CNU   TGEJVO·­KIGT2QPVKHGZUCJ'TUV/KVVGFGU,CJTJWPFGTVUMQPPVGFCU5EJKUOCGPFIÒNVKIDGUGKVKIVYGT FGPWPFYKGFGTGKP2CRUVCNNGKPGUGKP#OVCWUÒDGP  

3WGNNG8QPGU.WFYKI)TGIQT:+KP-CURGT9 *IWC .GZKMQPFGT2·RUVGWPFFGU2CRUVVWOU (TGKDWTI WC 5



/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

1105

$QNQIPKPQTQOCPQQ,4QO$KCIIK/WPVQPKXCT

-N5VGORGNHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

2#256,1*#00'5::+++ )')'02#256 

)GDWO2TQEKFCDGK0GCRGNIGUV&G\GODGT(NQTGP\ $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG$CNVJCUCT%QUUC 2QPVKHKMCV/CK/CKFWTEJ#DUGV\WPI 

46

  

$CNVJCUCT %QUUC YWTFG WO  CNU 5QJP FGU )TCHGP XQP 6TQKC IGDQTGP 'T UVWFKGTVG KP $QNQIPC WPF   UEJNWI\WP·EJUVGKPGOKNKV·TKUEJG.CWHDCJPGKP'TYCT1HHK\KGTCNU2CRUV$QPKHCVKWU+:KJPPCEJ 4QO DGTKGH &KGUGT GTPCPPVG KJP CO  \WO -CTFKPCN OKV FGT 6KVGNMKTEJG 5V 'WUVCEJKWU WPF   UCPFVG%QUUCCNU8KMCTPCEJ$QNQIPC&QTVUGV\VGGTUKEJGTHQNITGKEJHÒTFKGR·RUVNKEJGP+PVGTGUUGPGKP WPF DTCEJVG $QNQIPC YKGFGT WPVGTFKG*QJGKVFGUTÌOKUEJGP2CRUVGU#OYWTFG%QUUCXQP 




MARTIN V. FGT 2KUCPGT (TCMVKQP FGU -CTFKPCNUMQNNGIKWO \WO )GIGPRCRUV IGY·JNV GTJKGNV CO  FKG   2TKGUVGTYGKJG WPF YWTFG CO FCTCWHHQNIGPFGP 6CI \WO 2CRUV IGMTÌPV 5GKP 2CRUVUKV\ DNKGD \WP·EJUV   $QNQIPC UR·VGT YWTFG GU .QFK &GTPGWGFGWVUEJG-ÌPKI5KIKUOWPFYQNNVGFCUFTGKHCEJG5EJKUOC \W FKGUGT <GKV MQPMWTTKGTVGP FTGK 2·RUVG  GPFNKEJ DGGPFGP WPF DTCEJVG ,QJCPPGU ::+++ FC\W  FCU   -QP\KN\W-QPUVCP\GKP\WDGTWHGP+P-QPUVCP\XGTUWEJVGGT\WP·EJUVFWTEJ#DUGV\WPIFGTDGKFGP-QP MWTTGPVGP FKG 2CRUVYÒTFGHÒTUKEJ\WGTNCPIGP&KGUOKUUNCPIOCPFT·PIVGCWH0GWYCJNGP,QJCPPGU ::+++ GTMN·TVG UKEJ OKV GKPGO 4ÒEMVTKVVGKPXGTUVCPFGPUQHGTPCWEJFKGDGKFGPCPFGTGP2·RUVG\WTÒEM VT·VGP(ÒTFKGUG#DUKEJVUGTMN·TWPIYWTFGGTCWHFGO-QP\KNIGHGKGTV,QJCPPGUCDGTHNÒEJVGVGCWU#PIUV XQT/CEJVXGTNWUVJGKONKEJCNU-PCRRGXGTMNGKFGVPCEJ5EJCHHJCWUGP-WT\G<GKVUR·VGTYWTFGGTIGHCP IGP IGPQOOGP WPF GTJKGNV CO  UGKPG #DUGV\WPI OKV FGT GT HQTOGNN CWH FCU 2CRUVCOV XGT   \KEJVGVG #WEJ FGT TÌOKUEJG 2CRUV )TGIQT :++ WPFFGT#XKIPQPGT)GIGPRCRUV$GPGFKMV:+++YWTFGP QHHK\KGNN XQO -QPUVCP\GT -QP\KN CDIGUGV\V WO CO  GKPG PGWG 2CRUVYCJN \W GTOÌINKEJGP   ,QJCPPGU ::+++ DNKGD DKU \WO (TÒJLCJT  WPVGT -WTHÒTUV .WFYKI +++ XQP FGT 2HCN\ KP )GHCPIGP   UEJCHV0CEJUGKPGT(TGKNCUUWPITGKUVGGT\WOPWPCOVKGTGPFGP2CRUV/CTVKP8PCEJ(NQTGP\WPFYCTH UKEJ KJO \W (Ò­GP &CPM FGT $CTOJGT\KIMGKV /CTVKPU 8 YWTFG GT FCTCWHJKP \WO -CTFKPCNUDKUEJQH   GTPCPPVUVCTDCDGTDGTGKVUCOKP(NQTGP\



/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

1106

)TQUUQQ,4QO$KCIIK 4 /WPVQPK

44$GUEJPKVVGPUGJTUEJÌP



2#256/#46+08

)GD)GPC\\CPQ ÌUVNKEJXQP4QO IGUV(GDTWCT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG1FFQ%QNQPPC 2QPVKHKMCV0QXGODGTņ(GDTWCT

  



/CTVKP8GPVUVCOOVGGKPGTDGMCPPVGPTÌOKUEJGP#FGNUHCOKNKG/KVUGKPGT'TPGPPWPI\WO2CRUVPCEJ \YGKL·JTKIGT 5GFKUXCMCP\ CWH FGO -QPUVCP\GT -QP\KN GPFGVG FCU #DGPFN·PFKUEJG 5EJKUOC &GPPQEJ   YCTGU/CTVKPPKEJVUQHQTVOÌINKEJPCEJ4QO\WTGKUGP0CEJN·PIGTGO#WHGPVJCNVKP(NQTGP\\QIGT UEJNKG­NKEJCOKP4QOGKPWPFGTQDGTVGFGP-KTEJGPUVCCVCWUFGT*GTTUEJCHVFGT%QPFQVVKGTK WPF 5KIPQTK #WH FGO -QP\KN XQP -QPUVCP\ YCT /CTVKP \W 4GHQTOGP FGT -KTEJG XGTRHNKEJVGV YQTFGP   &KGUG8GTRHNKEJVWPIGPMQPPVG/CTVKPLGFQEJPWTKP#PU·V\GPXGTYKTMNKEJGPWPVGTCPFGTGOFWTEJUVTKM VGTMQPVTQNNKGTVG2HTÒPFGPXGTNGKJWPIGPWPF&KURGPUGP9·JTGPFUGKPGU2QPVKHKMCVGUTGUKFKGTVG/CTVKPFKG OGKUVG <GKV KO 2CNCUV UGKPGT (COKNKG FGO 2CNC\\Q %QNQPPC /KVINKGFGTP UGKPGT (COKNKG XGTUEJWH GT   ITQ­G )GDKGVG KO5ÒFGP.CVKWOU<YCTTKGH/CTVKPGKPG4GHQTOU[PQFGPCEJ2CXKCGKPWPF FCU-QP\KNXQP$CUGNCWUFQEJMQPPVGOCPCPKJODGTGKVUGTMGPPGPFCUUGTGKP-QP\KNFGO2CRUVHÒT WPVGTIGQTFPGVJKGNV0CEJUGKPGO6QFUGV\VGUKEJUGKP0CEJHQNIGT'WIGP+8FCPPFGWVNKEJHÒTFGP2TK OCVFGU2CRUVGUGKP#WHFGO-QP\KNXQP$CUGNGPVUVCPFCNU4GCMVKQPFKG*CNVWPIFGTªDGTNGIGPJGKVFGU -QP\KNUFGT-QP\KNKCTKUOWU  

3WGNNG 'UEJ #TPQNF /CTVKP 8 KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU 2CRUVVWOU   (TGKDWTI WC 5



/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

1107

)TQUUQQ,4QO$KCIIK 4 /WPVQPKXCT

45EJÌPG2CVKPC4CPFCWUDTÒEJGUGJTUEJÌP

 47


EUGEN IV.

1108

'KPG/GFCKNNGFGU2CRUVGU/CTVKP8 

$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNG Q ,  *·NHVG FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  WPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJ XQP ) 2CNCFKPQ   $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&CU R·RUVNKEJG 9CRRGP CWH IGMTGW\VGP 5EJNÒUUGNP QDGP 6KCTC   OO/QFGUVK 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP



2#256'7)'0+8

)GD8GPGFKIIGUV(GDTWCT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG)CDTKGNG%QPFWNOGT 2QPVKHKMCV/·T\ņ(GDTWCT

  



'WIGP +8 GPVUVCOOVG GKPGT -CWHOCPPUHCOKNKG CWU 8GPGFKI WPF YCT FGT 0GHHG )TGIQTU :++ 'T\QIGP   YWTFG GT ICP\ KO CWIWUVKPKUEJGP 5KPPG <W #OVU\GKVGP GT\GWIVG 'WIGP 5RCPPWPIGP \YKUEJGP -QP\KN   WPF2CRUVFCGTXGJGOGPVIGIGPFGP-QP\KNKCTKUOWUGKPVTCVWPFFKG5VGNNWPIFGU2CRUVGUUV·TMGPYQNNVG *KGTDGKUGV\VGGTFGWVNKEJG5KIPCNGKPFGOGT\WO$GKURKGNFCU-QP\KNXQP$CUGNGKPDGTWHGPXQPUGKPGO 8QTI·PIGT/CTVKP8KO&G\GODGTCWHNÌUVG&GT-QPHNKMVOKVFGP6GKNPGJOGTPFGU-QP\KNUIKPI UQYGKV FCUU FKGUG CO  GKPGP )GIGPRCRUV(GNKZ8Y·JNVGPWPF'WIGPHÒTCDIGUGV\VGTMN·T VGP(GNKZUVGNNVGFGPNGV\VGPGKPGTICP\GP4GKJGXQP)GIGPR·RUVGPKO#DGPFN·PFKUEJGP5EJKUOCFCT&KG XQP'WIGPXGTVTGVGPGŋ2NGPKVWFQRQVGUVCVKUŌYQNNVGGTFCFWTEJHGUVKIGPFCUUGTFCU-QP\KNXQP$CUGNKP UGKPGP /CEJVDGTGKEJ PCEJ (GTTCTC XGTNGIVG (GTPGT UKEJGTVG GT UKEJ FKG )WPUV FGT -ÌPKIG KP 'WTQRC   FWTEJ -QPMQTFCVG 5GKPG /CEJV MQPPVG UKEJ 'WIGP NGV\VGPFNKEJ  FWTEJ FKG #PGTMGPPWPI FGU   FGWVUEJGP-ÌPKIU(TKGFTKEJ+++WPFFGT-WTHÒTUVGPUKEJGTP<W'WIGPUITÌ­VGP'THQNIGP\·JNVUKEJGTNKEJ FKG XQP KJO GTTGKEJVG -KTEJGPWPKQP \YKUEJGP MCVJQNKUEJGT 9GUV WPF QTVJQFQZGT 1UVMKTEJG CO     

3WGNNG8QPGU.WFYKI'WIGP+8KP-CURGT9 *IWC .GZKMQPFGT2·RUVGWPFFGU2CRUVVWOU (TGKDWTI WC 5

1109 1,5:1

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO  48

&WECVQRCRCNGQ,4QOI$KCIIK 4 (DC/WPVQPK  )1.&5GNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJ




NICOLAUS V.

1111

 

1110

1111

&WECVQRCRCNGQ,4QOI$KCIIK 4 (DC/WPVQPK  )1.&/KPIGYGNNV(GNFGTNGKEJVIGIN·VVGVUGJTUEJÌP )TQUUQQ,4QO$KCIIK 4 /WPVQPK  45EJÌPG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTOKPIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP

 

2#2560+%1.#758

)GD0QXGODGT5CT\CPCKP.KIWTKGPIGUV/·T\4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG6QOOCUEQ2CTGPVWEGNNK 2QPVKHKMCV/·T\ņ/·T\

  



0KEQNCWU MCO UEJQP HTÒJ OKV JWOCPKUVKUEJGO )GFCPMGPIWV KP -QPVCMV CNU GT PCEJ #DDTWEJ UGKPGU   /GFK\KPUVWFKWOUCWUHKPCP\KGNNGP)TÒPFGPCNU.GJTGTKP(NQTGP\DGKFGP(COKNKGPFGT#NDK\\KWPF5VTQ \\KV·VKIYCT&CGTUKEJCWHFKG5GKVG2CRUV'WIGPU+8IGIGPFCU$CUNGT-QP\KNUVGNNVGYWTFGGTXQP KJO\WO-CTFKPCNGTJQDGP5R·VGTDGYKTMVGGTCNU2CRUVFKG#WHNÌUWPIFGU$CUNGT4GUVMQP\KNUWPF  FKG#DFCPMWPIFGU)GIGPRCRUVGU(GNKZ8FGTDGTGKVUWPVGT'WIGP+8FCU2CRUVCOVDGUC­/KV 0KEQNCWU 8 GPFGVG FKG MQP\KNKCTG 'RQEJG WPF FCU 2CRUVVWO TKEJVGVG UKEJ PWP CWH GKP XQP FGT 4GPCKU   UCPEG DGGKPHNWUUVGU 4QO GKP 'T RNCPVG XKGNG $CWRTQLGMVG FKGGTCDGTPWT\WO6GKNTGCNKUKGTGPMQPPVG \$FGP#WUDCWXQP5VTC­GP$TÒEMGP5VCFVOCWGTPWPF9CUUGTXGTUQTIWPIGP#WEJTGUVCWTKGTVGGTFKG 5VCVKQPUMKTEJGP KP 4QO WPF GTYGKVGTVG FGP $CW FGT CNVGP 2GVGTUMKTEJG 7PVGT 0KEQNCWU 8 UEJWH FGT   /CNGT(TC#PIGNKEQFKGDGTÒJOVGP(TGUMGPFGTŋ%CRGNNC0KEEQNKPCŌFKGXQP0KEQNCWUCWUIGDCWVYWTFG #WEJNKVGTCTKUEJYCTFGT2CRUVUGJTCMVKX5QNKG­GTXKGNGITKGEJKUEJG9GTMGKPU.CVGKPKUEJGÒDGTUGV\GP 5GKPGITQ­G*CPFUEJTKHVGPUCOONWPIXQP9GTMGPYWTFGUEJNKG­NKEJ\WO7TDGUVCPFFGT8CVKMCPK UEJGP $KDNKQVJGM #W­GPRQNKVKUEJ UGV\VG GT UKEJ XQT CNNGO HÒT GKPGP 6ÒTMGPMTGW\\WI CWH FCU CO    XQP FKGUGP GTQDGTVG -QPUVCPVKPQRGN GKP #W­GT $WTIWPF UVKOOVG KJO CNNGTFKPIU MGKPG GWTQ   R·KUEJG /CEJV \W &GPPQEJ TKGH GT FGP -TGW\\WI CO  CWU WPF NKG­ KJP FWTEJ ,QJCPPGU XQP   %CRGUVTCPQ RTGFKIGP *KGTHÒT GTPVGVG 0KEQNCWU CNNGTFKPIU \CJNTGKEJG 8QTYÒTHG WPVGT CPFGTGO FCUU GT   FKG -TGW\\WIUIGNFGT HÒT $ÒEJGTCPUEJCHHWPIGP OKUUDTCWEJG 'THQNI MQPPVG GT LGFQEJ FWTEJFCU9KGPGT -QPMQTFCV OKV -ÌPKI (TKGFTKEJ +++  XGTDWEJGP &KGUGU TGIGNVG FKG $G\KGJWPIGP \YKUEJGP FGO   4GKEJWPFFGT-WTKGHCUV,CJTGNCPIDKU  

3WGNNG /ÒNNGT *GTKDGTV 0KMQNCWU 8 KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU2CRUV VWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1112

1113

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

&WECVQRCRCNGQ,4QOI$KCIIK 4 (D/WPVQPK  )1.&#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



&WECVQRCRCNGQ,4QOI$KCIIK 4 (D/WPVQPK

)1.&5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

  49


CALIXT III.

2#256%#.+:6+++

)GD&G\GODGT%CPCNUDGK,±VKXC 8CNGPEKC IGUV#WIWUV4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG#NQPUQFG$QTLC 2QPVKHKMCV#RTKNņ#WIWUV

  



%CNKZV UVCPF XQT UGKPGO #OV CNU 2CRUV KP &KGPUVGP FGU URCPKUEJGP -ÌPKIU #NHQPU 8 7PVGT FKGUGO   DTCEJVG GT  FGP )GIGPRCRUV %NGOGPU 8+++ XQO 2CRUVVJTQP CD #NHQPU DGFCPMVG UKEJ DGK %CNKZV   FWTEJFKG5EJGPMWPIFGU$KUVWOU8CNGPEKC(ÒTUGKPG7PVGTUVÒV\WPIKO$G\WICWHFCU-QP\KNKP$CUGN GTPCPPVG KJP 2CRUV 'WIGP +8  \WO -CTFKPCN +O )GIGPUCV\ \W UGKPGO 8QTI·PIGT 0KEQNCWU 8   MÒOOGTVGUKEJ%CNKZVMCWOWO-WPUVWPF9KUUGPUEJCHVWPFUCPMFCOKVDGKFGP*WOCPKUVGPKO#PUG JGP .GKVHCFGP UGKPGU 2QPVKHKMCVU YWTFG FGT -CORH IGIGP FKG 6ÒTMGP HÒT FGP GT DGK FGP (ÒTUVGP WPF   -ÌPKIGP 'WTQRCU LGFQEJ MCWO 7PVGTUVÒV\WPI HCPF &CJGT MQPPVG FGT 2CRUV PWT WPDGFGWVGPFG 5KGIG   IGIGPFGP(GKPFGTTKPIGP'DGPHCNNUUEJNGEJVHÒTUGKP#PUGJGPYCTFGTCWUWHGTPFG0GRQVKUOWU%CNKZVU WPFUGKPGT(COKNKG$QTLC5QYWTFGUGKP0GHHGUR·VGT2CRUV#NGZCPFGT8+&KG$GIÒPUVKIWPIGPIKPIGP UQYGKVFCUUGUIGIGPÒDGTFGT(COKNKGPCEJ%CNKZVU6QF\W#WUUEJTGKVWPIGPMCO+O&GWVUEJGP4GKEJ OCPKHGUVKGTVG UKEJ FGT TIGT ÒDGTFKG8GVVGTPYKTVUEJCHVFGU2CRUVGUKPFGPŋ)TCXCOKPCFGTFGWV UEJGP0CVKQPŌ  

3WGNNG5EJYCKIGT)GQTI%CNKZVWU+++KP-CURGT9 *IWC .GZKMQPFGT2·RUVGWPFFGU2CRUV VWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1114 1,5:1

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

&WECVQRCRCNGQ,4QOI$KCIIK 4 (D/WPVQPK  )1.&448QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



1115 1,5:1

 50

1,5:1

&WECVQRCRCNGQ,4QOI$KCIIK 4 (D/WPVQPK  )1.&48QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT




PIUS II.

2#2562+75++

)GD1MVQDGT%QTUKICPQDGK5KGPCIGUV#WIWUV#PEQPC $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG'PGC5KNXKQFG 2KEEQNQOKPK 2QPVKHKMCV#WIWUVņ#WIWUV

  



2KWU ++ IKNV CNU DGFGWVGPFGT *WOCPKUV 'T JCVGKPGITQ­G/GPIGCP9GTMGPWPF3WGNNGPJKPVGTNCUUGP PGDGP\CJNTGKEJGP$CPPDWNNGPCWEJFCUGKP\KIG5GNDUVRQTVT·VFCULGGKP2CRUVCPIGHGTVKIVJCVFC\WPQEJ XKGNG$TKGHG)GFKEJVGWPF4GFGPUQYKG5EJTKHVGP\WO-QP\KNXQP$CUGN'TIKNVCNU'THKPFGTFGTSWGN NGPMTKVKUEJGP .CPFGUIGUEJKEJVG FCPM UGKPGT 9GTMG ŋ*KUVQTKC $QJGOKECŌ WPF ŋ*KUVQTKC #WUVTKCNKUŌ +P   FGT<GKVXQTUGKPGO2QPVKHKMCVPCJO2KWUCO-QP\KNXQP$CUGNVGKNXGTVGKFKIVGFGUUGP-WTUFGU-QP\KNK CTKUOWUWPFY·JNVG(GNKZ8\WO)GIGPRCRUVYWTFGGTUQICTFGUUGP5GMTGV·T+PUGKPGT<GKVCNU 2CRUV UGV\VG UKEJ 2KWU LGFQEJ IGIGP FGP -QP\KNKCTKUOWU GKP WPF XGTUWEJVGFKG5VGNNWPIFGU2CRUVGU\W UV·TMGP \$  OKV FGT $WNNG ŋ'ZUGETCDKNKUŌ YGNEJG -QP\KNUCRRGNNCVKQPGP XGTDCV -ÌPKI (TKGFTKEJ   +++ MÒTVG KJP  \WO &KEJVGT WPF 2KWU DGTGKVGVG  (TKGFTKEJU *GKTCV WPF -CKUGTMTÌPWPI XQT   9KG UGKPGO 8QTI·PIGT %CNKZV +++ NCI CWEJ 2KWU ++ GKP -TGW\\WI IGIGP FKG 6ÒTMGP CO *GT\GP FQEJ   CWEJGTMQPPVGFKGGWTQR·KUEJGP*GTTUEJGTPKEJVÒDGT\GWIGP5GKPGP*GKOCVQTVNKG­GTKP2KGP\CWODG PGPPGPWPFRNCPVGFKGUGPKO5KPPGGKPGTJWOCPKUVKUEJGP$CWYGKUG\WTKFGCNGP5VCFV\WOCEJGP  

3WGNNG *GNOTCVJ ,QJCPPGU 2KWU ++ KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU 2CRUV   VWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1116



/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

)TQUUQQ,4QO$KCIIK 4 /WPVQPK

4'VYCUMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



1117 1,5:1



/ÒP\UV·VVG#PEQPC

)TQUUQQ,#PEQPC$KCIIKp/WPVQPK

1,5:1

44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

 51


PAUL II.

2#2562#7.++

)GD(GDTWCT8GPGFKIIGUV,WNK4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG2KGVTQ$CTDQ 2QPVKHKMCV#WIWUVņ,WNK

  



2CWN ++ GPVUVCOOVG GKPGT YQJNJCDGPFGPXGPG\KCPKUEJGP-CWHOCPPUHCOKNKG&WTEJUGKPGP1PMGN2CRUV 'WIGP +8 MQPPVG GT NGKEJV GKPG IGKUVNKEJG .CWHDCJP GKPUEJNCIGP 5Q YWTFG GT #TEJKFKCMQP XQP   $QNQIPC$KUEJQHXQP%GTXKCWPFGTJKGNVFCU$KUVWO8KEGP\CUQYKGFCU$KUVWO2CFWC 7PVGT0KEQNCWU8YWTFGGT-CTFKPCNXQP5CP/CTEQ+PUGKPGT2QPVKHKMCVU\GKV\GKEJPGVGUKEJUGKP )GNVWPIUDGFÒTHPKUCD5QNKG­GTPQEJ\W-CTFKPCNU\GKVGPPGDGPFGT6KVWNCTMKTEJG5CP/CTEQKP4QO CP FGT JGWVKIGP 2KC\\C 8GPG\KC  GKPGP 2CNCUV GTDCWGP FGT PCEJ UGKPGO #OVUCPVTKVV CNU 2CRUV QHHK\KGNNG   *CWRVTGUKFGP\ YWTFG WPF JGWVG FGP 0COGP ŋ2CNC\\Q 8GPG\KCŌ VT·IV (GTPGT XGTCPUVCNVGVG GT XKGNG   RT·EJVKIG(GUVGWPF<GTGOQPKGP+P5CEJGP8GTYCNVWPINKG­2CWN++FCU#DDTGXKCVQTGPMQNNGIUEJNKG­GP FCU WPVGT CPFGTGO HÒT FKG 'PVYÒTHG R·RUVNKEJGT $WNNGP \WUV·PFKI YCT 'U YCT GTUV  XQP UGKPGO   8QTI·PIGT 2KWU ++ IGITÒPFGV YQTFGP )GIGPÒDGT JWOCPKUVKUEJGP 6GPFGP\GP YCT 2CWN ++ I·P\NKEJ   WPGORH·PINKEJ &KGUG YCTGP HÒT KJP 0GWJGKFGPVWO 5Q MCO GU FCUU GT FKG TÌOKUEJG #MCFGOKG FGU   *WOCPKUVGP2QOQPKWU.CGVWUUEJNKG­GPNKG­2CWNUCJFKG*WOCPKUVGPUQPGICVKXYGKNGTUKGFGT8GT UEJYÌTWPI OKV FGP 6ÒTMGP XGTF·EJVKIVG &KGUG YCTGP YKG CWEJ UEJQP WPVGT UGKPGP 8QTI·PIGTP GKPG   )GHCJT FKG GU CD\WYGJTGP ICNV &GUJCND DGOÒJVG GT UKEJ CWEJ  WO FKG ŋ2CZ 2CQNKPCŌ FGO GKP   $ÒPFPKUFGTKVCNKGPKUEJGP5VCCVGPHQNIGPUQNNVG'DGPUQUWEJVGGT*KNHGDGK7PICTPWPFFGOFCOCNKIGP 2GTUGTMÌPKI 7\WP *CUCP 5GKP 8GTJ·NVPKU \W (TCPMTGKEJ YCT TGEJV CPIGURCPPV FC GT UKEJ IGIGP FKG   -QP\KNUCRRGNNCVKQP CWUURTCEJ FKG FKG 2CTKUGT 7PKXGTUKV·V WPF FCU 2CTNCOGPV XGJGOGPV XGTNCPIVGP +JO   YWTFGOKVRTQITCOOCVKUEJGP5CPMVKQPGPIGFTQJVFKGFKG4GEJVGFGT-KTEJGKP(TCPMTGKEJGKPUEJT·PMVGP WPFFKGMWT\\WXQTXQP.WFYKI:+CWHIGJQDGPYQTFGPYCTGP  

3WGNNG/ÒNNGT*GTKDGTV2CWN++KP-CURGT9 *IWC  .GZKMQPFGT2·RUVGWPFFGU2CRUVVWOU (TGKDWTI WC 5

1118

1119

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO



&WECVQRCRCNGQ,4QOI$KCIIK 4 (D/WPVQPK



)TQUUQQ,#PEQPC$KCIIKp/WPVQPK

/ÒP\UV·VVG#PEQPC

)1.&45GJTUEJÌP



44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1120

  52

/ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC

&WECVQRCRCNGQ,$QNQIPCI$KCIIK 4 (D/WPVQPK

/ÒP\UV·VVG5RQNGVQ

$QNQIPKPQOCTEJKIKCPQQ,5RQNGVQ$KCIIK 0% /WPVQPK

1121

)1.&445GJTUEJÌP



45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ




PAUL II.

1122

1123

1124

1125

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU2CWN++ 

$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJ XQP # )WC\\CNQVVK CWH FGP -CTFKPCN 2KGVTQ $CTDQ  

UR·VGT2CRUV2CWN++ WPFFGP$CWFGU2CNC\\Q8GPG\KC$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&CU(COK NKGPYCRRGP$CTDQQDGP-CTFKPCNUJWVOO/QFGUVK5 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&CU R·RUVNKEJG 9CRRGP QDGP   6KCTCOO/QFGUVK -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FGP $CW FGU 2CNC\\Q 8GPG\KC KP 4QO $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUV   NKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU2CNC\\QUOO/QFGUVK 5GJTUEJÌP





$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNG Q ,   WPUKIPKGTV XQP %JT FK )GTGOKC CWH FGP $GUWEJ FGT OCTQPKVKUEJGP   6JGQNQIGP KP 4QO $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG #RQUVGN 2GVTWU WPF 2CWNWU UKV\GP X X WPF   HÒVVGTP \CJNTGKEJG 5EJCHG KO *KPVGTITWPF 6CDGTPCMGN OKV )QVVGUNCOO \W FGP 5GKVGP LG GKPG 2CNOG   OO/QFGUVK 5GJTUEJÌP



1126

1128

1127



$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVXQP%JTFK)GTGOKCCWHFGP$CWFGU2CNC\\Q8GPG\KC$TWUVDKNF NKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV(ÒPH<GKNGP5EJTKHVWOJGT'KEJGPMTCP\OO/QFGUVK 5GJTUEJÌP





$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNGQ,WPUKIPKGTVXQP%JTFK)GTGOKCCWHUGKPGÌHHGPVNKEJGP#WFKGP\GP$TWUVDKNFN KPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&GT2CRUVVJTQPVPCEJT\YKUEJGP\YGK-CTFKP·NGPWPFGORH·PIVFKG)N·WDKIGP OO/QFGUVK 45GJTUEJÌPGT1TKIKPCNIW­





$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ, UR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU WPUKIPKGTVCWHUGKPG9CJN$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV9GKDNKEJG )GUVCNV UVGJV HCUV X X FGP -QRH JCNDN IGYCPFV KP FGT 4GEJVGP 2CNO   \YGKIKONKPMGP#TO(ÒNNJQTPOO/QFGUVK 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 53


SIXTUS IV.

1129



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ, UR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU WPUKIPKGTVCWHFGP$CWFGU2CNC\\Q8GPG\KC $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV(ÒPH<GKNGP5EJTKHVWOJGT'KEJGPMTCP\OOI/QFGUVK 5EJÌPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



2#2565+:675+8

)GD,WNK%GNNGDGK5CXQPC .KIWTKGP IGUV#WIWUV4QO  $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG(TCPEGUEQFGNNC4QXGTG  2QPVKHKMCV#WIWUVņ#WIWUV   5GKPG R·RUVNKEJG .CWHDCJP JCVVG 5KZVWU +8 YQJN UGKPGO TJGVQTKUEJGP 6CNGPV \W XGTFCPMGP 9·JTGPF   UGKPGT 6·VKIMGKV CNU 2TQHGUUQT HÒT 6JGQNQIKG KP 2CFWC WPF $QNQIPC YWTFG GT XQP -CTFKPCN $GUUCTKQP   GPVFGEMV 'T IGJÌTVG FGO (TCP\KUMCPGTQTFGP CP WPF YCT XQP  DKU  1TFGPUIGPGTCN 9·JTGPF   FKGUGT<GKVDGOÒJVGGTUKEJWO#WUINGKEJ\YKUEJGPFGPXGTUEJKGFGPGP<YGKIGPFGT(TCP\KUMCPGTFGP -QPXGPVWCNGPWPFFGP1DUGTXCPVGP2CRUVYWTFG5KZVWUOKVJKNHGFGU*GT\QIUXQP/CKNCPFWPFXQTCNNGO UGKPGU 0GHHGP 2KGVTQ 4KCTKQ FGT FKG -CTFKP·NG OKV 8GTURTGEJGP CWH UGKPG 5GKVG \QI +O )GIGP\WI   GTPCPPVG 5KZVWU MWT\ PCEJ $GIKPP FGU 2QPVKHKMCVU KO &G\GODGT  2KGVTQ 4KCTKQ WPF UGKPGP 0GHHGP   )WKNNKCPQFGNNC4QXGTG\W-CTFKP·NGP8QPFKGUGO/QOGPVCPYCTFCU2CRUVVWOXQPGKPGOCWUIGRT·I VGP 0GRQVKUOWU IGMGPP\GKEJPGV &KG -WTKG YWTFG ITÌ­VGPVGKNU OKV 8GTVTCWVGP CWU .KIWTKGP WPF )GPWC   DGUGV\VM·WHNKEJGOVGTICDGUPWP\WJCWH#WEJYWTFGFGT#DNCUUJCPFGNXGTUV·TMVWPFFKG$GXÌNMG TWPI FGU -KTEJGPUVCCVU OWUUVGP JÌJGTG 5VGWGTP \CJNGP 9GT5KZVWUPCJGUVCPFYWTFGIGHÌTFGTVUQFKG /GPFKMCPVGPWPF(TCP\KUMCPGTKPUGKPGT$WNNGŋ/CTGOCIPWOŌXQP)GIGP#DYGKEJWPIGPYWTFG JCTVFWTEJIGITKHHGP5QDGVTKGD5KZVWU-GV\GTXGTHQNIWPIWPFHÒJTVGKP5RCPKGPFKG+PSWKUKVKQPYKGFGTGKP #W­GPRQNKVKUEJDGOÒJVGGTUKEJYKGXKGNGUGKPGT8QTI·PIGTWOGKPIGGKPKIVGU+VCNKGPIGIGPFKG)GHCJT GKPGTVÒTMKUEJGP'ZRCPUKQP&GT2CRUVGPVUCPFVGGKPG(NQVVGFQEJMCOGUÒDGTFKGU\WMGKPGPYGKVGTGP <ÒIGPIGIGPFGP(GKPFTIGTICDGUKOOGTYKGFGTOKV(NQTGP\UGKVGKP8GTVTCWVGTFGU2CRUVGUGKPGP #PUEJNCICWH2GTUQPGPFGT(NQTGP\GT1DGTUEJKEJVXGTÒDVJCVVG#WEJFCU8GTJ·NVPKU\W(TCPMTGKEJWPF FGOHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-ÌPKI.WFYKI:+YCTUGJTCPIGURCPPV/CI5KZVWUCWEJJ·WHKIWPVGT-TKVKMIGTCVGP UGKP MWNVWTGNN MQPPVG GT XKGNG .GKUVWPIGP HÒT UKEJ XGTDWEJGP 5Q YWTFG WPVGT KJO FGT 8CVKMCP \WO   <GPVTWOJWOCPKUVKUEJGT$KNFWPIWPF-WPUV'TNKG­FKG#MCFGOKGFGU2QORQPKWU.CGVWUYKGFGTGTÌHH PGP WPF XKGNG -KTEJGP CWUUEJOÒEMGP WPF GTYGKVGTP UQ FKG 5KZVKPKUEJG -CRGNNG FKG -KTEJGP ŋ5CPVC   /CTKC FGN 2QRQNQŌ ŋ5CPVC /CTKC FGNNC 2CEGŌ WPF FCU *QURKVCN ŋ5CPVQ5RKTKVQŌ*KGTHÒTYWTFGPXKGNG DGMCPPVG -ÒPUVNGT GPICIKGTV \WO $GKURKGN 5CPFTQ $QVVKEGNNK WPF 2GTWIKPQ #WEJ FKG 5VTC­GP 4QOU   YWTFGPGTYGKVGTVWPFGTPGWGTV9·JTGPFUGKPGT<GKVCNU1TFGPUIGPGTCNJCVVG5KZVWU\WFGOGKPKIG6TCM VCVGXGTHCUUV   3WGNNG/ÒNNGT*GTKDGTV5KZVWU+8KP-CURGT9 *IWC .GZKMQPFGT2·RUVGWPFFGU2CRUVVWOU (TGKDWTI WC 5

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO  54

1130

(KQTKPQFKECOGTCQ,4QOI$KCIIK 4 (D/WPVQPK  )1.&5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ




SIXTUS IV.

1131

1,5:1

1,5:1



)TQUUQQ,4QO$KCIIK 4 /WPVQPKXCT

(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



1132

1,5:1

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG8KVGTDQ 

)TQUUQQ,8KVGTDQ$KCIIK 4 /WPVQPK  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV-PCRRGT5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌP



1133

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU5KZVWU+8 

$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNGQ,  WPUKIPKGTVXQP.KN)KQXCPGCWHUGKPG-TÌPWPI$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUV NKEJGO 1TPCV&GT 2CRUV VJTQPV DGVGPF X X WPF YKTF XQP 5V (TCP\KUMWU WPF 5V #PVQPKWU IGMTÌPV   OO/QFGUVK 5GJTUEJÌP



1134



$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNG Q ,   WPUKIPKGTV XQP . KN )KQXCPG CWH FGP $CW FGT 2QPVG 5KUVQ KP 4QO   $TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT$TÒEMGFCTÒDGTFTGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVWOJGT'KEJGPMTCP\ OO/QFGUVK )GNQEJVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 55


INNOCENZ VIII.

2#256+001%'0<8+++

)GD)GPWCIGUV,WNK4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG)KQXCPPK$CVVKUVC%KDQ 2QPVKHKMCV#WIWUVņ,WNK

  



+PPQEGP\ YWEJU CO *QH XQP 0GCRGN CNU 5QJP GKPGU TÌOKUEJGP 5GPCVQTU WPF ,WUVK\DGCOVGP CWH &WTEJ   FGP'KPHNWUU)KWNKCPQFGNNC4QXGTGU0GHHGFGUXQTKIGP2CRUVGU5KZVWU+8YWTFGGT\WO2CRUVIGY·JNV +O)GIGP\WIDGVGKNKIVGUKEJ+PPQEGP\CWH&T·PIGP4QXGTGUCWH5GKVGPFGTPGCRQNKVCPKUEJGP$CTQPGCO -TKGIIGIGP(GTTCPVGFGPURCPKUEJGP-ÌPKIXQP0GCRGN&CFWTEJNKVVGPFKG$G\KGJWPIGP\W7PICTPWPF /CKNCPF UVCTM #W­GTFGO YCT GT CWH *KNHG (TCPMTGKEJU CPIGYKGUGP &KG (KPCP\GP FGU -KTEJGPUVCCVGU   YWTFGP FCFWTEJ ÒDGTO·­KI UVTCRC\KGTV (ÒT GKPG RQUKVKXG $KNCP\ UWEJVG +PPQEGP\ FGP -QPVCMV OKV   (NQTGP\WPFVTKGDFGP8GTMCWHXQPOVGTPCPFKGVGKNYGKUGFCHÒTPGWIGUEJCHHGPYWTFGP5GKPGP5QJP XGTJGKTCVGVG FGT 2CRUV OKV FGT 6QEJVGT XQP .QTGP\Q FGO 2T·EJVKIGP  FG /GFKEK&GUUGP5QJPUR·VGT 2CRUV .GQ : GTJQD GT \WO -CTFKPCN 'KP IGRNCPVGT 6ÒTMGPMTGW\\WI NKG­ UKEJ PKEJV TGCNKUKGTGP 8KGN   OGJTPCJO+PPQEGP\$G\KGJWPIGP\WO5WNVCP$C[C\KF++CWHWPFWPVGTUVÒV\VGKJPIGIGPFGUUGP$TWFGT &LGO+O)GIGP\WIGTJKGNVGT)GNFWPFFKG*GKNKIG.CP\GFKGKO<WIGFGT'TQDGTWPI-QPUVCPVKPQRGNU KPFGUUGP$GUKV\IGMQOOGPYCT9·JTGPFUGKPGT#OVU\GKVCNU2CRUVMQPPVGPFKG(COKNKGPFGT1TUKPKWPF %QNQPPC KJTGP 'KPHNWUU GTYGKVGTP  GTNKG­ GT OKV FGT $WNNG ŋ5WOOKU FGUKFGTCPVGU CHHGEVKDWUŌ FGP   &QOKPKMCPGTP *GKPTKEJ +PUVKVQTKU WPF ,CMQD 5RTGPIGT KP KJTGP $G\KTMGP FKG /ÌINKEJMGKV IGIGP   XGTOGKPVNKEJG*GZGPKPSWKUKVQTKUEJFWTEJ\WITGKHGP  

3WGNNG/ÒNNGT*GTKDGTV+PPQ\GP\8+++KP-CURGT9 *IWC .GZKMQPFGT2·RUVGWPFFGU2CRUV VWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1135 1,5:1

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

(KQTKPQFKECOGTCQ,4QOI$KCIIK 4 (D/WPVQPK  )1.&#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTXQT\ÒINKEJ

1,5:1

 56

1136



1,5:1

(KQTKPQFKECOGTCQ,4QOI$KCIIK 4 (D/WPVQPK  )1.&#VVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT




ALEXANDER VI.

1138

1137

 

1139

)TQUUQQ,4QO$KCIIKXCT 0% /WPVQPK  4'VYCUMQTTQFKGTVMPCRRGT5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌP



$QNQIPKPQRCRCNGQ,#PEQPC$KCIIK 4 /WPVQPK

44-N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



)TQUUQQ,/CEGTCVC$KCIIK 4 /WPVQPK8CT+  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI8QT\ÒINKEJ



/ÒP\UV·VVG#PEQPC

/ÒP\UV·VVG/CEGTCVC 

2#256#.':#0&'48+

)GD,CPWCT,±VKXCDGK8CNGPEKCIGUV#WIWUV4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG4QFTKIQFG$QTLC 2QPVKHKMCV#WIWUVņ#WIWUV

  



#NGZCPFGT YCT FGT 0GHHG FGU 2CRUVGU %CNKZV +++ WPF YWTFG XQP FKGUGO KP UGKPGT .CWHDCJP IGHÌTFGTV   #WEJ UGKPG #OVU\GKV CNU 2CRUV YCT FWTEJ 0GRQVKUOWU IGMGPP\GKEJPGV5QXGTUWEJVGGTOKVJKNHGUGKPGU 5QJPGU%GUCTG$QTLCFGP-KTEJGPUVCCV\W\GPVTCNKUKGTGP(ÒTUGKPGWPOQTCNKUEJG#TV\WNGDGPFKGFGT ¤HHGPVNKEJMGKVDGMCPPVYCTYWTFGGTJGHVKIMTKVKUKGTV#W­GPRQNKVKUEJDGOÒJVGGTUKEJFCTWOFGP'KP HNWUU FGT GWTQR·KUEJGP )TQ­O·EJVG CWH UGKPGP 5VCCV OÌINKEJUV IGTKPI \W JCNVGP  UVKOOVG GT FGO   8GTVTCIXQP6QTFGUKNNCU\YKUEJGP5RCPKGPWPF2QTVWICN\WT#WHVGKNWPIFGTTGUVNKEJGPPQEJWPGPVFGEM VGP9GNVWPVGTGKPCPFGT\W)GIGPÒDGT(TCPMTGKEJHWJTGTGTUVGKPGPUVTGPIGP-WTUWPFUQTIVGOKV FGT *GKNKIGP .KIC UQICT HÒT FKG #DUGV\WPI FGU -ÌPKIU -CTN 8+++ /KV FGUUGP 0CEJHQNIGT .WFYKI :++   DGOÒJVG UKEJ #NGZCPFGT LGFQEJ WO IWVG $G\KGJWPIGP +P 5CEJGP 4GNKIKQP UGV\VG UKEJ #NGZCPFGT XQT   CNNGOHÒTUVTGPIG1TFGPGKPYKG\$FKG&QOKPKMCPGT  

3WGNNG 'DGTJCTF 9KPHTKGF #NGZCPFGT 8+ KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU   2CRUVVWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1140 1,5:1



1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

(KQTKPKFKECOGTCQ,4QOI$KCIIK 4 (D/WPVQPK8CT+  )1.&44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT)QNFVÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

 57


ALEXANDER VI.

1142

1141



&QRRKQ)TQUUQQ,4QO$KCIIK 4 /WPVQPK  445EJÌPG2CVKPC2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





)TQUUQQ,4QO$KCIIK 0% /WPVQPK  445EJÌPG2CVKPCOKPDGTKGDGPUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



1144

1143



)TQUUQQ,4QO$KCIIK 0% /WPVQPK



)TQUUQQ,#PEQPC$KCIIKp/WPVQPK

/ÒP\UV·VVG#PEQPC

445GJTUEJÌP



4-N2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP



1145

1,5:1

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC 

&WECVQ RCRCNG Q , $QNQIPC  I $KCIIK  4 FQTV KTTVÒONKEJ HCNUEJG 4ÒEMUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV   CPIGIGDGP (D/WPVQPK )1.&45GJTUEJÌP



1146

'KPG/GFCKNNGFGU2CRUVGU#NGZCPFGT8+ 

58

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG UR·VGTG2T·IWPIWO WPUKIPKGTVXQP)2CNCFKPQCWHUGKPG9CJN$TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&CU R·RUVNKEJG 9CRRGP WPVGT IGMTGW\VGP 5EJNÒUUGNP QDGP 6KCTC  OO   I/QFGUVK FQTVKP$TQP\G   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT2CVKPCYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ




PIUS III.

2#2562+75+++

)GD5CTVGCPQDGK5KGPCIGUV1MVQDGT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG(TCPEGUEQFG 2KEEQNQOKPK6QFGUEJKPK 2QPVKHKMCV5GRVGODGT1MVQDGT

  



2KWU+++YCTDGTGKVUUEJYGTCP)KEJVGTMTCPMVCNUGT\WO2CRUVIGY·JNVYWTFGUQFCUUUGKPG#OVU\GKV UGJT MWT\ CWUHKGN &WTEJ UGKPGP 1PMGN 2CRUV 2KWU ++ IGHÌTFGTV YWTFG GT  $KUEJQH XQP 5KGPC    YWTFG GT \WFGO $KUEJQH XQP 2KGP\C +P UGKPGT -CTFKPCNU\GKV YCT 2KWU -CTFKPCNRTQVGMVQT FGT   &GWVUEJGP0CVKQPWPFXGTVTCVFGTGP+PVGTGUUGPKPFGTTÌOKUEJGP-WTKG'TUGV\VGUKEJKO8GTINGKEJ\W UGKPGP8QTI·PIGTPIGIGPFGP0GRQVKUOWUGKP5QGTJQDGTCNUGKP\KIGT-CTFKPCN9KFGTURTWEJCNUUGKP 8QTI·PIGT#NGZCPFGT8+)GDKGVGFGU-KTEJGPUVCCVGUCPUGKPGP5QJP,WCPÒDGTVTCIGPYQNNVG2KWUYCT \WFGOGKP(ÌTFGTGTFGT-ÒPUVNGT  

3WGNNG )CP\GT -NCWU 2KWU +++ KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU 2CRUVVWOU   (TGKDWTI WC 5

1147

1,5:1

1,5:1

'KPG/GFCKNNGFGU2CRUVGU2KWU+++ 

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI WO   WPUKIPKGTV XQP ) 2CNCFKPQ CWH UGKPG9CJN$TWUV DKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&CUR·RUVNKEJG9CRRGPWPVGTIGMTGW\VGP5EJNÒUUGNPQDGP6KCTCOO /QFGUVK 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 59


JULIUS II.

2#256,7.+75++

)GD#NDKUUQNCDGK5CXQPCIGUV(GDTWCT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG)KWNKCPQFGNNC4QXGTG 2QPVKHKMCV0QXGODGTņ(GDTWCT

  



,WNKWU UVCOOVG CWU CTOGP 8GTJ·NVPKUUGP WPF XGTFCPMVG UGKPG MKTEJNKEJG .CWHDCJP XQT CNNGO UGKPGO   1PMGN2CRUV5KZVWU+8FGTKJPHÌTFGTVG'TGTJKGNVGKPKIG$KUVÒOGTWPFYWTFG-CTFKPCN8QTWPF Y·JTGPF UGKPGU 2QPVKHKMCVU XGTUWEJVG ,WNKWU FGP 'KPHNWUU FGT $QTLC(COKNKG \W OKPFGTP #WU FKGUGO   )TWPF HÒJTVG GT CWEJ FKG 1RRQUKVKQP IGIGP FKG $QTLC CP FGPGP WPVGT CPFGTGO 2CRUV #NGZCPFGT 8+   CPIGJÌTVG#WHITWPFFGT5RCPPWPIGP\WO2CRUVWPFUGKPGO7OHGNFOWUUVG,WNKWUPCEJ(TCPMTGKEJ\WO -ÌPKI-CTN8+++HNKGJGP#NU2CRUVYCTUGKP<KGNFKG(COKNKGPRQNKVKMFGT$QTLC\WUVQRRGPFWTEJFKG FGT-KTEJGPUVCCVKPFGP4WKPIGVTKGDGPYQTFGPYCT'UIGNCPI,WNKWUFGP5QJP#NGZCPFGTU8+%GUCTG $QTLC\WUEJNCIGPWPF2GTWIKCWPF$QNQIPCGKP\WPGJOGP#WEJIGIGP8GPGFKIIKPI,WNKWU++OKVFGT .KICXQP%CODTCK\WUCOOGPOKV-CKUGT/CZKOKNKCP+WPFFGOHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-ÌPKI.WFYKI :++XQTWPFGTQDGTVG5V·FVGKPFGT4QOCIPCXGTVTKGDGTOKV*KNHGFGT*GKNKIGP.KIC \WUCOOGP OKV 8GPGFKI WPF 5RCPKGP  UQYKG OKV 7PVGTUVÒV\WPI FGT 5EJYGK\GT 'KFIGPQUUGPUEJCHVGP FKG HTCP\ÌUK   UEJGP 6TWRRGP CWU +VCNKGP &WTEJ FGP FCTCWU GPVUVGJGPFGP TIGT OKV (TCPMTGKEJ YWTFG FKG 2TCIOCVK   UEJG 5CPMVKQP XQP $QWTIGU  YKGFGT GKPIGTKEJVGV FWTEJ FKG FKG /CEJV FGU 2CRUVGU KP (TCPMTGKEJ   DGUEJT·PMVYWTFG<WFGOVTCHGPUKEJCWHFGO-QP\KN\W2KUCHTCP\ÌUKUEJG-CTFKP·NGKP1RRQUKVKQP \WO 2CRUV ,WNKWU DGOÒJVG UKEJ WO #WUINGKEJ WPF DGTKGH KO /CK  FKG HÒPHVG .CVGTCPU[PQFG GKP   1DYQJN DGK UGKPGT GKIGPGP 9CJN \WO 2CRUV DGUVQEJGP YWTFG UGV\VG GT Y·JTGPF UGKPGU 2QPVKHKMCVUGKP 8GTDQVHÒTUKOQPKUVKUEJG2CRUVYCJNGPFWTEJ#TEJKVGMVQPKUEJG.GKUVWPIYCTXQTCNNGOFKG)TWPFUVGKPNG IWPI FGU 0GWDCWU FGU 2GVGTUFQOU  #WEJ DGUEJ·HVKIVG ,WNKWU DGFGWVGPFG -ÒPUVNGT FGT <GKV UQ   /KEJGNCPIGNQ FGT FGUUGP )TCDOCN UEJWH WPF FKG &GEMGPHTGUMGP FGT 5KZVKPKUEJGP -CRGNNG #WEJ $TC   OCPVGWPF4CHHCGN\·JNVGP\WUGKPGP)ÒPUVNKPIGP  

3WGNNG )CP\GT -NCWU ,WNKWU ++ KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU 2CRUVVWOU   (TGKDWTI WC 5

1148 1,5:1

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

(KQTKPQFKECOGTCQ,4QOI(D/WPVQPK  )1.&5EJÌPG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT

1149



1150



)KWNKQQ,4QO#WHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG/ÒP\\GKEJGPFGT(WIIGT/WPVQPK 5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





)KWNKQQ,4QO#WHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG/ÒP\\GKEJGPFGT(WIIGT/WPVQPK  5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



60


JULIUS II.

1152

1153

1151



)KWNKQQ,4QO/WPVQPK

 

&WECVQRCRCNGQ,$QNQIPCI(D/WPVQPK &WECVQRCRCNGQ,$QNQIPCI(DC/WPVQPK

/ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC

5GJTUEJÌP



)1.&5GJTUEJÌP )1.&45GJTUEJÌP

 

1155

1154

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU,WNKWU++ 



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ, UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJ*·NHVGFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU WPUKIPKGTVFKG4ÒEM UGKVG IGHGTVKIV PCEJ GKPGT 8QTNCIG XQP ) % 4QOCPQ CWH FKG *WPIGTUPQV  $TWUVDKNF T KP   IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV9GKDNKEJG )GUVCNV UEJTGKVGV T KP FGT 4GEJVGP JTGP KO NKPMGP #TO (ÒNNJQTP   OO/QFGUVK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ, UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJ/KVVGFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU WPUKIPKGTVCWHFGP$CW FGU -CUVGNNU 4QEEC )KWNKC KP %KXKVCXGEEJKC $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGU -CUVGNNU   OO/QFGUVK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1156 1157

1157





$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ, UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJ/KVVGFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU WPUKIPKGTVCWHFGP$CW FGU -CUVGNNU 4QEEC )KWNKC KP %KXKVCXGEEJKC $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGU -CUVGNNU   OO/QFGUVK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ, UR·VGTG2T·IWPIWO WPUKIPKGTVXQP)2CNCFKPQCWHFGP$CWFGU-CUVGNNU 4QEEC)KWNKCKP%KXKVCXGEEJKC$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU-CUVGNNUKO8QTFGTITWPF $QQVGOO/QFGUVK -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



1158



1,5:1

1158

)QNFOGFCKNNG Q , UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FGP 4ÌOK   UEJGP(TKGFGPXQO#WIWUV\YKUEJGPFGP(COKNKGP1TUKPKWPF%QNQPPC$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&CU R·RUVNKEJG 9CRRGP WPVGT IGMTGW\VGP 5EJNÒUUGNP QDGP 6KCTC  OO  I /QFGUVK    FQTVKP$TQP\G  )1.&8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJ  61


LEO X.

2#256.'1:

)GD&G\GODGT(NQTGP\IGUV&G\GODGT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG)KQXCPPKFG /GFKEK 2QPVKHKMCV/·T\ņ&G\GODGT

  



.GQ:IGJÌTVG\WTGKPHNWUUTGKEJGP(COKNKGFGT/GFKEKWPFYCTFGT5QJPXQP.QTGP\QFGO2T·EJVKIGP 5EJQP HTÒJ GTJKGNV GT ITQ­G 2HTÒPFGP WPF \·JNVG DGFGWVGPFG 2GTUÌPNKEJMGKVGP \W UGKPGP (TGWPFGP YKG   'TCUOWU XQP 4QVVGTFCO  KO \CTVGP #NVGT XQP  ,CJTGP YCT GT \WO -CTFKPCN GTPCPPV YQTFGP   OWUUVG.GQU(COKNKGYGIGP#WHUV·PFGPCWU(NQTGP\HNKGJGP'TUVMGJTVGGTPCEJ4QO\WTÒEM +PFGP,CJTGP\WXQTYCTGTFWTEJ&GWVUEJNCPF(NCPFGTPWPF(TCPMTGKEJIGTGKUV'T\QIGPKO)GKUVGFGU *WOCPKUOWUHÌTFGTVGGTPCEJUGKPGT4ÒEMMGJTPCEJ4QO.KVGTCVWTWPF-ÒPUVG7PVGT2CRUV,WNKWU++ UVKGIGTTCUEJCWHDGUKGIVGGTFKGHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP6TWRRGPKP+VCNKGPCNU1DGTDGHGJNUJCDGTFGUR·RUV NKEJURCPKUEJGP*GGTGU#OYWTFG.GQLGFQEJPCEJFGT5EJNCEJVXQP4CXGPPCXQPHTCP\ÌUK UEJGP 6TWRRGP IGHCPIGP IGPQOOGP MQPPVG CDGT PCEJ 4QO HNKGJGP &C .GQ PCEJ FGO 6QF ,WNKWU  ++   NGFKINKEJ&KCMQPYCTCDGTUEJQPCNU0CEJHQNIGTICNVYWTFGKJOGKNGPFUCOFKG2TKGUVGTWPF CO  FKG $KUEJQHUYGKJG XGTNKGJGP UQFCUU CO  UGKPG -TÌPWPI \WO 2CRUV GTHQNIGP MQPPVG   9·JTGPF UGKPGT #OVU\GKV HÒJTVG .GQ 2QNKVKM HÒT UGKPG (COKNKG FKG FCPM KJO UEJQP XQT UGKPGT<GKVCNU 2CRUV YKGFGT PCEJ (NQTGP\\WTÒEMMGJTGPMQPPVG.GQOCEJVGUKEJFWTEJ0GRQVKUOWUWPFFWTEJUGKPGP CWUUEJYGKHGPFGP .GDGPUUVKN WPDGNKGDV <YCT OWUUVG .GQ 2CTOC WPF 2KCEGP\C CP (TCPMTGKEJ CDVTGVGP   CDGT FCPM UGKPGU 'KPUCV\GU YWTFG FKG 2TCIOCVKUEJG 5CPMVKQP XQP $QWTIGU  CWHIGJQDGP WPF GKP   -QPMQTFCV OKV FGO HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP -ÌPKI (TCP\ + IGUEJNQUUGP &KGUGU -QPMQTFCVXQP$QNQIPCIGUVCPF FGO-ÌPKIKP(TCPMTGKEJFKG-KTEJGPJQJGKV\WWPFDNKGDDKU\WTHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP4GXQNWVKQPDGUVGJGP&CU HÒPHVG.CVGTCPMQP\KNGTÌHHPGVWPVGT,WNKWU++KO,CJTUEJWHPWTGKPKIGWPDGFGWVGPFG4GHQTOKFGGP WPFYWTFGXQP.GQPKEJVGTPUVIGPWIIGPQOOGP5EJNKG­NKEJGPFGVGGUQJPG'TIGDPKUUGXQNNDTCEJV \W JCDGP &KGUGT OCPIGNPFG 'THQNI \WT 5GNDUVTGHQTO FGT MCVJQNKUEJGP -KTEJG WPF FGT #DNCUUJCPFGN   HÒJTVGP OC­IGDNKEJ \WO 'THQNI /CTVKP .WVJGTU &GUUGP #WHVTGVGP YWTFG LGFQEJ XQP .GQ WPVGTUEJ·V\V   GDGPUQ YKG FCU IGTKPIG #PUGJGP FGT -KTEJG KP ICP\ 'WTQRC *KGT DGUVCPF HÒT FGP 2CRUV MGKP *CPF   NWPIUDGFCTH'TUVWPVGT&TWEMFGU.WVJGTIGIPGTU,QJCPPGU'EMGTNKG­FGT2CRUVCOFKG$WNNG ŋ'ZUWTIG&QOKPGŌWPFCOFKG$CPPDWNNGŋ&GEGV4QOCPWO2QPVKHKEGOŌIGIGP.WVJGT9GKV GTHQNITGKEJGTCNUFGT2CRUVUGV\VGUKEJ-CKUGT-CTN8IGIGPFGPPGWCWHMQOOGPFGP)NCWDGPGKP  

3WGNNG5EJYCKIGT)GQTI.GQ:KP-CURGT9 *IWC .GZKMQPFGT2·RUVGWPFFGU2CRUVVWOU (TGKDWTI WC 5

1159 1,5:1

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO  62

(KQTKPKFKECOGTCQ,4QOI(D/WPVQPK  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT)QNFVÌPWPIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ




LEO X.

1160

1,5:1



1,5:1

&WECVQ RCRCNG Q , 4QO  I #WH FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG /ÒP\\GKEJGP FGT (WIIGT (D  /WPVQPK    )1.&45GJTUEJÌP 

1162

1161

 

)KWNKQQ,4QO#WHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG/ÒP\\GKEJGPFGT(WIIGT/WPVQPK 5GJTUEJÌP )KWNKQQ,4QO/WPVQPK 445EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP

1163



1163

1,5:1

)KWNKQQ,4QO#WHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG/ÒP\\GKEJGPFGT(WIIGT/WPVQPK  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

1164

1166

 



1165

/ÒP\UV·VVG#PEQPC 

)KWNKQQ,#PEQPC/KVFGT&CTUVGNNWPIFGU2GVGTUFQOGU/WPVQPK  445EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



 

)KWNKQQ,#PEQPC/WPVQPK )KWNKQQ,#PEQPC/WPVQPK

 

445EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 45EJTÌVNKPIUTK­UGJTUEJÌP

63


LEO X.

1167

1,5:1

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC 

&WECVQRCRCNGQ,$QNQIPCI(D/WPVQPK

)1.&45GJTUEJÌP



1168

1,5:1

1,5:1



$KCPEQ ! Q,$QNQIPC/WPVQPK8CT+  445EJÌPG2CVKPCYKP\FWTEJIGJGPFGT5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



1170

1169

/ÒP\UV·VVG2GTWIKC 

)KWNKQQ,2GTWIKC/WPVQPK

8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP



8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5EJÌP



/ÒP\UV·VVG4CXGPPC 

)KWNKQQ,4CXGPPC/WPVQPK

1171

'KPG/GFCKNNGFGU2CRUVGU.GQ: 

64

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG Q , UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ /KVVG FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  WPUKIPKGTV CWH UGKPG   )TQ­\ÒIKIMGKV $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV.KDGTCNKVCU UVGJV PCEJ N WPF UEJÒVVGV /ÒP\GP CWU   GKPGO(ÒNNJQTPNMKTEJNKEJG#VVTKDWVGT/WUKMKPUVTWOGPVGOO/QFGUVK 8QT\ÒINKEJ




HADRIAN VI.

2#256*#&4+#08+

)GD/·T\7VTGEJVIGUV5GRVGODGT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG#FTKCP(NQTGPU\$QG[GPU 2QPVKHKMCV,CPWCTņ5GRVGODGT

  



*CFTKCP GPVUVCOOVG GKPGT <KOOGTOCPPUHCOKNKG KP 7VTGEJV 'T VTCV FGP (TCVGTJGTTGP DGK GKPGT )NCW   DGPUTKEJVWPIFKGUKEJJCWRVU·EJNKEJOKVFGO#DUEJTGKDGPWPF$KPFGPXQPEJTKUVNKEJGP9GTMGPDGUEJ·H VKIVGWPFFKGŋ&GXQVKQ/QFGTPCŌXGTVTCVYCTGT.GJTGTHÒT6JGQNQIKGCPFGT7PKXGTUKV·VKP .GWXGP 9GNVNKEJGP 'KPHNWUU GTJKGNV *CFTKCP FWTEJ UGKPG 'T\KGJWPI FGU 'PMGNU /CZKOKNKCPU + -CKUGT   FGU *GKNKIGP 4ÌOKUEJGP 4GKEJGU &GO 'PMGN UR·VGTDGMCPPVCNU-CKUGT-CTN8UKEJGTVG*CFTKCPFKG *GTTUEJCHV KP 5RCPKGP OKVVGNU 'TDTGEJV 5QOKV JCVVG CWEJ *CFTKCP ITQ­GP 'KPHNWUU KP FGT 5RCPKUEJGP   2QNKVKMHÒJTVGUQICTOKVGKPGOCPFGTGP-CTFKPCNFKG4GIKGTWPIUCPNKGIGPKP5RCPKGP#WEJYWTFG GT$KUEJQHXQP6QTVQUCWPF+PSWKUKVQTWPF-CTFKPCN$GUEJ·HVKIVKP5RCPKGPYWTFG*CFTKCP XQO -QPMNCXG KP #DYGUGPJGKV \WO 2CRUV IGY·JNV 9·JTGPF UGKPGU 2QPVKHKMCVU YKFOGVG UKEJ *CFTKCP   \YGK #WHICDGP &GO 9KFGTUVCPF IGIGP .WVJGT UQYKG FGT 'KPKIWPI 'WTQRCU IGIGP FKG 6ÒTMGP 'T   RQEJVGFCTCWHFCUUFCU9QTOUGT'FKMVIGIGP.WVJGTKOIGUCOVGP&GWVUEJGP4GKEJCPIGYCPFVYGTFGP UQNNVG CNNGTFKPIU QJPG 'THQNI #WH FGO 0ÒTPDGTIGT 4GKEJUVCI NKG­ *CFTKCP XGTMÒPFGP FCUU UKEJ FKG   MCVJQNKUEJG -KTEJG WO 4GHQTOGP DGOÒJG +P 5CEJGP 8GTYCNVWPI \GKEJPGVG UKEJ *CFTKCP FWTEJ 5RCT   OC­PCJOGP CWU YCU KJO FGP <QTP XKGNGT -WTKGPOKVINKGFGT GKPVTWI GDGPUQ YKG UGKPG CUMGVKUEJG .G   DGPUYGKUG <GKV UGKPGU 2QPVKHKMCVU DGUC­ *CFTKCPPWTYGPKIGIGKUVNKEJG8GTDÒPFGVG#WEJUGKPG\YGKVG *CWRVCWHICDGFKG'KPKIWPI'WTQRCUIGIGPFKG6ÒTMGPMQPPVGGTPKEJVXGTYKTMNKEJGPFCUKEJ-CTN8 OKV FGO HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP -ÌPKI (TCP\ + KO -QPHNKMV DGHCPF .GV\VGTGT DGYKTMVG 5CPMVKQPGP IGIGP FGP   8CVKMCPUQFCUU*CFTKCPFGTCPVKHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP.KICDGKVTCV  

3WGNNG5EJYCKIGT)GQTI*CFTKCP8+KP-CURGT9 *IWC .GZKMQPFGT2·RUVGWPFFGU2CRUV VWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1172

 

1173

1172

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

)KWNKQQ,4QO/WPVQPK 445EJÌPG2CVKPCMNFWTEJIGJGPFGT5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP )KWNKQQ,4QO/WPVQPK 45GJTUEJÌP

 

1174

'KPG/GFCKNNGFGU2CRUVGU*CFTKCP8+ 

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ, UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJ/KVVGFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU WPUKIPKGTVCWHUGKPMWNVW TGNNGU +PVGTGUUG $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV<CJNTGKEJG $ÒEJGT FCTÒDGT IGMTGW\VG5EJNÒUUGNWPF 6KCTC QDGP FKG 6CWDG FGU *GKNKIGP )GKUVGU KP 5VTCJNGP  OO  I /QFGUVK  FQTV KP   $TQP\G  44/KPDGTKGDGPUGJTUEJÌP

 65


CLEMENS VII.

1175



/ÒP\UV·VVG2KCEGP\C

&+'5'&+58#-#0<810

)KWNKQQ,2KCEGP\C/WPVQPK

445GJTUEJÌP



2#256%.'/'058++

)GD/CK(NQTGP\IGUV5GRVGODGT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG)KWNKQFG /GFKEK 2QPVKHKMCV0QXGODGTņ5GRVGODGT

  



%NGOGPUKNNGIKVKOGT5QJPFGUHNQTGPVKPGT5VCFVJGTTGPYWTFGXQPUGKPGO8GVVGT2CRUV.GQ:IGHÌTFGTV WPF-CTFKPCNWPF'T\DKUEJQHXQP(NQTGP\'TOCEJVGY·JTGPFUGKPGT#OVU\GKVXKGNG(GJNVTKVVG5Q YQNNVGGT\WUCOOGPOKV(TCPMTGKEJWPF8GPGFKIFKG*GTTUEJCHV-CTNU8KP+VCNKGPFWTEJ)TÒPFWPIFGT *GKNKIGP .KIC XQP %QIPCE  GKPF·OOGP YCU UKEJ CNU (GJNUEJNCI GTYKGU WPF  \WO ŋ5CEEQ FK   4QOCŌFGT8GTYÒUVWPIWPF2NÒPFGTWPI4QOUHÒJTVG+PFGT(QNIG\GKVMQPPVG%NGOGPUFKG$G\KGJWP IGP\W-CTN8FWTEJFGUUGP-CKUGTMTÌPWPIWPFFGP(TKGFGPXQP$CTEGNQPCXGTDGUUGTP*KNHG IGIGP FKG 4GHQTOCVKQP NKG­ %NGOGPU KJO LGFQEJ PKEJV\WVGKNYGTFGP0KEJVPWTRTQVGUVCPVKUEJG.·PFGT VTGPPVGP UKEJ Y·JTGPF UGKPGU 2QPVKHKMCVU XQP FGT MCVJQNKUEJGP -KTEJG CWEJ 'PINCPFYCPFVGUKEJWPVGT *GKPTKEJ 8+++ CD PCEJFGO FGT 2CRUV KJO GKPG $CPPCPFTQJWPI YGIGP GKPGT KNNGIKVKOGP *QEJ\GKV   UEJKEMVG&KGCPINKMCPKUEJG-KTEJGYCTHQTVCP5VCCVUMKTEJG5QOKVUEJTWORHVGFKGMCVJQNKUEJG-KTEJGWO GKP&TKVVGNKJTGU'KPHNWUUIGDKGVGUYGUJCNDKJPFGTFGWVUEJG*KUVQTKMGT.GQRQNFXQP4CPMGKO,CJT JWPFGTVCNUFGPŋWPJGKNXQNNUVGPCNNGT2·RUVGŌDG\GKEJPGVG  

3WGNNG 5EJYCKIGT )GQTI %NGOGPU 8++ KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU   2CRUVVWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1176 1,5:1

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO  66

(KQTKPQ FK ECOGTC Q , 4QO  I 8CTKCPVG OKV %.'/'0 KP FGT 8QTFGTUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV (D    /WPVQPK8CT+NGKEJVXCT )1.&5CWDGTCWUIGRT·IVGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 


CLEMENS VII.

1177



(KQTKPQFKECOGTCQ,4QOI8CTKCPVGOKV%.'/'05KPFGT8QTFGTUGKVGPWOUEJTKHVWPF5#0% KPFGT4ÒEMUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV(D/WPVQPKXCT )1.&5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



1178

1,5:1

1,5:1



&WECVQQ,  4QOIGRT·IVY·JTGPFFGT$GNCIGTWPI4QOUFWTEJFKG6TWRRGPFGU-CKUGTU-CTN 8 5CEEQFK4QOC Iu%.'/'05u8++uu2106+(u/#:9CRRGPFCTÒDGTIGMTGW\VG 5EJNÒUUGN QDGP 6KCTCu 5 u 2# † 5 u 2' u  u #./# u 41/# &KG $ÒUVGP XQP 5V 2GVTWU WPF   5V 2CWNWU GKPCPFGT IGIGPÒDGT FCTWPVGT /ÒP\UV·VVGP\GKEJGP $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H  &CX    /WPVQPK 8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKVWPFITQ­GTJKUVQTKUEJGT$GFGWVWPI 5GJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT 

+O ,CJTG  YGEJUGNVG 2CRUV %NGOGPU 8++ Y·JTGPF FGU -TKGIGU \YKUEJGP 5RCPKGP WPF (TCPMTGKEJ WO FKG   8QTJGTTUEJCHVKP+VCNKGPFKG(TQPVGPPCEJFGOGTXGTIGDNKEJXGTUWEJVJCVVGFKGXGTHGKPFGVGP2CTVGKGPIGIGPGKPCPFGT CWU\WURKGNGP 'T DGGPFGVG FCU $ÒPFPKU OKV FGO FGWVUEJGP -CKUGT WPF URCPKUEJGP -ÌPKI -CTN 8   WPF   UEJNQUUUKEJUVCVVFGUUGPFGPRTQHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-T·HVGPCP1DYQJN-CTN8FGPHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-ÌPKIKPFGT5EJNCEJV XQP2CXKCDGUKGIVWPFIGHCPIGPIGPQOOGPJCVVGDNKGDGPFKGMCKUGTNKEJGP6TWRRGPKORQNKVKUEJGP4·PMGURKGNQJPG 5QNFWPF\QIGPUEJNKG­NKEJPCEJ4QOWOUKEJOKV9CHHGPIGYCNVFGPÒDGTH·NNKIGP.QJP\WDGUQTIGPªDGT FGWVUEJGURCPKUEJGWPFKVCNKGPKUEJG5ÌNFPGTGTUVÒTOVGPCO/CKFKG'YKIG5VCFVWPFRNÒPFGTVGPÒDGTGKPGP /QPCVNCPI&KG1RHGTWPVGTFGT<KXKNDGXÌNMGTWPIYGTFGPCWHYGKVÒDGT6QVGIGUEJ·V\VWPFFKG$GWVGUQNN UEJNKG­NKEJ EC  /KNNKQPGP &WMCVGP DGVTCIGP JCDGP 2CRUV %NGOGPU 8++ XGTUEJCP\VG UKEJKPFGT'PIGNUDWTIWPF ÒDGTNKG­FKG8GTVGKFKIWPIFGU8CVKMCPUFGT5EJYGK\GTICTFGXQPFGTFTGK8KGTVGNFKGUGTCNU5CEEQFK4QOCKPFKG )GUEJKEJVG GKPIGICPIGPGP 6TCIÌFKG \WO 1RHGT HKGNGP 0CEJ FGT -CRKVWNCVKQP FGT 'PIGNUDWTI YWTFGP FKG   (GKPFUGNKIMGKVGP\YKUEJGP-CKUGTWPF2CRUVUEJNKG­NKEJCO,WPKKO(TKGFGPXQP$CTEGNQPCDGGPFGV  

&KGUGT &WECVQ YWTFG CNU .ÌUGIGNF CP FKG FGWVUEJGP .CPFUMPGEJVG UQYKG FKG URCPKUEJGP WPF KVCNKGPKUEJGP 5ÌNFPGT   FGU-CKUGTU-CTN8IGRT·IV

1179



&WECVQQ,4QOCWHFCU*GKNKIG,CJT/WPVQPK  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV)GUVQRHVGU.QEJIGTKPIGTJCNVGPGU$GNGIUVÒEM

 67


CLEMENS VII.

1181

1180

1182

1183

  

&QRRGNVGT)KWNKQQ,4QO/WPVQPK )KWNKQQ,4QO/WPVQPK )KWNKQQ,4QO/WPVQPK8CT+

8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV'VYCUMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP 4$GUEJPKVVGPUGJTUEJÌP 4-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP

  



)KWNKQQ,4QO/WPVQPK  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT6ÌPWPIMN2T·IGHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1184

1185

1186

1187



)KWNKQQ,4QO/WPVQPK

45EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



 

5EWFQF QTQQ,$QNQIPCI(D/WPVQPK )1.&5GJTUEJÌP )KWNKQ ! Q,$QNQIPC/WPVQPK 8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV-TCV\GTUEJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP

 



)KWNKQ ! Q,2KCEGP\C/WPVQPK

/ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC

/ÒP\UV·VVG2KCEGP\C

44/GJTGTG5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



1188

'KPG/GFCKNNGFGU2CRUVGU%NGOGPU8++ 

68

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ, UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU WPUKIPKGTVIGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT 8QTNCIGXQP)$FC%CUVGNDQNQIPGUGCWHFKG9KGFGTGKPUGV\WPIFGT/GFKEKKP(NQTGP\$TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV,QUGRJ CNU -CP\NGT FGU 2JCTCQU UKV\V PCEJ N XQT GKPGT 5·WNG CP FGTGP 5QEMGN   FCU 9CRRGP FGT /GFKEK \W UGJGP KUV WPF IKDV UKEJ UGKPGP $TÒFGTP \W GTMGPPGP  OO  I   /QFGUVK FQTVKP$TQP\G  42TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\




PAUL III.

2#2562#7.+++

)GD(GDTWCT%CPKPQDGK8KVGTDQIGUV0QXGODGT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG#NGUUCPFTQ(CTPGUG 2QPVKHKMCV1MVQDGTņ0QXGODGT

  



2CWN +++ XGTFCPMVG UGKPG .CWHDCJP UGKPGT 5EJYGUVGT )KWNKC (CTPGUG FKG GKPG .KCUQP OKV FGO 2CRUV   #NGZCPFGT8+JCVVG5QYWTFGGTDGTGKVU-CTFKPCNFKCMQP#NU-CTFKPCN\GWIVGGTOGJTGTG-KPFGT WPF CNU 2CRUV WPVGTUVÒV\VG GT UGKPG (COKNKG ICP\ KO )GKUVG FGU 0GRQVKUOWU 5Q XGTUEJCHHVG GT UGKPGP   8GTYCPFVGP-CTFKPCNUWPF*GT\QIUVKVGNUQYKG)GDKGVG<YKUEJGPFGO&GWVUEJGP4GKEJWPF(TCPMTGKEJ DGOÒJVGUKEJ2CWNWO0GWVTCNKV·V'TUCJFKG&TKPINKEJMGKVMKTEJNKEJGT4GHQTOGPUEJCHHVGFCUŋ%QPUK NKWO FG GOGPFGPFC GEENGUKCŌ FKG $GTCVWPI ÒDGT FKG 8GTDGUUGTWPI FGT -KTEJG  GTNCWDVG CWEJ PGWG   1TFGP YKG KO ,CJT  FKG ,GUWKVGP #O  MQPPVG KP 6TKGPV FCU -QP\KN GTÌHHPGV YGTFGP   PCEJFGO 2CWN UEJQP \WXQT GTHQNINQUG 8GTUWEJG IGV·VKIV JCVVG &WTEJ &TWEM FGU -CKUGTU -CTNU 8 KO   (TKGFGPXQP%T¾R[MQPPVGCWEJFGTHTCP\ÌUKUEJG-ÌPKI(TCP\+\WFGO-QP\KNDGYGIVYGTFGP+P FGP ,CJTGP  DKU  VCIVG FCU -QP\KN OKV FGO $GOÒJGP PCEJ 4GHQTOGP +O 5EJOCNMCNFKUEJGP   -TKGIWPVGTUVÒV\VGFGT2CRUVFGP-CKUGTFWTEJGKP#DMQOOGPXQPOKV)GNFGTPWPF6TWRRGPIGIGP FKG 2TQVGUVCPVGP &GPPQEJ NKVV FKG $G\KGJWPI \YKUEJGP -CKUGT WPF 2CRUV UGJT FWTEJ FCU +PVGTKO -CTNU   XQP  FCUU CNU ªDGTICPIUTGIGNWPI HÒT FGP )NCWDGP FKGPGP UQNNVG DKU FKG 2TQVGUVCPVGP YKGFGT KPU   4GKEJCWHIGPQOOGPYGTFGPMQPPVGP&GP6KGHRWPMVKPFGT$G\KGJWPIDKNFGVGFKG'TOQTFWPIFGU2CRUV UQJPGU2KGT.WKIKWPVGT/KVYKUUGPFGUMCKUGTNKEJGP5VCFVJCNVGTUXQP/CKNCPF)GIGPFCU#WHMQO OGP FGT CPINKMCPKUEJGP -KTEJG XGTOQEJVG 2CWN +++ YGPKI \W WPVGTPGJOGP 'U IGNCPI KJO PKEJV FKG   -ÌPKIG(TCPMTGKEJUWPFFGU&GWVUEJGP4GKEJGUIGIGP'PINCPFCWH\WYKGIGNP+P5CEJGP-WPUVMCPPOCP 2CWNFWTEJCWUCNU4GPCKUUCPEGRCRUVDG\GKEJPGP5QUVGNNVGGT/KEJGNCPIGNQCNUQDGTUVGP#TEJKVGMVGPGKP WPFNKGUFCU$KNFŋ&CU,ÒPIUVG)GTKEJVŌXQPKJOKPFGT5KZVKPKUEJGP-CRGNNGGTUEJCHHGP  

3WGNNG )CP\GT -NCWU 2CWN +++ KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU 2CRUVVWOU   (TGKDWTI WC 5

1189 1,5:1

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

5EWFQF QTQQ,4QOI(D/WPVQPK

)1.&5EJÌPG)QNFVÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



6GUVQPG#0:++  4QO/WPVQPK  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5CWDGTIGUVQRHVGU.QEJHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



1190



69


PAUL III.

1191

1192

  

2CQNQQ,4QO/WPVQPK )TQUUQ#:+++  4QO/WPVQPK )TQUUQQ,4QO/WPVQPK



2CQNQQ,$QNQIPC/WPVQPK

1194

1193

/ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC

5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ -N(NGEMUGJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP

  

5GJTUEJÌP



1197 1195

1196

/ÒP\UV·VVG2CTOC 

5EWFQF QTQQ,2CTOCI(D/WPVQPK  )1.&4/KP(CUUWPIUURWTGPGVYCUDGTKGDGPUGJTUEJÌP

 

5EWFQF QTQQ,2KCEGP\CI(D/WPVQPK )TQUUQQ,2KCEGP\C/WPVQPK

/ÒP\UV·VVG2KCEGP\C

)1.&5GJTUEJÌP 5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

  

1198

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU2CWN+++ 

70

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0:+  WPUKIPKGTVXGTOWVNKEJXQP#%GUCVKCWHFKGªDGTICDGFGU*GT\QIVWOU 2CTOC CP UGKPGP WPGJGNKEJGP 5QJP 2KGT .WKIK (CTPGUG $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV)CPKOGFGU   UVGJV JCNDN FKG .KPMG CWH FGP 4ÒEMGP GKPGU PGDGP KJO UVGJGPFGP #FNGTU IGNGIV WPF N·­V 9CUUGT CWU   GKPGOTIGUEJWNVGTVGP-TWICWHHCTPGUKUEJG.KNKGPHNKG­GPOO/QFGUVK 5GJTUEJÌP




PAUL III.

1200







1199

1201

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0:+++ UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU WPUKIPKGTVXGTOWV NKEJ XQP # %GUCVK CWH UGKPG $GOÒJWPIGP FKG #WUDTGKVWPI FGU RTQVGUVCPVKUEJGP )NCWDGPU \W XGTJKP   FGTP$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&TGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVFCTÒDGT.KNKGQDGP4GIGPDQIGPOO /QFGUVK 9KP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0:8+  WPUKIPKGTVXGTOWVNKEJXQP#%GUCVKCWHFGP$CWFGU2CNC\\Q(CTPGUG KP4QO$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU2CNC\\QUOO/QFGUVK  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0:8+ UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU WPUKIPKGTVIGHGTVKIV PCEJGKPGT8QTNCIGXQP#%GUCVKCWHFKG$GHGUVKIWPIWPF8GTUEJÌPGTWPIFGT5VCFV(TCUECVK$TWUVDKNF TKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT5VCFVFCTÒDGTFKG8KNNC4WHKPCOO/QFGUVK  -NGKPGU.QEJXQT\ÒINKEJ



1202

1203





1203

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0:8+ UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU XQP.)GPPCTK

4ÒEMUGKVG FKG8QTFGTUGKVGIGHGTVKIVOKVGKPGO5VGORGNXQP)$QP\CIPK IGPCPPV(GFGTKEQ2CTOGPUG  CWHFKG$GHGUVKIWPIWPF8GTUEJÌPGTWPIFGT5VCFV(TCUECVK$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT5VCFV FCTÒDGTFKG8KNNC4WHKPCOOI/QFGUVK 8QTFGTUGKVGNGKEJVIGIN·VVGVXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 :8 UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI WO   WPUKIPKGTV XQP ) 2CNCFKPQ $TWUVDKNF T   KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&CU R·RUVNKEJG 9CRRGP WPVGT IGMTGW\VGP 5EJNÒUUGNP QDGP 6KCTC  OO   /QFGUVK FQTVKP5KNDGT  8QT\ÒINKEJ

 71


JULIUS III.

2#256,7.+75+++

)GD5GRVGODGT4QOIGUV/·T\4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG)KQXCPPK/CTKCFGN/QPVG 2QPVKHKMCV(GDTWCTņ/·T\

  



,WNKWU +++ UVWFKGTVG YGNVNKEJGU WPF IGKUVNKEJGU 4GEJV KP 2GTWIKC WPF 5KGPC WPF FKGPVG CNU -COOGTJGTT   WPVGT 2CRUV ,WNKWU ++  YWTFG GT 'T\DKUEJQH XQP 5KRQPVQ WPF  -CTFKPCN 'KPG YKEJVKIG 4QNNG   PCJOGTKO6TKGPVGT-QP\KNXQPDKUWPFPCEJFGUUGP8GTNGIWPIPCEJ$QNQIPCDKU GKP FGPP GT HWPIKGTVG CNU GKPGT FGT 2T·UKFGPVGP #WHITWPF GKPGT 8GTUEJYÌTWPI FGWVUEJGT (ÒTUVGP WPF   CWH &TWEMFGUFGWVUEJGP-CKUGTUNKG­GTFCU-QP\KNXQODKUYKGFGTKP6TKGPVVCIGP+P FKGUGT\YGKVGP2GTKQFGFGU-QP\KNUYWTFGPYKEJVKIG4GHQTOGPDGUEJNQUUGPUQCWEJ&GMTGVG\WT'WEJC TKUVKG #WEJ ,WNKWU HÌTFGTVG FKG ,GUWKVGP CNU PGWGP 1TFGP WPF ÒDGTNKG­ KJPGPFCUŋ%QNNGIKWO)GTOCPK EWOŌFCUGTIGITÒPFGVJCVVG-WT\HTKUVKIMQPPVG,WNKWUFGP#PUEJNWUUFGTCPINKMCPKUEJGP-KTEJG CP4QOGTYKTMGPFQEJJCVVGFKGUGTMGKPGPFCWGTJCHVGP'THQNIFCOKVFGO6QFGFGTMCVJQNKUEJGP-ÌPK IKP/CTKC+KJTG0CEJHQNIGTKP'NK\CDGVJ+YKGFGTGKPG6TGPPWPIGTYKTMVG9KGXKGNGUGKPGT8QT I·PIGTNKG­CWEJ,WNKWU<ÒIGXQP0GRQVKUOWUGTMGPPGPCNUGT\WO$GKURKGNUGKPGP#FQRVKXPGHHGP+PPQ EGP\QFGN/QPVGGPQTOHÌTFGTVGWPFKJPKO#NVGTXQP,CJTGP\WO-CTFKPCNOCEJVG  

3WGNNG )CP\GT -NCWU ,WNKWU +++ KP -CURGT 9 *IWC .GZKMQPFGT2·RUVGWPFFGU2CRUVVWOU (TGKDWTI WC 5

1204 1,5:1

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

&WECVQ#0+++  4QO/WPVQPK

1205

  72

)KWNKQ#+8$+4QO/WPVQPK )KWNKQ#++  4QO/WPVQPK

 8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV-N&QRRGNUEJNCIUGJTUEJÌP



1206

5GJTUEJÌP 45GJTUEJÌP

 


JULIUS III.

1207

 

1208

)KWNKQQ,4QO/WPVQPK )KWNKQQ,4QO/WPVQPK

1209

5EJÌPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 5GJTUEJÌP



)TQUUQQ,4QO/WPVQPK

 

)KWNKQQ,#PEQPC/WPVQPK )KWNKQQ,#PEQPC/WPVQPK



1211

1210

/ÒP\UV·VVG#PEQPC

 

1212

5GJTUEJÌP



*GTTNKEJG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ 5EJÌPG2CVKPCMN2T·IGUEJY·EJGHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

45GJTUEJÌP



/ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC

$KCPEQQ,$QNQIPC/WPVQPK

1214

1213

1213

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU,WNKWU+++ 

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0+8$+.'+ UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU WPUKIPKGTV IGHGTVKIV PCEJ GKPGT 8QTNCIG XQP ) $QP\CIPK IGPCPPV (GFGTKEQ 2CTOGPUG  CWH FCU *GKNKIG ,CJT   $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU2GVGTUFQOUOO/QFGUVK  9KP\5VGORGNHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # +++  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  WPUKIPKGTV   IGHGTVKIV PCEJ GKPGT 8QTNCIG XQP # %GUCVK CWH UGKPG 9GKUJGKV $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV   2TWFGPVKCITGKHVFGTPCEJNUEJTGKVGPFGP(QTVWPCKPU*CCTT5EJNCPIGOO/QFGUVK FQTVKP 5KNDGT  8QT\ÒINKEJ

 73


MARCELLUS II.

1216

1215

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO



)KWNKQ4QO/WPVQPK



)KWNKQQ,#PEQPC/WPVQPK

/ÒP\UV·VVG#PEQPC

&+'5'&+58#-#0<810 445GJTUEJÌP



445EJÌPG6ÌPWPIVGKNYGKUGMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



2#256/#4%'..75++

)GD/CK/QPVGHCPQ DGK/CEGTCVCKPFGP/CTMGP IGUV/CK4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG/CTEGNNQ%GTXKPK 2QPVKHKMCV#RTKNņ/CK

  



/CTEGNNWUGPVUVCOOVGGKPGTCFGNKIGP(COKNKGCWU/QPVGRWNEKCPQ'TOCEJVGUKEJCNU'T\KGJGTFGU'PMGNU 2CWNU +++ -CTFKPCN #NGUUCPFTQ (CTPGUG GKPGP 0COGP WPF YWTFG UEJNKG­NKEJ FGU 2CRUVGU 5GMTGV·T   &CPCEJ HQNIVGP $KUEJQHU WPF -CTFKPCNUCOV  $KUEJQH XQP 0KECUVTQ  UQYKG YGKVGTG $KUEJQHU·OVGT    XQP 4GIIKQ'OKNKC WPF XQP)WDDKQ5GKVYKTMVG/CTEGNNWUCNUGKPGTFGT-QP\KNURT·UK FGPVGP KP 6TKGPV WPF GTTGKEJVG CWH FGT \YGKVGP 6CIWPIURGTKQFG  ņ  CWEJ YKTMNKEJ 4GHQTOGP   0CEJ UGKPGO UEJPGNNGP 6QF PWT FTGK 9QEJGP PCEJ #PVTKVV UGKPGU 2QPVKHKMCVU MQORQPKGTVG )KQXCPPK   2KGTNWKIKFC2CNGUVTKPCFKG/GUUGŋ/KUUC2CRCG/CTEGNNKŌYQFWTEJFGT2CRUVCWEJJGWVGPQEJDGMCPPVKUV 

3WGNNG 5EJYCKIGT )GQTI /CTEGNNWU ++ KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU   2CRUVVWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1217 1,5:1

 74

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

)KWNKQQ,4QO/WPVQPK

1,5:1

445EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ




PAUL IV.

1219

1218

/ÒP\UV·VVG#PEQPC



)KWNKQQ,#PEQPC/WPVQPK

8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





)CDGNNCQ,$QNQIPC/WPVQPK  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV*GTTNKEJGT6ÌPWPIMN4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



/ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC

2#2562#7.+8

)GD,WPK%CRTKINKQKO2KGOQPVIGUV#WIWUV4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG)KCORKGVTQ%CTCHC 2QPVKHKMCV/CKņ#WIWUV

  



2CWNXGTFCPMVGYKGXKGNGUGKPGT8QTI·PIGTCWEJUGKPGP#WHUVKGIFGT8GTYCPFVUEJCHVKPUDGUQPFGTGFGP -CTFKP·NGP 1NKXKGTQ %CTCHC WPF #NGUUCPFTQ %CTCHC FGO ,ÒPIGTGP 8QT UGKPGO 2QPVKHKMCV YCT GT WPVGT   CPFGTGOCNU0WPVKWUKP'WTQRCWPVGTYGIUUQKP0GCRGNKP'PINCPFWPFKP5RCPKGP 'TYCT/KVDGITÒPFGTFGU1TFGPUFGT6JGCVKPGTYWTFGGT'T\DKUEJQHXQP$TKPFKUKWPF'T\DK UEJQH XQP 0GCRGN 2CWN YCT \WFGO /KVINKGF GKPGU TGHQTOCVQTKUEJGP -QP\KNU FGU ŋEQPUKNKWO FG   GOGPFCPFC GEENGUKCŌ #W­GPRQNKVKUEJ HÒJTVG 2CWN IGURCPPVG $G\KGJWPIGP \W FGP *CDUDWTIGTP DGITÒP   FGVKPRGTUÌPNKEJGT#DPGKIWPIIGIGPÒDGT-CTN87OFGPJCDUDWTIKUEJGP'KPHNWUUKP5RCPKGP\WWPVGT DKPFGP UEJNQUU FGT 2CRUV OKV FGO HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP -ÌPKI  GKP /KNKV·TDÒPFPKU +P FGT (QNIG MCO GU   LGFQEJ\WGKPGO#PITKHHFGU*GT\QIGU(GTPCPFQ#NDCCWHFGP-KTEJGPUVCCVWPF2CWNOWUUVGGKPGP (TKGFGPUXGTVTCI WPVGT\GKEJPGP &GP #WIUDWTIGT 4GNKIKQPUHTKGFGP XQP  \YKUEJGP 2TQVGUVCPVGP WPF   -CVJQNKMGP NGJPVG GT CD GDGPUQ GKPG (QTVUGV\WPI FGU 6TKGPVGT -QP\KNU FC GT 4GHQTOGP GKIGPO·EJVKI   FWTEJHÒJTGPYQNNVGWPFPKEJVGTUVPCEJ$GUEJNWUUGKPGU-QP\KNU+PPGTJCNDFGU-KTEJGPUVCCVGUIKPI2CWN UVCTMIGIGP#DYGKEJNGTXQTDCWVGFKG+PSWKUKVKQPCWUWPFOCEJVGUKG\WTYKEJVKIUVGP$GJÌTFGKP4QO #WEJ IGIGP ,WFGP GTITKHH GT /C­PCJOGP 7PVGT2CWN+8GTNGDVGFGT0GRQVKUOWUGKPGŋ$NÒVGŌDKUGT FKG/CEJVIKGTUGKPGTXQPKJOIGHÌTFGTVGP0GHHGPGTMCPPVGWPFUKGDGKFGCWU4QOXGTDCPPVG  

3WGNNG )CP\GT -NCWU 2CWN +8 KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU 2CRUVVWOU   (TGKDWTI WC 5

1220

 

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

6GUVQPGQ,4QO/WPVQPK )KWNKQQ,4QO/WPVQPK

1221

5GJTUEJÌP 5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

  75


PAUL IV.

1223

1222

1224

/ÒP\UV·VVG#PEQPC



6GUVQPG#PEQPC/WPVQPK

5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



 

5EWFQF QTQQ,$QNQIPCI(D/WPVQPK )1.&5GJTUEJÌP $KCPEQ .KTC Q,$QNQIPC/WPVQPK 5EJÌPG2CVKPC(GNFGTOKPDGTKGDGPUGJTUEJÌP

 

/ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC

1225

1226

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU2CWN+8 



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ, UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU WPUKIPKGTVIGHGTVKIV PCEJ GKPGT 8QTNCIG XQP ) $QP\CIPK IGPCPPV (GFGTKEQ 2CTOGPUG  CWH UGKPG 9CJN $TWUVDKNF T KP   IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV%JTKUVWUUVGJVPCEJNWPFÒDGTIKDVFGOXQTKJOMPKGPFGP5V2GVTWU\YGK5EJNÒUUGN OO/QFGUVK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ, UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU WPUKIPKGTVIGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT 8QTNCIG XQP ) $QP\CIPK IGPCPPV (GFGTKEQ 2CTOGPUG  $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV$TWUVDKNF   %JTKUVKNOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNOO/QFGUVK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

&+'5'&+58#-#0<810

 

6GUVQPG4QO/WPVQPK )KWNKQ4QO/WPVQPKXCT



6GUVQPGQ,#PEQPC/WPVQPK

76

/ÒP\UV·VVG#PEQPC

1229

1228

1227

4-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP 5EJÌPG2CVKPCNGKEJVIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP

 

44-QTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP




PIUS IV.

2#2562+75+8

)GD/·T\/CKNCPFIGUV&G\GODGT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG)KQXCPPK#PIGNQ/GFKEK 2QPVKHKMCV&G\GODGTņ&G\GODGT

  



)KQXCPPK#PIGNQ/GFKEK WTURTÒPINKEJ/GFKIKPQ UVCOOVGCWUGKPGTWPDGFGWVGPFGP/CKN·PFGT(COKNKG FKG PKEJV OKV FGP O·EJVKIGP /GFKEK CWU (NQTGP\ XGTYCPFV YCT )NGKEJYQJN Y·JNVG GT CNU 2CRUV GKP   9CRRGP FCU FGOLGPKIGP FGT (NQTGPVKPGT /GFKEK UGJT ·JPGNVG &CPM UGKPGU ·NVGTGP $TWFGTU /CTMITCH   XQP/CTKIPCPQMQPPVGGTHTÒJ-CTTKGTGOCEJGP'TUVWFKGTVGKP$QNQIPC,WTCWPFGTNCPIVGCNU4GEJVU CPYCNV TCUEJ GKPG IWVG 4GRWVCVKQP  MCO GT PCEJ4QO*KGTGTYGEMVGGTFKG#WHOGTMUCOMGKVFGU 2CRUVGU 2CWN +++ FGT KJO FKG *GTTUEJCHV ÒDGT \CJNTGKEJG 5V·FVG CPXGTVTCWVG +P FGP ,CJTGP    WPVGTUVÒV\VG GT CNU CRQUVQNKUEJGT -QOOKUUCT FKG -·ORHG IGIGP FKG 6ÒTMGP 'U HQNIVG  FKG 'TPGP   PWPI \WO 'T\DKUEJQH XQP 4CIC\\C WPF 8K\GNGICV XQP $QNQIPC UQYKG FKG $GHÌTFGTWPI \WO )GPGTCN   MQOOKUUCTFGTR·RUVNKEJGP*KNHUVTWRRGPKO5EJOCNMCNFKUEJGP-TKGI2CWN+++GTPCPPVGKJPKO,CJT \WO -CTFKPCN OKV FGT 6KVGNMKTEJG 5CPVʼn#PCUVCUKC FKG -QPMNCXG Y·JNVG KJP CO  \WO 2CRUV   /KVUGKPGOIGY·JNVGP2CRUVPCOGP2KWU FGT(TQOOG YQNNVGGTUKEJXQPFGTTKIQTQUGP2QNKVKMUGKPGU 8QTI·PIGTU 2CWN +8 CDITGP\GP <W UGKPGP GTUVGP #OVUJCPFNWPIGP IGJÌTVGP GKPG )GPGTCNCOPGUVKG HÒT  CNNG 6GKNPGJOGT CP FGO #WHUVCPF Y·JTGPF FGT #OVU\GKV 2CWNU +8 WPF FKG #DWTVGKNWPI FGUUGP DGKFGT  0GHHGP -CTFKPCN %CTNQ %CTCHC WPF *GT\QI XQP 2CNKCPQ #O  YWTFG FCU  CNNIGOGKPG   -QP\KN XQP 6TKGPV \WO FTKVVGP /CN GKPDGTWHGP +P FGO \YGK ,CJTG CPFCWGTPFGP NGV\VGP 6GKN FGU   -QP\KNUYWTFGPYKEJVKIG-QORTQOKUUG\YKUEJGPTCFKMCNGPPCVKQPCNGP(QTFGTWPIGPWPFFGP6TCFKVKQPGP FGT TÌOKUEJGP -WTKG IGUEJNQUUGP <W GKPGO FGT YKEJVKIUVGP &GMTGVG IGJÌTVG DGKURKGNUYGKUG FCU DG   TÒJOVG)NCWDGPUDGMGPPVPKU2KWU+8FCUŋ(KFGK6TKFGPVKPCGŌ+PFGT$WNNG$GPGFKEVWU&GWUDGUV·VKIVG 2CRUV 2KWU +8 CO  CNNG &QMWOGPVG FGU -QP\KNU FKG KP FGT (QNIG\GKV \WT 0QTO KO VJGQNQ   IKUEJYKUUGPUEJCHVNKEJGP $GTGKEJ UQYKG HÒT 2TGFKIV 5GGNUQTIG WPF TGNKIKÌUGP 7PVGTTKEJV YWTFGP &KG   HKUMCNKUEJG5KVWCVKQP4QOUOWUUVGWPVGTFGT$CWNGKFGPUEJCHVFGU2CRUVGUUGJTNGKFGPFKG5VCFVUGNDUVWPF CWEJCPFGTG4GIKQPGPFGU-KTEJGPUVCCVGUYWTFGPCNNGTFKPIU\WTQRVKUEJGP<KGTFG'KPG8GTUEJYÌTWPI CPIGHÒJTV XQP $GPGFGVVQ#EEQNVKGKPGOMCVJQNKUEJGP(CPCVKMGTMQPPVG\GTUEJNCIGPYGTFGPCDGT UEJQPCOUVCTDFGTHÒTFKGMCVJQNKUEJG4GHQTOUQDGFGWVGPFG2CRUV2KWU+8

1230 1,5:1

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

&WECVQQ,4QO%0+:85/WPVQPKp  8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 77


PIUS IV.

1231

1232

 

6GUVQPGQ,4QO/WPVQPK 6GUVQPGQ,4QO/WPVQPK

 

6GUVQPG#PEQPC/WPVQPK )KWNKQQ,#PEQPC/WPVQPK

/ÒP\UV·VVG#PEQPC

1235

 

1234

1233

5GJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP

 

5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP

 

1236

/ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC

5EWFQF QTQQ,$QNQIPCI(D/WPVQPK $KCPEQ .KTC Q,$QNQIPC/WPVQPK

)1.&42T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP -N&QRRGNUEJNCIUGJTUEJÌP

 

1238

1237

1239

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU2KWU+8 





78

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ, UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU WPUKIPKGTVIGHGTVKIVPCEJ GKPGT8QTNCIGXQP)(CEEKQNKWPF)$QP\CIPK IGPCPPV(GFGTKEQ2CTOGPUG CWHUGKPG9CJN$TWUVDKNFN KPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV%JTKUVWUUVGJVPCEJNWPFUGIPGVFKG)N·WDKIGPOO/QFGUVK  8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ,  XQP)$QP\CIPK IGPCPPV(GFGTKEQ2CTOGPUG CWHFCU6QFGUWTVGKNHÒTFKG $TÒFGT %CTNQ WPF )KQXCPPK %CTCHC $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV%JTKUVWU UVGJV PCEJ N XQT 6GO   RGNWPFXGTVTGKDVOKVGKPGT)GK­GNGKPG5EJCTXQP*·PFNGTPWPF)GNFYGEJUNGTPXQTKJOGKPWOIGHCNNG PGT9GEJUGNVKUEJOKV4GEJGPRHGPPKIGPOO/QFGUVK -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ,  WPUKIPKGTVXQP)$QP\CIPK IGPCPPV(GFGTKEQ2CTOGPUG CWHFGP$CWFGT 8KC2KC$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV<YGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVFCTÒDGTIGHNÒIGNVGT'PIGNUMQRHWOJGT .QTDGGTMTCP\OO/QFGUVK 445GJTUEJÌP




PIUS V.

1240





1241

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ,  WPUKIPKGTVXQP)$QP\CIPK IGPCPPV(GFGTKEQ2CTOGPUG CWHFKG$GHGUVK IWPIUCPNCIGP XQP %KXKVCXGEEJKC $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV XQP %KXKVCXGEEJKC OKV FGP   $GHGUVKIWPIUCPNCIGPCWUFGT8QIGNRGTURGMVKXGOO/QFGUVK )GNQEJVUGJTUEJÌP



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ, UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU WPUKIPKGTVIGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT 8QTNCIG XQP ) (CEEKQNK WPF ) $QP\CIPK IGPCPPV (GFGTKEQ 2CTOGPUG  $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO   1TPCV$TWUVDKNF%JTKUVKNOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGNOO/QFGUVK FQTVKP5KNDGT   48QT\ÒINKEJ



2#2562+758

)GD,CPWCT$QUEQKPFGT0·JG#NGUUCPFTKCUIGUV/CK4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG/KEJGNG)JKUNKGTK 2QPVKHKMCV,CPWCTņ/CK *GKNKIURTGEJWPICO#RTKN

   



2KWU .GDGPWPFUGKPG<GKVCNU2CRUVYCTGPGPVUEJGKFGPFXQPFGT+PSWKUKVKQPIGRT·IV/KV,CJTGPVTCV GTFGO1TFGPFGT&QOKPKMCPGTDGKWPFYWTFG2TKGUVGT<WXQTYCTGT.GMVQTHÒT6JGQNQIKG WPF2JKNQUQRJKGCPFGT7PKXGTUKV·V2CXKC)TQ­G#WHOGTMUCOMGKVUKEJGTVGUKEJ2KWUY·JTGPFUGKPGT<GKV CNU+PSWKUKVQTKP%QOQXQP5GKVGP)KCORGVTQ%CTCHCUUR·VGT2CRUV2CWN+8'TUVKGIKPFGT+PSWKUKVKQP YGKVGT CWH WPF YWTFG WPVGT 2CRUV ,WNKWU+++\WO)GPGTCNMQOOKUUCTFGTTÌOKUEJGP+PSWKUKVKQP0GDGP $KUEJQHU·OVGTPWPFFGT'TPGPPWPI\WO-CTFKPCNYWTFG2KWU)TQ­KPSWKUKVQTFGTTÌOKUEJGP -KTEJG CNUQ \WO 5VGNNXGTVTGVGT FGT +PSWKUKVKQP KPPGTJCND GKPGU 5VCCVGU (ÒT UGKPG9CJN\WO2CRUVYCT DGUQPFGTU FGT DGMCPPVG )GIGPTGHQTOGT -CTN $QTTQO·WU XGTCPVYQTVNKEJ &KG <GKV DGK FGT +PSWKUKVKQP   OCEJVG UKEJ CWEJ Y·JTGPF UGKPGT #OVU\GKV CNU 2CRUV DGOGTMDCT 5Q YWTFG IGIGP CNNG CDYGKEJGPFGP   )GUKPPWPIGPJCTVXQTIGICPIGP7PVGTKJOYWTFGPXKGNG/GPUEJGP\WO6QFGXGTWTVGKNV&KG*WIGPQVVGP KP(TCPMTGKEJJ·VVG2KWUIGTPGXQNNUV·PFKICWUIGNÌUEJVIGUGJGP&CJGTYKFGTUGV\VGGTUKEJCWEJFGO 4GNKIKQPUHTKGFGP XQP 5CKPV)GTOCKP #WEJ XQT 5VCCVUQDGTJ·WRVGTP OCEJVG UGKPG TKIQTQUG 2QNKVKM PKEJV   *CNV5QGTNKG­GTCOFKG$WNNGŋ4GIPCPUKPGZEGNUKUŌIGIGPFKGGPINKUEJG-ÌPKIKP'NK\CDGVJ+ KPFGTFKGUGCNU*·TGVKMGTKPDG\GKEJPGVWPFHÒTCDIGUGV\VGTMN·TVYWTFG5QNEJG#DUGV\WPIUWTVGKNGIGIGP -ÌPKIG ICD GU FCPCEJ DKU \WO JGWVKIGP 6CI PKEJV OGJT <W 2JKNKRR ++ XQP 5RCPKGP YCTGP FKG   $G\KGJWPIGPCNNGUCPFGTGCNUGPVURCPPVFCFKGUGTGKPUVCTMGUURCPKUEJGU5VCCVUMKTEJGPVWODGHÒTYQTVGVG +O)PCFGPUVTGKVUVGNNVGGTUKEJIGIGP/KEJCGN$CLWUFGPIGKUVKIGP8CVGTFGU$CLCPKUOWUWPFXGTWTVGKNVG  5·V\G UGKPGT .GJTG FKG WPVGT CPFGTGO CWEJ FKG 7PHGJNDCTMGKV FGU 2CRUVGU DGUVTKVV 'THQNITGKEJ YCT   2KWUFCHÒTKO-CORHIGIGPFKG6ÒTMGPMQPPVGGTFQEJFKG*GKNKIG.KIC\WUCOOGPOKV8GPGFKI WPF 5RCPKGP ITÒPFGP WPF KO UGNDGP ,CJT KO )QNH XQP .GRCVQ GKPGP DGFGWVGPFGP 5KGI GTTKPIGP   &CTCWHJKPHÒJTVG2KWUFCUCWEJJGWVGPQEJ\GNGDTKGTVG4QUGPMTCP\HGUVCNU)GFGPMVCICPFKGUGPYKEJVKIGP 6TKWORJGKP+P5CEJGPCPVKMGT-WPUVDGYKGU2KWUYGPKI(GKPIGHÒJNWPFOWUUVGXQPUGKPGP-CTFKP·NGP KOOGT YKGFGT FCXQP CDIGJCNVGP YGTFGP CNVTÌOKUEJG $CWYGTMG QFGT CPVKMG 5EJ·V\G CNU ŋJGKFPKUEJG   )ÌVVGTDKNFGTŌCDTGK­GPQFGTYGIIGDGP\WNCUUGP9GTMG6JQOCUXQP#SWKPUWPF$QPCXGPVWTCUNKG­GT PGWCWHNGIGP  

3WGNNG )CP\GT -NCWU 2KWU 8 KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU 2CRUVVWOU   (TGKDWTI WC 5 79


PIUS V.

1242



/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

6GUVQPGQ,4QO/WPVQPK



)KWNKQQ,4QO/WPVQPKXCT



6GUVQPGQ,#PEQPC/WPVQPK

1244

1243

45EJÌPG2CVKPCMN&QRRGNUEJNCIYKP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



(CUVUGJTUEJÌP



'VYCU$GNCIUGJTUEJÌP



/ÒP\UV·VVG#PEQPC

1247 1245



1246

)KWNKQQ,#PEQPC/WPVQPK

5GJTUEJÌP



5GJTUEJÌP



5GJTUEJÌP



/ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC 

$KCPEQ .KTC Q,$QNQIPC/WPVQPK



-W3WCVVTKPQ$QNQIPC/WPVQPK

1248

1,5:1

1248

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU2KWU8 

80

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q , WO   XQP ) $QP\CIPK IGPCPPV (GFGTKEQ 2CTOGPUG  CWH FGP 5KGI FGT   *GKNKIGP.KICIGIGPFKG1UOCPGPDGKFGT5GGUEJNCEJVXQP.GRCPVQ$ÒUVGTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV2CZ UVGJV PCEJ N KP FGT 4GEJVGP (ÒNNJQTP KP FGT .KPMGP (CEMGNOKVFGTUKG9CHHGPCPUVGEMVOO I/QFGUVK 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 


PIUS V.

1249



6CNGTHÌTOKIG 5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 8  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU    IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT8QTNCIGXQP)#FG4QUUKCWHFKG$KNFWPIFGT*GKNKIGP.KICIGIGPFKG6ÒTMGP $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV OKV UGIPGPFGT 4GEJVGP&KG 2GTUQPKHKMCVKQPGP XQP 5RCPKGP FGU -KT   EJGPUVCCVU WPF 8GPGFKI UVGJGP KO -TGKU KO #DUEJPKVV DGHKPFGP UKEJ FKG 5[ODQNG FGT FTGK 2CTVGKGP   #FNGT.COO)QVVGUWPF/CTMWUNÌYGOOI/QFGUVK FQTVKP$TQP\G   (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



1250

1251





1251

8GTIQNFGVG $TQP\GOGFCKNNG #001 8+ XQP ) $QP\CIPK IGPCPPV (GFGTKEQ 2CTOGPUG  CWH FKG   5GGUEJNCEJVXQP.GRCPVQ$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&KGEJTKUVNKEJG(NQVVGUGIGNVPCEJTFCXQT UKPMGPFGVÒTMKUEJG5EJKHHGFKGXQP)QVVXCVGTCWH9QNMGPIGDNGPFGVYGTFGPOO/QFGUVK  8GTIQNFGVRQNKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



6TCIDCTG 5KNDGTIW­OGFCKNNG #001 8+ XQP ) $QP\CIPK IGPCPPV (GFGTKEQ 2CTOGPUG  CWH FKG   5GGUEJNCEJVXQP.GRCPVQ$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&KGEJTKUVNKEJG(NQVVGUGIGNVPCEJTFCXQT UKPMGPFG VÒTMKUEJG 5EJKHHG FKG XQP )QVVXCVGT CWH 9QNMGP IGDNGPFGV YGTFGP  OO  I   /QFGUVK\W FQTVIGRT·IVGU1TKIKPCNKP$TQP\G  6TCIDCTGTUGJTUEJÌPGT\GKVIGPÌUUKUEJGT)W­



1252



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ, UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU WPUKIPKGTVIGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT 8QTNCIGXQP)2CNCFKPQCWHUGKPG5GNKIURTGEJWPIKO,CJT$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCVOKV UGIPGPFGT 4GEJVGP&GT 2CRUV VJTQPV PCEJ T DGINGKVGV XQP \YGK 2T·NCVGP WPF GZQT\KGTV FKG XQT KJO   UVGJGPFG'EENGUKCFGTFKG&·OQPGPCWUFGO/WPFHCJTGPOO/QFGUVK 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 81


GREGOR XIII.

2#256)4')14:+++

)GD,CPWCT$QNQIPCIGUV#RTKN4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG7IQ$QPEQORCIPK 2QPVKHKMCV/CKņ#RTKN

  



5GKVKOMWTKCNGP&KGPUVFGT-KTEJGPCJO)TGIQTWPFDKUCO-QP\KNXQP6TKGPV VGKNWPFMQPPVGJKGTITQ­GP'KPHNWUUPGJOGP&KG4GHQTOFGMTGVGFGU-QP\KNUUKPF\WGKPGOIWVGP6GKN UGKP8GTFKGPUV0CEJFGT'TPGPPWPI\WO-CTFKPCNWPF.GICVGPKP5RCPKGPMQPPVGUKEJ)TGIQTFCU 8GTVTCWGP FGU URCPKUEJGP -ÌPKIU 2JKNKRRU ++ XGTUEJCHHGP &KGUGT UGV\VG UKEJ YKGFGTWO \WUCOOGP OKV   -CTFKPCN #PVQKPG 2GTTGPQV HÒT )TGIQTU 9CJN \WO 2CRUV GKP YGUJCND GT PCEJ GKPGO UGJT MWT\GP   -QPMNCXGIGY·JNVYWTFG9·JTGPFUGKPGU2QPVKHKMCVUIKPIGTGPVUEJKGFGPIGIGP2TQVGUVCPVGPWPF#PINK MCPGT XQT 5Q WPVGTUVÒV\VG )TGIQT FGP HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP -ÌPKI *GKPTKEJ +++ IGIGP FKG *WIGPQVVGP #WEJ   JCNH GT FGP +TGP WPF 5RCPKGTP IGIGPÒDGT FGO GPINKUEJGP -ÌPKITGKEJ WPVGT 'NK\CDGVJ + GDGPUQ FGP   5RCPKGTPDGKKJTGT)GIGPTGHQTOCVKQPKPFGP0KGFGTNCPFGP+O&GWVUEJGP4GKEJMQPPVG)TGIQTFCU'T\ DKUVWO-ÌNPUKEJGTPPCEJFGOFGUUGP'T\DKUEJQH)GDJCTFXQP9CNFWTIUKEJNQUIGUCIVJCVVG#WU 5QTIGWOFKG+PVGITKV·VFGU&GWVUEJGP4GKEJGUTKEJVGVGGTGKPG-CTFKPCNUMQPITGICVKQPHÒTFCU4GKEJ GKP)TGIQTHÌTFGTVGFGP1TFGPFGT,GUWKVGPWPF\GKEJPGVGUKEJJKGTFWTEJWOHCPITGKEJG$CWV·VKIMGKVGP CWU5QGTTKEJVGVGGTKP4QOXKGNG-QNNGIGWPFTGVVGVGFCUŋ%QNNGIKWO)GTOCPKEWOŌXQTFGO4WKP+P OGJTGTGP .·PFGTP ITÒPFGVG GT\WFGO5GOKPCTKGPGTTGHQTOKGTVGFGP,WNKCPKUEJGP-CNGPFGTWPFUGV\VG UKEJHÒT/KUUKQPKP+PFKGPWPF,CRCPGKP#NNFKGUG/C­PCJOGPDGFWTHVGPITQ­GT5WOOGP)GNF5QMCO GU FCUU FKG (KPCP\GP WPVGT )TGIQT :+++ KP UVCTMGO /C­G DGNCUVGV YWTFGP &CU #WHMQOOGP XQP   $CPFKVGPDCPFGPWO4QOMQPPVG)TGIQTCO'PFGUGKPGT#OVU\GKVPKEJVOGJTGKPF·OOGPWPFJKPVGTNKG­ FKGUGU2TQDNGOUGKPGO0CEJHQNIGT5KZVWU8  

3WGNNG5EJYCKIGT)GQTI)TGIQT:+++KP-CURGT9 *IWC .GZKMQPFGT2·RUVGWPFFGU2CRUV VWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1253

 

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

6GUVQPGQ,4QO/WPVQPK 6GUVQPGQ,4QO/WPVQPK

1255

  82

6GUVQPGQ,4QO/WPVQPK 6GUVQPGQ,4QO/WPVQPK

1254

5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP

 

1256

5GJTUEJÌP 2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP

 


GREGOR XIII.

1258

1257



6GUVQPGQ,4QO/WPVQPK

5GJTUEJÌP





6GUVQPGQ,4QO/WPVQPK

-N&QRRGNUEJNCIUGJTUEJÌP



1259

1260



)KWNKQQ,4QO/WPVQPK



6GUVQPG#PEQPC/WPVQPKXCT

5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP



/KP-QTTQUKQPUUVGNNGPUGJTUEJÌP



/ÒP\UV·VVG#PEQPC

1261

1262

1263

1264



6GUVQPG#PEQPC/WPVQPK

4-TCV\GTCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGUGJTUEJÌP





6GUVQPGQ,#PEQPC/WPVQPK8CT+  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





6GUVQPGQ,#PEQPC/WPVQPK

5GJTUEJÌP





6GUVQPGQ,#PEQPC/WPVQPK

2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP



1265

1266

/ÒP\UV·VVG#XKIPQP 

$KCPEJKQ,#XKIPQP/WPVQPK

5GJTUEJÌP



)1.&45GJTUEJÌP



/ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC 

5EWFQF QTQQ,$QNQIPCI(D/WPVQPK

83


GREGOR XIII.

1267

1,5:1



1,5:1

5EWFQF QTQQ,$QNQIPCI(D/WPVQPK  )1.&44#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT

1268



)TGIQTKQQ,$QNQIPC/WPVQPK



6GUVQPGQ,(CPQ/WPVQPK



1269

45GJTUEJÌP



5GJTUEJÌP



5EJÌPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



5GJTUEJÌP



/ÒP\UV·VVG(CPQ

1270



6GUVQPGQ,(CPQ/WPVQPK

1271

/ÒP\UV·VVG/CEGTCVC 

6GUVQPGQ,/CEGTCVC/WPVQPK

1272

1273

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU)TGIQT:+++ 



84

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 + UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT 8QTNCIGXQP)$QP\CIPK IGPCPPV(GFGTKEQ2CTOGPUG CWHFCU/CUUCMGTCPFGP*WIGPQVVGP$TWUVDKNFN KPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV'PIGNUEJTGKVGVTKPFGT4GEJVGP5EJYGTVKPFGT.KPMGP-TGW\XQTKJOIGVÌVGVG WPFXGTNGV\VG*WIGPQVVGPOOI/QFGUVK (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0+ UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT 8QTNCIGXQP)$QP\CIPK IGPCPPV(GFGTKEQ2CTOGPUG CWHFCU/CUUCMGTCPFGP*WIGPQVVGP$TWUVDKNFN KPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV'PIGNUEJTGKVGVTKPFGT4GEJVGP5EJYGTVKPFGT.KPMGP-TGW\XQTKJOIGVÌVGVG WPFXGTNGV\VG*WIGPQVVGPOO/QFGUVK FQTVKP5KNDGT  8QT\ÒINKEJ




GREGOR XIII.

1275





1274

1275

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 +8$+.'+ XQP . (TCIPK IGPCPPV .QTGP\Q 2CTOGPUG  CWH FCU *GKNKIG ,CJT   $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG IGÌHHPGVG *GKNKIG 2HQTVG OKV \YGK )KTNCPFGP XGT\KGTV FCTKP   UEJYGDGPFGT'PIGNOKV\YGK2QUCWPGPOOI/QFGUVK  445GJTUEJÌPG1TKIKPCNRT·IWPI



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+++XQP/#$CNNCCWHFCU*GKNKIG,CJT$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV &KGIGÌHHPGVG*GKNKIG2HQTVGFCTKPFKG6CWDGFGU*GKNKIGP)GKUVGUÒDGT6KCTCOO/QFGUVK 445GJTUEJÌPG1TKIKPCNRT·IWPI



1276

1277

1277



8GTIQNFGVG $TQP\GOGFCKNNG # +++ XQP / # $CNNC CWH FCU *GKNKIG ,CJT $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUV   NKEJGO 1TPCV&KG IGÌHHPGVG *GKNKIG 2HQTVG FCTKP FKG 6CWDG FGU *GKNKIGP )GKUVGU ÒDGT 6KCTC   OO/QFGUVK 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNG #00 ++++ PCEJ & 2QIIKPK CWH FCU *GKNKIG ,CJT $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO   1TPCV5V 2GVTWU UVGJV PCEJ T WPF JGKNV GKPGP XQT KJO UKV\GPFGP )GN·JOVGP  OO /WPVQPK \W    FQTVIGRT·IVGU1TKIKPCN  5GJTUEJÌP



1278





1279

$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNG#008++WPUKIPKGTVXQP)8/GNQPGCWHUGKPG$GOÒJWPIGP\WT8GTVGKFK IWPI FGT 4ÌOKUEJGP -KTEJG $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&GT &TCEJGP 5[ODQN UGKPGT (COKNKG   $QPEQORCIPKDGUEJÒV\VFGP'KPICPIGKPGU)GD·WFGUOO/QFGUVK 445GJTUEJÌP



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XQP ) 8 /GNQPG CWH UGKPG 8GTFKGPUVG $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO   1TPCV OKV UGIPGPFGT 4GEJVGP2CZ UVGJVPCEJTWPFXGTDTGPPV-TKGIUU[ODQNGOKVGKPGT(CEMGNKPFGT /KVVGUKV\V,WUVKVKCXXKPFGT4GEJVGP5EJYGTVKPFGT.KPMGP9CCIGTUVGJV#DWPFCPVKCXXKPFGT 4GEJVGPJTGPKONKPMGP#TO(ÒNNJQTPOO/QFGUVK  44*GPMGNURWT(GNFGTVGKNYGKUGIGIN·VVGVUGJTUEJÌP

 85


GREGOR XIII.

1280







1281

1282

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT8QT NCIG XQP . (TCIPK IGPCPPV .QTGP\Q 2CTOGPUG  CWH FGP $CW FGT 2QPVG )TGIQTKCPQ Ã&#x2019;DGT FGP (NW­   2CINKC $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT $TÃ&#x2019;EMG Ã&#x2019;DGT FGO (NW­ KO 8QTFGTITWPF NCIGTV   FGT (NW­IQVV PCEJ T CP 3WGNNWTPG IGNGJPV KP FGT .KPMGP &TGK\CEM  OO /QFGUVK \W  FQTV   1TKIKPCNRT·IWPI  8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT8QT NCIGXQP.(TCIPK IGPCPPV.QTGP\Q2CTOGPUG CWHFKG4GHQTOFGU,WNKCPKUEJGP-CNGPFGTU$TWUVDKNFT KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV9KFFGTMQRH X X OKV )KTNCPFG DGJCPIGP FCTÃ&#x2019;DGT 5VGTP WOJGT &TCEJGPTKPI   OO/QFGUVK FQTVKP5KNDGT  8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT8QT NCIG XQP . (TCIPK IGPCPPV .QTGP\Q 2CTOGPUG  CWH FGP $CW FGT -KTEJG 5CP )TGIQTKQ /CIPQKPFGT )GOGKPFG /QPVG 2QT\KQ %CVQPG $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT -KTEJG  OO   /QFGUVK 9KP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



1283

1,5:1



86

1,5:1

)QNFOGFCKNNG #0 +  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  IGHGTVKIV PCEJ   GKPGT 8QTNCIG XQP ) $QP\CIPK IGPCPPV (GFGTKEQ 2CTOGPUG  $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV   %JTKUVWUUVGJVPCEJNWPFÃ&#x2019;DGTIKDVFGOXQTKJOMPKGPFGP5V2GVTWU\YGK5EJNÃ&#x2019;UUGNOOI /QFGUVK FQTVKP$TQP\G  )1.&8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ 


SIXTUS V.

2#2565+:6758

)GD&G\GODGT)TQVVCOCTG CPFGT#FTKCMÒUVG\YKUEJGP#PEQPCWPF2GUECTC  IGUV#WIWUV4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG(GNKEG2GTGVVK 2QPVKHKMCV#RTKNņ#WIWUV

   



+O )GIGPUCV\ \W XKGNGP UGKPGT 8QTI·PIGT UVCOOVG 5KZVWU CWU CTOGP 8GTJ·NVPKUUGP 'T IGYCPP CP $G   FGWVWPICNU)GPGTCNXKMCTFGU/KPWKVGPQTFGPUYWTFGGT$KUEJQHXQP5CPV #ICVGFGK)QVKDKU  $KUEJQH XQP (GTOQ WPF  -CTFKPCN 'KP 2TQDNGO UGKV UGKPGO 8QTI·PIGT 2CRUV )TGIQT :+++   UVGNNVGPFKG$CPFKVGPDCPFGPKO.CPFFCTIGIGPFKG5KZVWUGTHQNITGKEJXQTIKPI&KGWPVGT)TGIQTUVCTM DGNCUVGVGP(KPCP\GPFGU5VCCVGUXGTDGUUGTVGGTFWTEJ5RCTOC­PCJOGPWPFGKPGXGTUV·TMVG5KOQPKGHÒTFKG MWTKCNGP OVGT 6TQV\ FKGUGT /C­PCJOGP DNKGD FGO 2CRUV )GNF HÒT \CJNTGKEJG $CWV·VKIMGKVGP UQ FKG   ŋ8KC 5KUVKPCŌ \CJNTGKEJG 1DGNKUMGP FCU #SW·FWMV ŋ#ESWC (GNKEGŌ WPF FKG (GTVKIUVGNNWPI FGT -WRRGN   FGU 2GVGTUFQOU .KVGTCTKUEJ JQD GT UKEJ LGFQEJ PKEJV UQ RQUKVKX JGTXQT FC UGKPG *GTCWUICDG FGT   ÒDGTUGV\VGP $KDGN FGT 8WNICVC WPVGT -TKVKM IGTKGV WPF XQP 2CRUV %NGOGPU 8+++ 2CRUV XQP  DKU     KP CDIG·PFGTVGT (QTO JGTCWUIGDTCEJV YWTFG &KG -WTKG TGHQTOKGTVG 5KZVWU  FWTEJ FKG ŋ+O   OGPUCCGVGTPKŌFCJKPIGJGPFFCUUKJO-CTFKPCNUMQPITGICVKQPGPFKTGMVWPVGTUVCPFGPWPFFKG<CJNFGT -CTFKP·NG CNNIGOGKP GTJÌJV YWTFG #W­GPRQNKVKUEJ VTCV 5KZVWU OKV FGT ªDGT\GWIWPI CWH FCUU UKEJ CNNG   YGNVNKEJGP *GTTUEJGT FGO 2CRUV WPVGT\WQTFPGP JCDGP &KGUG ªDGT\GWIWPI MQPPVG GT LGFQEJ PKEJV IG   IGPÒDGT'PINCPFFWTEJUGV\GPFCUUKEJFGTMCVJQNKUEJGP-KTEJGPKEJVOGJTCPUEJNQUUWPFIGUV·TMVFWTEJ FGPGPINKUEJGP5KGIÒDGTFKGURCPKUEJG(NQVVGNKGDGTGKIGPG9GIGOKVFGTCPINKMCPKUEJGP-KTEJG IKPI *GKPTKEJ XQP 0CXCTTC FGO -ÌPKI (TCPMTGKEJU YCTH 5KZVWU  *·TGUKG XQT FC GT UKEJ \WO   %CNXKPKUOWUDGMCPPVG'TURTCEJKJOLGINKEJGU4GEJVCWHFGP6JTQPCDCPIGUVCEJGNVYWTFG5KZVWUFCDGK XQOURCPKUEJGP-ÌPKI2JKNKRR++  

3WGNNG )CP\GT -NCWU 5KZVWU 8 KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU 2CRUVVWOU   (TGKDWTI WC 5

1284

 

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

6GUVQPG#+  4QO/WPVQPK 6GUVQPGQ,4QO/WPVQPK

1286

 

1285

6GUVQPGQ,4QO/WPVQPK 6GUVQPGQ,4QO/WPVQPK8CT++

5GJTUEJÌP (CUVUGJTUEJÌP

 

5GJTUEJÌP (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

1287

87


SIXTUS V.

1289

1288



6GUVQPG#+  4QO/WPVQPK

5EJÌPG2CVKPCMN5VGORGNTK­UGJTUEJÌP





6GUVQPG#+  4QO/WPVQPK

(GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP



1290

1291



6GUVQPG#+  4QO/WPVQPK

&QRRGNUEJNCIUGJTUEJÌP





6GUVQPG#+  4QO/WPVQPK

5EJÌPG2CVKPCMN&QRRGNUEJNCIUGJTUEJÌP



1292

1293



6GUVQPG#00++  4QO8CTKCPVGOKV#00++UVCVV#00+++KPFGT,CJTGU\CJN/WPVQPKXIN  FQTV#00+++  5GJTUEJÌP





6GUVQPG4QO8CTKCPVGOKV#./UVCVV#./#KPFGT4ÒEMUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV/WPVQPKXCT  5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



1295

1294

1296

/ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC 

)CDGNNQPGQ,$QNQIPC/WPVQPK

445EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





$KCPEQ .KTC Q,$QNQIPC/WPVQPK (GKPG6ÌPWPIMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP





5KUVQQ,$QNQIPC/WPVQPK



88

(GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ


SIXTUS V.

1298

1297

1298



)CDGNNCQ,$QNQIPC/WPVQPK

5EJÌPG6ÌPWPIMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP





2KCUVTCQ, #00++++ /QPVCNVQ/WPVQPK  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5VCTMDGUEJPKVVGPCWHFKG)TÌ­GGKPGU6GUVQPUMN-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



/ÒP\UV·VVG/QPVCNVQ

1299



2KCUVTC#00++++/QPVCNVQ/WPVQPK  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV)GTKPIGTJCNVGPGU$GNGIUVÒEM



1301

1300

 

1300

6GUVQPG/QPVCNVQ/WPVQPKC $CKQEEJK/QPVCNVQ/WPVQPKC

445GJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP

 

1302

1,5:1

1,5:1

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU5KZVWU8 

)QNFOGFCKNNG\W&WMCVGP#00+  WPUKIPKGTVXQP)$QP\CIPK IGPCPPV(GFGTKEQ2CTOGPUG  CWH FKG 4GHQTO FGU MCVJQNKUEJGP -NGTWU $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV%JTKUVWU UVGJV PCEJ T XQT   6GORGNWPFXGTVTGKDVOKVGKPGT)GK­GNGKPG5EJCTXQP*·PFNGTPWPF)GNFYGEJUNGTPTGKPWOIGHCNNGPGT 9GEJUGNVKUEJOKV4GEJGPRHGPPKIGPOOI/QFGUVK  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(GNFGTOKPIGIN·VVGVUGJTUEJÌP  89


SIXTUS V.





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #00 ++   WPUKIPKGTVXQP&2QIIKPKCWHFKG8GTUEJ·THWPIFGT5KEJGTJGKVUOC­ PCJOGPKP4QO$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV9CPFGTUOCPPNKGIVPCEJTXQTGKPGO$CWOPGDGP KJONKGIVUGKPQHHGPGT)GNFDGWVGNWPFJGTCWUIGHCNNGPG/ÒP\GPOO/QFGUVK FQTVKP5KNDGT  -TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



8GTUKNDGTVG$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#01++XQP/#$CNNCCWHFKG'TTKEJVWPIFGU1DGNKUMGP8CVKECPQ XQT FGO 2GVGTUFQO $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGU 1DGNKUMGP KO *KPVGTITWPF 2GVGTU   FQOOO/QFGUVK FQTVKP5KNDGT   448QTFGTUGKVGXGTUKNDGTVDGCTDGKVGVWPFIGIN·VVGVUGJTUEJÌPXQT\ÒINKEJ



1305





1303

1304

1303

1306

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #00 +++  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  WPUKIPKGTV CWH   FCU PGWG 8GTMGJTUU[UVGO KP 4QO $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV/CTKC OKV -KPF CWH FGO #TO  

2GTUQPKHKMCVKQP FGT -KTEJG5CPVC/CTKC/CIIKQTG UVGJVXXXQPKJTIGJGPXKGT5VTC­GPCWUFKG\W XKGT XGTUEJKGFGPGP CNU 2GTUQPGP D\Y 5[ODQNG FCTIGUVGNNVG -KTEJGP HÒJTGP  OO  I   /QFGUVK (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #00 +++ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  WPUKIPKGTV CWH   FKG #WHUVGNNWPI FGT 5VCVWGP XQP 5V 2GVTWU WPF 5V 2CWNWU CWH FGT 6TCLCPUU·WNG D\Y FGT /CTM#WTGN   5·WNGKP4QO$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT5VCVWGPQDGP5VGTPOO/QFGUVK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1307

1308





90

1308

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #00 +++ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  WPUKIPKGTV CWH   FKG #WHUVGNNWPI FGT 5VCVWGP XQP 5V 2GVTWU WPF 5V 2CWNWU CWH FGT 6TCLCPUU·WNG D\Y FGT /CTM#WTGN   5·WNGKP4QO$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT5VCVWGPQDGP5VGTPOO/QFGUVK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #01 ++++ XQP / # $CNNC CWH FKG 'TTKEJVWPI FGU 1DGNKUMGP (NCOKPKQ CWH FGT   2KC\\C FGN 2QRQNQ $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU1DGNKUMGPKO*KPVGTITWPFFKG$CUK NKMC5CPVC/CTKCFGN2QRQNQOO/QFGUVK -N(NGEMGPUGJTUEJÌP




SIXTUS V.

1309

1310

1310



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#08  XQP0FG$QPKUCWHFKG'TTKEJVWPIFGU1DGNKUMGP(NCOKPKQCWHFGT2KC\\C FGN2QRQNQ$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU1DGNKUMGPKO*KPVGTITWPFFKG$CUKNKMC5CPVC /CTKCFGN2QRQNQOOI/QFGUVK FQTVKP)QNF   )GRT·IVGU1TKIKPCN(CUUWPIUURWTGPMNIGUVQRHVGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌP





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 8+  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  IGHGTVKIV PCEJ   GKPGT 8QTNCIG XQP 0 FG $QPKU WPF FGT 9GTMUVCVV *COGTCPK CWH FKG 4GUVCWTKGTWPI FGU &KQUMWTGP   &GPMOCNU CWH FGT 2KC\\C FGN 3WKTKPCNG KP 4QO $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGU &GPM   OCNUOKVFGO$TWPPGPOO/QFGUVK 4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1311





1312

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#08+ UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJFGT 8QTNCIGXQP0FG$QPKUWPFFGT9GTMUVCVV*COGTCPKCWHFKGY·JTGPFUGKPGT#OVU\GKVGTTKEJVGVGPXKGT 1DGNKUMGP 4QOU 8CVKECPQ GTTKEJVGV   'USWKNKPQ GTTKEJVGV   .CVGTCPGUG GTTKEJVGV     WPF (NCOKPKQ GTTKEJVGV   $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT XKGT 1DGNKUMGP   OO/QFGUVK FQTVKP5KNDGT  8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ, UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT8QT NCIGXQP.(TCIPK IGPCPPV.QTGP\Q2CTOGPUG WPF)$QP\CIPK IGPCPPV(GFGTKEQ2CTOGPUG $TWUV DKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV%JTKUVWUUVGJVPCEJNWPFUGIPGVFKG)N·WDKIGPOO/QFGUVK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1313

1314



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#08+ UR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT8QTNCIG XQP0FG$QPKUWPF.(TCIPK IGPCPPV.QTGP\Q2CTOGPUG $TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJV FGU2GVGTUFQOUOO/QFGUVK FQTVKP5KNDGT  8QT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ, UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT 8QTNCIGXQP.(TCIPK IGPCPPV.QTGP\Q2CTOGPUG $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV4QOCUKV\VPCEJN CWH 9CHHGP WPF $ÒEJGTP KP FGT CWUIGUVTGEMVGP 4GEJVGP &TCEJGP 5[ODQN FGT (COKNKG $QPEQORCIPK   FCXQTMKTEJNKEJG#VVTKDWVGOO/QFGUVK (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 91


GREGOR XIV.

2#256)4')14:+8

)GD(GDTWCT5QOOC.QODCTFQIGUV1MVQDGT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG0KEEQNÈ5HQPFTCVK 2QPVKHKMCV&G\GODGTņ1MVQDGT

  



)TGIQTYWTFG$KUEJQHXQP%TGOQPCWPF-CTFKPCN5GKP2QPVKHKMCV\GKEJPGVGUKEJXQTCNNGO FCFWTEJCWUFCUGTUGNDUVMCWO2QNKVKMDGVTKGDUQPFGTPFKGUGXKGNOGJTKPPGRQVKUVKUEJGO5VKNCPUGKPG 8GTYCPFVGPCDICDUQCWEJCPUGKPGP0GHHGP2CQNQ%COKNNQ5HQPFTCVKFGTGKPGCPVKHTCP\ÌUKUEJG2QNKVKM XGTVTCV 5Q WPVGTUVÒV\VG FKGUGT FKG *GKNKIG .KIC IGIGP FGP -ÌPKI OKV 5QNFCVGP WPF )GNF WPF GTPGWGTVG   ÒDGTFKGU FGP $CPP ÒDGT -ÌPKI *GKPTKEJ +8 'PIG 8GTDKPFWPIGP RHNGIVG )TGIQT \W -CTN $QTTQO·WU   GKPGODGFGWVGPFGPJGWVGXGTGJTVGP8GTVTGVGTFGT)GIGPTGHQTOCVKQPWPF\W(KNKRRQ0GTKFGODGMCPP VGUVGP4GHQTOGTFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU  

3WGNNG5EJYCKIGT)GQTI)TGIQT:+8KP-CURGT9 *IWC .GZKMQPFGT2·RUVGWPFFGU2CRUV VWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1315

1316

1317

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU)TGIQT:+8 

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT8QT NCIGXQP0FG$QPKUCWHUGKPGHGKGTNKEJG+PDGUKV\PCJOGFGU.CVGTCPU$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV 4GNKIKQUKV\VXXFGP-QRHPCEJNIGYCPFVKPFGT4GEJVGP6KCTCKONKPMGP#TO-TGW\OO /QFGUVK 8QT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ, UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT 8QTNCIGXQP0FG$QPKUCWHUGKPGP-CORHIGIGPFKG2GUVWPFFKG*WPIGTUPQV$TWUVDKNFT KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV9GKDNKEJG )GUVCNV UVGJV X X FGP -QRH PCEJ T IGYCPFVKPFGT4GEJVGPJTGP KPFGT.KPMGP(ÒNNJQTPOO/QFGUVK\W FQTV1TKIKPCNRT·IWPIKP)QNF   5VGORGNHGJNGTUQPUVUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0+XQP0FG$QPKUCWHFKGR·RUVNKEJG/KNKV·TGZRGFKVKQPIGIGPFKG*WIGPQVVGP KP(TCPMTGKEJ$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&GT2CRUVVJTQPVPCEJTDGINGKVGVXQP\YGK-CTFKP· NGP WPF UGIPGV FKG %JTKUVWUHCJPG GKPGU XQT KJO MPKGPFGP 1HHK\KGTU FCJKPVGT \YGK YGKVGTG 2GTUQPGP   OOI/QFGUVK 44)GRT·IVGU1TKIKPCN5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



92


INNOCENZ IX.

1318



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ, UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT8QT NCIG XQP 0 FG $QPKU $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&CU R·RUVNKEJG 9CRRGP FCTÒDGT IGMTGW\VG   5EJNÒUUGNQDGP6KCTCOO/QFGUVK FQTVKP5KNDGT  -N5VGORGNHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



2#256+001%'0<+:

)GD,WNK$QNQIPCIGUV&G\GODGT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG)KQXCPPK#PVQPKQ(CEJKPGVVK 2QPVKHKMCV1MVQDGTņ&G\GODGT

  



+PPQEGP\ UVKGI KP FGT -KTEJG FWTEJ FGP &KGPUV DGK -CTFKPCN #NGUUCPFTQ (CTPGUG CWH FGT UR·VGT 2CRUV   2CWN+++YWTFG<WXQTJCVVGGT,WTCKP$QNQIPCUVWFKGTV'TPCJOCO-QP\KNXQP6TKGPVVGKNCWH FGOÒDGT4GHQTOGPFGTMCVJQNKUEJGP-KTEJGFKUMWVKGTVYWTFG8QPCPYCTGTPGWP,CJTGNCPICNU )GUCPFVGT KP 8GPGFKI V·VKI +P FKGUGT <GKV WPVGTUVÒV\VG GT 2CRUV 2KWU 8 KP UGKPGO $GUVTGDGP WO GKPG   6ÒTMGPNKIC \WT #DYGJT FGT QUOCPKUEJGP 'TQDGTGT KP 'WTQRC 'T YCT XQP  DKU  $KUEJQH XQP   0KECUVTQ WPF YWTFG  NCVGKPKUEJGT 2CVTKCTEJ KP ,GTWUCNGO 9KG UGKP 8QTI·PIGT 2CRUV )TGIQT :+8   UGV\VG CWEJ +PPQEGP\ CWH GKPG URCPKGPHTGWPFNKEJG 2QNKVKM (GTPGT WPVGTUVÒV\G +PPQEGP\ FKG HTCP\ÌUKUEJG   .KICIGIGPFGPHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-ÌPKI*GKPTKEJ+8FC*GKPTKEJFGP*WIGPQVVGP\WGPIXGTDWPFGPYCT 

3WGNNG5EJYCKIGT)GQTI+PPQ\GP\+:KP-CURGT9 *IWC .GZKMQPFGT2·RUVGWPFFGU2CRUV VWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1319

'KPG/GFCKNNGFGU2CRUVGU+PPQEGP\+: 

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 +  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  8QTFGTUGKVG IGHGTVKIV   PCEJ GKPGT 8QTNCIG XQP 0 FG $QPKU $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV$TWUVDKNF 5V 2GVTK T OKV WO   IGNGIVGO/CPVGNOO/QFGUVK (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 93


CLEMENS VIII.

2#256%.'/'058+++

)GD&G\GODGT(CPQ CPFGT#FTKCMÒUVG\YKUEJGP4KOKPKWPF#PEQPC  IGUV/·T\4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG+RRQNKVQ#NFQDTCPFKPK 2QPVKHKMCV,CPWCTņ/·T\

   



'KPGP 0COGP OCEJVG UKEJ %NGOGPU WPVGT FGP 2·RUVGP 2KWU 8 WPF 5KZVWU 8 CNU ,WTKUV CP FGT -WTKG   #W­GPRQNKVKUEJ IGNCPIVGP %NGOGPU GKPKIG DGFGWVGPFG 'THQNIG 5Q UQTIVG GT HÒT GKPG .ÌUWPI FGT -QP   HNKMVGOKV(TCPMTGKEJGTVGKNVGFGO\WXQTCPIGHGKPFGVGP-ÌPKI*GKPTKEJ+8#DUQNWVKQP<YKUEJGP5RC PKGPWPF(TCPMTGKEJGTTGKEJVGGTFGP(TKGFGPXQP8GTXKPUFGTPCEJCEJVL·JTKIGO-TKGIYKGFGTHÒT 4WJG \YKUEJGP FGP DGKFGP /·EJVGP UQTIVG 'DGPUQ MQPPVG GT FCU )GDKGV FGU -KTEJGPUVCCVU GTYGKVGTP   KPFGOGT(GTTCTCYKGFGTGKPINKGFGTVG.KVGTCTKUEJDGVTCEJVGV\GKEJPGVUKEJ%NGOGPUy2QPVKHKMCVXQTCNNGO FWTEJ0GWCWHNCIGPYKEJVKIGT9GTMGCWU5QYWTFGPWPVGTKJOFCUŋ2QPVKHKECNG4QOCPWOŌGKP/GUUG DWEJHÒT$KUEJÌHGFCUŋ$TGXKGTŌWPFFCUŋ/KUUCNGŌPGWJGTCWUIGDTCEJV&KGXQP5KZVWU8GPVYQTHGPG 0GWCWUICDG FGT 8WNICVC FKG UVCTMMTKVKUKGTVYWTFGDTCEJVGGTPWPGTPGWVKPXGT·PFGTVGT(QTOJGTCWU 'DGPUQYWTFGWPVGT%NGOGPUGKPPGWGT+PFGZXGTDQVGPGT$ÒEJGTRWDNK\KGTV)GIGP#PFGTUFGPMGPFGIKPI %NGOGPU OKV CNNGT *·TVG XQT&GT2TKGUVGT)KQTFCPQ$TWPQYWTFGXQPKJO\WO$GKURKGNYGIGPUGKPGT #DNGJPWPIGKPGUIGQ\GPVTKUEJGP9GNVDKNFGUCWHFGO5EJGKVGTJCWHGPXGTDTCPPV5QPCJOFKG+PSWK UKVKQPWPVGTKJOCP$GFGWVWPI\W  

3WGNNG 5EJYCKIGT )GQTI %NGOGPU 8+++ KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU   2CRUVVWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1320

1321

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

6GUVQPG4QO8CTKCPVGOKV%.'/'05UVCVV%.'/'KPFGT8QTFGTUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV/WPVQPKXCT 5GJTUEJÌP





6GUVQPGQ,4QO/WPVQPK



1322

45EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

1323



6GUVQPG4QO/WPVQPKC

5EJÌPG2CVKPCYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­UGJTUEJÌP





6GUVQPGQ,4QO8CTKCPVGOKV%.'/UVCVV%.'/'KPFGT8QTFGTUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV/WPVQPKXCT  5GJTUEJÌP



94


CLEMENS VIII.

1325

1324





6GUVQPGQ,4QO8CTKCPVGOKV/#UVCVV/#:KPFGT8QTFGTUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV/WPVQPKXCT  5GJTUEJÌP

/ÒP\UV·VVG#XKIPQP

%NGOGPVKPQ )KWNKQ Q,#XKIPQP/WPVQPK

1326

 

45EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

1327

/ÒP\UV·VVG(CPQ

6GUVQPG#001++  (CPQ/WPVQPK

/ÒP\UV·VVG(GTTCTC

-W3WCVVTKPQ(GTTCTC/WPVQPK

 

1328

42T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP



5GJTUEJÌP



/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU%NGOGPU8+++ 

5KNDGTIW­OGFCKNNG Q ,   PCEJ 0 FG $QPKU CWH UGKPG 9CJN $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV   %JTKUVWUOKVUGIPGPFGT4GEJVGPUVGJVPCEJTCWHFGO5GGXQTKJO5V2GVTWUWPF\YGKYGKVGTG#RQUVGN KP$QQVOOI/QFGUVK FQTVIGRT·IVGU1TKIKPCN   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(CUUWPIUURWTGPDGCTDGKVGVUEJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



1329

1,5:1



1,5:1

)QNFOGFCKNNG #0 +   XQP ) %CODKQ CWH UGKPG 9CJN $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV%JTKU   VWUOKVUGIPGPFGT4GEJVGPUVGJVPCEJTCWHFGO5GGXQTKJO5V2GVTWUKP$QQVOOI /QFGUVK )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT  95


CLEMENS VIII.

1330







1332

1331

$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNG#001+  WPUKIPKGTVPCEJ'FG$QPKUCWHFKG$GFTQJWPIFWTEJFKG6ÒTMGP $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV-TGW\ XQP 5EJNCPIG WOYWPFGP KO *KPVGTITWPF N /CWGT    OO/QFGUVK FQTVIGRT·IVWPFOKV5KIPCVWT  5GJTUEJÌP



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#8++ UR·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT8QTNCIG XQP)4CPEGVVKCWHFKG9GKJGFGUR·RUVNKEJGP#NVCTUKO2GVGTUFQO$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV &GT2CRUVWOIGDGPXQPFGP2T·NCVGPYGKJVFGP#NVCTOO/QFGUVK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # 8++  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  IGHGTVKIV PCEJ GKPGT   8QTNCIGXQP)4CPEGVVKCWHFKG'KPINKGFGTWPIFGU*GT\QIVWOU(GTTCTCKPFGP-KTEJGPUVCCV$TWUVDKNF NKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV5VCFVCPUKEJVXQP(GTTCTCOO/QFGUVK FQTVKP)QNF  8QT\ÒINKEJ



1333

1334

1335



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #001 +8$+.' WPUKIPKGTV CWH FKG ¤HHPWPI WPF 5EJNKG­WPI FGT *GKNKIGP 2HQTVG   FGT $CUKNKMC XQP 5CPVC /CTKC /CIIKQTG KP 4QO #PUKEJV FGT IGUEJNQUUGPGP *GKNKIGP 2HQTVG8KGT   <GKNGP5EJTKHVWOJGT6CPPGP\CRHGPMTCP\OO/QFGUVK\W FQTVCPFGTG)TÌ­G   /KPDGTKGDGPUGJTUEJÌP



6CNGTHÌTOKIG 5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # : XQP ) 4CPEGVVK CWH FGP (TKGFGP XQP .[QP \YKUEJGP (TCPM   TGKEJ WPF 5CXQ[GP CO  ,CPWCT  $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV'EENGUKC UVGJV X X FGP   -QRH PCEJ T IGYCPFV KO TGEJVGP #TO -TGW\ KP FGT .KPMGP (CEMGN OKV FGT UKGGKPGP9CHHGPJCWHGP GPV\ÒPFGVOOI/QFGUVK  2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT6ÌPWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 



6CNGTHÌTOKIG 5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # :  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU    IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT8QTNCIGXQP)4CPEGVVKFKG$KNFWPIFGT*GKNKIGP.KICIGIGPFKG6ÒTMGP$TWUVDKNF NKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV%JTKUVWUNKGIVUEJNCHGPFKO5GIGNDQQVCWHUVÒTOKUEJGT5GGWPFYKTFXQPUGKPGP ,ÒPIGTPIGYGEMVOOI/QFGUVK FQTVKP$TQP\G   #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

96






PAUL V.

1336



&+'5'&+58#-#0<810

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

)KWNKQ4QO/WPVQPK

8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV<CRRQPNCEMCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVGUGJTUEJÌP



2#2562#7.8

)GD5GRVGODGT4QOIGUV,CPWCT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG%COKNNQ$QTIJGUG 2QPVKHKMCV/CKņ,CPWCT

  



0CEJ FGO ,WTCUVWFKWO UVKGI 2CWN KP FGT OVGTNCWHDCJP CWH 5GKPGP 'KPHNWUU MQPPVG GT CNU .GICV KP   5RCPKGP DGK 2JKNKRR ++  GTYGKVGTP UQFCUU FKGUGT 2CWN DGKUGKPGT9CJN\WO2CRUVWPVGTUVÒV\VGKP FGO DGK \YGK CPFGTGP -CPFKFCVGP FKG 9CJN XGTJKPFGTV YWTFG  YWTFG 2CWN \WFGO +PSWKUKVQT WPF   -CTFKPCNXKMCTKP4QO+PUGKPGT<GKVCNU2CRUVUGV\VGGTUKEJHÒT/KUUKQPGPKP-CPCFC+PFKGPWPF%JKPC GKP'THÒJTVGFKGMCVJQNKUEJG4GHQTOMQPUGSWGPVHQTVHÌTFGTVG\WO$GKURKGNPGWGPVUVCPFGPG1TFGPWPF DTCEJVGFCUŋ4KVWCNG4QOCPWOŌJGTCWUGKP/GUUGDWEJOKV4ÌOKUEJGP4KVGPHÒT2TKGUVGT7PVGT 2CWN YWTFGP FKG 6JGQTKGP FGU )CNKNGQ )CNKNGK ÒDGT FCU 7PKXGTUWO  XGTWTVGKNV #W­GPRQNKVKUEJ DG   OÒJVG GT UKEJ WO PGWVTCNGU 8GTJCNVGP IGIGPÒDGT (TCPMTGKEJ WPF 5RCPKGP +O &TGK­KIL·JTKIGP -TKGI   WPVGTUVÒV\VGGT-CKUGT(GTFKPCPF++WPF'T\JGT\QI/CZKOKNKCPIGIGPFKG2TQVGUVCPVGP#NNGTFKPIUICDGU CWEJ5EJCVVGPUGKVGPKPUGKPGT#W­GPRQNKVKMFKGFWTEJFKG+FGGFGT7PHGJNDCTMGKVFGU2CRUVGUFQOKPKGTV YWTFG 5Q UVCPF 2CWN  DKU  KO -QPHNKMV OKV FGO 5GPCV FGT 4GRWDNKM 8GPGFKI FGT UQ YGKV   TGKEJVGFCUUGTFKGUGOFGP$CPPCWUURTCEJWPFGKP+PVGTFKMVXGTJ·PIVGFKGLGFQEJDGKFGMGKPG#WUYKT MWPIGP JCVVGP #TEJKVGMVQPKUEJG .GKUVWPIGP UGKPGT #OVU\GKV YCTGP WPVGT CPFGTGO FKG 8QNNGPFWPI FGU   2GVGTUFQOU FWTEJ %CTNQ /CFGTPQ #WEJ FKG 8CVKMCPKUEJG $KDNKQVJGM YWTFG CWUIGDCWV WPF FGT(COKNK GPRCNCUVŋ2CNC\\Q$QTIJGUGŌCO6KDGTWHGTGTTKEJVGVGDGPUQFKGŋ8KNNC$QTIJGUGŌJGWVGGKPGDGGKPFTW EMGPFG2CTMCPNCIGOKVUCOVGKPGU-WPUVOWUGWOUOKVVGPKP4QO(GTPGTNKG­2CWNFKGŋ#ESWC2CQNCŌCWH $CUKUFGTCPVKMGP9CUUGTXGTUQTIWPIŋ#SWC6TCKCPCŌKP4QODCWGPWPFDGPCPPVGUKGPCEJUKEJUGNDUV  

3WGNNG5EJYCKIGT)GQTI2CWN8KP-CURGT9 *IWC .GZKMQPFGT2·RUVGWPFFGU2CRUVVWOU (TGKDWTI WC 5

1,5:1



/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

1337

5EWFQF QTQ#:+  4QOI(D/WPVQPKC

1,5:1

 )1.&45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 97


PAUL V.

1339

1338

 

6GUVQPG#++  4QO/WPVQPK 6GUVQPG#++++  4QO/WPVQPK

5GJTUEJÌP 5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

1340

 

1341

6GUVQPG#8++  4QO/WPVQPK 6GUVQPG#++  4QO/WPVQPK

5GJTUEJÌP 5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

)KWNKQ#0:+  4QO/WPVQPK )TQUUQ#:+  4QO/WPVQPK

5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 5EJÌPG2CVKPCMN&QRRGNUEJNCIUGJTUEJÌP

1344

 

 

1343

1342

 

 

 

1345

/ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC

6GUVQPG$QNQIPC/WPVQPK .KTC$QNQIPC/WPVQPKC

8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP 4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP

 

1346

1347

1347



)KWNKQQ,$QNQIPC/WPVQPK

(CUVUGJTUEJÌP



2KCUVTC(GTTCTC&CX/WPVQPKXCT 442T·IGUEJY·EJGPCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG MN5VGORGNHGJNGTCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVGHCUVUGJTUEJÌPUGJTUEJÌP



/ÒP\UV·VVG(GTTCTC

98




PAUL V.

1348



1349

6GUVQPG(GTTCTC/WPVQPK

45GJTUEJÌP



/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU2CWN8 

$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNG#++PCEJ.$GPXGPWVKCWHFGPXQTCPUEJTGKVGPFGP$CWFGT%CRRGNNC2CQNKPC FGT $CUKNKMC 5CPVC /CTKC /CIIKQTG $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT PQEJ KO $CW DG   HKPFNKEJGP-CRGNNGOO/QFGUVK FQTVIGRT·IVGU1TKIKPCN  1TKIKPCNIW­UGJTUEJÌP



1350 1351

1351



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 8++ WPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJ XQP)#/QTQCWHFKG(W­YCUEJWPICO)TÒP FQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV%JTKUVWUMPKGVPCEJNWPFY·UEJVFGOXQTKJOUKV\GPFGP 2GVTWUFKG(Ò­GOOI/QFGUVK  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV)GRT·IVGU1TKIKPCN*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#08++++  XQP)#/QTQCWHFKG(GTVKIUVGNNWPIFGT(CUUCFGFGU2GVGTUFQOU $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGU 2GVGTUFQOU  OO $CTVQNQVVK  C /QFGUVK   

FQTVKP5KNDGT  8QT\ÒINKEJ



1352





1353

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # :+ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  IGHGTVKIV PCEJ GKPGT   8QTNCIGXQP)#/QTQCWHFKG(GTVKIUVGNNWPIFGT(CUUCFGFGU2GVGTUFQOU$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU2GVGTUFQOUOO/QFGUVK (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#08++++XQP)#/QTQCWHFKG(GTVKIUVGNNWPIFGT%CRRGNNC2CQNKPCFGT$CUK NKMC 5CPVC /CTKC /CIIKQTG $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT HGTVKIIGUVGNNVGP -CRGNNG   OO$CTVQNQVVK/QFGUVK FQTVKP5KNDGT  8QT\ÒINKEJ



1354

1355

1354



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0+:  XQP)#/QTQCWHFKG(W­YCUEJWPICO)TÒPFQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFN KPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV%JTKUVWUMPKGVPCEJNWPFY·UEJVFGOXQTKJOUKV\GPFGP2GVTWUFKG(Ò­GWOJGT UVGJGPFKGCPFGTGP#RQUVGNOOI/QFGUVK 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV )GRT·IVGU1TKIKPCN5EJÌPG2CVKPCMN*GPMGNURWT4GUVGXQP<CRQPNCEMXQT\ÒINKEJ





8GTIQNFGVG5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#:XQP)#/QTQCWHFKG8GTNCIGTWPIFGT/CTKGPU·WNGXQTFKG$CUKNKMC 5CPVC/CTKC/CIIKQTG$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT/CTKGPU·WNGXQTFGT$CUKNKMCOO I$CTVQNQVVK/QFGUVK )GRT·IVGU1TKIKPCN(CUUWPIUURWTGPXGTIQNFGVUGJTUEJÌP

 99


PAUL V.

1356



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#:+XQP)#/QTQCWHFKG$GKUGV\WPIFGT)GDGKPGFGT*GKNKIGP#IPGUWPF 'OGTGP\KCPC$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&CTUVGNNWPIFGT<GTGOQPKGOO$CTVQNQVVK /QFGUVK (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1357 (1:1,3)



$TQP\GIW­RNCMGVVGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG)TWPFUVGKPNGIWPIFGT-KTEJG+OOCEQNCVCCNNC%KOCTGNNCKP /CEGTCVCFWTEJ-CTFKPCN(GNKEG%GPVKPK$KUEJQHXQP/CEGTCVCUGKV/CFQPPCOKV-KPFXXCWH /QPFUKEJGNKP9QNMGPMTCP\WPVGP9CRRGP\WFGP5GKVGPN-TKGIGTT/ÌPEJZOO 448QT\ÒINKEJGTJCNVGP



1358



100

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0:8+  XQP)#/QTQCWHFGP9KGFGTCWHDCWFGT$TÒEMGXQP%GRTCPQ MO UÒFNKEJ XQP 4QO  ÒDGT FGP (NW­ .KTK $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT $TÒEMG T   (GUVWPIOOI$CTVQNQVVK/QFGUVK  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV4CPFNGKEJVDGCTDGKVGV(GNFGTNGKEJVDGTKGDGPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ




GREGOR XV.

2#256)4')14:8

)GD,CPWCT$QNQIPCIGUV,WNK4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG#NGUUCPFTQ.WFQXKUK 2QPVKHKMCV(GDTWCTņ,WNK

  



)TGIQTUVWFKGTVGDGKFGP,GUWKVGPKP4QOWPF$QNQIPCYWTFGGT'T\DKUEJQHXQP$QNQIPCWPF -CTFKPCN 1DYQJN GT KP UGKPGT <GKV CNU 2CRUV UGJT MTCPM YCT WPF FGUJCND XKGNG #PIGNGIGPJGKVGP CP   UGKPGP 0GHHGP .WFQXKEQ .WFQXKUK ICP\ KP PGRQVKUVKUEJGT /CPKGT CDICD MQPPVG GT OKV FGUUGP *KNHG GKP   WPIGYÌJPNKEJGTHQNITGKEJGU2QPVKHKMCVHÒJTGP'TICDFGT/KUUKQPKPCNNGT9GNVOKVFGTŋ%QPITGICVKQFG 2TQRCICPFC(KFGŌGKPG\GPVTCNG+PUVKVWVKQPWPFUV·TMVGUQFGP-CVJQNK\KUOWUIGIGPFGPCWHIGMQO OGPGP 2TQVGUVCPVKUOWU &KGUG +PUVKVWVKQP JGK­V UGKV  ŋ%QPITGICVKQ RTQ )GPVKWO 'XCPIGNK\CVKQPGŌ    IGNCPI KJO OKV OKNKV·TKUEJGT )GYCNV FKG 4GMCVJQNKUKGTWPI $ÌJOGPU 'T WPVGTUVÒV\G (GTFKPCPF ++   WPF'T\JGT\QI/CZKOKNKCPKO&TGK­KIL·JTKIGP-TKGIWPFGTJKGNVXQPNGV\VGTGOCWHITWPFFGT'TQDGTWPI FGT2HCN\FWTEJ6TWRRGPFGTMCVJQNKUEJGP.KICFKGŋ$KDNKQVJGEC2CNCVKPCŌKP*GKFGNDGTI&GTGP$ÒEJGT YWTFGPDCNFFCTCWHKPFGP8CVKMCPCDVTCPURQTVKGTV(GTPGTIKNVGTCNU8GTHCUUGT\YGKGT$WNNGP\WT2CRUV YCJN'DGPUQYWTFGPFWTEJKJPDGFGWVGPFG2GTUÌPNKEJMGKVGPFGT4GHQTOGPMCPQPKUKGTVYKG(KNKRRQ0GTK QFGTFGT/KVDGITÒPFGTFGT,GUWKVGP+IPCVKWUXQP.Q[QNC  

3WGNNG5EJYCKIGT)GQTI)TGIQT:8KP-CURGT9 *IWC .GZKMQPFGT2·RUVGWPFFGU2CRUV VWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1359 1,5:1

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

3WCFTWRNCQ,4QOI9CRRGPFCTÒDGTIGMTGW\VG5EJNÒUUGNWPF6KCTC&KGDGVGPFG,WPIHTCW /CTKC OKV 5VGTPGPMTCP\ UVGJV X X CWH /QPFUKEJGN WPF 9QNMGP WOJGT 5VTCJNGPMTCP\ (D    /WPVQPK )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT 

1360

1361



6GUVQPG Q , 4QO /KV 5 ` 2#8.85 `  5 ` 2#8.85 ` KP FGT 4ÒEMUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV   /WPVQPK8CT+ 4-N2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP





6GUVQPGQ,4QO/WPVQPK



5GJTUEJÌP

101


URBAN VIII.

1363

1362

1364

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU)TGIQT:8 





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0+  XQP)#/QTQCWHUGKPG9CJN$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV/CTKC OKV-KPFCWH9QNMGPOOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV)GRT·IVGU1TKIKPCN*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0++WPUKIPKGTVXQP)#/QTQCWHFKG*GKNKIURTGEJWPIGPFGU,CJTGU$TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&GT 2CRUV VJTQPV PCEJ T WPF XGTNKGUV FCU &GMTGV FGT *GKNKIURTGEJWPI WOJGT   -CTFKP·NGWPFMPKGPFG)GKUVNKEJGOOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNKD  )GRT·IVGU1TKIKPCN5GJTUEJÌP



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#+++XQP)#/QTQCWHUGKPG8GTOKVVNWPIGP\YKUEJGP(TCPMTGKEJWPF5RCPKGP $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG 4GNKIKQP OKV 6KCTC WPF -TGW\ WPF FGT RGTUQPKHK   \KGTVG (TKGFGP OKV ¤N WPF 2CNO\YGKI UKV\GP PGDGPGKPCPFGT X X  OO  I $CTVQNQVVK    /KUGNNK *GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP



2#25674$#08+++

)GD#RTKN(NQTGP\IGUV,WNK4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG/CHHGQ$CTDGTKPK 2QPVKHKMCV#WIWUVņ,WNK 

102

  

7TDCP UVWFKGTVG CP FGO ŋ%QNNGIKWO 4QOCPWOŌ FGT JGWVKIGP R·RUVNKEJGP 7PKXGTUKV·V )TGIQTKCPC 'T   OCEJVGUGKPGP&QMVQTKPDGKFGP4GEJVGPFGPŋ&QEVQTKWTKUWVTKWUSWGŌ+O,CJTMCWHVGUKEJ7TDCP GKP-COOGTMNGTKMCV+O0QXGODGTYWTFGGT6KVWNCT'T\DKUEJQHXQP0C\CTGVWPFYCTXQPDKU 0WPVKWUKP(TCPMTGKEJUGKV\WFGO-CTFKPCNWPFDKU$KUEJQHXQP5RQNGVQ'TYWTFG 2T·HGMV FGT ŋ5GIPCVWTC FK )KWUVK\KCŌ HTÒJGT CWEJ ŋ5KIPCVWTC KWUVKVKCGŌ GKPGT TGEJVNKEJGP $GJÌTFG FGU   -KTEJGPUVCCVGU 7TDCPU 2QNKVKM CNU 2CRUV YCT (TCPMTGKEJ UGJT YQJNIGUQPPGP 5Q GTJQD GT MGKPGP   'KPURTWEJ CNU 'PINCPF WPF (TCPMTGKEJ  (TKGFGP UEJNQUUGP VTQV\ &TQJWPIGP CP KJP XQP 5GKVGP   5RCPKGPU #WEJ GKPG HTCP\ÌUKUEJUEJYGFKUEJG#NNKCP\PCJOGTJKPQDYQJNGUUKEJDGK5EJYGFGP WOGKPRTQVGUVCPVKUEJGU-ÌPKITGKEJJCPFGNVG+O&TGK­KIL·JTKIGP-TKGIXGTUWEJVG7TDCPFKGMCVJQNKUEJG .KICWPFFGP-CKUGTPCEJDGUVGP/KVVGNP\WWPVGTUVÒV\GPPKEJV\WNGV\VYGIGPFGT·W­GTUVGTHQNITGKEJGP -TKGIUHÒJTWPI5EJYGFGPU7TDCPJCVVGUGKPGP0WPVKWUKP-ÌNPFGPUR·VGTGP2CRUV#NGZCPFGT8++OKV UVTGPIGP#PYGKUWPIGP\WT(TKGFGPUTGIGNWPIFQTVJKPIGUEJKEMV5QMCOGUFCUUFKGUGTKO9GUVH·NKUEJGP 


URBAN VIII. (TKGFGPKP1UPCDTÒEMMCWO*CPFNWPIUURKGNTCWOHÒTMCVJQNKUEJG+PVGTGUUGPFWTEJUGV\VGPMQPPVGYCUKP FGT(QNIG\GKVJ·WHKIMTKVKUKGTVYWTFGUQCWEJXQP7TDCPU0CEJHQNIGT2CRUV+PPQEGP\:9KTVUEJCHVNKEJ IGUGJGPVCV7TDCPU2QPVKHKMCVFGO-KTEJGPUVCCVPKEJVIWVFCGTFKG(KPCP\GPKO%CUVTQ-TKGIOKVFGO *CWU(CTPGUGCWUFGOUEJQPGKPKIG2·RUVGUVCOOVGPÒDGTO·­KIDGNCUVGVG'TXGTUWEJVGFCU5VCCVUMKT EJGPVWO KP (TCPMTGKEJ CNUQ FKG )CNNKMCPKUEJGP #TVKMGN \W DGM·ORHGP GDGPUQ YKG FGP ,CPUGPKUOWU   )GIGPDGKFGJCVVGGTMGKPGP'THQNI7TDCPHÌTFGTVGFGP-ÒPUVNGT)KQXCPPK.QTGP\Q$GTPKPKFGTHÒTFGP 2CRUVFGP#NVCTDCNFCEJKPÒDGTFGO2GVTWUITCDUEJWH9CT7TDCPCWEJGKP(TGWPFFGT-ÒPUVGUQUVGNNVG GTUKEJOKVFGT9KUUGPUEJCHVCWH-TKGIUHW­CNUGTCOFKGFKU\KRNKPCTKUEJG8GTWTVGKNWPI)CNNK NGQ)CNNKNGKUFWTEJUGV\VGYCUCWEJKPFGT(QNIG\GKVFKG$G\KGJWPIGP\YKUEJGP-KTEJGWPF9KUUGPUEJCHV DGNCUVGVG  

3WGNNG,CKVPGT-NCWU7TDCP8+++KP-CURGT9 *IWC .GZKMQPFGT2·RUVGWPFFGU2CRUVVWOU (TGKDWTI WC 5

1366

1365

1367

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

2KCUVTC#::+4QO&CX/WPVQPK

 4-N<CKPGPFGYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





2KCUVTC#::4QO&CX/WPVQPK



(CUVUGJTUEJÌP



2KCUVTC#0:++  4QO&CX/WPVQPK  4-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



1369

1368

 

2KCUVTC#0:++  4QO&CX/WPVQPK 6GUVQPG#8+++  4QO/WPVQPK8CT+

1368

4-N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

  103


URBAN VIII.

1370

1371



6GUVQPG#8+++  4QO/WPVQPK8CT+  5EJÌPG2CVKPCMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP





6GUVQPG#++4QO/WPVQPK8CT++



5EJÌPG2CVKPC5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

1372

 

6GUVQPG#8+  4QO/WPVQPK 6GUVQPG#:+8  4QO/WPVQPKC

1373

5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP .GKEJVG$GCTDGKVWPIUURWTGPCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP

 

1374

1,5:1

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG#XKIPQP 

3WCFTWRNC#XKIPQPI(D FQTVWPVGT(TCPMTGKEJ /WPVQPKD  )1.&9KP\-TCV\GTKO(GNFFGT8QTFGTUGKVGCVVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT

2CRUV 7TDCP 8+++ PGKIVG KO &TGK­KIL·JTKIGP -TKGI CWU (WTEJV XQT FGT ªDGTOCEJV FGU *CWUGU *CDUDWTI FGUUGP   5GNDUVDGYW­VUGKPFWTEJFKG'THQNIG-CKUGT(GTFKPCPFU++UVCTMIGUVKGIGPYCTWPFFKG7PCDJ·PIKIMGKVFGU-KTEJGP UVCCVUDGFTQJVGOGJT(TCPMTGKEJ\WWPFWPVGTUVÒV\VGGUIGIGP¤UVGTTGKEJWPF5RCPKGP*KGTFWTEJYCTGTOKVXGTCPV YQTVNKEJ HÒT FGP PCEJVGKNKIGP #WUICPI FGU -TKGIGU HÒT FKG MCVJQNKUEJG -KTEJG 7TDCP 8+++ NKG­ CW­GT KP #XKIPQP   WPF4QOCWEJKP$QNQIPCWPF(GTTCTCRT·IGP



1375

 104

$CTDGTKPQ#XKIPQP/WPVQPKC

5GJTUEJÌP




URBAN VIII.

1377

1376

 

/ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC

)CDGNNQPG$QNQIPC/WPVQPK -W$QNQIPKPQ$QNQIPC/WPVQPK

45EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP

 

1378

1,5:1

1,5:1

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU7TDCP8+++ 

)QNFOGFCKNNG #0 + XQP ) # /QTQCWHUGKPG9CJN$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV,WUVKVKC UKV\VXXKPFGT4GEJVGP5EJYGTVKPFGT.KPMGP9CCIGOOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP

1379

1381





1380

1381

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0+XQP)#/QTQCWHUGKPG9CJN$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV,WUVKVKC UKV\VXXKPFGT4GEJVGP5EJYGTVKPFGT.KPMGP9CCIGOOI/KUGNNK  (CUVUGJTUEJÌP





8GTUKNDGTVG$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#02 TKOQ XQP)#/QTQCWHUGKPGHGKGTNKEJG+PDGUKV\PCJOGFGU .CVGTCPU $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&CTUVGNNWPI FGT 6TCPUHKIWTCVKQP 8GTMN·TWPI  %JTKUVK   OO/KUGNNK 4CPFDGCTDGKVGVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0+++XQP)/QNCCWHFKG5EJNKG­WPIFGT*GKNKIGP2HQTVG$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG IGUEJNQUUGPG *GKNKIG 2HQTVG CP FGT FCU 5EJYGK­VWEJ %JTKUVK CPIGDTCEJV KUV   FCTWPVGT FKG ,CJTGU\CJN /&%  ::8 FCXQT MPKGPFG )N·WDKIG QDGP 'PIGN OKV ¤N\YGKI  OO   /KUGNNK 9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ

 105


URBAN VIII.

1382

1383





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#++++XQP)/QNCCWHFKG)TWPFUVGKPNGIWPI\WT-KTEJG5CPVC/CTKCFGNNC%QP EG\KQPGFGK%CRRWEEKPKKP4QO$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&GT2CRUVDGINGKVGVXQPFGP-CTFK P·NGPNGIVFGP)TWPFUVGKPOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FGP XQP -CTFKPCN .WFQXKEQ .WFQXKUKU KP #WHVTCI IGIGDGPGP$CW FGT-KTEJG5CPV +IPC\KQFK.Q[QNCKP%CORQ/CT\KQ4QO$TWUVDKNFFGUFWTEJ2CRUV)TGIQT:8 JGKNKIIGURTQEJGPGP+IPCVKWUXQP.Q[QNCTOKV*GKNKIGPUEJGKPKPFGP*·PFGPJ·NVGTGKPCWHIGUEJNCIG PGU$WEJ<GJP<GKNGP5EJTKHVOO 44.QEJXQT\ÒINKEJ



1384







106

1383

1385

1386

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # ++++ XQP ) /QNC CWH FKG 9GKJG FGU 2GVGTUFQOU $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO   1TPCV&GT 2CRUV UVGJV PCEJ T WOIGDGP XQP -CTFKP·NGP WPF \GNGDTKGTV FKG 9GKJG  OO $CTVQ   NQVVKC/KUGNNKC 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#++++  XQP)/QNCCWHFKG9GKJGFGU2GVGTUFQOU$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV8GT\KGTVGU-TGW\OO8CTKCPVGQJPG,CJTGU\CJNWPFOKVCPFGTGT8QTFGTUGKVGPFCTUVGNNWPI

1TPCOGPVGCPUVGNNGFGT$KNFPKUUGXQP5V2GVTWUWPF5V2CWNWUCWHFGO2NWXKCNG $CTVQNQVVK\WD /KUGNNK\W 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#8XQP)/QNCCWHFKGPGWG$GHGUVKIWPIFGU%CUVGN5CPV #PIGNQ$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGU %CUVGN 5CPV #PIGNQ CWU FGT 8QIGNRGTURGMVKXG  OO  I   $CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ




URBAN VIII.

1387

1388

1389



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#08+  XQP)/QNCCWHFKG*GKNKIURTGEJWPIXQP#PFTGC%QTUKPK$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV OKV UGIPGPFGT 4GEJVGP&GT 2CRUV WOIGDGP XQP FGP $KUEJÌHGP VJTQPV PCEJ T XQT   FGO*CWRVCNVCTFGU2GVGTUFQOUWPFXGTMÒPFGVFKG*GKNKIURTGEJWPI%QTUKPKUQDGPFKG6CWDGFGU*GKNK IGP)GKUVGUKP5VTCJNGPOOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNKD  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV*GPMGNURWTMN-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#08+XQP)/QNCCWHFKG*GKNKIURTGEJWPIXQP#PFTGC%QTUKPK$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV OKV UGIPGPFGT 4GEJVGP&GT 2CRUV WOIGDGP XQP FGP $KUEJÌHGP VJTQPV PCEJ T XQT   FGO*CWRVCNVCTFGU2GVGTUFQOUWPFXGTMÒPFGVFKG*GKNKIURTGEJWPI%QTUKPKUQDGPFKG6CWDGFGU*GKNK IGP)GKUVGUKP5VTCJNGPOO$CTVQNQVVK#PO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNG # 8+++ XQP ) /QNC CWH FKG 'KPINKGFGTWPI FGU *GT\QIVWOU 7TDKPQ KP FGP   -KTEJGPUVCCV$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV4QOCUKV\VJCNDTKPFGT4GEJVGP5RGGTKPFGT.KPMGP /QFGNNFGU2GVGTUFQOUWOJGT.QTDGGTMTCP\OO$CTVQNQVVK\W/KUGNNK\WC  -N.QEJUGJTUEJÌP





1390



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#:  WPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG(W­YCUEJWPICO)TÒPFQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNK EJGO 1TPCV%JTKUVWU MPKGV PCEJ T WPF Y·UEJV FGO XQT KJO UKV\GPFGP 2GVTWU FKG (Ò­GWOJGTUVGJGP FKGCPFGTGP#RQUVGNOOI/KUGNNK (CUVUGJTUEJÌP

1391







1392

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#:XQP)/QNCCWHFKG9GKJGFGU#NVCTUKO2GVGTUFQO$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNK EJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU#NVCTUOOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(CUVUGJTUEJÌP



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#:++XQP)/QNCCWHFKG4GUVCWTKGTWPIFGT-KTEJG5CP%CKQKP4QO$TWUVDKNF TKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT-KTEJGOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK  8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 107


URBAN VIII.

1394

1393

1393



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 :+++ ,CJTGUCPICDG KO 5VGORGN CWU :++ IG·PFGTV   XQP ) /QNC CWH FKG   (W­YCUEJWPICO)TÒPFQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV%JTKUVWUMPKGVPCEJTWPFY·UEJV FGOXQTKJOUKV\GPFGP2GVTWUFKG(Ò­GOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#:+++  XQP)/QNCCWHFGP9KGFGTCWHDCWFGT-KTEJG5CPVC#PCUVCUKCKP4QO $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT-KTEJGOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK  8QT\ÒINKEJ



1395



1396

1397

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # :++++   XQP ) /QNC CWH FKG 7ODCWVGP CO $CRVKUVGTKWO FGT $CUKNKMC 5CP   )KQXCPPK KP .CVGTCPQ $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV+PPGPCPUKEJV FGU $CRVKUVGTKWOU  OO   $CTVQNQVVK#PO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#:8XQP)/QNCCWHFGP$CWFGU2CNCUVGUXQP%CUVGN)CPFQNHQ$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV XQP %CUVGN )CPFQNHQ OKV FGO 2CNCUV  OO  I $CTVQNQVVK    /KUGNNK 44*GPMGNURWTWPF&TWEMUVGNNG(GNFGTRQNKGTVUGJTUEJÌP





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#:8  XQP)/QNCCWHFGP$CWFGU2CNCUVGUXQP%CUVGN)CPFQNHQ$TWUVDKNFT KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV XQP %CUVGN )CPFQNHQ OKV FGO 2CNCUV  OO $CTVQNQVVK  #PO   /KUGNNK 'VYCU$GNCIXQT\ÒINKEJ



1398



108

8GTIQNFGVG5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#:8+  XQP)/QNCCWHFKG9CHHGPMCOOGTFGU8CVKMCPU$TWUVDKNFT KPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV+PPGPCPUKEJVFGT9CHHGPMCOOGTOOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNKD #NVXGTIQNFGVUGJTUEJÌP




URBAN VIII.

1399







1400

1401

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#:8++XQP)/QNCCWHFKG,CJTHGKGTFGU,GUWKVGPQTFGPUWPFCWHFGP(ÌT FGTGT-CTFKPCN#PVQPKQ$CTDGTKPK$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#EJV<GKNGP5EJTKHVFCTÒDGTFTGK $KGPGPWOJGT.QTDGGTMTCP\OO/KUGNNKC 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # :8++ XQP ) /QNC CWH UGKP L·JTKIGU -TÌPWPIULWDKN·WO $TWUVDKNF T KP   IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&GT2CRUVMPKGVPCEJNXQTKJO6KCTCWPFDNKEMV\WFGOCWH9QNMGPUEJYGDGPFGP 'T\GPIGN/KEJCGNCWHFGTKPFGT4GEJVGPGKPG9CCIGKPFGT.KPMGPGKP5EJYGTVJ·NVOO/K UGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#:8++XQP)/QTQPGCWHFKG'TYGKVGTWPIGPCO2CNC\\QFGN3WKTKPCNG$TWUV DKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU2CNC\\QUOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNKC  5GJTUEJÌP



1402

1403

1403



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#:+:XQP)/QTQPGCWHFGP0GWDCWGKPGU)GVTGKFGURGKEJGTU #PPQPC $TWUV DKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGU )GVTGKFGURGKEJGTU  OO  I $CTVQNQVVK  C   /KUGNNK 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV-N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # ::  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  IGHGTVKIV PCEJ   GKPGT 8QTNCIG XQP ) /QTQPG CWH FKG 8GTUV·TMWPI FGT /CWGTP XQP 4QO $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO   1TPCV WOJGT .QTDGGTMTCP\5VCFVCPUKEJV OKV FGP /CWGTP WPF FGO *CHGP WOJGT .QTDGGTMTCP\   OO$CTVQNQVVK\WC/KUGNNK\W (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 109


URBAN VIII.

1405

1404





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # ::  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  IGHGTVKIV PCEJ   GKPGT 8QTNCIG XQP ) /QTQPG CWH FKG 8GTUV·TMWPI FGT /CWGTP XQP 4QO $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO   1TPCV WOJGT .QTDGGTMTCP\5VCFVCPUKEJV OKV FGP /CWGTP WPF FGO *CHGP WOJGT .QTDGGTMTCP\   OO$CTVQNQVVK\WD/KUGNNK\W 8QT\ÒINKEJ



)QNFOGFCKNNG#::+  XQP)/QTQPGCWHFKG(W­YCUEJWPICO)TÒPFQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV%JTKUVWU MPKGV PCEJ T WPF Y·UEJV FGO XQT KJO UKV\GPFGP 2GVTWU FKG (Ò­G WOJGT   UVGJGPFKGCPFGTGP#RQUVGNOOI/KUGNNK\W FQTVKP$TQP\GOKV,CJTGUCPICDG::+  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV*GPMGNURWTXQT\ÒINKEJ



1406







110

1404

1407

1408

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 ::+ XQP ) /QTQPG CWH FGP -TKGI IGIGP FKG *GT\ÌIG (CTPGUG WO FCU   *GT\QIVWO %CUVTQ $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&GT RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG (TKGFGP VJTQPV X X KP FGT   4GEJVGP¤N\YGKIKPFGTGTJQDGPGP.KPMGP2CNO\YGKIFCXQT\WFGP5GKVGPUVGJGPFKG2GTUQPKHKMCVKQPGP XQP-NWIJGKVWPF5V·TMGOOI$CTVQNQVVKD/KUGNNK 5GJTUEJÌP



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 ::+ XQP ) /QTQPG CWH FGP -TKGI IGIGP FKG *GT\ÌIG (CTPGUG WO FCU   *GT\QIVWO %CUVTQ $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&GT RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG (TKGFGP VJTQPV X X KP FGT   4GEJVGP¤N\YGKIKPFGTGTJQDGPGP.KPMGP2CNO\YGKIFCXQT\WFGP5GKVGPUVGJGPFKG2GTUQPKHKMCVKQPGP XQP-NWIJGKVWPF5V·TMGOO$CTVQNQVVKD/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q ,   XQP # #UVGUCPQ CWH FGP $CW PGWGT $GHGUVKIWPIUCPNCIGP KO *CHGP XQP   %KXKVCXGEEJKC$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU*CHGPUCWUFGT8QIGNRGTURGMVKXGOO I$CTVQNQVVK#PO/KUGNNK 445EJÌPG2CVKPCYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ




INNOCENZ X.

2#256+001%'0<:

)GD/CK4QOIGUV,CPWCT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG)KCODCVVKUVC2COHKNK 2QPVKHKMCV5GRVGODGTņ,CPWCT

  



+PPQEGP\UVWFKGTVG,WTCWPFYWTFG#WFKVQTKPFGT4ÌOKUEJGP4QVCFGO\YGKVJÌEJUVGP)GTKEJVKP FGT MCVJQNKUEJGP -KTEJG PCEJ FGT #RQUVQNKUEJGP 5KIPCVWT 5GKV  YCT GT R·RUVNKEJGT &KRNQOCV WPF   TGKUVG KO UGNDGP ,CJT CNU 0WPVKWU PCEJ 0GCRGN  DGINGKVGVG GT FGP 0GHHGP 7TDCPU 8+++ -CTFKPCN   (TCPEGUEQ $CTDGTKPK PCEJ (TCPMTGKEJ WPF 5RCPKGP  YWTFG +PPQEGP\ UGNDUV -CTFKPCN <WO 2CRUV   MQPPVGGTPWTFGUJCNDIGY·JNVYGTFGPYGKNFGTHTCP\ÌUKUEJG'KPURTWEJIGIGPKJP\WUR·VKP4QOGKP VTCH )GIGP FKG JGOOWPIUNQUG $GTGKEJGTWPI FGT (COKNKG $CTDGTKPK \W FGT CWEJ UGKP 8QTI·PIGT 2CRUV   7TDCP 8+++ IGJÌTVG IKPI +PPQEGP\ GPVUEJKGFGP XQT 'T XGTHCUUVG CO  FCU $TGXG ŋ<GNQ   FQOWU&GKŌKPFGOGTIGIGPFKG$GUVKOOWPIGPFGU9GUVH·NKUEJGP(TKGFGPURTQVGUVKGTVGFKGWPVGTUGKPGO 8QTI·PIGT 7TDCP 8+++ \W 7PIWPUVGP FGT MCVJQNKUEJGP -KTEJG CWUIGJCPFGNV YQTFGP YCTGP +PPQEGP\   GTNKG­ CW­GTFGO CO  FKG $WNNG ŋ%WO QEECUKQPGŌ IGIGP FCU NKVGTCTKUEJG 9GTM FGU $KUEJQHU   ,CPUGPFGPŋ#WIWUVKPWUŌWPFXGTWTVGKNVGOKVKJT\WINGKEJFGP,CPUGPKUOWU0CEJFGT6TGPPWPI2QTVW ICNU XQP 5RCPKGP  YGKIGTVG UKEJ +PPQEGP\ FGP -ÌPKI ,QJCPP +8 XQP 2QTVWICN CNU -ÌPKI CP\WGT   MGPPGPWPFKJOFCU$KUEJQHUTGEJV\WXGTNGKJGPQJPGLGFQEJFKG4GXQNVG2QTVWICNUHQTOCNWPFQHHK\KGNN \W XGTWTVGKNGP YKG FKGU XQP 5RCPKGP IGHQTFGTV YWTFG $GK 5RCPPWPIGP \YKUEJGP 5RCPKGP WPF (TCPM   TGKEJDNKGD+PPQEGP\PGWVTCN-ÒPUVNGTKUEJYCTGTUGJTCMVKX5QTGUVCWTKGTVGGTFKG.CVGTCPDCUKNKMCWPF XQNNGPFGVGFKG+PPGPGKPTKEJVWPIFGU2GVGTUFQOU&GT4GUVUGKPGT$CWCMVKXKV·VGPKUVPKEJVYGPKIGTDGGKP FTWEMGPF UVGJV CDGT GJGT WPVGT FGO #URGMV FGT 2TWPMUWEJV WPF FGU 0GRQVKUOWU 5Q NKG­ GT FKG 8KNNC   ŋ&QTKC 2CORJKNKŌ GTTKEJVGP FGP JGWVKIGP ŋ2CNC\\Q &QTKC2CORJKNKŌ #P FGT 2KC\\C0CXQPCGTTKEJVGVG GT PGDGP FGO 8KGTUVTÌOGDTWPPGP ŋ(QPVCPC FGK 3WCVVTQ (KWOKŌ CWEJ FGP (COKNKGPRCNCUV FGPJGWVKIGP ŋ2CNC\\Q2CORJKNKŌFGPGTHÒTUGKPG5EJY·IGTKP1NKORKC/CNFCEJKPKGTDCWVJCDGPUQNN5QMCOGUFCUU FKG2KC\\C0CXQPCCWEJFCUŋ(QTWO2CORJKNKŌIGPCPPVYWTFG  

3WGNNG5EJYCKIGT)GQTI+PPQ\GP\:KP-CURGT9 *IWC .GZKMQPFGT2·RUVGWPFFGU2CRUV VWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1409

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

2KCUVTC#0018++4QO&CX/WPVQPK  445EJÌPG2CVKPCMN<CKPGPFGMN(NGEMUGJTUEJÌP

 111


INNOCENZ X.

1410

 

6GUVQPG#++  4QO/WPVQPK 6GUVQPG#++  4QO/WPVQPK

1412

1411

-N<CKPGPFGOGJTGTG4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP 2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP

 

1413

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU+PPQEGP\: 



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 +  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  IGHGTVKIV PCEJ   GKPGT 8QTNCIG XQP ) %QTOCPQ CWH UGKPG 9CJN $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV5VTCJNGPFGU-TGW\ \W FGP 5GKVGP MPKGV LG GKP DGVGPFGT 'PIGN CWH 9QNMGP  OO  I $CTVQNQVVK \W  #PO   /KUGNNK\W (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0+ UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT 8QTNCIGXQP)%QTOCPQCWHFKG(W­YCUEJWPICO)TÒPFQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV %JTKUVWUMPKGVPCEJTWPFY·UEJVFGOXQTKJOUKV\GPFGP2GVTWUFKG(Ò­GOO/KUGNNK\W 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



1414

1415



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0+ UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT 8QTNCIGXQP)%QTOCPQCWHFKG(W­YCUEJWPICO)TÒPFQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV %JTKUVWUMPKGVPCEJTWPFY·UEJVFGOXQTKJOUKV\GPFGP2GVTWUFKG(Ò­GOO/KUGNNK\W 8QT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 ++  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  IGHGTVKIV PCEJ   GKPGT8QTNCIGXQP)/QTQPGCWHFGPGTUVGP,CJTGUVCIUGKPGT9CJN$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV <YGKUEJYGDGPFG'PIGNJCNVGPUVTCJNGPFGU-TGW\QDGPIGHNÒIGNVGT'PIGNUMQRHOO$CTVQNQVVK\W #PO/KUGNNK\W 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1416





112

1417

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 ++  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  WPUKIPKGTV   IGHGTVKIV PCEJ GKPGT 8QTNCIG XQP ) /QTQPG CWH FGP (TKGFGP XQP %CUVTQ $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO   1TPCV&KG2GTUQPKHKMCVKQPGPXQP)GTGEJVKIMGKVWPF)PCFGWOCTOGPGKPCPFGTOO/KUGNNK\W 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 +++ UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  IGHGTVKIV PCEJ   GKPGT 8QTNCIG XQP ) /QTQPG CWH FKG.CVGTCPDCUKNKMC$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV+PPGPCPUKEJV FGT$CUKNKMCOO$CTVQNQVVK\W/KUGNNK\W 8QT\ÒINKEJ




INNOCENZ X.

1418

1419



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#++++ UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT 8QTNCIG XQP ) /QTQPG CWH FKG #WUUVCVVWPI FGU 2GVGTUFQOU $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV   +PPGPCPUKEJVFGU2GVGTUFQOUOO$CTVQNQVVK\W/KUGNNK\W 8QT\ÒINKEJ





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # 8  XQP)/QTQPGCWHFKG#PMÒPFKIWPIFGU*GKNKIGP,CJTGU$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV5V2GVTWUUKV\VXXCWH9QNMGPKPFGTGTJQDGPGP4GEJVGPOKVGKPCPFGTXGTDWPFGPG 5EJNÒUUGNOKVFGT.KPMGPJ·NVGTFCU'XCPIGNKWOOOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK  *GPMGNURWT(GNFGTDGCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌP



1421

1420





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 8   XQP ) /QTQPG CWH FGP $GIKPP FGT #TDGKVGP CO $TWPPGP CWH FGT   2KC\\C 0CXQPC $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGU $TWPPGPU WOJGT )GD·WFG  OO   I$CTVQNQVVKp 4ÒEMUGKVGUKGJG /KUGNNK  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPC



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+8$XQP)/QTQPGCWHFKG¤HHPWPIFGT*GKNKIGP2HQTVG$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUV NKEJGO1TPCV&KG<GTGOQPKGFGT¤HHPWPIFGT*GKNKIGP2HQTVGOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



1422

1424



1423

1424

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # +8$+. XQP ) /QTQPG CWH FKG ¤HHPWPI FGT *GKNKIGP 2HQTVG $TWUVDKNF T KP   IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&KGIGÌHHPGVG*GKNKIG2HQTVGCPFGTFCU5EJYGK­VWEJ%JTKUVKCPIGDTCEJVKUVOO I/KUGNNK 44-N*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#8++ UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT 8QTNCIG XQP ) /QTQPG CWH FKG ¤HHPWPI FGT *GKNKIGP 2HQTVG $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG   IGÌHHPGVG *GKNKIG 2HQTVG CP FGT FCU 5EJYGK­VWEJ %JTKUVK CPIGDTCEJV KUV  OO /KUGNNK \W    8QT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#8++ UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT 8QTNCIG XQP ) /QTQPG CWH FKG ¤HHPWPI WPF 5EJNKG­WPI FGT *GKNKIGP 2HQTVG $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUV   NKEJGO 1TPCV&KG IGUEJNQUUGPG *GKNKIG 2HQTVG CP FGT GKP -TGW\ CPIGDTCEJV KUV WOJGT .QTDGGTMTCP\   OO/KUGNNK\W -N5VGORGNHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ

 113


INNOCENZ X.

1425



$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNGQ, WO WPUKIPKGTVCWH8KPEGP\Q$GTCTFK5VKHVGTFGT-KTEJG5CP2CQNQKP /CEGTCVC$TWUVDKNFFGU*GKNKIGP2CWNWUXXFGP-QRHJCNDTIGYCPFVKPFGT4GEJVGP5EJYGTVKPFGT .KPMGP $WEJ FCTWPVGT FTGK <GKNGP 5EJTKHV)GH·­ FCTÃ&#x2019;DGT -TGW\ WPF $WEJ FCTWPVGT 5EJTKHV WPF   %JTKUVWUOQPQITCOOQDGP5EJTKHVDCPFOO 441TKIKPCNIW­8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJGTJCNVGP

1426





 114

1427

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # 8++   XQP ) /QTQPG CWH FGP 9GUVH·NKUEJGP (TKGFGP $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUV   NKEJGO1TPCV&GT*GKNKIG8CVGTUKV\VXXCWH9QNMGPFKG4GEJVGGTJQDGPKPFGT.KPMGP4GKEJUCRHGN OO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



8GTIQNFGVG$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#8++  XQP)/QTQPGCWHFGP9GUVH·NKUEJGP(TKGFGP$TWUVDKNFT KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&GT *GKNKIG 8CVGT UKV\V X X CWH 9QNMGP FKG 4GEJVG GTJQDGP KP FGT .KPMGP   4GKEJUCRHGNOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8GTIQNFGVHCUVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



1428





1429

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 +:  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  IGHGTVKIV PCEJ   GKPGT 8QTNCIG XQP ) /QTQPG CWH UGKPG IGIGP FGP PKGFGTN·PFKUEJGP 6JGQNQIGP %QTPGNKWU ,CPUGP  

$KUEJQHXQP;RGTP YGIGP-GV\GTGKCWUIGURTQEJGPG8GTWTVGKNWPI$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&KG 6CWDG FGU *GKNKIGP )GKUVGU KP 5VTCJNGP FCTWPVGT FTGK <GKNGP 5EJTKHV WOJGT.QTDGGTMTCP\OO $CTVQNQVVK#PO/KUGNNK 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 :   XQP ) /QTQPG CWH FKG -KTEJG 5CPV #IPGUG KP #IQPG $TWUVDKNF N KP   IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT-KTEJGOO$CTVQNQVVK#PO/KUGNNK 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ




ALEXANDER VII.

1431 1430

1430

&+'5'&+58#-#0<810

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

2KCUVTC4QO&CX/WPVQPK



6GUVQPG4QO/WPVQPK

44-N*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP



8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV-NIGUVQRHVGU.QEJUGJTUEJÌP



2#256#.':#0&'48++

)GD(GDTWCT5KGPCIGUV/CK4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG(CDKQ%JKIK 2QPVKHKMCV#RTKNņ/CK

  



#NGZCPFGT UVWFKGTVG KP UGKPGT *GKOCVUVCFV 5KGPC ,WTC 2JKNQUQRJKG WPF 6JGQNQIKG  YWTFG GT CWH   /CNVCOKVFGT+PSWKUKVKQPDGCWHVTCIVUEJKEMVGOCPKJPCNU0WPVKWUPCEJ-ÌNPYQGTXQPDKU  KO &KGPUVG FGU 2CRUVGU CO 9GUVH·NKUEJGP (TKGFGP OKVYKTMVG #NGZCPFGT YWTFG CNU (CXQTKV FGT   RQNKVKUEJ WPCDJ·PIKIGP -CTFKP·NG IGY·JNV 9·JTGPF UGKPGT <GKV CNU 2CRUV UGV\VG GT UKEJ IGIGP FKG   2TQVGMVKQPUYKTVUEJCHV WPF FGP 0GRQVKUOWU UGKPGU 8QTI·PIGTU +PPQEGP\ : GKP YGUJCND GT FGP   -QPITGICVKQPGP OGJT /CEJV \WVGKNVG FCOKV FKGUG IGIGDGPGPHCNNU DGK 8GVVGTPYKTVUEJCHV YKFGTURTGEJGP   MQPPVGP9KEJVKIG/C­PCJOGPKPUGKPGT#OVU\GKVYCTGP\YGK-QPUVKVWVKQPGPIGIGPFGP,CPUGPKOWUCO WPFCO'DGPUQXGTWTVGKNVGGTFKG6JGQTKGPFGU.CZKUOWUCOWPFCO #W­GPRQNKVKUEJMCOGU\WVKGHGP5RCPPWPIGPOKV(TCPMTGKEJFKGFWTEJGKPGP-QPHNKMV GKPGUHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP)GUCPFVGPOKVFGT5EJYGK\GT)CTFGGPVUVCPFGP#NU(QNIGMCOGU\WO-TKGIFGP FKG -KTEJG XGTNQT +O (TKGFGP XQP 2KUC CO  OWUUVG FKG -KTEJG FGUJCND JCTVG $GFKPIWPIGP   CPPGJOGP5QYWTFG#XKIPQPXQP(TCPMTGKEJDGUGV\V+O-CORHIGIGPFKG6ÒTMGPWPVGTUVÒV\VG#NGZCP FGT 8GPGFKIWPFMQPPVGUQOKVKPFGT4GRWDNKMGKP,GUWKVGPXGTDQVCWHJGDGPFCUUGKV2CRUV2CWN8DG UVCPF #NGZCPFGT VCV UKEJ MÒPUVNGTKUEJ JGTXQT FWTEJ FKG -QNQPPCFGP FGU 2GVGTUFQOU CNU <GKEJGP FGT   /CEJVFGT2·RUVGGTDCWVXQP)KQXCPPK.QTGP\Q$GTPKPK'DGPUQITÒPFGVGGTFKG$KDNKQVJGMGP%JKIKWPF #NGUUCPFTKCCNU$GUVCPFVGKNFGT8CVKMCPKUEJGP$KDNKQVJGM  

3WGNNG 4GRIGP -QPTCF #NGZCPFGT 8++ KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU   2CRUVVWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5 115


ALEXANDER VII.

1433

1432

 

1432

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

2KCUVTCQ,  4QO&CX/WPVQPK8CT+ 6GUVQPGQ,4QO/WPVQPK

4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP -N4GUVGXQP<CRQPNCEMXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

1435

1434

1436



)KWNKQQ,4QO/WPVQPK

45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



.WKIKPQ#XKIPQP/KV$TWUVDKNFWPF0COGPFGU-CTFKPCNU(NCXKQ%JKIK%COOCTCPQXCT 4  /WPVQPKXCT 4(GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



.KTC $QNQIPKPK $QNQIPC/WPVQPKXCT



/ÒP\UV·VVG#XKIPQP

/ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC

1437

4-N<CKPGPFGMN5COONGTRWP\GUGJTUEJÌP

 

1438

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU#NGZCPFGT8++ 



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # + XQP ) /QTQPG CWH UGKPG 9CJN $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG 2GT   UQPKHKMCVKQPGP XQP (TKGFGP WPF )GTGEJVKIMGKV WOCTOGP GKPCPFGT  OO  I $CTVQNQVVK    /KUGNNK 44(GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#++XQP)/QNCCWHFGPHGKGTNKEJGP'KP\WIFGT\WO-CVJQNK\KUOWUMQPXGTVKGT VGPUEJYGFKUEJGP-ÌPKIKP%JTKUVKPCKP4QOCO&G\GODGT$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV %JTKUVKPC WPF \YGK -CTFKP·NG TGKVGP OKV ITQ­GO )GHQNIG FWTEJ FKG2QTVCFGN2QRQNQKPFKG5VCFV4QO GKPOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK\W FQTVKP<KGTGKPHCUUWPI  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



&GT2CRUV#NGZCPFGT8++DGVTCEJVGVGFGPªDGTVTKVV%JTKUVKPCUFGT6QEJVGTFGU8QTM·ORHGTUHÒTFKGRTQVGUVCPVKUEJG 5CEJG\WOMCVJQNKUEJGP)NCWDGPCNUR·RUVNKEJGP'THQNI'TNKG­FKG2QTVCFGNRQRQNQ FCUCNVG5VCFVVQT2QTVC(NCOK PKC XQTFGT#PMWPHVFGT5EJYGFKPFWTEJ$GTPKPKTGUVCWTKGTGP&CDGKYWTFGFKGJGWVGPQEJUKEJVDCTGCWEJCWHFGT XQTNKGIGPFGP/GFCKNNG\WNGUGPFG7OUEJTKHVCPIGDTCEJV('.+%+(#856138'+0)4'558+ (ÒTGKPGPINÒEMNK EJGPWPFIGUGIPGVGP'KP\WI 

116


ALEXANDER VII.

1440

1439

1439



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+++  XQP)/QTQPGCWHFKG2GUVGRGFKOKGKP4QO$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV5V 2GVTWU OKV 5EJNÒUUGN KO #TO UEJYGDV CO *KOOGN ÒDGT GKPGT )TWRRG XQP #WUU·V\KIGP T   HNKGJGPFGT 'PIGN OKV FGO CDIGVTGPPVGP -QRH FGT 2GUV KP FGT .KPMGP KO *KPVGTITWPF 2GVGTUFQO   OO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#+8  XQP)/QTQPGCWHFKG(W­YCUEJWPICO)TÒPFQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV%JTKUVWU MPKGV PCEJ N WPF Y·UEJV FGO XQT KJO UKV\GPFGP 2GVTWU FKG (Ò­G   OOI/KUGNNK 44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



1441





1442

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+8 UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT 8QTNCIG XQP ) /QTQPG CWH FKG -KTEJG 5CPVC /CTKC FGNNC 2CEG $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV   #PUKEJVFGT-KTEJGOO$CTVQNQVVK\W#PO/KUGNNK\W 'VYCUHNGEMKIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+8 UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT 8QTNCIGXQP)/QTQPGCWHFGP$CWFGUPGWGP(NÒIGNUCO2CNC\\QFGN3WKTKPCNG$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUV NKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU2CNC\\QUFCTÒDGT5EJTKHVDCPFOO/KUGNNK\W 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1443



8GTUKNDGTVG$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNGXQP)(6TCXCPKCWHFKGPGWG9GTHVXQP%KXKVCXGEEJKC$TWUV DKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT9GTHVOO/KUGNNK  8GTUKNDGTVUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 117


ALEXANDER VII.

1444

1446

1445



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#8 UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT 8QTNCIGXQP)/QTQPGCWHFKGPGWG-KTEJG5CP6QOOCUQFKG8KNNCPQXCKP%CUVGN)CPFQNHQ$TWUVDKNF TKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT-KTEJGOO$CTVQNQVVK\WCXCT/KUGNNK\WD  8QT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#8 UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT 8QTNCIGXQP)/QTQPGCWHFKGPGWG-KTEJG5CP0KEQNCKP%CUVGN)CPFQNHQ$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT-KTEJGOO$CTVQNQVVK\WD/KUGNNK\W 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#08+XQP)/QTQPGCWHFKG-KTEJG5CPV +XQCNNC5CRKGP\CKP4QO$TWUVDKNFN KPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT-KTEJGOOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ





1447







118

1448

1449

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 8+  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  IGHGTVKIV   PCEJ GKPGT 8QTNCIG XQP ) /QTQPG CWH FGP $CW FGU PGWGP (NÒIGNU CO 2CNC\\Q FGN 3WKTKPCNG    $TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU2CNC\\QUFCTÒDGT5EJTKHVDCPFOO/KUGNNK\W 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # 8++   XQP ) /QTQPG CWH FKG -QNQPPCFG CO 2GVGTUFQO $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUV   NKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT-QNQPPCFGFCTÒDGT-CTVGOKVFGO)TWPFTK­OOI$CTVQNQVVK C/KUGNNK 45GJTUEJÌP



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # 8++ XQP ) /QTQPG CWH FKG -QNQPPCFG CO 2GVGTUFQO $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUV   NKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT -QNQPPCFG FCTÒDGT -CTVG OKV FGO )TWPFTK­  OO $CTVQNQVVK  D   /KUGNNK 5GJTUEJÌP




ALEXANDER VII.

1450











1452

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#08+++  XQP)/QTQPGCWHFGP-CVJGFGTFGU2GVGTUFQOU$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUV NKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGU -CVJGFGTU QDGP FKG 6CWDG FGU *GKNKIGP )GKUVGU KP 5VTCJNGP  OO   I$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK *GPMGNURWTHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+: UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT 8QTNCIGXQP)/QTQPGCWHFKG5ECNC4GIKC MÌPKINKEJG6TGRRG KO8CVKMCP$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT6TGRRGOO$CTVQNQVVK\W/KUGNNK\W 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#:  XQP)/QTQPGCWHFKG(TQPNGKEJPCORTQ\GUUKQP$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&CTUVGNNWPIFGT2TQ\GUUKQPOOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNKC 445GJTUEJÌP



1453



1451

1454

1455

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0:+XQP)/QTQPGCWHFKG*GKNKIURTGEJWPIXQP(TCPEGUEQFK5CNGU$TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV+PPGPCPUKEJV FGU 2GVGTUFQOU FCTKP VJTQPV FGT 2CRUV X X WOIGDGP XQP FGP   -CTFKP·NGP QDGP FKG 6CWDG FGU *GKNKIGP )GKUVGU KP 5VTCJNGP  OO  I $CTVQNQVVK  D   /KUGNNK 44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



8GTIQNFGVG$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#:++  XQP)/QTQPGCWH*QURKVCNFK5CPVQ5RKTKVQKP4QO $TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU*QURKVCNUOO$CTVQNQVVK#PO/KUGNNK 48GTIQNFGVUGJTUEJÌP



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # :++  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  IGHGTVKIV   PCEJGKPGT8QTNCIGXQP)/QTQPGCWHFKG-KTEJG5CPV #PFTGCFGNNC8CNNGKP4QO$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUV NKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT-KTEJGOO$CTVQNQVVK\W#PO/KUGNNK\W 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 119


ALEXANDER VII.

1457

1456





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # :++  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  CWH FKG   -KTEJG5CPVC/CTKCKP%CORKVGNNKKP4QO$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT-KTEJGOO $CTVQNQVVK#PO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # :+++  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  IGHGTVKIV PCEJ   GKPGT8QTNCIGXQP)/QTQPG 8QTFGTUGKVG WPF)*COGTCPK 4ÒEMUGKVG CWHCWHFKG(W­YCUEJWPICO )TÒPFQPPGTUVCI $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV%JTKUVWU MPKGV PCEJ N WPF Y·UEJV FGO XQT KJO   UKV\GPFGP2GVTWUFKG(Ò­GOO/KUGNNK\W 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



1458



$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNGQ,  WPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG-QNQPPCFGPFGU2GVGTURNCV\GU$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNK EJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU2GVGTURNCV\GUCWUFGT8QIGNRGTURGMVKXGOKVFGO1DGNKUMGPWPFGKPGO5RTKPI DTWPPGPWOJGTFKG-QNQPPCFGPKO*KPVGTITWPF2GVGTUFQOOO/KUGNNK  5R·VGTGT)W­UGJTUEJÌP



1460 1459

1459



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT8QT NCIGXQP)/QTQPG 8QTFGTUGKVG WPF)(6TCXCPK 4ÒEMUGKVG CWHFKGPGWG9GTHVXQP%KXKVCXGEEJKC $TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT9GTHVOO/KUGNNK\W 8QT\ÒINKEJ



&+'5'&+58#-#0<810 &KG/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO  120

6GUVQPG4QO/WPVQPK

45GJTUEJÌP




CLEMENS IX.

1461

1462



)KWNKQ4QO/WPVQPK



.KTC $QNQIPKPK $QNQIPC/WPVQPK

49KP\4GUVGXQP<CRQPNCEMUGJTUEJÌP



44'VYCU<CRQPNCEMUEJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



&KG/ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC

2#256%.'/'05+:

)GD,CPWCT2KUVQKC 6QUECPC IGUV&G\GODGT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG)KWNKIQ4QURKINKQUK 2QPVKHKMCV,WPKņ&G\GODGT

  



7PVGT2CRUV7TDCP8+++OCEJVGUKEJ%NGOGPUCPFGT-WTKGGKPGP0COGP(GTPGTYWTFGGT5VCCVUUGMTG V·TUGKPGU8QTI·PIGTU2CRUV#NGZCPFGTU8++8QPDKUYCTGT0WPVKWUKP5RCPKGPWPFCD -CTFKPCN 0CEJFGO 5RCPKGP FCU 0CEJDCTMÌPKITGKEJ 2QTVWICN CPGTMCPPV JCVVG YKFOGVG UKEJ FGT 2CRUV   PWPFGPMKTEJNKEJGP8GTJ·NVPKUUGPFQTVPCEJFGOUGKPG8QTI·PIGTFGO-ÌPKI,QJCPP+8FKG$KUEJQHU TGEJVGXGTYGJTVWPFKJPPKEJVCPGTMCPPVJCVVGP'TWPVGTUVÒV\VG\WUCOOGPOKV(TCPMTGKEJFKG4GRWDNKM 8GPGFKI OKV GKPGO 'ZRGFKVKQPUMQTRU IGIGP FKG VÒTMKUEJGP #PITGKHGT FQEJ MQPPVG FGT 8GTNWUV -TGVCU   PKEJV XGTOKGFGP YGTFGP +O -TKGI \YKUEJGP (TCPMTGKEJ WPF 5RCPKGP HWPIKGTVG GT CNU 8GTOKVVNGT WPF   UQTIVG UQHÒTFGP(TKGFGPXQP#CEJGP%NGOGPUUWEJVGKO5VTGKVWOFGP,CPUGPKUOWUPCEJGKPGT .ÌUWPIWPFUEJWHFGP%NGOGPVKPKUEJGP(TKGFGPKPUGKPGONGV\VGP,CJTCNU2CRUV&KGUGTYCTLGFQEJPWT XQPMWT\GT&CWGTWPFUEJWHFGP-QPHNKMVPKEJVCWUFGT9GNVUQPFGTPXGTUEJQDKJPPWT.KVGTCTKUEJYCT GTTGEJVGPICIKGTVWPFUEJWHOGJTGTG/GNQFTCOGPWPF)GFKEJVGFKGCWEJKP1RGTPCWHIGHÒJTVYWTFGP UQGVYCŋ%JKUQHHTGURGTKŌQFGTŋ&CNOCNGKNDGPGŌ  

3WGNNG5EJYCKIGT)GQTI%NGOGPU+:KP-CURGT9 *IWC .GZKMQPFGT2·RUVGWPFFGU2CRUV VWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1463

&KG/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

2KCUVTCQ,4QO/KVFGO6JTQPFGUJGKNKIGP2GVTWUKPFGT4ÒEMUGKVGPFCTUVGNNWPI&CX/WP VQPK 45EJÌPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

 121


CLEMENS IX.

1465

1464

 

1464

6GUVQPGQ,4QO/WPVQPK )KWNKQQ,4QO/WPVQPK

1466

2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

1468

1467

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU%NGOGPU+: 

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  WPUKIPKGTV CWH UGKPG   9CJN $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV)GMTGW\VG 5EJNÒUUGN FCTÒDGT 6KCTC  OO $CTVQNQVVK   \W#PO/KUGNNK\W 8QT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+  WPUKIPKGTVCWH5V2GVTWU$GUEJÒV\GTFGT-KTEJG$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV5V 2GVTWU UKV\V HCUV X X OKV UGIPFGPFGT 4GEJVGP KO NKPMGP #TO 5EJNÒUUGNRCCT  OO   $CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # + WPUKIPKGTV CWH UGKPG HGKGTNKEJG +PDGUKV\PCJOG FGU .CVGTCPU $TWUVDKNF N KP   IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&TGK <GKNGP 5EJTKHV KP -CTVWUEJG FCTWPVGT NKGIV FCU .COO )QVVGU PCEJ T \W FGP   5GKVGPLGGKP1NKXGPDCWOQDGPFKG6CWDGFGU*GKNKIGP)GKUVGUOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1469





122

1470

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#001+  XQP#*COGTCPKCWHUGKPG/KNFV·VKIMGKVIGIGPÒDGTFGP$GFÒTHVK IGP$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#FNGTKP0GUVHÒVVGTVUGKPG,WPIGPOOI/KUGNNK 44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCMN*GPMGNURWTXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #001 +  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIV PCEJGKPGT8QTNCIGXQP#*COGTCPKCWHUGKPG/KNFV·VKIMGKVIGIGPÒDGTFGP$GFÒTHVKIGP$TWUVDKNFNKP IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#FNGTKP0GUVHÒVVGTVUGKPG,WPIGPOO/KUGNNK\W 8QT\ÒINKEJ




CLEMENS IX.

1471







1472

1473

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # + UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FKG   5GNKIURTGEJWPI FGT 4QUC XQP .KOC $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV5GEJU <GKNGP 5EJTKHV WOJGT   $NWOGPMTCP\OO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0++ UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU WPUKIPKGTVIGHGT VKIVPCEJGKPGT8QTNCIGXQP)/QTQPGCWHFGP(TKGFGPXQP#CEJGP\YKUEJGP(TCPMTGKEJWPF5RCPKGP $TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&GT2CRUVWOIGDGPXQP-CTFKP·NGPWPF-NGTWUKPGKPGT2TQ\GUUKQP \WO2GVGTUFQOOO$CTVQNQVVK\W/KUGNNK\W 8QT\ÒINKEJ



8GTUKNDGTVG $TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+++ UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU WPUKI PKGTVIGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT8QTNCIGXQP)/QTQPGCWHFKG*GKNKIURTGEJWPIGPFGU,CJTGU$TWUVDKNFNKP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG *GKNKIIGURTQEJGPGP 2KGVTQ F #NE±PVCTC WPF /CTKC /CFFCNGPC FG 2C\\K MPKGP   GKPCPFGTIGIGPÒDGTCWH9QNMGPQDGPFKG6CWDGFGU*GKNKIGP)GKUVGUKP5VTCJNGPOO$CTVQNQVVK \W/KUGNNK\W 8GTUKNDGTV$GCTDGKVWPIUURWTGPCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



1474

1475





1475

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # +++   WPUKIPKGTV CWH FKG *GKNKIURTGEJWPIGP FGU ,CJTGU $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUV   NKEJGO1TPCV5KGDGP<GKNGP5EJTKHVOKV$G\WICWHFKG*GKNKIIGURTQEJGPGP2KGVTQF #NE±PVCTCWPF/CTKC /CFFCNGPCFG2C\\KWOJGT.QTDGGTMTCP\OO$CTVQNQVVK#PO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 +++   XQP#*COGTCPKCWHFKG*GKNKIURTGEJWPIGPFGU,CJTGU$TWUVDKNFNKP IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&GT*GKNKIG8CVGTVJTQPVXXWPFJ·NVLGGKPGP*GKNKIGPUEJGKPÒDGTFKG*·WRVGTFGT XQT KJO MPKGPFGP *GKNKIIGURTQEJGPGP 2KGVTQ F #NE±PVCTC WPF /CTKC /CFFCNGPC FG 2C\\K  OO   I$CTVQNQVVK#PO/KUGNNK 5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

 123


CLEMENS IX.

1476



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 +++  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  IGHGTVKIV PCEJ   GKPGT8QTNCIGXQP#*COGTCPKCWHFKG*GKNKIURTGEJWPIGPFGU,CJTGU$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV &GT*GKNKIG8CVGTVJTQPVXXWPFJ·NVLGGKPGP*GKNKIGPUEJGKPÒDGTFKG*·WRVGTFGTXQTKJOMPKGPFGP *GKNKIIGURTQEJGPGP 2KGVTQ F #NE±PVCTC WPF /CTKC /CFFCNGPC FG 2C\\K  OO $CTVQNQVVK \W    #PO/KUGNNK\W 9KP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



1477



$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJ XQP ) ( 6TCXCPK CWH FKG 'TYGKVGTWPI FGT -KTEJG   5CPVC /CTKC /CIIKQTG KP 4QO $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT -KTEJG  OO   /KUGNNK 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

1478



 124



1479

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 +++  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  IGHGTVKIV PCEJ   GKPGT8QTNCIGXQP#*COGTCPKCWHFKG$TÒEMG5CPV #PIGNQKP4QO$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV #PUKEJVFGT$TÒEMGOO/KUGNNK\W 'VYCU)TÒPURCPXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0+++  XQP#*COGTCPKCWHFKG$TÒEMG5CPV #PIGNQKP4QO$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT$TÒEMGOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ




CLEMENS IX.

1480



$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNG #0 +++   XQP ( %JGTQP CWH FKG 4GUVCWTKGTWPI FGT 'PIGNUDTÒEMG KP 4QO   $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT $TÒEMG QDGP UEJYGDGPFG (COC OKV \YGK 2QUCWPGP   WPVGPNCIGTVFGT(NW­IQVVFGU6KDGTUPCEJTKO4GEJVGP#TO(ÒNNJQTPTFKG9ÌNHKPOKV4QOWNWUWPF 4GOWUOO/KUGNNK 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV1TKIKPCNIW­(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1481



/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

&+'5'&+58#-#0<810

2KCUVTC4QO&CX/WPVQPK

5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



1483

1482

 

6GUVQPG4QO/WPVQPK )KWNKQ4QO/WPVQPK

1482

-N*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP 5EJÌPG2CVKPCOKPIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJ

  125


CLEMENS X.

2#256%.'/'05:

)GD,WNK4QOIGUV,WNK4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG'OKNKQ#NVKGTK 2QPVKHKMCV#RTKNņ,WNK

  



&GT5QJPGKPGTCNVGPTÌOKUEJGP2CVTK\KGTHCOKNKGUVWFKGTVG,WTCWPFCTDGKVGVGPCEJ'TNCPIWPIFGU&QMVQT VKVGNUGKPG<GKVNCPICNU4GEJVUCPYCNV0CEJUGKPGT2TKGUVGTYGKJGYKFOGVG%NGOGPUUGKP.GDGPFGT -KTEJGWPFYWTFGXQPXGTUEJKGFGPGP2·RUVGPOKVYKEJVKIGP#WHICDGPDGVTCWV\$OKVFGT9KGFGTJGT UVGNNWPIFGU(TKGFGPUPCEJFGPUVÒTOKUEJGP6CIGPKP/CUCPKGNNQ0CEJUGKPGTHCUVL·JTKIGP#OVU\GKV CNU $KUEJQH XQP %COGTKPQ YWTFG GT  R·RUVNKEJGT 0WPVKWU KP 0GCRGN +O ,CJT  HQNIVG UGKPG   'TPGPPWPI\WO-CTFKPCNFWTEJ2CRUV%NGOGPU+: UGKP0COGPUIGDGT 5GKP2CRUVCOVJCVVG%NGOGPU: KO2TKP\KRUGKPGOJQJGO#NVGT\WXGTFCPMGP&CU-QPMNCXGPCEJFGO6QFUGKPGU8QTI·PIGTU%NGOGPU+: YCTFWTEJUEJYGTG2CTVGKM·ORHGFGT-CTFKPCNGIGRT·IVWPFFCWGTVGKPUIGUCOV/QPCVGCP.GV\VGPFNKEJ GKPKIVGOCPUKEJCWHGKPGP-QORTQOKUU2CRUV'OKNKQ#NVKGTK(ÒTXKGNG-CTFKP·NGGPVV·WUEJGPFYCTFKG 8KVCNKV·V%NGOGPU:GTUVCTDGTUVPCEJGKPGOHÒTUGKP#NVGTÒDGTTCUEJGPFNCPIGO2QPVKHKMCVXQPUGEJU ,CJTGP &KG NCWHGPFGP #OVUIGUEJ·HVG ÒDGTVTWI %NGOGPU CNNGTFKPIU UGKPGO 8GTYCPFVGP -CTFKPCN   2CQNW\\K#NVKGTK

1484

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

1486

1485



2KCUVTC#0++++4QO&CX/WPVQPK



2KCUVTC4QO/KVFGTIGUEJNQUUGPGP*GKNKIGP2HQTVGKPFGT4ÒEMUGKVGPFCTUVGNNWPI&CX# /WPVQPK 5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



2KCUVTC#0+8$4QOCWHFKG¤HHPWPIFGT*GKNKIGP2HQTVG&CX/WPVQPK  2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPC8QT\ÒINKEJ

126

45EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

  


CLEMENS X.

1487

1488



2KCUVTC#00++4QO&CX/WPVQPK



2KCUVTC  4QO /KV FGO *CHGP XQP %KXKVCXGEEJKC KP FGT 4ÒEMUGKVGPFCTUVGNNWPI &CX/WP VQPK 4(GNFGTOKPIGIN·VVGVUGJTUEJÌP

6GUVQPG#++4QO/WPVQPKC 6GUVQPG4QO/WPVQPK 6GUVQPG#+8$4QO/WPVQPK

45EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP (GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 4(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

6GUVQPGQ,4QO/WPVQPK 6GUVQPGQ,4QO/WPVQPK

1495

 

6GUVQPGQ,4QO/WPVQPK )KWNKQ#+++4QO/WPVQPK



  

1493

1492

 



1491

1490

1489

  

4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP

49KP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP 445EJÌPG2CVKPCMN*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP

1494

 

1495

445EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP

  127


CLEMENS X.

1497 1496

1496

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU%NGOGPU: 



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 +   XQP # *COGTCPK CWH UGKPG 9CJN $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV   %JTKUVWU ÒDGTIKDV FGO XQT KJO MPKGPFGP 5V 2GVTWU FKG 5EJNÒUUGN KO *KPVGTITWPF N $CWO   T6GORGNOO/KUGNNK 'VYCU)TÒPURCPXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0+ UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT 8QTNCIG XQP # *COGTCPK CWH UGKPG 9CJN WPF -TÌPWPI $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV   5V2GVTWUUVGJVXXKPFGT4GEJVGP2CNO\YGKIQDGPUEJYGDGPFGT'PIGNFGTGKPGP-TCP\ÒDGTUGKP *CWRVJ·NVOO/KUGNNK\W 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1498





1499

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # + XQP ) .WEGPVK CWH UGKPG 9CJN $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV4QOC   MPKGV PCEJ T WPF GTITGKHV FKG TGEJVG *CPF FGU XQT KJT UVGJGPFGP 5V 2GVTWU FGT FCU 5EJNÒUUGNRCCT KO   NKPMGP#TOJ·NVFCJKPVGTUVGJV5V2CWNWUOKV5EJYGTVOOI/KUGNNK  45EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # + UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  IGHGTVKIV PCEJ GKPGT   8QTNCIG XQP ) .WEGPVK CWH UGKPG 9CJN $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV4QOC MPKGV PCEJ T WPF   GTITGKHV FKG TGEJVG *CPF FGU XQT KJT UVGJGPFGP 5V 2GVTWU FGT FCU 5EJNÒUUGNRCCT KO NKPMGP #TO J·NV   FCJKPVGTUVGJV5V2CWNWUOKV5EJYGTVOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1501

1500





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#+XQP).WEGPVKCWHUGKPGHGKGTNKEJG+PDGUKV\PCJOGFGU.CVGTCPU$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV<YGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVKP-CTVWUEJGFCTWPVGTUGEJU5VGTPGÒDGT'TFJCNDMWIGNQDGPFKG 6CWDGFGU*GKNKIGP)GKUVGUKP5VTCJNGPOOI/KUGNNK 4/KPDGTKGDGPUGJTUEJÌP



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+XQP).WEGPVKCWHUGKPGHGKGTNKEJG+PDGUKV\PCJOGFGU.CVGTCPU$TWUVDKNFT KPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV'TFJCNDMWIGNFCTÒDGT5VGTPGWPF\YGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVQDGPFKG6CWDGFGU*GKNK IGP)GKUVGUKP5VTCJNGPOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1502



128

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # +   XQP # *COGTCPK CWH FGP $TCWEJ FGT #PDGVWPI FGT WPDGHNGEMVGP   'ORH·PIPKU \WO 5EJWV\ XQT -CVCUVTQRJGP $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG *GKNKIG /CTKC OKV   5VGTPGPMTCP\UVGJVXXCWH/QPFUKEJGNWPF9QNMGPOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ




CLEMENS X.

1504

1503



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+ UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU WPUKIPKGTV4ÒEMUGKVG IGHGTVKIVPCEJGKPGT8QTNCIGXQP).WEGPVKCWHFKG(W­YCUEJWPICO)TÒPFQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV%JTKUVWU MPKGV PCEJ N WPF Y·UEJV FGO XQT KJO UKV\GPFGP 2GVTWU FKG (Ò­G   OO/KUGNNKC 8QT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#++XQP).WEGPVKCWHFKG*GKNKIURTGEJWPIGPFGU,CJTGU$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUV NKEJGO1TPCV&KG*GKNKIIGURTQEJGPGP)CGVCPQFC6JKGPG(TCPEGUEQ$QTIKCFG$QTLC(KNKRRQ$GP\KPK .WKIK $GTVTCPF FK 8CNGPEKC WPF 4QUC (NQTGU FC .KOC UVGJGP PGDGPGKPCPFGT X X QDGP FKG 6CWDG FGU   *GKNKIGP)GKUVGUKP9QNMGPWPF5VTCJNGPOO$CTVQNQVVKC/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1505







1505

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 ++ XQP ) ( 6TCXCPK CWH FKG *GKNKIURTGEJWPIGP FGU ,CJTGU $TWUVDKNF T KP   IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG *GKNKIIGURTQEJGPGP )CGVCPQ FC 6JKGPG (TCPEGUEQ $QTIKC FG $QTLC (KNKRRQ   $GP\KPK.WKIK$GTVTCPFFK8CNGPEKCWPF4QUC(NQTGUFC.KOCMPKGPPGDGPGKPCPFGTXXQDGPFKG6CWDG FGU*GKNKIGP)GKUVGUKP9QNMGPWPF5VTCJNGPOOI$CTVQNQVVKD/KUGNNK  4*GTTNKEJG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

1506



1,5:1

1507



1508

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 ++   XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH FKG *GKNKIURTGEJWPIGP FGU ,CJTGU $TWUVDKNF T KP   IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG *GKNKIIGURTQEJGPGP )CGVCPQ FC 6JKGPG (TCPEGUEQ $QTIKC FG $QTLC (KNKRRQ   $GP\KPK.WKIK$GTVTCPFFK8CNGPEKCWPF4QUC(NQTGUFC.KOCCWH9QNMGPQDGPFKG6CWDGFGU*GKNKIGP )GKUVGUKP5VTCJNGPOOI/KUGNNK 4*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 ++  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI XGTOWVNKEJ FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  IGHGTVKIV   PCEJGKPGT8QTNCIGXQP)*COGTCPKCWHFGP$TCWEJFGT#PDGVWPIFGTWPDGHNGEMVGP'ORH·PIPKU\WO 5EJWV\ XQT -CVCUVTQRJGP $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG *GKNKIG /CTKC OKV 5VGTPGPMTCP\ UVGJV   XXCWH/QPFUKEJGNWPF9QNMGPOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+++XQP)*COGTCPKCWHUGKPG9QJNV·VKIMGKV$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV #NVGT/CPPUKV\VCPIGMGVVGVPCEJTKO)GH·PIPKUXQTKJOUVGJVUGKPG6QEJVGTWPFIKDVKJOFKG$TWUV OO/KUGNNK 9KP\5VGORGNHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ

 129


CLEMENS X.

1510

1509

1511



8GTIQNFGVG$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0+++ UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGT VKIVPCEJGKPGT8QTNCIGXQP).WEGPVKCWHFKG(W­YCUEJWPICO)TÒPFQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUV NKEJGO 1TPCV%JTKUVWU MPKGV PCEJ T WPF Y·UEJV FGO XQT KJO UKV\GPFGP 2GVTWU FKG (Ò­G  OO   /KUGNNK\W 8GTIQNFGVUGJTUEJÌP





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0++++  XQP)(6TCXCPKCWHFGP5KGIFGTVÒTMKUEJGP#TOGGKP2QNGPWPFFKG $GFTQJWPI FGT %JTKUVGPJGKV $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV5V 2GVTWU OKV 5EJNÒUUGNRCCT WPF   5V 2CWNWU OKV 5EJYGTV UVGJGP PGDGPGKPCPFGT X X QDGP FKG 6CWDG FGU *GKNKIGP )GKUVGU KP 5VTCJNGP   OOI$CTVQNQVVKD/KUGNNK (GKPG2CVKPCMN*GPMGNURWTXQT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 ++++   XQP ) .WEGPVK WPF ) *COGTCPK CWH FGP $TCWEJ FGT #PDGVWPI FGT   WPDGHNGEMVGP 'ORH·PIPKU \WO 5EJWV\ XQT -CVCUVTQRJGP $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV/CTKC OKV   5VGTPGPMTCP\UVGJVXXCWH/QPFUKEJGNKP5VTCJNGPOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1512



1,5:1

1512

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 ++++   XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH FKG FWTEJ FGP 2CRUV XGTCPNC­VG )GVTGKFG\WHWJT   PCEJ 4QO $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV%GTGU UKV\V PCEJ T KO TGEJGP #TO (ÒNNJQTP KP FGT   .KPMGP JTGP WPF UKGJV \YGK 2WVVGP DGKO 'TPVGP \W KO *KPVGTITWPF $CWGTP FKG GDGPHCNNU GTPVGP   OOI$CTVQNQVVKD#PO/KUGNNK *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1513



130

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#++++XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG8QTJGTTUEJCHVFGUMCVJQNKUEJGP)NCWDGPU$TWUV DKNFHCUVXXOKVUGIPGPFGT4GEJVGP&KGRGTUQPKHK\KGTVG4GNKIKQPUVGJVXXOKV-TGW\WPF$KDGNWPF DNKEMVCWHFKGXQTKJTMPKGPFGP)N·WDKIGPOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ




CLEMENS X.

1514



1,5:1

1514

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 8 XQP ) .WEGPVK CWH FKG ªDGTICDG FGT VÒTMKUEJGP (NCIIG CP FGP 2CRUV   $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&GT 2CRUV VJTQPV PCEJ T WPF GTJ·NV XQP GKPGO XQT KJO MPKGPFGP   RQNPKUEJGP#FNKIGPFKGVÒTMKUEJG(NCIIGOOI$CTVQNQVVKC/KUGNNK  445EJÌPG2CVKPC(GNFGTCNVRQNKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



1515



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #001 8 XQP ) ( 6TCXCPK CWH FKG ªDGTICDG FGT VÒTMKUEJGP (NCIIG CP FGP   2CRUV$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&GT2CRUVVJTQPVPCEJTWPFGTJ·NVXQPGKPGOXQTKJOMPKGP FGPRQNPKUEJGP#FNKIGPFKGVÒTMKUEJG(NCIIGOO$CTVQNQVVKDXCT/KUGNNKC  (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

1516

1517



1518



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 8 XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH FGP 2CNC\\Q #NVKGTK $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO   1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU2CNC\\QUOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#08XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG#PMÒPFKIWPIFGU*GKNKIGP,CJTGU$TWUV DKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGU 2GVGTUFQOU KO 8QTFGTITWPF 9ÌNHKP OKV 4QOWNWU WPF 4G   OWU QDGP PCEJ T UEJYGDGPFGT 'PIGN OKV 2QUCWPG KP FGT .KPMGP 2GTICOGPV OKV HÒPH <GKNGP 5EJTKHV   OO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ





8GTIQNFGVG $TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 8 XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH FKG #PMÒPFKIWPI FGU *GKNKIGP ,CJTGU   $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU2GVGTUFQOUKO8QTFGTITWPF9ÌNHKPOKV4QOWNWU WPF 4GOWU QDGP PCEJ T UEJYGDGPFGT 'PIGN OKV 2QUCWPG KP FGT .KPMGP 2GTICOGPV OKV HÒPH <GKNGP   5EJTKHVOO/KUGNNKC 8GTIQNFGVMN4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

 131


CLEMENS X.

1519



1520

1521

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 8 XQP ) *COGTCPK WPF ) .WEGPVK CWH FKG ¤HHPWPI FGT *GKNKIGP 2HQTVG   $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG <GTGOQPKG FGT ¤HHPWPI FGT *GKNKIGP 2HQTVG  OO $CTVQ   NQVVK 4Ã&#x2019;EMUGKVG /KUGNNKC 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 8+ XQP ) $ )WINKGNOCFC WPF ) .WEGPVK CWH FKG ¤HHPWPI FGT *GKNKIGP   2HQTVG $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG <GTGOQPKG FGT ¤HHPWPI FGT*GKNKIGP2HQTVGOO $CTVQNQVVK 4Ã&#x2019;EMUGKVG /KUGNNK 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ





8GTIQNFGVG$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#08 UR·VGTG2T·IWPIXGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU IGHGT VKIV PCEJ GKPGT8QTNCIGXQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG¤HHPWPIFGT*GKNKIGP2HQTVG$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNK EJGO1TPCV&KG<GTGOQPKGFGT¤HHPWPIFGT*GKNKIGP2HQTVGOO/KUGNNKC  8GTIQNFGVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



1522

1523





132

1523

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # +8$ XQP ) .WEGPVK CWH FKG 5EJNKG­WPI FGT *GKNKIGP 2HQTVG $TWUVDKNF T KP   IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&KG<GTGOQPKGFGT5EJNKG­WPIFGT*GKNKIGP2HQTVGOO/KUGNNK  8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#08+XQP)*COGTCPKWPF).WEGPVKCWHFKG5EJNKG­WPIFGT*GKNKIGP2HQTVG $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&KG<GTGOQPKGFGT5EJNKG­WPIFGT*GKNKIGP2HQTVGOO/KUGNNKC 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ




CLEMENS X.

1524







1525

1526

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # 8+ XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH FKG 5EJNKG­WPI FGT *GKNKIGP 2HQTVG $TWUVDKNF T KP   IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&KG<GTGOQPKGFGT5EJNKG­WPIFGT*GKNKIGP2HQTVGOOI/KUGNNK 44*GTTNKEJG6ÌPWPIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#8+WPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG5EJNKG­WPIFGT*GKNKIGP2HQTVG#PUKEJVFGTIGUEJNQUUG PGP2HQTVG5KGDGP<GKNGP5EJTKHVKP-CTVWUEJGWPVGPXKGTHGNFKIGU9CRRGPOO/KUGNNK  5GJTUEJÌP



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # 8++   XQP ) .WEGPVK CWH FKG $GHGUVKIWPI FGU *CHGPU XQP %KXKVCXGEEJKC   $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGU *CHGPU CWU FGT 8QIGNRGTURGMVKXG  OO $CTVQNQVVK   /KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1527

1528



1528

1529

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ,XQP#*COGTCPKCWHFKG(W­YCUEJWPICO)TÒPFQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUV NKEJGO 1TPCV%JTKUVWU MPKGV PCEJ T WPF Y·UEJV FGO XQT KJO UKV\GPFGP 2GVTWU FKG (Ò­G  OO    I/KUGNNK 4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



&+'5'&+58#-#0<810 &KG/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

2KCUVTC4QO&CX/WPVQPK



6GUVQPG4QO/WPVQPK

5EJÌPG2CVKPC(CUUWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP



4(GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 133


INNOCENZ XI.

+001%'0<:+

)GD/CK%QOQIGUV#WIWUV4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG$GPGFGVVQ1FGUECNEJK 2QPVKHKMCV5GRVGODGTņ#WIWUV 5GNKIURTGEJWPICO1MVQDGT

   



+PPQEGP\  #OVU\GKV \GKEJPGVG UKEJ XQT CNNGO FWTEJ GKPG 8GTDGUUGTWPI FGT 1TFPWPI WPF (KPCP\GP FGT   -KTEJGCWU5GKP8QTIGJGPIGIGP8GVVGTPYKTVUEJCHVKPPGTJCNDFGTMCVJQNKUEJGP-KTEJGMQPPVGGTLGFQEJ PKEJV IGIGP FGP 9KNNGP FGT -CTFKP·NG KP (QTO GKPGT $WNNG FWTEJUGV\GP #WH IGKUVNKEJGO )GDKGV XGTWT   VGKNVGGTFGP.CZKUOWUGKPGDGUQPFGTUOKNFG(QTOFGT/QTCNVJGQNQIKGWPFUGV\VGUKEJXGTUV·TMVHÒTFGP 6WVQTKUOWUGKPPCEJFGOOCPUVGVUPCEJFGP)GDQVGP)QVVGUJCPFGNPUQNNVGWPFPKEJVPCEJFGOGKIGPGP )GYKUUGP&KG7PVGTUVÒV\WPIGKPGU,GUWKVGPIGIGPFGP2TQDCDKNKUOWUKPFGUUGP1TFGPDTCEJVG+PPQEGP\ FGP8QTYWTHFGU,CPUGPKUOWUGKP#W­GPRQNKVKUEJICDGUXQTCNNGOOKV(TCPMTGKEJITQ­G2TQDNGOGFCUU \WFGT<GKVCDUQNWVKUVKUEJXQP.WFYKI:+8TGIKGTVYWTFG&GT-ÌPKIYQNNVGUGKPG/CEJVCWEJKPMKTEJNK EJGP$GNCPIGPKP(TCPMTGKEJOKVJKNHGFGT)CNNKMCPKUEJGP#TVKMGNCWUYGKVGPFKG+PPQEGP\CDNGJPVG&CU 8QTIGJGPIGIGPFKG*WIGPQVVGPPCEJFGT#WHJGDWPIFGU'FKMVGUXQP0CPVGUXGTWTVGKNVGGT)GIGPFCU 1UOCPKUEJG4GKEJUEJWH+PPQEGP\GTHQNITGKEJG$ÒPFPKUUGGWTQR·KUEJGT/·EJVGWPFUEJO·NGTVGUQFGUUGP #WUFGJPWPIKP'WTQRC  

3WGNNG5EJYCKIGT)GQTI+PPQ\GP\:+KP-CURGT9 *IWC .GZKMQPFGT2·RUVGWPFFGU2CRUV VWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1530

1,5:1

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

134

3WCFTWRNC #0 +++   4QO  I +001%'0 Û :+Û2106Û/#:Û#0Û+++$TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV(80&# 8GT\KGTWPI  015  +0 8GT\KGTWPI  2#%' 8GT\KGTWPI    &KG RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG WPDGHNGEMVG 'ORH·PIPKU UKV\V X X KP 5VTCJNGPMTCP\ CWH 9QNMGP WPF 4GIGPDQIGP   WPVGPFCU9CRRGP%QTUKPKWPVGT-CTFKPCNUJWV(D/WPVQPK  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV*GPMGNURWT(GNFGTIGIN·VVGVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 


INNOCENZ XI.

1531 1,5:1



1,5:1

&QRRKC # 8   4QO  I 9CRRGP FCTÒDGT IGMTGW\VG 5EJNÒUUGN QDGP 6KCTC-CTVWUEJG   OKV\YGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVQDGPIGHNÒIGNVGT'PIGNUMQRHWPVGP9CRRGP(D/WPVQPK  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT)QNFVÌPWPIYKP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1532

1,5:1



1,5:1

&QRRKC#0+:4QOI9CRRGPFCTÒDGTIGMTGW\VG5EJNÒUUGNQDGP6KCTCWPVGP\WFGP5GK VGP\YGKIGMTGW\VG2CNO\YGKIG-CTVWUEJGOKVHÒPH<GKNGP5EJTKHV(D/WPVQPK  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT)QNFVÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

1533



2KCUVTC#8+++4QO&CX/WPVQPK

 

1534



1535

5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2KCUVTCQ,4QO&CX/WPVQPK

(GNFGTOKPDGTKGDGPUGJTUEJÌP



2KCUVTC4QO&CX/WPVQPK

9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

 135


INNOCENZ XI.

1536

1537

1538



2KCUVTC#8++  4QO&CX/WPVQPK 5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI 5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2KCUVTCQ,4QO&CX/WPVQPK 5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2KCUVTCQ,4QO&CX/WPVQPK

1539

5EJÌPG2CVKPCYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

1540

   

1541



2KCUVTC #0 ++   4QO /KV FGT (CUUCFG FGU 2GVGTUFQOU KP FGT 4ÒEMUGKVGPFCTUVGNNWPI &CX   /WPVQPK 4#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 



2KCUVTC#++  4QO/KVFGT(CUUCFGFGU2GVGTUFQOUKPFGT4ÒEMUGKVGPFCTUVGNNWPI&CX /WPVQPK 4*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP





2KCUVTC#0+  4QO&CX/WPVQPK  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(CUUWPIUURWTGPHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



136


INNOCENZ XI.

1542

1544

1543



2KCUVTC#0+  4QO&CX/WPVQPK

*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCMN<CKPGPFGUGJTUEJÌP





2KCUVTC#0+  4QO&CX#/WPVQPK  #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT2CVKPC





2KCUVTC#+++  4QO&CX/WPVQPK  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1545



2KCUVTC#8++  4QO/WPVQPK

1546

  

6GUVQPG#++++  4QO/WPVQPK 6GUVQPG#++  4QO/WPVQPK 6GUVQPG#0+  4QO/WPVQPK

(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

1547



1548

5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP 5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

   137


INNOCENZ XI.

1549

 

6GUVQPG#8+++4QO/WPVQPK 6GUVQPG#:+++4QO/WPVQPK

1551

    

1550

1552

'VYCUHNGEMKIUGJTUEJÌP 5EJÌPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

1553

)KWNKQ#++++  4QO/WPVQPK )KWNKQ#8  4QO/WPVQPK )KWNKQ4QO/WPVQPK )KWNKQ#:+4QO/WPVQPK )TQUUQQ,4QO/WPVQPK

1554

 

1555

5EJÌPG2CVKPCYKP\5VGORGNHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP 5EJÌPG2CVKPCYKP\5VGORGNHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ 5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

    

1558

1557

1556

  

/ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC

6GUVQPG$QNQIPC/WPVQPK .KTC $QNQIPKPK $QNQIPC/WPVQPK &QRRKQ$QNQIPKPQ /WTCKQNC Q,$QNQIPC/WPVQPK

.GKEJVDGCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌP 445GJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌP

  

1559

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU+PPQEGP\:+ 

138

8GTUKNDGTVG$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP)*COGTCPKCWHUGKPG9CJNWPF-TÌPWPI$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUV NKEJGO 1TPCV&GT 2CRUV YKTF CWH GKPGT 5·PHVG DGINGKVGV XQP FGT 5EJYGK\GT )CTFG KP FGP 2GVGTUFQO   IGVTCIGPOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ




INNOCENZ XI.

1561

1560





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # + WPUKIPKGTVXQP).WEGPVKCWHUGKPGHGKGTNKEJG+PDGUKV\PCJOGFGU.CVGTCPU $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG 6CWDG FGU *GKNKIGP )GKUVGU KP 5VTCJNGP  OO /KUGNNK    5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 +   XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH UGKPG 9CJN $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV   %JTKUVWUUVGJVPCEJTCWHFGO5GGWPF\KGJV2GVTWUCWUFGP9GNNGPKO*KPVGTITWPF$QQVOKVFGPCPFG TGP#RQUVGNPOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1562





1563

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#++XQP)*COGTCPKCWHUGKPG8GTOKVVNWPIUXGTUWEJGHÒTFGP(TKGFGPKP'WTQRC $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV5V2GVTWUWPF5V2CWNWUUVGJGPGKPCPFGTIGIGPÒDGTOOI $CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 45EJÌPG2CVKPC(GNFGTNGKEJVDGCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌP



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 +++ XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH FGP (TKGFGP XQP 0KLOGIGP $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUV   NKEJGO1TPCV5V2GVTWUUKV\VPCEJTCWHGKPGO5VGKPKP.CPFUEJCHVKPFGT4GEJVGP$WEJKPFGT.KPMGP 5EJNÒUUGNRCCTOOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK2CZKP0WOOKUp  44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCMN-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ



1564



1,5:1

1564

6CNGTHÌTOKIG 5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # +++ WPUKIPKGTV CWH FCU R·RUVNKEJG 4GEJVUYGUGP $TWUVDKNF T KP   IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV'KP PCEJ T CWH 9QNMG UEJYGDGPFGT 'PIGN J·NV GKPG 9CCIG FGT XQT KJO UVGJGPFGP   ,WUVKVKC GPVIGIGP FKG GKPGP 5EJNCPIGPTKPI KP FGT .KPMGP J·NV XQT KJT CO $QFGP NKGIV FGT 5EJKNF FGU   /ÒP\OGKUVGTU$KEJKOOI/KUGNNK 445EJÌPG6ÌPWPIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1565



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ,  WPUKIPKGTVXGTOWVNKEJXQP)*COGTCPKCWHUGKP(COKNKGPYCRRGP$TWUV DKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG 5[ODQNG UGKPGU (COKNKGPYCRRGPU #FNGTFCTWPVGT.ÌYGN KPGKPGO #DUEJPKVV FGU 6KGTMTGKUGU \W FGP 5GKVGP FKG 5[ODQNG FGT 5VGTP\GKEJGP -TGDU D\Y ,WPIHTCW  WPVGP   -GNEJCWH9QNMGPWOIGDGPXQPUKGDGP5VGTPGPOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 139


INNOCENZ XI.

1566

1567

1568



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # ++++ XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH FKG TÌOKUEJG -KTEJG $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO   1TPCV'EENGUKCUVGJVHCUVXXFGP-QRHPCEJNIGYCPFVKPFGT4GEJVGPUVTCJNGPFGT*QUVKGPMGNEJKP FGT .KPMGP -TGW\ KO *KPVGTITWPF 2GVGTUFQO WPF FKG /KNXKUEJG $TÒEMG  OO $CTVQNQVVK    /KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#8  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFGP-TKGIIGIGPFKG6ÒTMGP$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNK EJGO 1TPCV'T\GPIGN /KEJCGN OKV $NKV\ KP FGT 4GEJVGP UEJTGKVGV ÒDGT FGP KP (NCOOGP CO $QFGP   NKGIGPFGP6GWHGNJKPYGI8CTKCPVGOKVCWHFGO/CPVGNFCTIGUVGNNVGT-TGW\KIWPIUU\GPGOOI $CTVQNQVVK#PO/KUGNNKC 445GJTUEJÌP



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#8  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFGP-TKGIIGIGPFKG6ÒTMGP$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUV NKEJGO 1TPCV'T\GPIGN /KEJCGN OKV $NKV\ KP FGT 4GEJVGP UEJTGKVGV ÒDGT FGP KP (NCOOGP CO $QFGP   NKGIGPFGP6GWHGNJKPYGI8CTKCPVGOKVCWHFGO/CPVGNFCTIGUVGNNVGT-TGW\KIWPIUU\GPGOO$CT VQNQVVK#PO/KUGNNKC 8QT\ÒINKEJ





1569







140

1570

1571

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#8  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHUGKPG9QJNV·VKIMGKV$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG 9QJNV·VKIMGKV UKV\V X X FGP -QRH PCEJ T IGYCPFV WPF UVKNNV GKPGP 5·WI   NKPIKONKPMGP#TOJ·NVGKP-KPFFCUKJTFKG*·PFGGPVIGIGPUVTGEMVOO/KUGNNK  8QTFGTUGKVGXGTUKNDGTVXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#8+  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFGP3WKGVKUOWU$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV 'EENGUKCUKV\VXXCWH9QNMGPFGP-QRHPCEJTIGYCPFVKPFGT4GEJVGP-TGW\KPFGT.KPMGP5EJNÒU UGNRCCTN2WVVQOKV6KCTCT2WVVQOKVXKGTU·WNKIGO6GORGNOQFGNNOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#08++  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKGTÌOKUEJG-KTEJG$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV'EENGUKC UVGJV HCUV X X CWH 9QNMGP FGP -QRH PCEJ T IGYCPFV KP FGT 4GEJVGP -TGW\ KP FGT   .KPMGP5EJNÒUUGNRCCTN2WVVQOKVXKGTU·WNKIGO6GORGNOQFGNNT2WVVQOKV6KCTCOOI $CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ




INNOCENZ XI.

1572





1573

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#08++  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKGTÌOKUEJG-KTEJG$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV'EENGUKC UVGJV HCUV X X CWH 9QNMGP FGP -QRH PCEJ T IGYCPFV KP FGT 4GEJVGP -TGW\ KP FGT   .KPMGP5EJNÒUUGNRCCTN2WVVQOKVXKGTU·WNKIGO6GORGNOQFGNNT2WVVQOKV6KCTCOO$CTVQNQVVK /KUGNNK 5GJTUEJÌPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # 8+++ XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH FKG #NNKCP\ OKV 2QNGP ¤UVGTTGKEJ WPF 8GPGFKI   IGIGP FKG 6ÒTMGP $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#NVCT FCTCWH NKGIGP FKG -TQPG ¤UVGTTGKEJU FKG   R·RUVNKEJG6KCTCFKG-TQPG2QNGPUWPFFKG&QIGPOÒV\G8GPGFKIUQDGP6CWDGFGU*GKNKIGP)GKUVGUKP 5VTCJNGP1JPG4CPFUEJTKHVOO$CTVQNQVVK#PO/KUGNNKC 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1575

1574





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#8+++  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG(W­YCUEJWPICO)TÒPFQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFN KPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV%JTKUVWUMPKGVPCEJTWPFY·UEJVFGOXQTKJOUKV\GPFGP2GVTWUFKG(Ò­GWOJGT UVGJGPFKGCPFGTGP#RQUVGNOO/KUGNNK *GTTNKEJG6ÌPWPIYKP\5VGORGNHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#8+++  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG(W­YCUEJWPICO)TÒPFQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFN KPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV%JTKUVWUMPKGVPCEJTWPFY·UEJVFGOXQTKJOUKV\GPFGP2GVTWUFKG(Ò­GWOJGT UVGJGPFKGCPFGTGP#RQUVGNOO/KUGNNKC 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1576

1,5:1



1,5:1

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 8+++ ,CJTGUCPICDG KO 5VGORGN CWU8++IG·PFGTV XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG #NNKCP\OKV2QNGP¤UVGTTGKEJWPF8GPGFKIIGIGPFKG6ÒTMGP$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV'EENG UKCUVGJVHCUVXXCWH9QNMGPFGP-QRHPCEJTIGYCPFVKPFGT4GEJVGP-TGW\KPFGT.KPMGP5EJNÒU UGNRCCTN2WVVQOKVXKGTU·WNKIGO6GORGNOQFGNNT2WVVQOKV6KCTCOOI$CTVQNQVVK /KUGNNK 5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI 2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 141


INNOCENZ XI.

1577 1578







1579

6TCIDCTG 5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTVCWHFGP5KGIÒDGTFKG6ÒTMGPDGK2CTMCP[WPFFKGGTDGWVGVG (NCIIG $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV(CJPG FCTWPVGT CPITGKHGPFG 6TWRRGP QDGP /CFQPPC OKV   -KPFCWHGKPGO)GD·WFGOOI/KUGNNK (CUVUGJTUEJÌP



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0+:  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG$GNCIGTWPIFGT+PUGN5CPVC/CWTC$TWUVDKNFT KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV'EENGUKC UKV\V HCUV X X KP .CPFUEJCHV KP FGT 4GEJVGP -TGW\ KP FGT .KPMGP   (NCOOGNUKV\V2WVVQOKVCWHIGUEJNCIGPGO$WEJOOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK  5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#:+  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG5KGIGFGT*GKNKIGP.KICKP7PICTP$TWUVDKNFT KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV5VTCJNGPFGU -TGW\ OKV CPIGJ·PIVGO .QTDGGTMTCP\ CWH (GNUGP KO /GGT \W FGP   5GKVGPFKGXKGTCNU-ÌRHGKP9QNMGPFCTIGUVGNNVGP9KPFGOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK  8QT\ÒINKEJ



1581

1580

1580



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#:+  XQP2*/ÒNNGTCWHFKG5KGIGFGT*GKNKIGP.KICKP7PICTP$TWUVDKNFT KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV5VTCJNGPFGU -TGW\ OKV CPIGJ·PIVGO .QTDGGTMTCP\ CWH (GNUGP KO /GGT \W FGP   5GKVGPFKGXKGTCNU-ÌRHGKP9QNMGPFCTIGUVGNNVGP9KPFGOOI$CTVQNQVVK#POXCT (QTUVGTXCT/KUGNNKC 44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCMN5VGORGNHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0:+  XQP2*/ÒNNGTCWHFKG5KGIGFGT*GKNKIGP.KICKP7PICTP$TWUVDKNFT KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV5VTCJNGPFGU -TGW\ OKV CPIGJ·PIVGO .QTDGGTMTCP\ CWH (GNUGP KO /GGT \W FGP   5GKVGP FKG XKGT CNU -ÌRHG KP 9QNMGP FCTIGUVGNNVGP 9KPFG  OO  I $CTVQNQVVK  #PO   (QTUVGT/KUGNNKD 5EJÌPG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



142


INNOCENZ XI.

1583

1582

1583



6TCIDCTG 5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # :++   XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH FKG (W­YCUEJWPI CO )TÒPFQPPGTUVCI   $TWUVDKNF T KPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV%JTKUVWUMPKGVPCEJTWPFY·UEJVFGOXQTKJOUKV\GPFGP2GVTWUFKG (Ò­GWOJGTUVGJGPFKGCPFGTGP#RQUVGNOOI/KUGNNK  445EJÌPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0:++  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG5KGIGFGT*GKNKIGP.KIC$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUV NKEJGO 1TPCV&KG RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG *QHHPWPI UVGJV HCUV X X FGP -QRH PCEJ T IGYCPFV CWH GKPGO   #PMGTKO*KPVGTITWPF.CPFUEJCHVQDGP5VTCJNGPOOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



1584

1585





1585

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP)$)WINKGNOCFCCWHFGP'ORHCPIFGT#DIGUCPFVGPCWU6QPIMKPI$TWUV DKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&GT 2CRUV VJTQPV PCEJ T XQT KJO UVGJV GKP ,GUWKV FGT CWU GKPGT 5EJTKHV   TQNNG XQTNKGUV WOJGT MPKGP D\Y XGTDGWIGP UKEJ FKG FTGK )GUCPFVGPOOI/KUGNNK 44(GKPG6ÌPWPI5VGORGNHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



/GUUKPIOGFCKNNG #001 :++   WPUKIPKGTV CWH /CTKC /WVVGT ,GUW %JTKUVK $TWUVDKNF T KO   IGKUVNKEJGP 1TPCV$TWUVDKNF /CTKCU N OKV WOIGNGIVGO 6WEJKP5VTCJNGPMTCP\OO/KUGNNK 5GJTUEJÌP



1586

1587





1587

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#:+++  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHUGKPG5VCPFJCHVKIMGKVKO-CORHIGIGPFKG6ÒTMGK $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV/KPGTXC UKV\V PCEJ T KO TGEJGP #TO J·NV UKG GKPG CDIGDTQEJGPG   5·WNGFGPNKPMGP(W­JCVUKGCWHGKPGYGKVGTGCO$QFGPNKGIGPFG5·WNGIGUVGNNVFKG.KPMGTWJVCWHFGO -QRH GKPGU PGDGP KJT NKGIGPFGP .ÌYGP FGT UGKPG 8QTFGTVCV\GP GDGPHCNNU CWH FKG 5·WNG IGNGIV JCV N   5EJKNFOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 5GJTUEJÌP



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q ,   WPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJ XQP , 'DGTJCTF CWH FKG $GHTGKWPI 9KGPU XQP FGP   6ÒTMGP $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV5VTCJNGPFG 6KCTC ÒDGT )NQDWU  OO  I /KUGNNK   \W FQTVOKV5KIPCVWT  449KP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

 143


INNOCENZ XI.

1588



8GTIQNFGVG $TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNG Q , UR·VGTGT)W­XGTOWVNKEJFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU WPUKI PKGTVXGTOWVNKEJPCEJ,+$GPFNCWHFKG#NNKCP\OKV¤UVGTTGKEJ2QNGPWPF8GPGFKIIGIGPFKG6ÒTMGK $TWUVDKNFGT XQP +PPQEGP\ :+ .GQRQNF + XQP ¤UVGTTGKEJ ,QJCPP +++ 5QDKGUMK XQP 2QNGP WPF /CTE   #PVQPKQ )KWUVKPKCP XQP 8GPGFKI PGDGPGKPCPFGT T)GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV 5EJYGTV WPF <GRVGT KP   FGP (·PIGP WPF 9CRRGP CWH FGT $TWUV DNKEMV \W UVTCJNGPFGO -TGW\ KP 9QNMGP GORQT  OO   /KUGNNK\W 5R·VGTGT)W­-N6WUEJG\KHHGTCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGXGTIQNFGVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1589



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ,  WPUKIPKGTVIGHGTVKIV\W'JTGPXQP2CRUV2KWU8$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV$TWUVDKNFFGU2CRUVGU2KWU8NKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCVOO/KUGNNK  *GPMGNURWTMQTTQFKGTVHCUVUGJTUEJÌP



1590



144

5CVKTKUEJG5KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ,  WPUKIPKGTVXQP,5OGNV\KPICWHFKG#WHJGDWPIFGU'FKMVUXQP 0CPVGU WPF CWH FKG &TCIQPCFGP &GT  2CRUV OKV $NKV\DÒPFGN KP FGT 4GEJVGP WPF 5EJNÒUUGNRCCT KP FGT   .KPMGPTGKVGVXXFGP-QRHPCEJNIGYCPFVCWHUKGDGPMÌRHKIGO7PIGJGWGTFCUGKPGRTQVGUVCPVKUEJG (COKNKG\GTHNGKUEJVNUVGJVGKP&TCIQPGTOKV5EJYGTVWPF-GVVGTUVGJVGKP,GUWKVOKV5EJTKHVTQNNG'KP 4GKVGTOKV5·DGNKPFGTGTJQDGPGP4GEJVGPUEJNGKHVGKPGCPUGKP2HGTFIGHGUUGNVG4GHQTOKGTVGJKPVGTUKEJ JGTN)CNIGPOKV)GJGPMVGOTGKPGCO$QFGPNKGIGPFGO·PPNKEJG.GKEJGFKGXQPGKPGO*WPFWPF GKPGO4CDGPCPIGHTGUUGPYKTFFCPGDGP-KTEJGPTWKPGKO*KPVGTITWPF2TQ\GUUKQPWPF)CNGGTGCWH5GG OOI%QNN(KGYGIGT/KUGNNKX.QQP+++5  44(GNFGTFGT4ÒEMUGKVGIGIN·VVGVUQPUVUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ




INNOCENZ XI.

1592

1591

1591



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ,  WPUKIPKGTVXGTOWVNKEJXQP)$)WINKGNOCFCCWHFGP'ORHCPIFGT#D IGUCPFVGP CWU 6QPIMKPI $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&GT 2CRUV VJTQPV PCEJ T WOIGDGP XQP   UGKPGO)GHQNIGWPFGORH·PIVFKG)GUCPFVGPOO/KUGNNKC 5GJTUEJÌP





$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ,OKV5KIPCVWT)CWHFKG(W­YCUEJWPICO)TÒPFQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNK EJGO 1TPCV%JTKUVWU MPKGV PCEJ T WPF Y·UEJV FGO XQT KJO UKV\GPFGP 2GVTWU FKG (Ò­G  I /K   UGNNK 5GJTUEJÌP



1594

1593

1593

 

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

&+'5'&+58#-#0<810

2KCUVTC4QO&CX/WPVQPK 6GUVQPG4QO/WPVQPK

1595

-N(CUUWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP 4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

1,5:1

 

1595

'KPG/GFCKNNGFGT5GFKUXCMCP\ 

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH FGP %CRKVCPQ )GPGTCNG FGU *GKNKIGP 5VWJNU   .KXKQ 1FGUECNEJK

 Ó 5GRVGODGT   )GMTÌPVGU (COKNKGPYCRRGP FGU .KXKQ 1FGUECNEJK   FCTÒDGT-CTFKPCNUJWVOKVJGTCDJ·PIGPFGP3WCUVGP5GEJU<GKNGP5EJTKHVWOJGT2CNO\YGKIGOO $QEEKC 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 145


ALEXANDER VIII.

2#256#.':#0&'48+++

)GD#RTKN8GPGFKIIGUV(GDTWCT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG2KGVTQ1VVQDQPK 2QPVKHKMCV1MVQDGTņ(GDTWCT

  



#NGZCPFGTVTCVDGTGKVUKO#NVGTXQP,CJTGPKPFGP&KGPUVFGT-WTKG5GKVYCTGTUGNDUVUVWFKGT VGT,WTKUV#WFKVQTKPFGT4ÌOKUEJGP4QVCFGO\YGKVJÌEJUVGP)GTKEJVFGTTÌOKUEJMCVJQNKUEJGP-KTEJG YWTFGGT-CTFKPCNWPFXQPDKU\WFGO$KUEJQHXQP$TGUEKC'T\·JNVG\WFGP<GNCPVGP HÒTFKGFGT2CRUVGJGTTGNKIKÌUG2HNKEJVGP\WGTHÒNNGPJCDGCNURQNKVKUEJG#NU2CRUVDGOÒJVGUKEJ#NGZCP FGTWOGKPG8GTUÌJPWPIOKVFGOHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP-ÌPKI.WFYKI:+8FKGGTLGFQEJPKEJVGTTGKEJVG+O #PUEJNWUU \GKIVG GT GKPG UVTGPIGTG 5GKVG XQP UKEJ WPF XGTWTVGKNVG FKG )CNNKMCPKUEJGP #TVKMGN 'DGPUQ   GTVGKNVG GT FGO ,CPUGPKUOWU GKPG #DHWJT WPF XGTWTVGKNVG  5·V\G #WEJ OKV FGO -CKUGT FGU *GKNKIGP   4ÌOKUEJGP 4GKEJGU HÒJTVG GT MGKPG IWVGP $G\KGJWPIGP  MCO GU \W 7PTWJGP YGIGP FGT *KNHG HÒT   8GPGFKIKO-TKGIIGIGPFKG6ÒTMGP#WEJGKPGITQ­\ÒIKIG5VGWGTRQNKVKM#NGZCPFGTUMQPPVGFKGUGPKEJV XGTJKPFGTP&KG8CVKMCPKUEJG$KDNKQVJGMMQPPVG#NGZCPFGTFWTEJ-CWHWOGKPGP)TQ­VGKNFGT$KDNKQVJG MGP FGT UEJYGFKUEJGP -ÌPKIKP %JTKUVKPC GTYGKVGTP FKG \WO -CVJQNK\KUOWU MQPXGTVKGTV WPF KO #RTKN   IGUVQTDGPYCT  

3WGNNG 4GRIGP -QPTCF #NGZCPFGT 8+++ KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU   2CRUVVWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1596

1,5:1

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

146

3WCFTWRNC # + 4QO  I$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV<YGK1EJUGPRHNÒIGPGKP(GNF \WFGP5GKVGP\YGKITQ­G)GVTGKFG\YGKIG(D/WPVQPK  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV.GKEJVG(CUUWPIUpWPF$GCTDGKVWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP 


ALEXANDER VIII.

1597 1,5:1



1,5:1

5EWFQF QTQ#+4QOI(D/WPVQPK  )1.&44.GKEJVG(CUUWPIUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP

1598

1600



1599



2KCUVTC#+4QO&CX/WPVQPK

5GJTUEJÌP





2KCUVTC#+  4QO&CX/WPVQPK  445EJÌPG2CVKPCYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ





6GUVQPG#0++4QO/WPVQPK

1601

  

6GUVQPG#+4QO/WPVQPK 6GUVQPGQ,4QO/WPVQPK 6GUVQPG#+4QO/WPVQPK

45GJTUEJÌP

1602



1603

*GTTNKEJG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 4-N$GCTDGKVWPIUUVGNNGUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

   147


ALEXANDER VIII.

1604 1605

1605

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU#NGZCPFGT8+++  

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH UGKPG 9CJN $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV)NQDWU   OKVFGT#PUKEJV+VCNKGPUCWHFGTNKPMGP*·NHVGCWHFGTTGEJVGP9QNMGPWPF5VGTPGKPFGT/KVVG&QRRGN DCPFOKVFGP5[ODQNGPFGT6KGTMTGKU\GKEJGPOO/KUGNNK 49KP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ $TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP2*/ÒNNGTIGHGTVKIVKO#WHVTCIXQP(-NGKPGTVCWHUGKPG9CJN$TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV<GJP <GKNGP 5EJTKHV QDGP FCU R·RUVNKEJG 9CRRGP CWH IGMTGW\VGP 5EJNÒUUGNP   FCTÒDGT6KCTCWPVGP8GT\KGTWPI/KV4CPFUEJTKHVOO(QTUVGT/KUGNNK 48QT\ÒINKEJ

1606



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP)*CWVUEJCWHUGKPG9CJNWPF-TÌPWPI$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV 8KGT<GKNGP5EJTKHVWOJGT.QTDGGTMTCP\OOI/KUGNNK  44(GKPG6ÌPWPIYKP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ

  

148

1608



1606

1,5:1

1607





1609

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # +   XQP # 6TCXCPK CWH FGP 5EJWV\ FGU *GKNKIGP )GKUVGU$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUV NKEJGO1TPCV&KG6CWDGFGU*GKNKIGP)GKUVGUKP5VTCJNGPOOI/KUGNNK  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # + XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH UGKPG 9CJN $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG   %CVJGFTC 2GVTK QDGP FKG 6CWDG FGU *GKNKIGP )GKUVGU KP 5VTCJNGP  OO  I $CTVQNQVVK    /KUGNNK 445EJÌPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ $TQP\GOGFCKNNG # + XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH UGKPG 9CJN $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV   &KG%CVJGFTC2GVTKQDGPFKG6CWDGFGU*GKNKIGP)GKUVGUKP5VTCJNGPOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ

  


ALEXANDER VIII.

1611

1610





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # +   XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH UGKPG 9CJN $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV   &KG%CVJGFTC2GVTKQDGPFKG6CWDGFGU*GKNKIGP)GKUVGUKP5VTCJNGPOO$CTVQNQVVKp 4ÒEMUGKVG  /KUGNNKC 8QT\ÒINKEJ



8GTIQNFGVG$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG.KGDGPUYÒTFKIMGKVFGU2CRUVGU$TWUV DKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV9GKJTCWEJIGH·­OO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1613

1612





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0+  XQP)1TVQNCPKCWHFKG5KGIG8GPGFKIUÒDGTFKG6ÒTMGPWPFFKG$GHTGK WPIXQP/QTGC 2GNQRQPPGU $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV<YGKIGHGUUGNVG-TKGIUIGHCPIGPGUKV\GP GKPCPFGT IGIGPÒDGT WOJGT 6TQRJ·GP QDGP /CFQPPC OKV -KPF KP 9QNMGP  OO /KUGNNK    8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG Q ,   XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH UGKPG 9CJN $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV   )NQDWUOKVFGT#PUKEJV+VCNKGPUCWHFGTNKPMGP*·NHVGCWHFGTTGEJVGP9QNMGPWPF5VGTPGKPFGT/KVVG &QRRGNDCPFOKVFGP5[ODQNGPFGT6KGTMTGKU\GKEJGPOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1614



/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

1615

1616

1617

&+'5'&+58#-#0<810

6GUVQPG4QO/WPVQPK

4#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



/GFCKNNGPFGT5GFKUXCMCP\ 





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH FGP(GKGTVCIFGT#RQUVGN2GVTWUWPF2CWNWUCO,WPK &KG $TWUVDKNFGT FGT #RQUVGN PGDGPGKPCPFGT T&KG 6CWDG FGU *GKNKIGP )GKUVGUKP5VTCJNGPOO $QEEKC/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH FGP(GKGTVCIFGT#RQUVGN2GVTWUWPF2CWNWUCO,WPK &KG $TWUVDKNFGT FGT #RQUVGN PGDGPGKPCPFGT T&KG 6CWDG FGU *GKNKIGP )GKUVGUKP5VTCJNGPOO $QEEKC/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTIW­OGFCKNNG  XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH FGP (GKGTVCI FGT #RQUVGN 2GVTWU WPF 2CWNWU CO    ,WPK &KG $TWUVDKNFGT FGT #RQUVGN PGDGPGKPCPFGT T&KG 6CWDG FGU *GKNKIGP )GKUVGU KP 5VTCJNGP   OOI$QEEKC/KUGNNK 5R·VGTGT)W­5GJTUEJÌP

 149


INNOCENZ XII.

2#256+001%'0<:++

)GD/·T\DGK5RKPC\\QNC $CUKNKECVC IGUV5GRVGODGT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG#PVQPKQ2KIPCVGNNK 2QPVKHKMCV,WNKņ5GRVGODGT

  



+PPQEGP\ YCT 5QJP FGU (ÒTUVGP XQP /KPGTXKPQ WPF CO TÌOKUEJGP ,GUWKVGPMQNNGI GT\QIGP YQTFGP +P   IGKUVNKEJGPWPFCFOKPKUVTCVKXGP$GTGKEJGPHÒJTVGGTFKG-KTEJGICP\KO5KPPG+PPQEGP\ :+HQTV#W­GP RQNKVKUEJMQPPVGGTFGPDGTGKVUHÒPH\KI,CJTGCPFCWGTPFGP-QPHNKMVOKVFGOCDUQNWVKUVKUEJGP(TCPMTGKEJ DGGPFGP FC .WFYKI :+8 KP 5CEJGP URCPKUEJGT 'TDHQNIG CWH *KNHG FGU 2QPVKHGZ JQHHVG 9KG +PPQEGP\   :+IKPICWEJGTIGIGP3WKGVKUOWUXQTWPFWPVGTUVÒV\VGFGP,GUWKVGP6KTUQ)QP\±NG\FG5CPVCNNCIGIGP FGP2TQDCDKNKUOWUKPPGTJCNDFGTŋ5QEKGVCU,GUWŌ  

3WGNNG 5EJYCKIGT )GQTI +PPQ\GP\ :++ KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU   2CRUVVWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1618

1619

1619

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

2KCUVTC#+:4QO/KVFGTIGÌHHPGVGP*GKNKIGP2HQTVGKPFGT4ÒEMUGKVGPFCTUVGNNWPI&CX /WPVQPK 45GJTUEJÌP





2KCUVTC#++++4QO&CX/WPVQPK



150

4(GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ


INNOCENZ XII.

1620

1621

1622



2KCUVTC#++4QO/KEJCGNDG\YKPIVFGP6GWHGN&CX/WPVQPK  4/GJTGTGMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





2KCUVTC#8+++4QO&GT'ORHCPIFGU/CPPCKPFGT9ÒUVG&CX/WPVQPK  4(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ





2KCUVTC#08+++4QO&CX/WPVQPK

1623

1624

45EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



1625



2KCUVTC#084QO&GT2CRUVOKVFGO-QPUKUVQTKWO&CX/WPVQPK  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ





2KCUVTC#008+  4QO&GT2CRUVOKVFGO-QPUKUVQTKWO&CX/WPVQPKC  -N*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP





2KCUVTC#+++4QO&CX/WPVQPK



4CPFWPF(GNFGTDGCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌP

151


INNOCENZ XII.

1626

1627

1628



2KCUVTC#++  4QO/KVFGT%CVJGFTC2GVTK&CX/WPVQPK  #VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT2CVKPC





2KCUVTC#8+++4QO/KVFGO*CHGPXQP#P\KQKPFGT4ÒEMUGKVGPFCTUVGNNWPI&CX/WPVQPK 5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





2KCUVTC#08++  4QO/KVFGT#TEJG0QCJKPFGT4ÒEMUGKVGPFCTUVGNNWPI/WPVQPK 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

1629



2KCUVTC#08  4QO/WPVQPK



2KCUVTC#08+  4QO/WPVQPKp

1630

44CPFWPF(GNFGTOKPDGCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌP



45GJTUEJÌP



(ÒTFKG8QTFGTUGKVGUEJGKPGPFKG5VGORGNFGU,CJTICPIUDGPWV\VYQTFGP\WUGKP#WU/CPIGNCP2NCV\KUVFKG TÌOKUEJG<CJN+HCUVKPFCU2QTVT·VFGU2CRUVGUIGTÒEMVWPFDGTÒJTVFKGUGU

1631



2KCUVTC#08++  4QO/WPVQPK



2KCUVTC#0+++4QO/WPVQPK

152

1632

(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



448QT\ÒINKEJ




INNOCENZ XII.

1635

1633



2KCUVTC#++4QO/WPVQPK8CT+



2KCUVTC#+:4QO/WPVQPK



6GUVQPG#+:4QO/WPVQPK

1636

1634

45GJTUEJÌP



45EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



1637



6GUVQPG#++++4QO/WPVQPK

5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





6GUVQPG#8++4QO/WPVQPK

2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI8QT\ÒINKEJ



1638



6GUVQPG#0+  4QO/WPVQPK



6GUVQPG#0++  4QO/WPVQPK

1640



6GUVQPG#+:4QO/WPVQPK



6GUVQPG#0++4QO/WPVQPK

1639

5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCYKP\5VGORGNHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



1641

(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 153


INNOCENZ XII.

1642

 

1643

6GUVQPG#8+4QO/WPVQPK 6GUVQPG#84QO/WPVQPK

5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 445GJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT

1645

1644

 

6GUVQPG#0+  4QO/WPVQPK 6GUVQPG#+++4QO/WPVQPK

1646

 

(GKPG6ÌPWPIYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 45EJÌPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

1647

1648

 

1649

  

)KWNKQ#+:4QO/WPVQPK )KWNKQ#++++4QO/WPVQPK )KWNKQ#84QO/WPVQPK

*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 5GJTUEJÌP

  



)KWNKQ#+:4QO/WPVQPK  2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPC9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



1650

1652



)TQUUQ4QO/WPVQPK



5EWFQ#++#++#XKIPQP/WPVQPK



6GUVQPG$QNQIPC/WPVQPK

154

/ÒP\UV·VVG#XKIPQP /ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC

ex 1651

1652

*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



5VÒEM45EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP



44(CUVUGJTUEJÌP




INNOCENZ XII.

1653

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU+PPQEGP\:++ 

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP2*/ÒNNGTCWHUGKPG9CJN$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&KG2GTUQPKHK MCVKQPGPXQP)GTGEJVKIMGKVWPF(TKGFGPOKVKJTGP#VVTKDWVGPUVGJGPPGDGPGKPCPFGTXXFC\YKUEJGPFCU R·RUVNKEJG9CRRGPCWHIGMTGW\VGP5EJNÒUUGNPFCTÒDGT6KCTCOOI(QTUVGT/KUGNNK 445EJÌPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

1654





1655

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #+XQP)*COGTCPKCWHUGKPG9CJNWPF-TÌPWPI$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV8KGT<GKNGP5EJTKHVQDGPIGHNÒIGNVGT'PIGNUMQRHOO/KUGNNKC  9KP\(NGEMGPXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # +   XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH UGKP TGNKIKÌUGU4GIKGTWPIURTQITCOO$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&KGRGTUQPKHK\KGTVG9QJNV·VKIMGKVUVGJVXXFGP-QRHJCNDNIGYCPFVOKV5·WINKPI CWH FGO NKPMGP #TO FGP TGEJVGP (W­ CWH GKPGP -TWI IGUVGNNV CWU FGO )GNFUVÒEMG HCNNGP FKG 4GEJVG   NKGIVCWHGKPGO-TWIFGTXQPGKPGO-KPFIGVTCIGPYKTFWPFCWUFGOGDGPHCNNU)GNFUVÒEMGHCNNGPTGKP YGKVGTGU -KPFFCUFKG)GNFUVÒEMGUGNDUVCWUGKPGO-TWIUEJÒVVGVOOI$CTVQNQVVK /KUGNNK 44*GTTNKEJG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



1657

1656







$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHUGKPTGNKIKÌUGU4GIKGTWPIURTQITCOO$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&KGRGTUQPKHK\KGTVG9QJNV·VKIMGKVUVGJVXXFGP-QRHJCNDNIGYCPFVOKV5·WINKPI CWH FGO NKPMGP #TO FGP TGEJVGP (W­ CWH GKPGP -TWI IGUVGNNV CWU FGO )GNFUVÒEMG HCNNGP FKG 4GEJVG   NKGIVCWHGKPGO-TWIFGTXQPGKPGO-KPFIGVTCIGPYKTFWPFCWUFGOGDGPHCNNU)GNFUVÒEMGHCNNGPTGKP YGKVGTGU-KPFFCUFKG)GNFUVÒEMGUGNDUVCWUGKPGO-TWIUEJÒVVGVOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # +   XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH FKG #PTWHWPI FGU *GKNKIGP )GKUVGU DGK FGP   (TKGFGPUDGOÒJWPIGP $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG 6CWDG FGU *GKNKIGP )GKUVGU KP 5VTCJNGP   WPVGP-CTVWUEJGOKV\YGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1658



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#++  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFGP'ORHCPIFGT$GFÒTHVKIGP$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNK EJGO1TPCV&GT2CRUVVJTQPVPCEJTWOIGDGPXQPUGKPGO)GHQNIGWPFGORH·PIV$GFÒTHVKIGOO I$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 44*GTTNKEJG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

 155


INNOCENZ XII.

1659







1660

1661

8GTIQNFGVG$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#++  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFGP'ORHCPIFGT$GFÒTHVKIGP$TWUVDKNFT KPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&GT2CRUVVJTQPVPCEJTWOIGDGPXQPUGKPGO)GHQNIGWPFGORH·PIV$GFÒTHVKIG OO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 448QT\ÒINKEJ



8GTUKNDGTVG$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#++  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFGP'ORHCPIFGT$GFÒTHVKIGP$TWUVDKNFT KPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&GT2CRUVVJTQPVPCEJTWOIGDGPXQPUGKPGO)GHQNIGWPFGORH·PIV$GFÒTHVKIG OO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



8GTUKNDGTVG $TQP\GOGFCKNNG # +++ XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH FKG R·RUVNKEJG )CDG XQT FGO 6CI FGT   *GKNKIGP2GVGTWPF2CWN$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV5V2GVTWUUVGJVXXKPFGT4GEJVGPOKVGK PCPFGT XGTDWPFGPG 5EJNÒUUGN KP FGT .KPMGP $WEJ FGP -QRH FGT KO*KPVGTITWPFNKGIGPFGP5VCFV4QO \WIGYCPFVI/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1662

1663

1664



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # +++ XQP # 2KNCKC CWH FGP $CW FGU 'T\KGJWPIUJGKOU CO TÌOKUEJGP 6KDGTWHGT  

4KRC)TCPFG $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU*GKOGUOO/KUGNNK  4)GNQEJVXQT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+8XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKGPGWG-KTEJG5CPVC/CTKCFGNNG(QTPCEK#PUKEJV FGT-KTEJG<GKNGP5EJTKHVQDGPIGHNÒIGNVGT'PIGNUMQRHWPVGP-TGW\TQUGVVGOO/KUGNNK 448QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+8XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG8QNNGPFWPIFGU)GTKEJVUIGD·WFGU 2CNC\\Q.WFQ XKUK  $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGU )GD·WFGU FCXQT 2KC\\C OKV HNCPKGTGPFGP 2CUUCP   VGP4GKVGTPWPF&TQUEJMGPOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ





156

&GT2CNC\\Q JGWVG2CNC\\Q/QPVGEKVQTKQ KUVJGWV\WVCIGFCUKVCNKGPKUEJG#DIGQTFPGVGPJCWU


INNOCENZ XII.

1665



$TQP\GIW­OGFCKNNG#++++  XQP22$QTPGTCWHFGP$CWFGUPGWGP<QNNJCWUGUWPFFGU#TOGP JCWUGU$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU<QNNJCWUGUOO/KUGNNK  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

1666







1667



1668

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#08XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG8QNNGPFWPIFGU.CPF\QNNCOVUCWHFGT2KC\\CFK 2KGVTC $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGU .CPF\QNNCOVU FCXQT 2KC\\C OKV HNCPKGTGPFGP   2CUUCPVGPWPF&TQUEJMGPOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



8GTIQNFGVG$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#08XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG8QNNGPFWPIFGU.CPF\QNNCOVUCWHFGT 2KC\\C FK2KGVTC$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU.CPF\QNNCOVUFCXQT2KC\\COKVHNCPKG TGPFGP2CUUCPVGPWPF&TQUEJMGPOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK -N*GPMGNURWTXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #8+  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKGR·RUVNKEJG7PVGTUVÒV\WPIFGTIGITÒPFGVGP -QPITGICVKQP 2TQRCICPFC (KFG \WT %JTKUVKCPKUKGTWPI FGT 9GNV WPF FKG 5GIPWPI PGWGT /KUUKQPCTG   $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&GT 2CRUV VJTQPV PCEJ N WPF UGIPGV FKG XQT KJO MPKGPFGP /KUUKQ   PCTGOOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 5EJÌPG2CVKPCOKPDGTKGDGPXQT\ÒINKEJ

 157


INNOCENZ XII.

1669





1670

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#8+  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKGR·RUVNKEJG7PVGTUVÒV\WPIFGTIGITÒPFGVGP -QPITGICVKQP 2TQRCICPFC (KFG \WT %JTKUVKCPKUKGTWPI FGT 9GNV WPF FKG 5GIPWPI PGWGT /KUUKQPCTG   $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&GT 2CRUV VJTQPV PCEJ N WPF UGIPGV FKG XQT KJO MPKGPFGP /KUUKQ   PCTGOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#8++  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG(W­YCUEJWPICO)TÒPFQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFT KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV%JTKUVWU MPKGV PCEJ N WPF Y·UEJV FGO XQT KJO UKV\GPFGP 2GVTWU FKG (Ò­G   OOI/KUGNNK 444CPFHGJNGTWPF-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



1671





1669

1672

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#8++XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG#RQUVGN2GVTWUWPF2CWNWU$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUV NKEJGO 1TPCV&KG $TWUVDKNFGT FGT #RQUVGN GKPCPFGT IGIGPÒDGT  OO  I $CTVQNQVVK    /KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP)*COGTCPKCWHFCUXQP%CTNQ/CTCVVCGPVYQTHGPGWPFXQP)KWUGRRG/QPVK IGUEJCHHGPG /QUCKM FGT *GKNKIGP ,WPIHTCW OKV -KPF KO *QH FGU 3WKTKPCNU $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO   1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU/QUCKMUOOI/KUGNNK 44*GTTNKEJG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



1673

1674





158

1674

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#8+++XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG#PMÒPFKIWPIFGU*GKNKIGP,CJTGU$TWUVDKNFT KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV'PIGN OKV \YGK 2QUCWPGP UEJYGDV X X XQT FGT *GKNKIGP 2HQTVG  OO   I$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP(FG5CKPV7TDCKPCWHFKG'TTKEJVWPIFGU)TCDOCNUWPFFGT)GFGPMUV·VVGHÒT 2CRUV #NGZCPFGT 8+++ $TWUVDKNF #NGZCPFGTU 8+++ N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT )GFGPMUV·VVG   OO/KUGNNK FQTVWPVGT2CRUV#NGZCPFGT8+++  'VYCU)TÒPURCPXQT\ÒINKEJ




INNOCENZ XII.

1676

1675





1675

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0+8$XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFCU*GKNKIG,CJT$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV &KG<GTGOQPKGFGT¤HHPWPIFGT*GKNKIGP2HQTVGOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK  'VYCU)TÒPURCPXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+8$WPUKIPKGTVXQP)*COGTCPKCWHFCU*GKNKIG,CJT$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUV NKEJGO1TPCV9GKDNKEJG)GUVCNVUKV\VHCUVXXCWH5QEMGNFGP$NKEMPCEJQDGPIGTKEJVGVKPFGT4GEJ VGP9CCIGKPFGT.KPMGP¤N\YGKIXQTKJTNKGIVGKP5EJYGTVCWHFGO$QFGPOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1677



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ,XQP(FG5CKPV7TDCKPCWHUGKPG/KNFV·VKIMGKVIGIGPÒDGTFGP$GFÒTHVKIGP$TWUV DKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV9GKDNKEJG )GUVCNV OKV -KPF CWH FGO NKPMGP #TO XGTVGKNV #NOQUGP CP FKG   $GFÒTHVKIGPOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1678

1678 1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

&+'5'&+58#-#0<810

2KCUVTC4QO&CX/WPVQPK  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

 159


CLEMENS XI.

2#256%.'/'05:+

)GD,WNK7TDKPQIGUV/·T\4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG)KCP(TCPEGUEQ#NDCPK 2QPVKHKMCV0QXGODGTņ/·T\

  



%NGOGPU GPVUVCOOVG GKPGT WODTKUEJGP #FGNUHCOKNKGYWTFGGT$TGXGPUGMTGV·TPCEJ\GJPL·JTKIGO &KGPUVHÒTFKG-WTKG#DYCTGT-CTFKPCN+PUGKPGO2QPVKHKMCVUCJGTUKEJFGO5RCPKUEJGP'TDHQN IGMTKGIIGIGPÒDGTIGUVGNNV0CEJCW­GP0GWVTCNKV·V\YKUEJGPFGP-QPMWTTGPVGPWOFGPURCPKUEJGP6JTQP YCJTGPF DGXQT\WIVG GT FGP $QWTDQPGP 2JKNKRR 8 WPF GTMCPPVG KJP CNU URCPKUEJGP -ÌPKI CP &KGU   DTCEJVGKJPKP-QPHNKMVOKV-CKUGT.GQRQNF+CWUFGO*CWUG*CDUDWTI7PVGTFGUUGP0CEJHQNIGT,QUGRJ +XGTUEJNGEJVGTVGPUKEJFKG$G\KGJWPIGPPQEJYGKVGTWPFHÒJTVGP\WO-TKGI\YKUEJGP-CKUGTWPF -KTEJGPUVCCV6GKNG+VCNKGPUYWTFGPXQP*CDUDWTIDGUGV\V&GT2CRUVXGTNQTFGP-TKGIWPFOWUUVG FGP$TWFGT,QUGRJUCNU-ÌPKI-CTN+++XQP5RCPKGPCPGTMGPPGP0WPDGUEJYGTVGUKEJLGFQEJFGTHTCP \ÌUKUEJG-ÌPKI.WFYKI:+8WPFCWEJWPVGTFGUUGP'PMGN2JKNKRR8XQP5RCPKGPNKVVGPFKGR·RUVNKEJ HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP$G\KGJWPIGP7OFKGUGGKPYGPKI\WDGUUGTPGTNKG­%NGOGPUCWH&T·PIGP.WFYKIU\YGK $WNNGP  ŋ8KPGCO &QOKPKŌ WPF  ŋ7PKIGPKVWUŌ IGIGP FKG ,GUWKVGP &KG 'TPGPPWPI FGU -WT   HÒTUVGPXQP$TCPFGPDWTI(TKGFTKEJ\WO-ÌPKIXQP2TGW­GPHÒJTVG\WO2TQVGUVFGU2CRUVGUFGT LGFQEJMGKPGTNGK9KTMWPIJCVVG  

3WGNNG5EJYCKIGT)GQTI%NGOGPU:+KP-CURGT9 *IWC .GZKMQPFGT2·RUVGWPFFGU2CRUV VWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1679

2:1

2:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO  160

5EWFQF QTQ#:8+++  4QOI(D/WPVQPK  )1.&45EJCTHCWUIGRT·IVGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT




CLEMENS XI.

1680

1,5:1

1,5:1



5EWFQF QTQ#:8+++  4QOI(D/WPVQPK  )1.&4.GKEJVG(CUUWPIUURWTGPMN&TWEMUVGNNGPUGJTUEJÌP



1681

1,5:1

1,5:1



5EWFQF QTQ#:8++  4QOI(D/WPVQPK  )1.&5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT)QNFVÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

1682

1683



1684



2KCUVTC#++4QO&CX/WPVQPK

 5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



2KCUVTC#08++4QO&CX FQTVCNU5EWFQDG\GKEJPGV /WPVQPK

445GJTUEJÌP





2KCUVTC#00+:  4QO&CX/WPVQPK  44*GPMGNURWT4CPFWPF(GNFGTDGCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌP





161


CLEMENS XI.

1685

1686

1687



2KCUVTC#0:+++  4QO#PUKEJVFGU$TWPPGPUWPF1DGNKUMGPCWHFGO2NCV\XQTFGO2CP VJGQP 2KC\\C4QVQPFC &CX/WPVQPK 4*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP





2KCUVTC#0:+++  4QO#PUKEJVFGU2NCV\GUXQTFGO2CPVJGQP 2KC\\C4QVQPFC &CX /WPVQPK 4#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





2KCUVTC#+++4QO/KVFGT-KTEJG56GQFQTQCN2CNCVKPQKPFGT4ÒEMUGKVGPFCTUVGNNWPI&CX /WPVQPK 45EJÌPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



1689

1688

1688



2KCUVTC#0+4QO/KVFGTIGUEJNQUUGPGP*GKNKIGP2HQTVG&CX FQTVCNU5EWFQDG\GKEJPGV  /WPVQPK 45EJÌPG2CVKPCYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2KCUVTC #00 :+   4QO /KV FGT %KXKVC %CUVGNNCPC$TÒEMG KP FGT 4ÒEMUGKVGPFCTUVGNNWPI   &CX/WPVQPK 4-N$GCTDGKVWPIUUVGNNGUGJTUEJÌP

162

 


CLEMENS XI.

1690



2KCUVTC#0+84QO&CX/WPVQPK  5GNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(GKPG6ÌPWPIYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



&KG 4ÒEMUGKVG \GKIV FCU ,GUWUMKPF KO 6GORGN CO  6CI PCEJ FGT )GDWTV 0CEJ LÒFKUEJGO $TCWEJ OW­VG FKG   /WVVGT GKP 4GKPKIWPIUQRHGT FCTDTKPIGP WPF FCU -KPF XQT )QVV FCTUVGNNGP $GK FKGUGT )GNGIGPJGKV TKGH FGT ITGKUG   2TQRJGV 5KOGQP FKG KP FGT 7OUEJTKHV CPIGIGDGPGP 9QTVG CWU 8+&'4806 1%8.+ /'+ 5#.86#4' 688/  

/GKPG#WIGPJCDGPFGKP*GKNIGUGJGP 

1691

1692

1693



2KCUVTC # 8+   4QO &GT 2CRUV J·NV GKPG 2TGFKIV KP FGT -KTEJG 5CPVC /CTKC /CIIKQTG   &CX/WPVQPK 5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ 



2KCUVTC #00 8+   4QO &GT 2CRUV J·NV GKPG 2TGFKIVKPFGT-KTEJG5CPVC/CTKC/CIIKQTG &CX/WPVQPK 5GNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 



2KCUVTC#08+  4QO&CX/WPVQPK  44*GPMGNURWT4CPFWPF(GNFGTDGCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌP



1694



2KCUVTC#:8  4QO&CX/WPVQPK  5GNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(GKPG6ÌPWPIYKP\5VGORGNHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ

 163


CLEMENS XI.

1696

1695

1697



2KCUVTC#00:84QO/WPVQPK

(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ





2KCUVTC#0:+  4QO#PUKEJVFGU2CPVJGQPU/WPVQPK  5GJTUGJTKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ





2KCUVTC#08+++  4QO/WPVQPK



1698



5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

1698

1,5:1

2KCUVTC#08+4QO#PUKEJVFGU*CHGPUXQP4KRGVVC/WPVQPK  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

1699



1700



2KCUVTC#08+4QO#PUKEJVFGU*CHGPUXQP4KRGVVC/WPVQPK  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT6ÌPWPIYKP\-TCV\GTCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGXQT\ÒINKEJ





2KCUVTC#++++4QO/WPVQPK



164

45EJÌPG2CVKPCYKP\<CKPGPFGHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ


CLEMENS XI.

1702

1701



2KCUVTC#008++  4QO6QDKCUOKVFGO'T\GPIGN4CRJCGN/WPVQPK  45EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





6GUVQPG#08+++  4QO/WPVQPK



*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCMN<CKPGPFGXQT\ÒINKEJ

1704

1703



6GUVQPG#08+++  4QO/WPVQPK



6GUVQPG#008++4QO/WPVQPK

1705

5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



49KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1706

1707



6GUVQPG#8+  4QO&KGFTGK)TC\KGPCWHFGOTÌOKUEJGP-CRKVQN/WPVQPK  4(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ





6GUVQPG#0+84QO/WPVQPK

*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





6GUVQPG#+++4QO/WPVQPKC 45EJÌPG2CVKPCMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



1708



6GUVQPG#00:++  4QO/WPVQPK



6GUVQPG#00:  4QO/WPVQPK

1709

5GJTUEJÌP



(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

 165


CLEMENS XI.

1710

1711



6GUVQPG#0:8++  4QO/WPVQPK



6GUVQPG#008++  4QO,QUGHOKVFGO-KPF/WPVQPK

1713

1712

  

(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



 49KP\*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP



1714

)KWNKQ#0:++  4QO/WPVQPK 4.GKEJVIGYGNNVUGJTUEJÌP )KWNKQ#+4QO/WPVQPK *GTTNKEJG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ )KWNKQQ,4QO/WPVQPK 2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

1716

1715

1717

  

1718

  

)KWNKQ#008++4QO/WPVQPK )KWNKQ#++++4QO/WPVQPK )KWNKQ#00+:  4QO/WPVQPK

445EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ *GTTNKEJG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

  



)KWNKQ#0:8+++  4QO/WPVQPK  2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



1719

  166

)KWNKQ#+++4QO/WPVQPK )KWNKQ#0:+8  4QO/WPVQPK

1720

(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 5GJTUEJÌP

 


CLEMENS XI.

1722

1721

  

)KWNKQ#0:8++  4QO/WPVQPK 5EJÌPG6ÌPWPIYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ )KWNKQ#0:+8  4QO/WPVQPK (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ )KWNKQ#08  4QO&GTJGKNKIG(TCP\/WPVQPK 45EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

1724

    

1723

1725

1728

)TQUUQ#:  4QO/WPVQPK (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ )TQUUQ#8++  4QO/WPVQPK (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ )TQUUQQ,4QO/WPVQPK *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCOKPIGYGNNVXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ )TQUUQ#08  4QO/WPVQPK 5EJÌPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ )TQUUQQ,4QO/WPVQPK 5EJÌPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

1729



1727

1726

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG(GTTCTC

6GUVQPG#0:+(GTTCTC/WPVQPKC

1730

    

1729

44(GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

ex 1731

  



1730



/WTCKQNCFC$CKQEEJK#+:(GTTCTC/WPVQPKC

5GJTUEJÌP



.QVXQPFTGK/GUUKPI2CUUKGTIGYKEJVGP&QDNQPG&QRRKCF +VCNKCI&QDNQPG&QRRKCFK5RCIPC I&QDNC5VCORG5RCII 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



/ÒP\IGYKEJVGFGU2CRUVGU%NGOGPU:+  167


CLEMENS XI.

1732

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU%NGOGPU:+ 

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG Q ,   XQP ' *COGTCPK CWH UGKPG 9CJN $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV   %JTKUVWUNDTKEJVWPVGTFGT.CUVFGU-TGW\GU\WUCOOGPOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ

1733







1734



1735

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0+  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG4GKVGTRTQ\GUUKQPFGU2CRUVGUWPFUGKPGU)GHQN IGU \WT .CVGTCPDCUKNKMC $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV.CPFUEJCHV QDGP FKG 6CWDG FGU *GKNKIGP   )GKUVGUKP5VTCJNGPOO/KUGNNKC 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0+  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG4GKVGTRTQ\GUUKQPFGU2CRUVGUWPFUGKPGU)GHQN IGU \WT .CVGTCPDCUKNKMC $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV.CPFUEJCHV QDGP FKG 6CWDG FGU *GKNKIGP   )GKUVGUKP5VTCJNGPOO/KUGNNKC 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#001+XQP)*COGTCPKCWHUGKPG$GOÒJWPIGP\WT$GKNGIWPIFGU5RCPKUEJGP 'TDHQNIGMTKGIGU $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV'EENGUKC UVGJV JCNDN FKG .KPMG CWH 6KCTC IGNGIV   WPF DNKEMV \WO UVTCJNGPFGP &TGKGEM GORQT JKPVGT KJT #NVCT OKV FGO R·RUVNKEJGP 9CRRGP CP FGOGKP -TGW\NGJPVOOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 445GJTUEJÌP



1736



168

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG4GUVCWTKGTWPIFGT$CUKNKMC5CPVK:++#RQUVQNKKP4QO $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCVOKVUGIPGPFGT4GEJVGP)TWPFTK­FGT$CUKNKMCOO/KUGNNK 48QT\ÒINKEJ




CLEMENS XI.

1,5:1

1737



1737

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # ++ XQP ' *COGTCPK CWH FKG 'PVUGPFWPI FGU R·RUVNKEJGP .GICVGP %JCTNGU   6JQOCU /CKNNCTF FG 6QWTPQP PCEJ %JKPC$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&GT2CRUVVJTQPVPCEJT WOIGDGPXQPUGKPGO)GHQNIGWPFÒDGTIKDVFGOXQTKJOMPKGPFGP.GICVGPFGP/KUUKQPUDTKGHHÒT%JKPC OOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



1738

1739





1739

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # ++ XQP ' *COGTCPK CWH FKG 'PVUGPFWPI FGU R·RUVNKEJGP .GICVGP %JCTNGU   6JQOCU /CKNNCTF FG 6QWTPQP PCEJ %JKPC$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&GT2CRUVVJTQPVPCEJT WOIGDGPXQPUGKPGO)GHQNIGWPFÒDGTIKDVFGOXQTKJOMPKGPFGP.GICVGPFGP/KUUKQPUDTKGHHÒT%JKPC OO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#++  XQP(FG5CKPV7TDCKPCWHFKG.KPGC%NGOGPVKPCKO3WGTJCWUFGT -KTEJG5CPVC/CTKCFGINK#PIGNKKP4QO$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV+PPGPCPUKEJVFGU3WGTJCW UGUOKVFGT.KPGC%NGOGPVKPCOO/KUGNNK -N4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



&KG .KPGC %NGOGPVKPC GKP /GUUKPIUVTGKHGP FGT FGP NKPMGP 6GKN FGU 3WGTJCWUGU FGT -KTEJG 5CPVC /CTKC FGINK   #PIGNKFWTEJ\KGJVU[ODQNKUKGTVFGP/GTKFKCPCWHFGO4QONKGIV

1740





1741

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 +++   XQP ( FG 5CKPV7TDCKP CWH FKG (GTVKIUVGNNWPI FGT PGWGP 9CUUGTNGKVWPI   XQP %KXKVCXGEEJKC $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU*CHGPUOKV5EJKHHGPWPF.GWEJVVWTO KO8QTFGTITWPFFCJKPVGT6GKNGFGU#SW·FWMVUKO$GTINCPFOOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 44(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



8GTIQNFGVG $TQP\GOGFCKNNG # +++   XQP ' *COGTCPK CWH FKG $GUV·PFKIMGKV FGU 2CRUVGU KP   FGTXQTJGTTUEJGPFGP9KTVUEJCHVUHNCWVG$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&KGRGTUQPKHK\KGTVG5V·TMGOKV *GNO5RGGTWPF5EJKNFUKV\VPCEJNCP5·WNGIGNGJPVWPFDNKEMV\WFGPCWU9QNMGPMQOOGPFGPIÌVVNK EJGP5VTCJNGPGORQTPGDGPKJTUKV\GPFGT.ÌYGOO$CTVQNQVVK#PO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 169


CLEMENS XI.

1743

1742





$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP'*COGTCPKCWH'TYGKVGTWPIUDCWFGU)GVTGKFGURGKEJGTU #PPQPC KP4QO $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU)GVTGKFGURGKEJGTUOO/KUGNNK  8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 8 XQP ' *COGTCPK CWH FGP 0GWDCW FGU )GVTGKFGURGKEJGTU #PPQPC  PGDGP   FGP6JGTOGPFGU&KQENGVKCPWU PCJGFGUTÌOKUEJGP$CJPJQHU6GTOKPK $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV #PUKEJVFGU)GVTGKFGURGKEJGTUOOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK  44(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



1744



1742

1745

1746

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP ) 1TVQNCPK CWH FKG 8QNNGPFWPI FGU )TCDOQPWOGPVGU HÒT FKG UEJYGFKUEJG   -ÌPKIKP %JTKUVKPC KO 2GVGTUFQO \W 4QO $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV4GNKIKQ UVGJV PCEJ N CP   GKPGO #NVCT CWH FGO GKPG DTGPPGPFG .CORG UVGJV KO .KPMGP #TO GKPG -GT\G FKG 4GEJVG NKGIV CWH   GKPGO/GFCKNNQP%JTKUVKPCUFCUCWHGKPGO5CTMQRJCIUVGJVWPVGPCWHGKPGO-KUUGP-TQPGWPF<GRVGT OO$CTVQNQVVK#PO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#08+XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG'KPYGKJWPIFGU*CHGPUXQP4KRGVVC$TWUVDKNFN KPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU*CHGPUOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#8+  XQP(FG5CKPV7TDCKPCWHFKG5VTGKVKIMGKVGP\YKUEJGPFGO*GKNKIGP 5VWJN WPF ¤UVGTTGKEJ $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&GT 2CRUV VJTQPV X X FGP -QRH PCEJ T IG   YCPFVWPFFGWVGVOKVFGT4GEJVGPCWHFKG6CWDGFGU*GKNKIGP)GKUVGUKP5VTCJNGPWPF9QNMGP\WUGK PGP(Ò­GP)NQDWUOKVFGT&CTUVGNNWPI+VCNKGPUOO/KUGNNKC 8QT\ÒINKEJ



170


CLEMENS XI.

1747

1748

1749



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#08++  XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG8GTUWEJG\WT9KGFGTGTTKEJVWPIFGT#PVQPKPWU 2KWU5·WNG KP 4QO $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG 5·WNG WOIGDGP XQP GKPGO )GTÒUV OKV #T   DGKVGTPKO*KPVGTITWPF)GD·WFGOOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK  44(GNFGTFGT8QTFGTUGKVGGVYCURQNKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#08++  XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG8GTUWEJG\WT9KGFGTGTTKEJVWPIFGT#PVQPK PWU2KWU5·WNG KP 4QO $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG 5·WNG WOIGDGP XQP GKPGO )GTÒUV OKV   #TDGKVGTPKO*KPVGTITWPF)GD·WFGOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#08+++  XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG'TTKEJVWPIFGU5V%TGUEGPVKPQ#NVCTUKPFGT -KTEJG KP 7TDKPQ $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGU #NVCTU  OO $CTVQNQVVK    /KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ





1750

1751

1752



8GTUKNDGTVG$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#08+++  XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG'TTKEJVWPIFGU5V%TGUEGPVKPQ #NVCTUKPFGT-KTEJGKP7TDKPQ$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU#NVCTUOO$CT VQNQVVK/KUGNNK $GCTDGKVWPIUURWTGPCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 8++++ XQP ' *COGTCPK CWH FKG XQO 2CRUV GKPIGHÒJTVG 2TQ\GUUKQP HÒT FGP   (TKGFGP \YKUEJGP (TCPMTGKEJ WPF ¤UVGTTGKEJ $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&CTUVGNNWPI FGT 2TQ   \GUUKQPOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



8GTUKNDGTVG$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#08++++XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKGXQO2CRUVGKPIGHÒJTVG2TQ\GUUKQP HÒTFGP(TKGFGP\YKUEJGP(TCPMTGKEJWPF¤UVGTTGKEJ$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&CTUVGNNWPIFGT 2TQ\GUUKQPOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ





171


CLEMENS XI.

1754

1753

1753



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0:  XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG(W­YCUEJWPICO)TÒPFQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFT KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV%JTKUVWU MPKGV PCEJ N WPF Y·UEJV FGO XQT KJO UKV\GPFGP 2GVTWU FKG (Ò­G   OOI/KUGNNK 44-N&TWEMUVGNNGPWPF-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0:XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG'KPYGKJWPIFGT%CRRGNNC#NDCPKKPFGTTÌOKUEJGP $CUKNKMC 5CP 5GDCUVKCPQ HWQTK NG OWTC $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT %CRRGNNC #NDCPK   OOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 44-N*GPMGNURWT(GNFGTNGKEJVIGUVKEJGNVUGJTUEJÌP



1755







1756

1757

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 : XQP ' *COGTCPK CWH FKG 'KPYGKJWPI FGT %CRRGNNC #NDCPK KP FGT TÌOK   UEJGP $CUKNKMC 5CP 5GDCUVKCPQ HWQTK NG OWTC $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT %CRRGNNC   #NDCPKOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 :+ XQP ' *COGTCPK CWH UGKPG )GDGVG HÒT FKG $GGPFKIWPI FGU -TKGIGU KP   'WTQRC $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV'EENGUKC UVGJV HCUV X X FGP -QRH PCEJ T IGYCPFV KP FGT   4GEJVGP -TGW\ XQT KJT \YGK 2WVVGP OKV 6KCTC D\Y5EJKNFKO*KPVGTITWPF5EJNCEJVU\GPGOO I$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 44(GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 :+ XQP ' *COGTCPK CWH UGKPG )GDGVG HÒT FKG $GGPFKIWPI FGU -TKGIGU KP   'WTQRC $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV'EENGUKC UVGJV HCUV X X FGP -QRH PCEJ T IGYCPFV KP FGT   4GEJVGP -TGW\ XQT KJT \YGK 2WVVGP OKV 6KCTC D\Y 5EJKNFKO*KPVGTITWPF5EJNCEJVU\GPGOO $CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1758



172

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP2*/ÒNNGTCWHFKG(TGWFGFGU2CRUVGUÒDGTFKGEJTKUVNKEJG)NCWDGPUIGOGKP UEJCHV$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV8KGT<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI(QTUVGTp/KUGNNK 44(GKPG6ÌPWPIYKP\*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP




CLEMENS XI.

1759



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # :++ XQP ' *COGTCPK CWH FKG *GKNKIURTGEJWPIGP FGU ,CJTGU $TWUVDKNF N KP   IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG *GKNKIIGURTQEJGPGP #PFTGC #XGNNKPQ%CVGTKPCFC$QNQIPC(GNKEGFC%CPVCNKEG WPF 2KQ 8 )JKUNGTK CWH 9QNMGP QDGP FKG 6CWDG FGU *GKNKIGP )GKUVGU KP 5VTCJNGP  OO   $CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ

1760



1,5:1







1760

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 :+++ XQP ' *COGTCPK CWH FGP (TKGFGP XQP 7VTGEJV $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUV   NKEJGO1TPCV/QUGUYGKUVFGP+UTCGNKVGPFGP9GIFWTEJFCU4QVG/GGTOOI$CTVQNQVVK /KUGNNK2CZKP0WOOKU 445EJÌPG2CVKPCYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ

1761

1762





1763

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 :+++ XQP ' *COGTCPK CWH FGP (TKGFGP XQP 7VTGEJV $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUV   NKEJGO1TPCV/QUGUYGKUVFGP+UTCGNKVGPFGP9GIFWTEJFCU4QVG/GGTOOI$CTVQNQVVK /KUGNNK2CZKP0WOOKU 445EJÌPG2CVKPCYKP\5VGORGNHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0:+8  XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG(W­YCUEJWPICO)TÒPFQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFT KPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV%JTKUVWUMPKGVPCEJNWPFY·UEJVFGOXQTKJOUKV\GPFGP2GVTWUFKG(Ò­GOO /KUGNNK UKGJG#DDKNFWPI  8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0:+8XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG4GUVCWTKGTWPIFGT-WTWPF$CFGGKPTKEJWPIGP KP 0QEGTC 7ODTKGP  $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV XQP 0QEGTC OKV FGP PGWGP $CW   YGTMGPOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 173


CLEMENS XI.

1764



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 :+8 XQP ' *COGTCPK CWH FKG )TWPFUVGKPNGIWPI FGT -KTEJG %JKGUC  FGNNG   5CPVKUUKOG5VKOOCVGFK5CP(TCPEGUEQKP4QO$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV5KGDGP<GKNGP5EJTKHV OOI/KUGNNK 44&QRRGNUEJNCIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

1765



1,5:1

1765

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#:8  XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG4GUVCWTKGTWPIFGT-KTEJG5CP%NGOGPVGKP4QO $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT-KTEJGOOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 44(GKPG6ÌPWPIYKP\5VGORGNHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ

1766

1767





1768



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # :8   XQP ' *COGTCPK CWH FKG 4GUVCWTKGTWPI FGT -KTEJG 5CP %NGOGPVG KP   4QO$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT-KTEJGOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK  8QT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0:8+  XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG9KGFGTCWHPCJOGFGTOKNKV·TKUEJGP1RGTCVKQ PGPIGIGPFKG6ÒTMGKY·JTGPFFGU8GPG\KCPKUEJ¤UVGTTGKEJKUEJGP6ÒTMGPMTKGIGU$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNK EJGO 1TPCV/CFQPPC OKV FGO -KPF CWH FGO 5EJQ­ UKV\V PCEJ N CWH 9QNMGP WPVGT 5VTCJNGP WPF J·NV   \CJNTGKEJGP)N·WDKIGPFKGXQTKJTMPKGPGKPGP4QUGPMTCP\GPVIGIGPKO*KPVGTITWPF5EJKHHGOO $CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 9KP\&TWEMUVGNNGPXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 :8++   XQP ' *COGTCPK CWH FCU XQP %CTNQ /CTCVVC GPVYQTHGPG WPF XQP   )KWUGRRG/QPVKIGUEJCHHGPG/QUCKMFGT*GKNKIGP,WPIHTCWOKV-KPFKO*QHFGU3WKTKPCNU$TWUVDKNFT KPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU/QUCKMUOO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ





174


CLEMENS XI.

1769



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#:8+++  XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG#WUUEJOÒEMWPIFGT$CUKNKMC5CP)KQXCPPKKP .CVGTCPQ$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV'EENGUKCVJTQPVJCNDNFGP-QRHPCEJXQTPIGYCPFVKPFGT .KPMGP )GUGV\GUVCHGNP OKV FGT 4GEJVGP FGWVGV UKG CWH FKG $CUKNKMC WOJGT \YGK 2WVVGP OKV CWHIG   UEJNCIGPGO$WEJD\Y-TGW\OO$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 5GJTUEJÌP



1770

1,5:1



1,5:1

)QNFOGFCKNNG#0:+:  XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG/KUUKQPKP#UKGP$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV%JTKUVWU OKV FGP #RQUVGNP KP 5EJKHH CWH DGYGIVGT 5GG  OO  I $CTVQNQVVK    /KUGNNK )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV 2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT)QNFVÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

1771



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#001::XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFGP,CJTGUVCIUGKPGU2QPVKHKMCVU$TWUVDKNFT KPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV8KGT<GKNGP5EJTKHVWOJGT.QTDGGTMTCP\OO/KUGNNK (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 175


CLEMENS XI.

1772

1,5:1



1,5:1

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0::  XQP'*COGTCPKCWHUGKPG(ÌTFGTWPIFGU+PUVKVWVUHÒT-WPUVWPF9KU UGPUEJCHVGP KP $QNQIPC $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGU +PUVKVWVU  OO  I   $CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



1773



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0::  XQP'*COGTCPKCWHUGKPG(ÌTFGTWPIFGU+PUVKVWVUHÒT-WPUVWPF9KUUGP UEJCHVGPKP$QNQIPC$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU+PUVKVWVUOO$CTVQNQVVK /KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1774

1774 1,5:1



176

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0::  XQP(%QTC\\KPKCWHUGKPG(ÌTFGTWPIFGU+PUVKVWVUHÒT-WPUVWPF9KU UGPUEJCHVGP KP $QNQIPC $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGU +PUVKVWVU  OO  I   $CTVQNQVVK#PO/KUGNNKC 8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV-N*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP




CLEMENS XI.

1776



1777

1775

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP229GTPGTCWHUGKPG+PKVKCVKXG\WT*GKNKIURTGEJWPI,QJCPPXQP0GRQOWMU $TWUVDKNF FGU *GKNKIGP JCNDT OKV $CTGVV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF -TGW\&CU R·RUVNKEJG 9CRRGP CWH   IGMTGW\VGP5EJNÒUUGNPQDGP6KCTCOOI/KUGNNK5NI'TNCPIGTp  44(GNFGTOKPIGIN·VVGVUGJTUEJÌP





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ) 9 8GUVPGT CWH UGKPGP 6QF $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&CU   R·RUVNKEJG9CRRGPCWHIGMTGW\VGP5EJNÒUUGNPQDGP6KCTCOOI$GTPJGKOGT/KUGNNK 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 



<KPPOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XQP ) 9 8GUVPGT WPF 229GTPGTCWHUGKPGP6QF$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV6GKNCPUKEJVXQP4QOOKVFGT6KDGTDTÒEMGWPFFGO%CUVGNNQ5V#PIGNQOO $GTPJGKOGT FQTVKP5KNDGT /KUGNNK /KV-WRHGTUVKHVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1779

1778



1778

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG Q , WPUKIPKGTV CWH FKG 8GTUEJÌPGTWPI FGT $CUKNKMC 5CPVC /CTKC /CIIKQTG KP 4QO   $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT$CUKNKMCOO/KUGNNK -N.QEJXQT\ÒINKEJ



&+'5'&+58#-#0<810 'KPG/GFCKNNGFGT5GFKUXCMCP\ 

8GTIQNFGVG $TQP\GOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FGP )QWXGTPGWT FGT -QPMNCXG $CTVQNQOGQ 4WURQNK  

 1MVQDGT  Ó /CK   (COKNKGPYCRRGP FGU $CTVQNQOGQ 4WURQNK CWH /CNVGUGTMTGW\   FCTÒDGT -CTFKPCNUJWV OKV JGTCDJ·PIGPFGP 3WCUVGP(ÒPH <GKNGP 5EJTKHV KP XGT\KGTVGT -CTVWUEJG   OO$QEEKC/KUGNNK 5GJTUEJÌP

 177


INNOCENZ XIII.

2#256+001%'0<:+++

)GD/CK2QNK ÌUVNKEJXQP4QO IGUV/·T\4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG/KEJGNCPIGNQ%QPVKFK2QNK 2QPVKHKMCV/CKņ/·T\

  



+PPQEGP\ YCT FGT 5QJP FGU *GT\QIU XQP 2QNK 5GKP 5VWFKWO CDUQNXKGTVG GT CP GKPGT ,GUWKVGPUEJWNG KP   4QO8KGNG,CJTGNCPIYCTGT0WPVKWUDKUKP.W\GTPWPFDKUKP.KUUCDQP*KGT GPVUVCPFCWEJUGKPGMTKVKUEJG*CNVWPIIGIGPÒDGTFGP,GUWKVGPFKGUKEJUR·VGTCNU2CRUVCO(GUVJCNVGPFGT $WNNG ŋ7PKIGPKVWUŌ UGKPGU 8QTI·PIGTU %NGOGPU :+ \GKIVG (GTPGT YWTFG GT-CTFKPCNWPFKPFGT (QNIG\GKVCWEJ$KUEJQHXQP1UKOQWPFUR·VGT8KVGTDQ9·JTGPFUGKPGU2QPVKHKMCVUYCT+PPQEGP\UGJTCWH FGP#WUINGKEJFGT/·EJVGDGFCEJV-CKUGT-CTN8+GTJKGNVXQPKJO0GCRGN5K\KNKGPCNU.GJGPQDYQJN GU UVCVV FGO PGWGP -CKUGT GKIGPVNKEJ FGO 2CRUV \WIGUVCPFGP J·VVG &KG 4ÒEMICDG %QOOCEJKQU CP FGP   -KTEJGPUVCCV MQPPVG XQP KJO KP 9KGPGT 8GTJCPFNWPIGP GTUV  GTTGKEJV YGTFGP $GK 8GTJCPFNWPIGP   ÒDGT1DGTNGJGPUTGEJVG2KCEGP\CUWPF2CTOCUGT\KGNVG+PPQEGP\MGKPGP'THQNI  

3WGNNG 5EJYCKIGT )GQTI +PPQ\GP\ :+++ KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU   2CRUVVWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1780

1,5:1

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO  178

)KWNKQ#0++  4QO/WPVQPK

45GJTUEJÌP




INNOCENZ XIII.

1782

1781

1781

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU+PPQEGP\:+++ 



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP # 8GUVPGT CWH UGKPG 9CJN $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV'EENGUKC UKV\V   XXCPGKPGP5VGKPOKVHÒPH<GKNGP5EJTKHVIGNGJPVKPFGT4GEJVGP-TGW\KPFGT.KPMGP/GFCKNNQPDKNF FGU2CRUVGUWPFDNKEMV\WFTGKCO7HGTGPVNCPIIGJGPFGPO·PPNKEJGP)GUVCNVGPJKPÒDGTKO*KPVGTITWPF -KTEJGCWH(GNUGPKPDGYGIVGT5GGQDGPPCEJTUEJYGDGPFGT'T\GPIGN/KEJCGNOKV(NCOOGPUEJYGTV FCTCWH5EJTKHV868+0&+%'6OOI$GTPJGKOGT/KUGNNK  (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP'*COGTCPKCWHUGKPG9CJNWPF-TÌPWPI$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV 5KGDGP<GKNGP5EJTKHVOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1783





1784

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#+XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG4GKVGTRTQ\GUUKQPFGU2CRUVGUWPFUGKPGU)GHQNIGU\WT .CVGTCPDCUKNKMC$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV'T\GPIGN/KEJCGNUKV\VHCUVXXCWH9QNMGPKPFGT 4GEJVGP 5EJYGTV KO NKPMGP #TO -KTEJGPOQFGNN WPF DNKEMV \WT 6CWDG FGU *GKNKIGP )GKUVGU KP   5VTCJNGPMTCP\GORQTCO$QFGPOGJTMÌRHKIGT&TCEJGPOOI/KUGNNK  44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # + XQP ' *COGTCPKCWHFKG4GKVGTRTQ\GUUKQPFGU2CRUVGUWPFUGKPGU)GHQNIGU \WT.CVGTCPDCUKNKMC$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV'T\GPIGN/KEJCGNUKV\VHCUVXXCWH9QNMGPKP FGT 4GEJVGP 5EJYGTV KO NKPMGP #TO -KTEJGPOQFGNN WPF DNKEMV \WT 6CWDG FGU *GKNKIGP )GKUVGU KP   5VTCJNGPMTCP\GORQTCO$QFGPOGJTMÌRHKIGT&TCEJGPOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1785



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP ' *COGTCPK CWH FKG 0GWGKPUEJ·V\WPI FGT RQNKVKUEJGPWPFTGNKIKÌUGP5KVWC VKQPKP'WTQRC$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV'EENGUKCUKV\VPCEJNCWH9QNMGPOKV-KTEJGPOQFGNN KO NKPMGP#TOFCPGDGP2WVVQOKV-TGW\XQTKJTUVGJVFGT'T\GPIGN/KEJCGNOKV5EJYGTVWPF5EJKNF CO$QFGPOGJTMÌRHKIGT&TCEJGPQDGPFKG6CWDGFGU*GKNKIGP)GKUVGUKP5VTCJNGPOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 179


INNOCENZ XIII.

1787

1786





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0++XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG.QDRTGKUWPIFGUMCVJQNKUEJGP)NCWDGPU$TWUVDKNFT KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&GT RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG )NCWDG UVGJV JCNDT FGP -QRH PCEJ XQTP IGYCPFV KP FGT   4GEJVGP-WIGNFKG.KPMGGTJQDGPT#NVCTFCTCWH6KCTCWPF5EJNÒUUGNRCCTQDGP5VTCJNGPOO I$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK  44(GKPG6ÌPWPINKPMGU(GNFFGT8QTFGTUGKVGIGIN·VVGVXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#++  XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG(W­YCUEJWPICO)TÒPFQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV%JTKUVWU MPKGV PCEJ N WPF Y·UEJV FGO XQT KJO UKV\GPFGP 2GVTWU FKG (Ò­G   OO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1788

1789





1789

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#++  XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG(W­YCUEJWPICO)TÒPFQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV%JTKUVWUMPKGVPCEJNWPFY·UEJVFGOXQTKJOUKV\GPFGP2GVTWUFKG(Ò­GOO /KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#+++  XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG'TÌHHPWPIFGU(TCP\KUMCPGTMQPITGUUGU$TWUVDKNFT KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&GT 2CRUV VJTQPV PCEJ N WPF GORH·PIV -QPITGUUOKVINKGFGT  OO  I   $CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



1791

1790

&+'5'&+58#-#0<810 /GFCKNNGPFGT5GFKUXCMCP\ 



180

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FGP )QWXGTPGWT FGT -QPMNCXG /CHHGQ 0KEQNÈ (CTUGVVK

 /CK   Ó(GDTWCT (COKNKGPYCRRGPFGU/CHHGQ0KEQNÈ(CTUGVVKFCTÒDGT-CTFKPCNUJWVOKVJGTCD J·PIGPFGP 3WCUVGP(ÒPH <GKNGP 5EJTKHV WOJGT 1TPCOGPVG WPF 2CNO\YGKIG  OO $QEEKC    /KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FGP )QWXGTPGWT FGT -QPMNCXG /CHHGQ 0KEQNÈ (CTUGVVK  

/CKÓ(GDTWCT (COKNKGPYCRRGPFGU/CHHGQ0KEQNÈ(CTUGVVKFCTÒDGT-CTFKPCNUJWV OKV JGTCDJ·PIGPFGP 3WCUVGP(ÒPH <GKNGP 5EJTKHV FCTÒDGT 5VGTP  OO $QEEKC  /KUGNNK    (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ




BENEDIKT XIII.

2#256$'0'&+-6:+++

)GD(GDTWCT)TCXKPCKP2WINKC-ÌPKITGKEJ0GCRGNIGUV(GDTWCT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG2KGVTQ(TCPEGUEQ1TUKPK 2QPVKHKMCV/CKņ(GDTWCT 5GNKIURTGEJWPICO(GDTWCT

   



$GPGFKMV:+++MCOCWUFGODGMCPPVGPWPFGKPHNWUUTGKEJGP)GUEJNGEJVFGT1TUKPK/KVUGKPGT'PVUEJGK FWPI&QOKPKMCPGT\WYGTFGPNGJPVGGTUKEJIGIGPUGKPG(COKNKGCWHNKG­UKEJCDGTPKEJVCDJCNVGP'T UVWFKGTVG 6JGQNQIKG KP $QNQIPC WPF 8GPGFKI UQYKG 2JKNQUQRJKG KP 0GCRGN 2CRUV %NGOGPU : GTPCPPVG   KJPVTQV\GKPKIGT)GIGPYGJTUGKVGPU$GPGFKMVU:+++\WO-CTFKPCN+PFGP,CJTGPWPF HQNIVG FKG 'TPGPPWPI \WO 'T\DKUEJQH XQP /CPHTGFQPKC \WO $KUEJQHXQP%GUGPCWPF\WO'T\DKUEJQH XQP$GPGXGPV5GKPG8GTCPVYQTVWPIPCJO$GPGFKMVUGJTGTPUVWPFMÒOOGTVGUKEJKPVGPUKXWOFCU9QJN UGKPGT$KUVÒOGT#WEJFKG9CJN\WO2CRUVNGJPVG$GPGFKMV\WP·EJUVCWHITWPFUGKPGU#NVGTUWPFUGKPGU )GUWPFJGKVU\WUVCPFGU CD YWTFGCDGTCO/CKGTPCPPVWPFCO,WPKKPVJTQPKUKGTV$GPGFKMV XGTUWEJVGFGPNWZWTKÌUGP2QORIGKUVNKEJGT9ÒTFGPVT·IGTGKP\WF·OOGPMQPPVGUKEJCDGTOKVFGPGTNCU UGPGP 4KEJVNKPKGP PKEJV FWTEJUGV\GP &WTEJUGV\WPIUUVCTM \GKIVG GT UKEJ LGFQEJ KO -CORH IGIGP FGP   ,CPUGPKUOWU 'T \YCPI FGP *CWRVXGTVTGVGT FGT 5VTÌOWPI -CTFKPCN FG 0QCKNNGU FKG $WNNG 7PKIGPKVWU  

8GTWTVGKNWPI FGU ,CPUGPKUOWU  FGU 2CRUVGU %NGOGPU :+ XQTDGJCNVNQU \W CM\GRVKGTGP  XGTÌHHGPV   NKEJVG $GPGFKMV FCU /GOQTKCNG 4KVWWO HÒT MNGKPGTG 2HCTTMKTEJGP FGT 5VCFV 4QO 'U YCT FCU LÒPIUVG   NKVWTIKUEJG $WEJ FGT VTKFGPVKPUEJGP .KVWTIKG &CTKP YWTFG HÒT )QVVGUFKGPUVG FKG PCEJ FGO /KUUCNG   4QOCPWO FKG /KVYKTMWPI XQP &KCMQP WPF 5WDFKCMQP XGTNCPIVGP .KEJVOGUU #UEJGTOKVVYQEJ   2CNOUQPPVCI WPF -CTVCIG  GKPG1TFPWPIIGUEJCHHGPFKGGKPGKP\GNPGT2TKGUVGTQJPG#UUKUVGP\UQNEJGT -NGTKMGT XQNN\KGJGP MQPPVG #WHITWPF UGKPGT HTKGFNKGDGPFGP #TV \GKIVG GT UKEJ KP RQNKVKUEJGP (TCIGP   J·WHKI UGJT PCEJIKGDKI UQ CWEJ IGIGPÒDGT 2KGOQPV WPF 5K\KNKGP DG\ÒINKEJ KJTGT #PURTÒEJGPCEJGKPGT GKIGPGP 5VCCVUMKTEJG /QPCTEJC 5KEWNC  KO ,CJT  -TKVKM GTPVGVG GT HÒT FKG&WNFWPIFGT/KUUYKTV UEJCHV WPF -QTTWRVKQP FGU -CTFKPCNU 0KEEQNÉ %QUEKC #O  (GDTWCT  GTMN·TVG 2CRUV 2KWU :+   $GPGFKMV:+++\WO&KGPGT)QVVGU

1792



/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

6GUVQPG#+4QO/WPVQPK

44-N.CEMTGUVGUGJTUEJÌP

 181


BENEDIKT XIII.

1794

1795

1793

 

)KWNKQ#84QO/WPVQPK )TQUUQ#08  4QO/WPVQPK



$CKQEEJQ#0+8$)WDDKQ/WPVQPK

'VYCUHNGEMKIUGJTUEJÌP *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

5GJTUEJÌP



/ÒP\UV·VVG)WDDKQ

1796

1,5:1

1,5:1

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU$GPGFKMV:+++ 

-NGKPG)QNFOGFCKNNG#+  XQP'*COGTCPKCWHUGKPG(COKNKGFCU)GUEJNGEJVFGT1TUKPK $TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&KG4QUGFGT1TUKPKOOI/KUGNNK  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV-N.CEMTGUVGYKP\&TWEMUVGNNGUGJTUEJÌP

1797









182

1798

1799



1800

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # + XQP ' *COGTCPK CWH UGKPG 9CJNWPF-TÌPWPI$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV.GWEJVGPFGT -CPFGNCDGT CWH #NVCT FCJKPVGT \YGK IGMTGW\VG 2QUCWPGP QDGP FKG 6CWDG FGU   *GKNKIGP)GKUVGUKP5VTCJNGPOO/KUGNNK (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG#PMÒPFKIWPIFGU*GKNKIGP,CJTGU$TWUVDKNFT KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV'EENGUKC UVGJV X X FGP -QRH PCEJ N IGYCPFV KP FGT .KPMGP -TGW\ OKV FGT   4GEJVGP IKG­V UKG 9CUUGT CWU GKPGO -GNEJ CWH GKPGP )NQDWU  OO $CTVQNQVVK  /KUGNNK    8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+  XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG4GKVGTRTQ\GUUKQPFGU2CRUVGUWPFUGKPGU)GHQNIGU \WT .CVGTCPDCUKNKMC $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&GT *GKNKIG &QOKPKMWU UKV\V X X CWH 9QNMGP   FKG.KPMGNKGIVCWHGKPGO$WEJFCUKJOGKP2WVVQGPVIGIGPJ·NVNGKPYGKVGTGT2WVVQOKV¤N\YGKIWPVGP NKGIGPFGT*KTUEJCWH'TFJCNDMWIGNOO/KUGNNK -N&QRRGNUEJNCIXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#+  XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG(W­YCUEJWPICO)TÒPFQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV%JTKUVWUMPKGVPCEJNWPFY·UEJVFGOXQTKJOUKV\GPFGP2GVTWUFKG(Ò­GOO I/KUGNNK 445GJTUEJÌP




BENEDIKT XIII.

1801



1802

1803

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0+8$+.  XQP'WPF)*COGTCPKCWHFCU'KPVTGHHGPFGT2KNIGTKP4QO\WT (GKGT FGU *GKNKIGP ,CJTGU $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGU 2GVGTUFQOU KO 8QTFGTITWPF   9ÌNHKP OKV 4QOWNWU WPF 4GOWU QDGP PCEJ T UEJYGDGPFGT 'PIGN OKV 2QUCWPG KP FGT .KPMGP2GTIC OGPVOKVHÒPH<GKNGP5EJTKHV/KVITCXKGTVGT,CJTGU\CJNCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG UKGJG%NGOGPU:/K UGNNK OO/KUGNNKC 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0+8$+. ITCXKGTV XQP'WPF)*COGTCPKCWHFKG¤HHPWPIFGT*GKNKIGP2HQTVG FGU 2GVGTUFQOU CO *GKNKICDGPF  $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG <GTGOQPKG FGT ¤HHPWPI   FGT*GKNKIGP2HQTVGOOI/KUGNNK 4(GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0+8$+.XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG)TWPFUVGKPNGIWPIHÒTFCU-TCPMGPJCWU5CP )CNNKECPQKP4QO$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV5KGDGP<GKNGP5EJTKHVOO/KUGNNK  (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



(ÒTFKG4ÒEMUGKVGFKGUGT/GFCKNNGYWTFGFGT8QTFGTUGKVGPUVGORGNGKPGTXQP)KQXCPPK*COGTCPKIGHGTVKIVGP/GFCKNNG CWUFGO,CJTCWHFCU*GKNKIG,CJTWPFFKG¤HHPWPIFGT*GKNKIGP2HQTVGXGTYGPFGV



+O ,CJTG  YWTFG FCU GTUVG *GKNKIG ,CJT FWTEJ $QPKHC\ 8+++ XGTMÒPFGV GU UQNNVG CNNG  ,CJTG DGICPIGP   YGTFGPFKGUGT<GKVTCWOYWTFGUR·VGTCWH,CJTGTGFW\KGTV&CU*GKNKIG,CJTDGIKPPVOKVFGT¤HHPWPIFGT*GKNKIGP 2HQTVG CO 2GVGTUFQO CO *GKNKIGP #DGPF  &G\GODGT  KPFGO FGT 2CRUV UKG OKV GKPGO IQNFGPGP *COOGT   GKPUEJN·IV<GKVINGKEJÌHHPGP-CTFKPCN.GICVGPKPFTGKYGKVGTGP2CVTKCTEJDCUKNKMGP4QOUFKG*GKNKIGP2HQTVGP0CEJ #DNCWHFGU,CJTGUYGTFGPCNNG2HQTVGPCO*GKNKIGP#DGPFYKGFGTXGTOCWGTV



1805

1804





1804

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ' *COGTCPK CWH FKG 'KPYGKJWPI FGU 4GKVGTFGPMOCNU HÒT -CTN FGP )TQ­GP   $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU&GPMOCNUOOI/KUGNNKC  44$GCTDGKVWPIUURWTGPCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0++XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFCU*GKNKIG,CJT$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV &GT'TNÌUGTGTUEJGKPVKPFGT*GKNKIGP2HQTVGFCXQTUVGJGPWPFMPKGP\CJNTGKEJG2KNIGTOOI $CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

 183


BENEDIKT XIII.

1807 1806

1806





5KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ,  XQP1*COGTCPK2T·OKGFGT#ECFGOKC5CP.WEC$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNK EJGO 1TPCV5V .WMCU UKV\V PCEJ T WPF OCNV /CFQPPGPDKNF T NKGIGPFGT 1EJUG QDGP /CFQPPC OKV   -KPFKP5VTCJNGPOOI/KUGNNK 4CPFWPF(GNFGTDGCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌP



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0+++XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKGXQO2CRUVFWTEJIGHÒJTVGP9GKJGPY·JTGPFFGU *GKNKIGP,CJTGU$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV,CMQDMPKGVPCEJNWPFIKG­V¤NCWUGKPGO-TWICWH GKPGP 5VGKP KO *KPVGTITWPF .CPFUEJCHV N 'PIGN CWH *KOOGNUNGKVGT KP 9QNMGP  OO  I   $CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 445EJÌPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



1808





1809

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+++ ,CJTGUCPICDGKO5VGORGNCWU#+IG·PFGTV XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG 4GKVGTRTQ\GUUKQPFGU2CRUVGUWPFUGKPGU)GHQNIGU\WT.CVGTCPDCUKNKMC$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV &GT *GKNKIG &QOKPKMWU UKV\V X X CWH 9QNMGP FKG .KPMG NKGIV CWH GKPGO $WEJ FCU KJO GKP 2WVVQ   GPVIGIGPJ·NV N GKP YGKVGTGT 2WVVQ OKV ¤N\YGKI WPVGP NKGIGPFGT *KTUEJ CWH 'TFJCNDMWIGN  OO   /KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # +8 XQP ' *COGTCPK CWH FKG (GTVKIUVGNNWPIFGU-TCPMGPJCWUGUWPFFKG9GKJG FGT-KTEJG5CPVC/CTKCG5CP)CNNKECPQKP6TCUVGXGTG$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCVOKVUGIPGPFGT 4GEJVGP#PUKEJVFGU*QURKVCNUOOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK  44(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



1810 1811





1811

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # 8 XQP ' *COGTCPK CWH FGP $CW FGT *CHVCPUVCNV DGKO *CHGP XQP %KXKVC   XGEEJKC $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT *CHVCPUVCNV KO 8QTFGTITWPF *CHGPDGEMGP OKV   5EJKHHGPOOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP1*COGTCPKCWHFGP-CTFKPCN0KEEQNQ%QUEKC-QCFLWVQTKP$GPGXGPVWPF FGP $CW FGT 2GVTKMKTEJG KP (QIIKC $TWUVDKNF %QUEKCU T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV)QVVXCVGT KP 9QNMGP   \GKIV GKPGT PCEJ N UEJTGKVGPFGP YGKDNKEJGP )GUVCNV GKPG KO *KPVGTITWPF CWH GKPGO *ÒIGN UVGJGPFG   -KTEJGOO9WT\DCEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJ



2KGVTQ (TCPEGUEQ 1TUKPK YCT XQT UGKPGO 2QPVKHKMCV CNU $GPGFKMV :+++ UGKV  'T\DKUEJQH XQP $GPGXGPV WPF   GTPCPPVG %QUEKC \W UGKPGO RGTUÌPNKEJGP 5GMTGV·T 1DYQJN %QUEKC WPVGT -QTTWRVKQPUXGTFCEJV UVCPF GTPCPPVG KJP   $GPGFKMV:+++\WO-QCFLWVQTXQP$GPGXGPVYCUKO8QNMCWHOCUUKXG-TKVKMUVKG­

184


BENEDIKT XIII.

1813







1812

1814

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#8+XQP'*COGTCPKCWHFKG*GKNKIURTGEJWPI,QJCPPXQP0GRQOWMU$TWUVDKNFN KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV OKV UGIPGPFGT 4GEJVGP&GT *GKNKIIGURTQEJGPG UVGJV X X CWH 9QNMGP KP FGT   4GEJVGP2CNO\YGKIJKPVGTKJOGKP'PIGNFGTGKPG-TQPGÒDGTUGKP*CWRVJ·NVKO*KPVGTITWPFNFCU -QNQUUGWOTFKG$CUKNKMC5CP)KQXCPPKKP.CVGTCPQOOI$CTVQNQVVK/KUGNNK 44(GNFGTRQNKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # 8++   RQUVJWOG 2T·IWPI XQP ' *COGTCPK CWH FKG (W­YCUEJWPI CO )TÒP   FQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV%JTKUVWUMPKGVPCEJNWPFY·UEJVFGOXQTKJOUKV\GPFGP 2GVTWUFKG(Ò­GOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # 8++   RQUVJWOG 2T·IWPI XQP ' *COGTCPK CWH FKG (W­YCUEJWPI CO )TÒP   FQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV%JTKUVWUMPKGVPCEJNWPFY·UEJVFGOXQTKJOUKV\GPFGP 2GVTWUFKG(Ò­GOO/KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1815



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGQ,XQP#6TCXCPKCWHUGKPG/KNFV·VKIMGKVIGIGPÒDGTFGP$GFÒTHVKIGP$TWUVDKNFNKP IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#FNGTKP&QTPGPPGUVHÒVVGTVUGKPG,WPIGPOOI/KUGNNK  8QT\ÒINKEJ



1816

&+'5'&+58#-#0<810 'KPG/GFCKNNGFGT5GFKUXCMCP\ 

8GTUKNDGTVG $TQP\GOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FGP )QWXGTPGWT FGT -QPMNCXG )KQXCPPK $CVVKUVC   #TKDGTVK

/CKÓ (COKNKGPYCRRGPFGU)KQXCPPK$CVVKUVC#TKDGTVKFCTÒDGT-CTFKPCNUJWV OKVJGTCDJ·PIGPFGP3WCUVGP5KGDGP<GKNGP5EJTKHVKPXGT\KGTVGT-CTVWUEJGOOI$QEEKC /KUGNNK 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 185


CLEMENS XII.

2#256%.'/'05:++

)GD#RTKN(NQTGP\IGUV(GDTWCT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG.QTGP\Q%QTUKPK 2QPVKHKMCV,WNKņ(GDTWCT

  



#NU5RTQ­HNQTGPVKPKUEJGT#FGNKIGTUVWFKGTVG%NGOGPUKP(NQTGP\2KUCWPF4QOYWTFGGT6KVWNC TGT\DKUEJQHXQP0KMQOGFKGPWPFYWTFGGTCNU0WPVKWUPCEJ9KGPIGUEJKEMV%NGOGPUYCTDGTGKVU UGJT CNV WPF IGDTGEJNKEJ CNU GT \WO 2CRUV IGY·JNV YWTFG -WT\G <GKV UR·VGT  GTDNKPFGVG GT +P   UGKPGT #OVU\GKV GTNKG­ GT  FKG ŋ%QPUVKVWVKQ #RQUVQNCVWU QHHKEKWOŌ KP FGT FCU -QPMNCXG IGTGIGNV   YWTFG WPF FKG -CTFKPCNTGEJVG Y·JTGPF GKPGT 5GFKUXCMCP\ GKPIGUEJT·PMV YWTFGP +P -WTUCEJUGP XGT   UWEJVG%NGOGPUFWTEJ)WVJGK­WPIFGT5·MWNCTKUCVKQPMKTEJNKEJGT)ÒVGTFCU.CPFYKGFGT\W-CVJQNK\KU OWU \W DTKPIGP LGFQEJ QJPG 'THQNI )GIGP FKG (TGKOCWTGTGK UGV\VG UKEJ%NGOGPUGPVUEJKGFGPGKPWPF XGTDQV FKGUG  FWTEJ FKG $WNNG ŋ+P GOKPGPVKŌ #WEJ CP CPFGTGP -TKUGPJGTFGP JCVVG GU %NGOGPU   UEJYGT5QMQPPVGGTUKEJKO2QNPKUEJGP'TDHQNIGMTKGIPKEJVFWTEJUGV\GPWPF2CTOCWPF2KCEGP\CPKEJV FGO -KTEJGPUVCCV \WHÒJTGP -ÒPUVNGTKUEJ WPF NKVGTCTKUEJ MQPPVG %NGOGPU GKPKIG .GKUVWPIGP HÒT UKEJ   XGTDWEJGP5QNKG­GTFKG(CUUCFGFGTPCEJUGKPGT(COKNKGDGPCPPVGP%QTUKPKMCRGNNGKPFGT.CVGTCPDCUK NKMC GTTKEJVGP WPF GTPGWGTVG CWEJ FKG -CRKVQNKPKUEJGP /WUGGP 'DGPUQ TKEJVGVG GT FKG ŋ$KDNKQVGEC %QT   UKPKŌGKPWPFGTYGKVGTVGOKVKJTFGPNKVGTCTKUEJGP(WPFWUFGT8CVKMCPKUEJGP$KDNKQVJGM  

3WGNNG 5EJYCKIGT )GQTI %NGOGPU :++ KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU   2CRUVVWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1817 1,5:1

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

<GEEJKPQQ,4QOI(D/WPVQPK

1,5:1

 186

)1.&8QT\ÒINKEJ

1818



1,5:1

<GEEJKPQQ,4QOI(D/WPVQPK  )1.&5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT5VGORGNINCP\




CLEMENS XII.

1820

1819

1819



2KCUVTC#8++4QO/KV#PUKEJVFGT$CUKNKMC5CP)KQXCPPKFGK(KQTGPVKPKKP4QO/WPVQPK 45EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





6GUVQPG4QO/WPVQPK



5EJÌPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

1822

1821

1824

1823



6GUVQPG#084QO/KVFGO*GKNKIGP#PFTGC%QTUKPK/WPVQPK  4#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



  

6GUVQPG#0++++4QO/WPVQPK 6GUVQPG#0018  4QO/WPVQPK 6GUVQPG#084QO/WPVQPK

  

1825

1826



)KWNKQ#8+  4QO/WPVQPK



)TQUUQ#8+4QO/WPVQPKp XINFQTV5EWFQKP)QNF 

 

)TQUUQ#8  4QO/WPVQPK )TQUUQ#8+++4QO/WPVQPK

5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

1827

1828

5GJTUEJÌP



 8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP



5GJTUEJÌP (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

  187


CLEMENS XII.

1829

1,5:1

1,5:1

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU%NGOGPU:++ 

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 2 2 9GTPGT CWH UGKPG 9CJN $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV5·WNG \YK   UEJGP\YGK2WVVGPFKGGKPG6KCTCD\YGKP-TGW\JCNVGPOOI2CVTKIPCPK FQTVWPUKI PKGTVWPFKP$TQP\G 5NI'TNCPIGTp 442TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

1830







1831

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP1*COGTCPKCWHUGKPG9CJNWPF-TÌPWPI$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV 6KCTC\YKUEJGP-GNEJWPF5EJNÒUUGNRCCTQDGPFKG6CWDGFGU*GKNKIGP)GKUVGUÒDGT5VTCJNGPOO 2CVTKIPCPKXCT QJPG5KIPCVWTCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG  8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVXQP1*COGTCPKCWHUGKPG9CJNWPF-TÌPWPI$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUV NKEJGO 1TPCV6KCTC \YKUEJGP -GNEJ WPF 5EJNÒUUGNRCCT QDGP FKG 6CWDG FGU *GKNKIGP )GKUVGU ÒDGT   5VTCJNGPOO2CVTKIPCPKXCT QJPG5KIPCVWTGPCWH8QTFGTpWPF4ÒEMUGKVG  8QT\ÒINKEJ



1832



188

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP ( FG 5CKPV7TDCKP CWH UGKPG 9CJN $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV/K   PGTXCUVGJVXXFGP-QRHPCEJTIGYCPFVKONKPMGP#TO-TWIKPFGT.KPMGP¤N\YGKIOO 2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ




CLEMENS XII.

1833



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#++XQP'WPF1*COGTCPKCWHFGP$CWFGU2QTVQ(TCPEQKP#PEQPC$TWUVDKNFT KPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU*CHGPUOOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKD  44-N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



1834



6TCIDCTG XGTIQNFGVG $TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 +++ XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH FGP $CW FGU 2QTVKMWU FGT   .CVGTCPDCUKNKMC 5CP )KQXCPPK $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV OKV UGIPGPFGT 4GEJVGP#PUKEJV FGT   $CUKNKMCOO2CVTKIPCPKC 8GTIQNFGVOKV<KGTGKPHCUUWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



1836

1835





1835

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#001+++WPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG)GTGEJVKIMGKVFGU2QPVKHKMCVU$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNK EJGO 1TPCV5GEJU <GKNGP 5EJTKHV WPVGP XKGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP WPVGT -CTFKPCNUJWV  OO 2CVTKI   PCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # +++ XQP ' WPF 1 *COGTCPK CWH FKG 4GUVCWTKGTWPI FGU -QPUVCPVKPUDQIGPU KP   4QO$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU-QPUVCPVKPUDQIGPUOOI$CTVQNQVVK 2CVTKIPCPKD 445GJTUEJÌP

 189


CLEMENS XII.

1838

1837





1837

8GTIQNFGVG $TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 +++ XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH FGP $CW FGT %CRRGNNC %QTUKPK KP FGT   .CVGTCPDCUKNKMC 5CP )KQXCPPK $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV OKV UGIPGPFGT 4GEJVGP+PPGPCPUKEJV   FGT-CRGNNGOO2CVTKIPCPK 448GTIQNFGVUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # +++ ,CJTGUCPICDG KO 5VGORGN CWU # ++ IG·PFGTV   XQP ' WPFQFGT   1 *COGTCPK CWH FKG (W­YCUEJWPI CO )TÒPFQPPGTUVCI $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV%JTKUVWU   MPKGVPCEJNWPFY·UEJVFGOXQTKJOUKV\GPFGP2GVTWUFKG(Ò­GOO2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1839







190

1839

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 +8 XQP ' WPF 1 *COGTCPK CWH FKG #WUUVGNNWPI CPVKMGT 5VCVWGP CWH FGO   -CRKVQN$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV4QOCOKV*GNOWPF5EJYGTVUKV\VPCEJNCWHGKPGO5EJKNF CWHFGOFKG,CJTGU\CJNWPFGKPG9ÌNHKP\WUGJGPUKPFKPFGTCWUIGUVTGEMVGP4GEJVGPJ·NVUKGGKPG IGHNÒIGNVG5VCVWGVVGOKV(ÒNNJQTPWPF.QTDGGTMTCP\OOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC 44(GKPG6ÌPWPIMN-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+8  XQP'WPFQFGT1*COGTCPKCWHFKG(W­YCUEJWPICO)TÒPFQP PGTUVCI $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV%JTKUVWU MPKGV PCEJ N WPF Y·UEJV FGO XQT KJO UKV\GPFGP   2GVTWUFKG(Ò­GI2CVTKIPCPKXCT -N&QRRGNUEJNCIXQT\ÒINKEJ



1841



1840

1842

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#8XQP'WPF1*COGTCPKCWHFKG<WUCOOGPNGIWPIFGT(NÒUUG/QPVQPGWPF 4QPEQ \WO 5EJWV\ XQT ªDGTUEJYGOOWPIGP KP 4CXGPPC $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV9GKDNKEJG   )GUVCNVUKV\VPCEJNFGP-QRHCWHFGPNKPMGP#TOIGUVÒV\VFKG4GEJVGCWHGKP(ÒNNJQTPIGNGIVKO*KP VGTITWPF$CWO\WFGP5GKVGP3WGNNWTPGPOKVFGP#WHUEJTKHVGP/1061D\Y410%*85OO I$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC 44*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#8++XQP'WPF1*COGTCPKCWHFGP$CWFGU2CNC\\QFGNNC%QPUWNVCKP4QO $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU2CNC\\QUOOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC (GKPG6ÌPWPIYKP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ




CLEMENS XII.

1843 1844





1844

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTV2T·OKGHÒTFKG$GCOVGPFGTR·RUVNKEJGP/ÒP\G$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUV NKEJGO1TPCV)GMTGW\VGOKVGKPCPFGTXGTDWPFGPG5EJNÒUUGNWPVGT5EJKTOOO2CVTKIPCPKXCT 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # 8+ XQP ' WPF 1 *COGTCPK CWH FGP (QPVCPC FK 6TGXK $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUV   NKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU$TWPPGPUOOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC  44(GNFGTRQNKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



1846

1845



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#8+WPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG5V·TMWPIFGT-KTEJG$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV 5GEJU<GKNGP5EJTKHVOO2CVTKIPCPK -N5VGORGNHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # +:   WPUKIPKGTV XQP ' WPF 1 *COGTCPK CWH UGKPGP $GUWEJ KO *QURKVCN FK   5CPVQ 5RKTKVQ KP 4QO $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&GT 2CRUV DGUWEJV (TCWGP WPF -KPFGT KO   -TCPMGPJCWU T YGKDNKEJG )GUVCNV OKV (ÒNNJQTP QDGP FKG 6CWDG FGU *GKNKIGP )GKUVGU KP 5VTCJNGP   OOI$CTVQNQVVKC2CVTKIPCPKCXCT 445GJTUEJÌP



1847

1,5:1



/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

1,5:1

&+'5'&+58#-#0<810

<GEEJKPQ4QOI(D/WPVQPK

1848

)1.&5GJTUEJÌP



1849

/GFCKNNGPFGT5GFKUXCMCP\ 

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVXQP'*COGTCPKCWHFGP$KUEJQHFGT*GKNKIGP4ÌOKUEJGP-KTEJGWPF -CTFKPCN #PPKDCNG #NDCPK

 #WIWUV  Ó 1MVQDGT   &TGK <GKNGP 5EJTKHV KP XGT\KGTVGT   -CTVWUEJG(COKNKGPYCRRGP FGU #PPKDCNG #NDCPK CWH /CNVGUGTMTGW\ FCTÒDGT -CTFKPCNUJWV OKV JGTCD   J·PIGPFGP3WCUVGPQDGP2CXKNNQPOKVIGMTGW\VGP5EJNÒUUGNPOO$QEEKC  8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FGP 2T·HGMV FGT 5CETK 2CNC\\K #RQUVQNKEK WPF )QWXGTPGWT FGT   -QPMNCXG )KTQNCOQ %QNQPPC

 /·T\  Ó ,CPWCT   5KGDGP <GKNGP 5EJTKHV(COKNKGP   YCRRGPFGU)KTQNCOQ%QNQPPCFCTÒDGT-CTFKPCNUJWVOKVJGTCDJ·PIGPFGP3WCUVGPOO$QEEKC 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 191


BENEDIKT XIV.

2#256$'0'&+-6:+8

)GD/·T\$QNQIPCIGUV/CK4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG2TQURGTQ.CODGTVKPK 2QPVKHKMCV,WNKņ/CK

  



$GPGFKMVUVWFKGTVG,WTCWPFCTDGKVGVGUGKVHÒTFKG-WTKG'TYWTFG'T\DKUEJQHXQP#PEQPCWPF  XQP $QNQIPC 5GKV  YCT GT \WFGO -CTFKPCN 9·JTGPF UGKPGU 2QPVKHKMCVGU UVGNNVG GT UKEJ OKV   XKGNGP /·EJVGP IWV WPF HÒJTVG GKPG UGJT DGFCEJVG 2QNKVKM 5Q UCJ GT FGP RTGW­KUEJGP -ÌPKI CWEJ CNU   NGIKVKOGP -ÌPKI CP YCU UGKPG 8QTI·PIGT PKEJV VCVGP #WEJ OKV 0GCRGN 5RCPKGP WPF ¤UVGTTGKEJ VTCH   $GPGFKMV ªDGTGKPMQOOGP ÒDGT WPIGMN·TVG (TCIGP $GMCPPV KUV $GPGFKMV JGWVG XQT CNNGO FWTEJ UGKP   WOHCPITGKEJGUNKVGTCTKUEJGU9KTMGP*KGTKUVKPUDGUQPFGTGFCUXQPKJOTGHQTOKGTVG-KTEJGPTGEJVDGFGWVUCO .KVWTIKG'JG1TFGPUHÒJTWPIWPF$W­GYCTGPPWTGKPKIGFGTTGHQTOKGTVGP$GTGKEJG#WEJFGT+PFGZFGT XGTDQVGPGP$ÒEJGTYWTFGXQPKJOGTPGWGTV'TXGTHCUUVGGKPXKGTD·PFKIGU9GTM\WT5GNKIWPF*GKNKI URTGEJWPI FCU ŋ&G UGTXQTWO &GK DGCVKHKECVKQPG GV DGCVQTWO ECPQPKUCVKQPGŌ XQP  DKU    &KGUGU YWTFG HQTVCP FCU 5VCPFCTFYGTM KP FKGUGO $GTGKEJ GDGPUQ YKG FCU 9GTM ÒDGT FKG &KÌ   \GUCPU[PQFGŋ&GU[PQFQFKQGEGUKCPCŌXQP#WEJ\WT-KTEJGPOWUKMUEJTKGD$GPGFKMVGKP9GTMFKG 'P\[MNKMCŋ#PPWUSWKŌXQPFKGHÒTFGTGP9GKVGTGPVYKEMNWPIUQTIVG  

3WGNNG 5EJYCKIGT )GQTI $GPGFKMV :+8 KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU   2CRUVVWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1850

1850

 192

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO

1,5:1

5EWFQTQOCPQ#0:+84QO/WPVQPK

#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT




BENEDIKT XIV.

1852



1851

)KWNKQ#+4QO/WPVQPK

1852

(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU$GPGFKMV:+8 

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # +   XQP ' WPF 1 *COGTCPK CWH FKG 4GUVCWTKGTWPI FGT $CUKNKMC 5CPVC /CTKC   /CIIKQTG KP 4QO $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT $CUKNKMC  OO  I   $CTVQNQVVK#PO2CVTKIPCPKC 445GJTUEJÌP

1853

1854









1855

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # +   XQP ' WPF 1 *COGTCPK CWH FKG 4GUVCWTKGTWPI FGT $CUKNKMC5CPVC/CTKC /CIIKQTGKP4QO$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT$CUKNKMCOO$CTVQNQVVK#PO 2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP1*COGTCPKCWHFKGJGTXQTTCIGPFGP'KIGPUEJCHVGPFGU2CRUVVWOU$TWUVDKNFT KPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV'EENGUKCUVGJVHCUVXXFGP-QRHJCNDNIGYCPFVKPFGT4GEJVGP9CCIGKPFGT .KPMGP-TGW\OKVFGO/QPQITCOO%JTKUVK\WKJTGP(Ò­GP5EJNCPIGOOI2CVTKIPCPK

FQTVKP$TQP\G  445EJÌPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP'WPFQFGT1*COGTCPKCWHFKG4GUVCWTKGTWPIFGT5·WNGPJCNNGFGT$CUKNKMC 5CPVC /CTKC /CIIKQTG KP 4QO $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV5KGDGP <GKNGP 5EJTKHV  OO   2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1856





1857

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#+  XQP1*COGTCPKCWHFKG(W­YCUEJWPICO)TÒPFQPPGTUVCI$TWUVDKNFT KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV%JTKUVWU MPKGV PCEJ N WPF Y·UEJV FGO XQT KJO UKV\GPFGP 2GVTWU FKG (Ò­G   OOI2CVTKIPCPKD (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # + WPUKIPKGTV XQP ' WPF 1 *COGTCPK CWH UGKPG 9CJN $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUV   NKEJGO1TPCV2TQXKFGPVKCUVGJVXXKPFGT.KPMGP4WFGTOKVFGT4GEJVGPFGWVGVUKGCWHGKPGP)NQDWU FGT PGDGP KJT CWH FGO $QFGP NKGIV QDGP UVTCJNGPFGU )QVVGUCWIG  OO  I $CTVQNQVVK    2CVTKIPCPKE 445EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 193


BENEDIKT XIV.

1858

1,5:1

1,5:1



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0++XQP'WPF1*COGTCPKCWHFGP2QTVQ(TCPEQKP%KXKVCXGEEJKC$TWUVDKNFT KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#DWPFCPVKC UVGJV X X KO NKPMGP #TO (ÒNNJQTP OKV FGT 4GEJVGP FGWVGV UKG CWH   GKP5EJKHHUJGEMTPGDGPKJT9CTGPDCNNGPWPF(C­KO*KPVGTITWPFYGKVGTG5EJKHHGCWH5GGOO I$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKE 44(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

1859







194

1860

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # +++   WPUKIPKGTV XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH FKG 9GKJG FGU )TCDOQPWOGPVU HÒT   /CTKC %NGOGPVKPC 5QDKGUMC KO 2GVGTUFQO $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGU )TCDOQPW   OGPVUOO$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # +8   XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH FKG 4GUVCWTKGTWPI FGT /QUCKMGP FGU 6TKENKPKQ   .GQPKCPQ $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT #RUKU FGU 6TKENKPKQ .GQPKCPQ KO .CVGTCP   OOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKD 44(GKPG6ÌPWPIMN4GRCTCVWTUVGNNGXQT\ÒINKEJ



1861





1862

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # +8   XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH FKG 4GUVCWTKGTWPI FGT /QUCKMGP FGU 6TKENKPKQ   .GQPKCPQ KO .CVGTCP $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT #RUKU FGU 6TKENKPKQ .GQPKCPQ   OO$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPK 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # 8 XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH FKG 'KPTKEJVWPI GKPGT -WPUVCMCFGOKG CWH FGO   %CORKFQINKQ -CRKVQNKP4QO $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV/KPGTXCUVGJVXXXQTFGO-CRKVQN FGP-QRHPCEJNIGYCPFVKPFGTNKPMGP5RGGTKPFGT4GEJVGP9KPMGNOC­WPF*COOGTWOJGTFKXGTUG 6QTUKOO$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC 8QT\ÒINKEJ




BENEDIKT XIV.

1863







1864

1865

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # 8+ XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH FKG *GKNKIURTGEJWPIGP FGU ,CJTGU $TWUVDKNF T KP   IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG *GKNKIIGURTQEJGPGP (GFGNG FC 5KOCTKPIC )KWUGRRG FC .GQPGUUC %COKNNQ FG   .GNNKU2KGVTQ4GICNCFQWPF%CVGTKPCFG4KEEKCWH9QNMGPQDGPFKG6CWDGFGU*GKNKIGP)GKUVGUKP9QN MGPWPF5VTCJNGPOO$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # 8+ XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH FKG *GKNKIURTGEJWPIGP FGU ,CJTGU $TWUVDKNF T KP   IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG *GKNKIIGURTQEJGPGP (GFGNG FC 5KOCTKPIC )KWUGRRG FC .GQPGUUC %COKNNQ FG   .GNNKU2KGVTQ4GICNCFQWPF%CVGTKPCFG4KEEKCWH9QNMGPQDGPFKG6CWDGFGU*GKNKIGP)GKUVGUKP9QN MGPWPF5VTCJNGPOO$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # 8+++   WPUKIPKGTV XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH FKG 4GHQTO FGU 6TKDWPCNG FGNNC   5KIPCVWTC$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&KGRGTUQPKHK\KGTVGR·RUVNKEJG9GKUJGKVVJTQPVXXKPFGT 4GEJVGP5VCDKPFGT.KPMGP$WEJTUVGJVGKP'PIGNKPFGT4GEJVGP9CCIGKONKPMGP#TO(ÒNNJQTP QDGP5VTCJNGPOO$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1866



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#8+++WPUKIPKGTV2T·OKGHÒTFKG$GCOVGPFGTR·RUVNKEJGP/ÒP\G$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV)GMTGW\VGOKVGKPCPFGTXGTDWPFGPG5EJNÒUUGNWPVGT5EJKTOOO2CVTKIPCPK -N5VGORGNHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



1867



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # +:   XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH FKG 'KPTKEJVWPI FGT )GO·NFGICNGTKG KO /WUGQ   %CRKVQNKPQKP4QO$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV)GPKWUFGT-WPUVUEJTGKVGVNFWTEJFKG)CNGTKGKP FGT4GEJVGP(COCUVCVWGVVGKONKPMGP#TO(ÒNNJQTPOOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKD 44(GNFGTWPF4CPFDGCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌP

 195


BENEDIKT XIV.

1868



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 : +8$ XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH FCU *GKNKIG ,CJT WPF UGKPGP 8QTUKV\ CWH FGT   (TCP\KUMCPGT5[PQFG$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&GT2CRUVVJTQPVPCEJTWOIGDGPXQPUGKPGO )GHQNIGWPFGORH·PIVGKPGP(TCP\KUMCPGT/ÌPEJOO2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1869

1,5:1



1,5:1

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # +8$   XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH FCU 'KPVTGHHGP FGT 2KNIGT KP 4QO \WT (GKGT FGU   *GKNKIGP ,CJTGU $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGU 2GVGTUFQOU KO 8QTFGTITWPF 9ÌNHKP   OKV4QOWNWUWPF4GOWUQDGPPCEJTUEJYGDGPFGT'PIGNOKV2QUCWPGKPFGT.KPMGP2GTICOGPVOKV HÒPH <GKNGP 5EJTKHV /KV ITCXKGTVGT ,CJTGU\CJN  CWH FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG UKGJG %NGOGPU : /KUGNNK    UQYKG.QUPT OOI2CVTKIPCPKE 44(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



(ÒTFKG4ÒEMUGKVGFKGUGT/GFCKNNGYWTFGFGT8QTFGTUGKVGPUVGORGNGKPGTXQP)KQXCPPK*COGTCPKIGHGTVKIVGP/GFCKNNG CWUFGO,CJTCWHFCU*GKNKIG,CJTWPFFKG¤HHPWPIFGT*GKNKIGP2HQTVGXGTYGPFGV

1870





196

1871

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+8$  XQP1*COGTCPKCWHFCU*GKNKIG,CJT$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV &KG <GTGOQPKG FGT ¤HHPWPI FGT *GKNKIGP 2HQTVG  OO $CTVQNQVVK  #PO  2CVTKIPCPK  C   8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 : +8$ XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH FCU *GKNKIG ,CJT $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO   1TPCV&KG<GTGOQPKGFGT¤HHPWPIFGT*GKNKIGP2HQTVGOO$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPK  8QT\ÒINKEJ




BENEDIKT XIV.

1872

1,5:1



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0:+  XQP1*COGTCPKCWHFCU*GKNKIG,CJT$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG <GTGOQPKG FGT 5EJNKG­WPI FGT *GKNKIGP 2HQTVG  OO  I $CTVQNQVVK    2CVTKIPCPKD 44(GKPG6ÌPWPIYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ

1873







1,5:1

1874



1875

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 :++ XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH FKG 4GPQXKGTWPI FGT TÌOKUEJGP 5VCFVOCWGTP   $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&KG2GTUQPKHKMCVKQPFGT5KEJGTJGKVTWJVPCEJNCWHGKPGO5QEMGNWPF GKPGTMNGKPGP5·WNGFCTCWHFKG,CJTGU\CJNNFKG9ÌNHKP4QOWNWUWPF4GOWUKO*KPVGTITWPFFKG 5VCFVOCWGTPOO2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 :+++   XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH FKG IGINÒEMVG )TGP\TGIWNKGTWPI OKV 8GPGFKI   $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV2CRUVOKV9CCIGKPFGT4GEJVGPWPF8GPG\KCOKV<YGKIKPFGT.KPMGP TGKEJGPGKPCPFGTFKG*CPFN2WVVQOKV5EJKNFWPF5EJNÒUUGNRCCTT/CTMWUNÌYGOKVCWHIGUEJNCIGPGO $WEJKO*KPVGTITWPF5·WNGOKV,CPWUMQRHOOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC  -N(GKNURWTGPCO4CPFUGJTUEJÌP



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#:+8  XQP1*COGTCPKCWHFGPMKTEJNKEJGP(TKGFGPUXGTVTCIXQO,CPWCT  $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG DGKFGP 'T\DKUEJÌHG XQP )QTK\KC )ÌT\  WPF 7FKPG OKV   -TGW\GPTGKEJGPUKEJFKG*CPFOO$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 197


BENEDIKT XIV.

1876







1877

1878

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # :8+ XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH FCU 9CEJUVWO FGU *CPFGNU $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUV   NKEJGO1TPCV#DWPFCPVKCUKV\VPCEJNOKV(Ã&#x2019;NNJQTPWPFDNKEMV\W0GRVWPJKPÃ&#x2019;DGTFGTPCEJNKPGKPGO XQP\YGK/GGTGUYGUGPIG\QIGPGO/WUEJGNYCIGPUVGJVKO*KPVGTITWPFN(TCEJVUEJKHHCWH5GGOO I$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKD 9KP\4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # :8+ XQP 1*COGTCPKCWHFCU9CEJUVWOFGU*CPFGNU$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUV NKEJGO1TPCV#DWPFCPVKCUKV\VPCEJNOKV(Ã&#x2019;NNJQTPWPFDNKEMV\W0GRVWPJKPÃ&#x2019;DGTFGTPCEJNKPGKPGO XQP \YGK /GGTGUYGUGP IG\QIGPGO /WUEJGNYCIGP UVGJV KO *KPVGTITWPF N (TCEJVUEJKHH CWH 5GG   OO$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # :8++ XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH FKG 4GUVCWTKGTWPI FGU 2CPVJGQPU$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV+PPGPCPUKEJVFGU2CPVJGQPUOO$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



1879



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG Q , WPUKIPKGTV CWH UGKPG /KNFV·VKIMGKV IGIGPÃ&#x2019;DGT FGP $GFÃ&#x2019;THVKIGP $TWUVDKNF T KP   IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#FNGTKP&QTPGPPGUVHÃ&#x2019;VVGTVUGKPG,WPIGPOO2CVTKIPCPK  (CUVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ

1880

1,5:1



1880

&+'5'&+58#-#0<810 'KPG/GFCKNNGFGT5GFKUXCMCP\ 

198

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH FGP(GKGTVCIFGT#RQUVGN2GVTWUWPF2CWNWUCO,WPK &KG $TWUVDKNFGT FGT #RQUVGN PGDGPGKPCPFGT T&KG 6CWDG FGU *GKNKIGP )GKUVGUKP5VTCJNGPOO $QEEKC 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ




CLEMENS XIII.

2#256%.'/'05:+++

)GD/·T\8GPGFKIIGUV(GDTWCT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG%CTNQFGNNC6QTTG4G\\QPKEQ 2QPVKHKMCV,WNKņ(GDTWCT

  



5GKVYCT%NGOGPUUEJQPKPLWPIGP,CJTGPKO&KGPUVFGT-WTKGV·VKIYWTFGGT-CTFKPCNFKCMQP XQP 5CP 0KEQNC WPF  $KUEJQH XQP 2CFWC 5GKPG 9CJN \WO 2CRUV XGTFCPMVG GT HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP 'KP   HNÒUUGP FWTEJ FKG UGKP -QPMWTTGPV -CTFKPCN %CTNQ #NDGTVQ %CXCNEJKPK )WKFQDQPQ CNU OÌINKEJGT 2CRUV   CWUUEJKGF %NGOGPU MQPPVG UKEJ PKEJV IGIGP GKPG 8GTVTGKDWPI FGT ,GUWKVGP KP XKGNGP )GDKGVGP 'WTQRCU   GKPUGV\GP PCEJFGO FKGUG XQO RQTVWIKGUKUEJGP 2TGOKGTOKPKUVGT  CPIGUVCEJGNV YWTFG +P FGT (QNIG   MCO GU CWEJ KP (TCPMTGKEJ  WPF 5RCPKGP  \W 8GTVTGKDWPIGP GDGPUQ YKG KP 0GCRGN WPF   5K\KNKGP KO UGNDGP ,CJT WPF 2CTOC2KCEGP\C  &WTEJ %NGOGPU  IGIGPVGKNKIG 'KPUVGNNWPI MCO GU   UEJNKG­NKEJ\W-QPHNKMVGPOKVFGPGWTQR·KUEJGP/·EJVGP5QYWTFGP#XKIPQP$GPGXGPVWPF2QPVGEQTXQ DGUGV\V 5VTÌOWPIGP FKG FGP MCVJQNKUEJGP 'KPHNWUU OKPFGTVGP YCTGP \W UGKPGT <GKV XQT CNNGO FKG   #WHMN·TWPI FGT )CNNKMCPKUOWU WPF FGT 'RKUMQRCNKUOWU .GV\VGTGP FGT GKPG JÌJGTG OGPUEJNKEJG   #WVQTKV·V CNU FKG $KUEJÌHG CDNGJPVG WPF FCOKV FGO 2CRUV MTKVKUEJ IGIGPÒDGTUVCPF XGTWTVGKNVG GT     QHHGP #NNG PKEJV OKV FGO -CVJQNK\KUOWU XGTGKPDCTGP &QIOGP YKGU %NGOGPU KP UGKPGT 'P\[MNKMC   ŋ%JTKUVKCPCG TGKRWDNKECGUCNWUŌCNUWPYCJTCD#TEJKVGMVQPKUEJOCEJVG%NGOGPUFCFWTEJCWHUKEJ CWHOGTMUCOFCUUGTKPFGT5KZVKPKUEJGP-CRGNNGCPCNNG5VCVWGPWPFCWHCNNGP)GO·NFGPFKG5EJCOFGT &CTIGUVGNNVGPDGFGEMVG  

3WGNNG 5EJYCKIGT )GQTI %NGOGPU :+++ KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU   2CRUVVWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1881

1,5:1

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

<GEEJKPK#0+4QOI(D/WPVQPK  )1.&5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 199


CLEMENS XIII.

1882 1883





1883

5EWFQ &QRRGNVGT)KWNKQ #++4QO/WPVQPK  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

/ÒP\UV·VVG)WDDKQ

-W$CKQEEQ#+)WDDKQ/WPVQPK

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

1885

1884

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU%NGOGPU:+++ 

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0+XQP1*COGTCPKCWHUGKPG9QJNV·VKIMGKV$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV 'EENGUKCUVGJVXXWPFUEJÒVVGV/ÒP\GPCWUGKPGO(ÒNNJQTPQDGPUVTCJNGPFGU)QVVGUCWIGOO $CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 + XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH UGKPG )GTGEJVKIMGKV $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO   1TPCV#GSWKVCUUVGJVXXKPFGT4GEJVGP9CCIGKONKPMGP#TO(ÒNNJQTPOO$CTVQNQVVK#PO 2CVTKIPCPK (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1886



1887

1888

1889

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#++XQP1*COGTCPKCWHFKG'TÌHHPWPIGKPGU#WUICDGUEJCNVGTUHÒT)GVTGKFGCO )GVTGKFGURGKEJGT KP 4QO $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGU 5RGKEJGTU FCXQT OGJTGTG   2GTUQPGPOKV)GVTGKFGU·EMGPOO$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # +++ WPUKIPKGTV XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH 8GTITÌ­GTWPI FGU *CHGPU XQP %KXKVC   XGEEJKC$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU*CHGPUOKV5EJKHHGPKO8QTFGTITWPFOO I$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKD 44(CUVUGJTUEJÌP





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # +++ WPUKIPKGTV XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH 8GTITÌ­GTWPI FGU *CHGPU XQP %KXKVC   XGEEJKC$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU*CHGPUOKV5EJKHHGPKO8QTFGTITWPFOO $CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC (GNFGTFGT4ÒEMUGKVGNGKEJVIGIN·VVGVXQT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+8XQP1*COGTCPKCWHUGKPGP$GUWEJKP%KXKVCXGEEJKC$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUV NKEJGO1TPCV&GT2CRUVUVGJVPCEJNKO*CHGPXQP%KXKVCXGEEJKCWOIGDGPXQPUGKPGO)GHQNIGWPF UGIPGVGKP5EJKHHKO*KPVGTITWPFGKPYGKVGTGU5EJKHHCWH5GGOO$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ





200


CLEMENS XIII.

1891

1890







1892

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # 8 XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH FKG 5EJKHHDCTOCEJWPI FGU 6KDGTU $TWUVDKNF N KP   IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&GT (NW­IQVV FGU 6KDGTU NCIGTV PCEJ T CP 3WGNNWTPG IGNGJPVKOTGEJVGP#TO(ÒNN JQTP KO NKPMGP #TO 4WFGT N 9ÌNHKP OKV 4QOWNWU WPF 4GOWU KO *KPVGTITWPF (NW­NCPFUEJCHV   OO$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # 8+ XQP ( *COGTCPK CWH FKG 8GTITÌ­GTWPI XQP %KXKVCXGEEJKC $TWUVDKNF N KP   IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV5VCFVCPUKEJV CWU FGT 8QIGNRGTURGMVKXG OKV FGP PGWGP $CWVGP  OO  I   $CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC 44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#8++  XQP(*COGTCPKCWHFKG#WUUVGNNWPIFGTDGKFGPTÌOKUEJGP<GPVCWTGPXQT FGO /WUGQ %CRKVQNKPQ $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT <GPVCWTGP XQT FGO /WUGWO   OOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC 44(GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



1893

1894 1893



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # 8+++ WPUKIPKGTV XQP ( *COGTCPK CWH FKG PGWGP $CWVGP CO 2CNC\\Q FGN   3WKTKPCNG$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGTPGWGP$CWVGPOOI$CTVQNQVVK 2CVTKIPCPKC (GKPG6ÌPWPIMN5VGORGNHGJNGTOKPDGTKGDGPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # 8+++ WPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJ XQP ( *COGTCPK )GUEJGPM HÒT FKG #PIGUVGNNVGP   FGT R·RUVNKEJGP /ÒP\G $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV'EENGUKC UVGJV PCEJ T KO TGEJVGP #TO   -TGW\ WPF FGWVGV OKV FGT .KPMGP CWH GKPGP #NVCT FCTCWH 4CWEJIGH·­ QDGP CWU 9QNMGP MQOOGPFG   5VTCJNGPOO2CVTKIPCPK (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1895





1896

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # 8+++   XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH FKG (W­YCUEJWPI CO )TÒPFQPPGTUVCI   $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV%JTKUVWU MPKGV PCEJ N WPF Y·UEJV FGO XQT KJO UKV\GPFGP 2GVTWU FKG   (Ò­GOO2CVTKIPCPKXCT FQTVWPUKIPKGTV  (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # 8+++   XQP 1 *COGTCPK CWH FKG (W­YCUEJWPI CO )TÒPFQPPGTUVCI   $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV%JTKUVWU MPKGV PCEJ N WPF Y·UEJV FGO XQT KJO UKV\GPFGP 2GVTWU FKG   (Ò­GOO2CVTKIPCPKXCT FQTVWPUKIPKGTV  8QT\ÒINKEJ

 201


CLEMENS XIII.

1898

1897

1897



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # +: WPUKIPKGTV XQP ( *COGTCPKCWHUGKPG9QJNV·VKIMGKV$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUV NKEJGO 1TPCV&KG RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG 9QJNV·VKIMGKV UKV\V HCUV X X FGP -QRH JCNDT IGYCPFV OKV GKPGO   -KPFCWHFGO5EJQ­OKVFGT.KPMGPÒDGTTGKEJVUKGGKPGO-KPFGKPGP#RHGNNUKV\VGKPYGKVGTGU-KPF FCUKJTFKG#TOGGPVIGIGPUVTGEMVOOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC  445GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # : WPUKIPKGTV XQP ( *COGTCPK CWH FKG *GKNKIURTGEJWPIGP FGU ,CJTGU    $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG *GKNKIIGURTQEJGPGP )KQXCPPK %CP\KQ )KWUGRRG FC %QRGTVKPQ   )KWUGRRG%QNCUCP\KQ)KQXCPPC(TCPEGUEC(T¾O[QVFG%JCPVCN)KTQNCOQ/KCPKWPF5GTCHKPQFC/QP VGITCPCTQCWH9QNMGPQDGP5VTCJNGPOOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



+PFGT(QTUEJWPIYKTFCWEJFKG#PUKEJVXGTVTGVGPFC­FKGUG/GFCKNNGCWHFKG(TKGFGPUDGOÒJWPIGPFGU2CRUVGUOKV 2QTVWICN$G\WIPKOOV



1900

1899

1901

&+'5'&+58#-#0<810 /GFCKNNGPFGT5GFKUXCMCP\ 

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XQP ( *COGTCPK CWH FGP -CTFKPCN %COGTNGPIQ %CTNQ 4G\\QPKEQ  

#RTKNÓ,CPWCT &TGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVKPXGT\KGTVGT-CTVWUEJG(COKNKGPYCRRGPFGU %COGTNGPIQ %CTNQ 4G\\QPKEQ CWH /CNVGUGTMTGW\ FCTÒDGT -CTFKPCNUJWV OKV JGTCDJ·PIGPFGP 3WCUVGP   QDGP2CXKNNQPOKVIGMTGW\VGP5EJNÒUUGNPOOI$QEEKC 448QT\ÒINKEJ





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FGP 8K\GMCP\NGT FGT *GKNKIGP 4ÌOKUEJGP -KTEJG WPF -CTFKPCN   'PTKEQ 5VWCTV &WEC FK ;QTM

 /·T\  Ó ,WNK   5KGDGP <GKNGP 5EJTKHV(COKNKGPYCRRGP   FGU'PTKEQ5VWCTVFCTÒDGT-TQPGQDGP-CTFKPCNUJWVOKVJGTCDJ·PIGPFGP3WCUVGPOOI $QEEKC 44(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FGP UVGNNXGTVTGVGPFGP .GKVGT FGT #RQUVQNKUEJGP -COOGT WPF FGP   )QWXGTPGWT FGT 5VCFV 4QO #PVQPKQ %CUCNK

 /CK  Ó ,CPWCT   (COKNKGPYCRRGP FGU   #PVQPKQ %CUCNK FCTÒDGT -CTFKPCNUJWV OKV JGTCDJ·PIGPFGP 3WCUVGP5KGDGP <GKNGP 5EJTKHV FCTÒDGT   5VGTPOO$QEEKC (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



202


CLEMENS XIV.

2#256%.'/'05:+8

)GD1MVQDGT5CPV #TECPIGNQIGUV5GRVGODGT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG)KQXCPPK8KP\GP\Q#PVQPKQ)CPICPGNNK 2QPVKHKMCV/CKņ5GRVGODGT

  



%NGOGPUVTCVFGO1TFGPFGT/KPQTKVGPDGKYQGTFGP1TFGPUPCOGP.QTGP\QGTJKGNV#DYCT GTCNU-QPUWNCVQTFGU*GKNKIGP1HHK\KWOUV·VKIFCUUKEJCNUDGFGWVGPFG+PUVKVWVKQPOKV*·TGUKGKPPGTJCND FGT -KTEJG DGUEJ·HVKIVG  YWTFG GT -CTFKPCN <WGTUV LGUWKVGPHTGWPFNKEJ YCT GT DCNF  IGIGP FKG   2QNKVKM UGKPGU 8QTI·PIGTU %NGOGPU :+++ 'T UVCPF FCDGK WPVGT ITQ­GO&TWEMFGPPXQPKJOGTYCTVGVG OCP GPFNKEJ GKPG .ÌUWPI FGT ,GUWKVGPHTCIG FKG GU WPVGT UGKPGP 8QTI·PIGTP PQEJ PKEJV IGIGDGP JCVVG   &GP )CNNKMCPKUEJGP #TVKMGNP MCO %NGOGPU GPVIGIGP KPFGO GT FGT (TCP\ÌUKUEJGP 5VCCVUMKTEJG ITQ­G   <WIGUV·PFPKUUGOCEJVGCWEJWOFKG$G\KGJWPIGP\W(TCPMTGKEJWPF5RCPKGPKO)WVGP\WJCNVGPFGPP FKGUGDGKFGPDQWTDQPKUEJGP5VCCVGPFTQJVGPFGO2CRUVKPFKGUGT*KPUKEJVJGHVKI0CEJ\CJNTGKEJGPªDGT NGIWPIGP XGTDQV %NGOGPU FGP ,GUWKVGPQTFGP FWTEJ FCU $TGXG ŋ&QOKPWU CE 4GFGORVQT PQUVGTŌ CO   &KGVGTTKVQTKCNG.CIGFGU-KTEJGPUVCCVGUDGUUGTVGUKEJFCTCWHJKPFGPP0GCRGNWPF(TCPMTGKEJ ICDGP FKG DGUGV\VGP )GDKGVG YKG \WO $GKURKGN #XKIPQP WPF $GPGXGPV CP FGP -KTEJGPUVCCV \WTÒEM   (KPCP\KGNNWPFYKTVUEJCHVNKEJMQPPVG%NGOGPUMGKPG'THQNIGCWHYGKUGP&CHÒTKUVGTWPVGT-ÒPUVNGTPJQEJ IGUEJ·V\V FWTEJ FCU XQP KJO IGDCWVG WPF WPVGT UGKPGO 0CEJHQNIGT 2KWU 8+ GTYGKVGTVG ŋ/WGUGQ 2KQ   %NGOGPVKPQŌKPFGOCWEJJGWVGPQEJCPVKMGITKGEJKUEJGWPFTÌOKUEJG5VCVWGPCWUIGUVGNNVUKPF  

3WGNNG 5EJYCKIGT )GQTI %NGOGPU :+8 KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU   2CRUVVWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1902



/ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC

5EWFQ .KTG #8$QNQIPC/WPVQPK

45GJTUEJÌP

 203


CLEMENS XIV.

1903

1904

1905

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU%NGOGPU:+8 

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # + WPUKIPKGTV XQP ( *COGTCPK CWH FKG $CUKNKMC 5CPVK :++ #RQUVQNK KP 4QO   $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT-KTEJGOOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKD 445GJTUEJÌP





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # + WPUKIPKGTV XQP ( *COGTCPK CWH FKG $CUKNKMC 5CPVK :++ #RQUVQNK KP 4QO   $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGT-KTEJGOO$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPK  8QT\ÒINKEJ





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#+WPUKIPKGTVXGTOWVNKEJXQP(*COGTCPKCWHUGKPG9QJNV·VKIMGKV$TWUVDKNFT KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG 9QJNV·VKIMGKV UKV\V HCUV X X OKV GKPGO -KPF CWH FGO 5EJQ­   OKV FGT 4GEJVGP FGWVGV UKG CWH GKP -KPF FCU GKPG JTG J·NV CO $QFGP NKGIGP *GWICTDGP KO *KPVGT   ITWPFTNCIGTVGKPG5KTGPGPCEJNOOI$CTVQNQVVKp2CVTKIPCPKC  5EJÌPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



1906

1907

1908



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+WPUKIPKGTVXGTOWVNKEJXQP(*COGTCPKCWHUGKPG9QJNV·VKIMGKV$TWUVDKNFT KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG 9QJNV·VKIMGKV UKV\V HCUV X X OKV GKPGO -KPF CWH FGO 5EJQ­   OKV FGT 4GEJVGP FGWVGV UKG CWH GKP -KPF FCU GKPG JTG J·NV CO $QFGP NKGIGP *GWICTDGP KO *KPVGT   ITWPFTNCIGTVGKPG5KTGPGPCEJNOO$CTVQNQVVKp2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#++WPUKIPKGTVXQP(*COGTCPKCWHFKG8GTUÌJPWPIOKV2QTVWICN$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV'EENGUKCWOCTOVGKPGPCPVKMIGJCTPKUEJVGP-TKGIGTFGTGKP-TGW\J·NVFGPTGEJVGP (W­JCVUKGCWHFGPCO$QFGPNKGIGPFGP&·OQPFGT<YKGVTCEJVIGUVGNNVT&TCEJGPOKVFGORQTVWIKGUK UEJGP9CRRGPOOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKD  44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#+++XQP(%TQRCPGUGCWHFKG)TÒPFWPIFGU/WUGQ%NGOGPVKPQKP4QO$TWUV DKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG R·RUVNKEJG )TQ­\ÒIKIMGKV UKV\V X X WPF GPVNGGTV GKP   (ÒNNJQTPOKV)GNFUVÒEMGPKPFGTCWUIGUVTGEMVGP.KPMGPJ·NVUKGGKPYGKVGTGU)GNFUVÒEMKO*KPVGTITWPF TCPVKMG5MWNRVWTGPWPF#PUKEJVFGU/WUGWOUOOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC  445GJTUEJÌP





204


CLEMENS XIV.

1909



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 +++ ,CJTGUCPICDG KO5VGORGNCWU+IG·PFGTV WPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG(W­ YCUEJWPI CO )TÒPFQPPGTUVCI $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV%JTKUVWU MPKGV PCEJ N WPF Y·UEJV   FGOXQTKJOUKV\GPFGP2GVTWUFKG(Ò­GOO2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1910

1,5:1



1,5:1

)QNFOGFCKNNG\W&WMCVGP#8  XQP(%TQRCPGUGCWHUGKPG(ÌTFGTWPIFGTDKNFGPFGP-ÒPUVG $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG 2GTUQPKHKMCVKQPGP XQP /CNGTGK $KNFJCWGTGK WPF #TEJKVGMVWT OKV   KJTGP#VVTKDWVGPUVGJGPKP5·WNGPJCNNGOOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPK FQTVKP5KNDGT WPF$TQP\G  )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5EJÌPG)QNFRCVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1911

1912





1912

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#8  XQP(%TQRCPGUGCWHUGKPG(ÌTFGTWPIFGTDKNFGPFGP-ÒPUVG$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&KG2GTUQPKHKMCVKQPGPXQP/CNGTGK$KNFJCWGTGKWPF#TEJKVGMVWTOKVKJTGP#VVTKDWVGP UVGJGPKP5·WNGPJCNNGOOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP , . 1GZNGKP CWH FKG #WHJGDWPI FGU ,GUWKVGPQTFGPU $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUV   NKEJGO 1TPCV OKV UGIPGPFGT 4GEJVGP%JTKUVWU OKV FGP #RQUVGNP 2GVTWU WPF 2CWNWUUVGJGPPCEJTWPF XGTVTGKDGPFTGK,GUWKVGPOOI2CVTKIPCPKC 5EJÌPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

 205


CLEMENS XIV.

1913

1914

1914





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 6 XCP $GTEMGN CWH FKG #WHJGDWPI FGU ,GUWKVGPQTFGPU $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUV   NKEJGO1TPCV'EENGUKCUKV\VHCUVXXCWH)NQDWUKPFGT4GEJVGP-TGW\KPFGT.KPMGP¤N\YGKIQDGPT 6CWDG FGU *GKNKIGP )GKUVGU KP 5VTCJNGPOOI2CVTKIPCPK FQTVKP<KPPWPF-WRHGT  5EJÌPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG Q ,   XQP ( %TQRCPGUG CWH UGKPG 9CJN $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV   %JTKUVWUNDTKEJVWPVGTFGT.CUVFGU-TGW\GU\WUCOOGPOO2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



(ÒTFKG4ÒEMUGKVGFKGUGT/GFCKNNGYWTFGFGT5VGORGNGKPGTXQP'TOGPIKNFQ*COGTCPKIGHGTVKIVGP/GFCKNNGCWUFGT <GKVXQP%NGOGPU:+XGTYGPFGV UKGJG.QUPT/KUGNNK 

1915

1,5:1

1915

&+'5'&+58#-#0< /GFCKNNGPFGT5GFKUXCMCP\ 

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XQP ( *COGTCPK CWH FGP -CTFKPCN %COGTNGPIQ %CTNQ 4G\\QPKEQ  

#RTKNÓ,CPWCT &TGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVKPXGT\KGTVGT-CTVWUEJG(COKNKGPYCRRGPFGU %COGTNGPIQ %CTNQ 4G\\QPKEQ CWH /CNVGUGTMTGW\ FCTÒDGT -CTFKPCNUJWV OKV JGTCDJ·PIGPFGP 3WCUVGP   QDGP2CXKNNQPOKVIGMTGW\VGP5EJNÒUUGNPOO$QEEKC  9KP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



1916



206

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFGP)QWXGTPGWTXQP4QOWPF8K\GMCTFKPCNXKMCT)KQXCPPK2QVGP \KCPK

 /CK  Ó 5GRVGODGT   (COKNKGPYCRRGP FGU )KQXCPPK 2QVGP\KCPK CWH /CNVGUGT   MTGW\FCTÒDGT-CTFKPCNUJWVOKVJGTCDJ·PIGPFGP3WCUVGP5KGDGP<GKNGP5EJTKHVOO$QEEKC 8QT\ÒINKEJ




PIUS VI.

2#2562+758+

)GD&G\GODGT%GUGPCIGUV#WIWUV4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG)KQXCPPK#PIGNQ$TCUEJK 2QPVKHKMCV(GDTWCTņ#WIWUV

  



2KWUUVCOOVGCWUCFGNKIGO*CWUGWPFDGUC­GKPGP)TCHGPVKVGN'TUVWFKGTVG,WTCKP(GTTCTCWPFCTDGKVGVG UKEJ WPVGT FGO -CTFKPCNNGICVGP 6QOOCUEQ 4WHHQ KP FGT -KTEJG GORQT DKU GT  \WO -CTFKPCN   GTPCPPVYWTFG)GY·JNVYWTFGGTXQPFGP#PJ·PIGTPFGT<GNCPVKFKGFGT/GKPWPIYCTGPFCUUFGT2CRUV TGNKIKÌUUVCVVRQNKVKUEJCIKGTGPUQNNVG&C2KWUMGKP$KUEJQHYCTYWTFGKJOGKPGP6CIXQTUGKPGO2QPVK HKMCV WPF FGT -TÌPWPI CO  TCUEJ FKG $KUEJQHUYÒTFG XGTNKGJGP #WEJ 2KWU UGV\VG UKEJ IGIGP FGP   (GDTQPKCPKUOWUGKPWPFYKFGTTKGHFGUUGP8GTDTGKVGT0KMQNCWUXQP*QPVJGKO/KV'KHGTXGTUWEJVG 2KWU FGP -CKUGT ,QUGRJ ++ XQP UGKPGP 4GHQTOGP FGT 5VCCVUMKTEJG CD\WDTKPIGP WPF TGKUVG FGUJCND UQICT PCEJ 9KGP &GPPQEJ NKG­ ,QUGRJ PKEJV XQP UGKPGP 4GHQTOGP CD 2KWU XGTWTVGKNVG KP FGT $WNNG   ŋ#WEVQTGOHKFGKŌCOFKG$GUEJNÒUUGFGT5[PQFGXQP2KUVQKCCNU+TTVÒOGTXGTWTVGKNVGGT \WFGO FKG HTCP\ÌUKUEJG 4GXQNWVKQP WPF FKG <KXKNMQPUVKVWVKQP FGU -NGTWU 2KWU VTCV FGT GTUVGP -QCNKVKQP   IGIGP 0CRQN¾QP DGK YGNEJG LGFQEJ PKEJV UKGITGKEJ YCT &GUJCND OWUUVG FGT 2CRUV KO (TKGFGP XQP   6QNGPVKPQCOOGJTGTG)GDKGVGCDVTGVGPYKG\WO$GKURKGN#XKIPQP(GTTCTCWPF$QNQIPCUQYKG ITQ­G4GRCTCVKQPU\CJNWPIGPNGKUVGP#ODGUGV\VGPFKG(TCP\QUGP4QOPCEJFGOGU\WGKPGT 'TUEJKG­WPI GKPGU HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP )GPGTCNU IGMQOOGP YCT 'U YWTFG PWP CO  FKG 4ÌOKUEJG   4GRWDNKMCWUIGTWHGPWPFFCU2CRUVVWOHÒTDGGPFGVGTMN·TV2KWUIGTKGVKP)GHCPIGPUEJCHVWPFYWTFGKP FGT (QNIG\GKV OGJTHCEJ KP CPFGTG 5V·FVG IGDTCEJV 'T UVCTD  KO -GTMGT 'TUV  MQPPVG UGKP   .GKEJPCOPCEJ4QOIGDTCEJVYGTFGP2KWU 9KTMGPN·UUVUKEJCWEJJGWVGPQEJKPFGTXQPKJOGTTKEJVG VGP5CMTKUVGKFGU2GVGTUFQOUGTMGPPGP#W­GTFGOGTYGKVGTGGTFCUŋ/WUGQ%NGOGPVKPQŌUGKPGU8QTI·P IGTUYGUJCNDGUCWEJŋ/WUGQ2KQ%NGOGPVKPQŌJGK­V(GTPGTNKG­GTFKG2QPVKPKUEJGP5ÒORHGUÒFÌUVNKEJ XQP4QOVTQEMGPNGIGP  

3WGNNG )GNOK ,QUGH 2KWU 8+ KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU 2CRUVVWOU   (TGKDWTI WC 5

1917 1,5:1

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

&QRRKCTQOCPC4QOI(D/WPVQPKH  )1.&5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 207


PIUS VI.

1919

1918



5EWFQTQOCPQ#001+4QO/WPVQPK

2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



-W/CFQPPKPC $CKQEEJK #001::+++4QO/WPVQPK

 -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

1920

 

1920

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC 

 <GEEJKPK #0 :++ $QNQIPC  I (COKNKGPYCRRGP FCTÒDGT IGMTGW\VG 5EJNÒUUGN WPF   6KCTC FCTWPVGT FKG 5KIPCVWT Ü 2 Ü 6#& Ü 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGT 2GVTQPKQ 6CFQNKPK 5V 2GVTQPKWU OKV UGI   PGPFGT4GEJVGPWPF-TWOOUVCDCWH9QNMGPWPVGP\WFGP5GKVGPLGGKP9CRRGPKO#DUEJPKVVÛ<'%%* ÜÛ(D/WPVQPKC )1.&4#VVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

1921

1922



5EWFQTQOCPQ#08+++$QNQIPC/WPVQPK



-W$CKQEEQ$QNQIPC/WPVQPK8CT+XCT FQTVOKV5VGTPGPDGK/#:+/85 

1924

1923

5EJÌPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



5GJTUEJÌP



4'VYCUXGTRT·IVUGJTUEJÌP



44CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



1924

/ÒP\UV·VVG5CP5GXGTKPQ 

-W$CKQEEQ#::+++  5CP5GXGTKPQ/WPVQPKC

/ÒP\UV·VVG6KXQNK  208

-W/CFQPPKPC $CKQEEJK #001::+++6KXQNK/WPVQPK


PIUS VI.

1926

1925

1927

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU2KWU8+ 

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 + WPUKIPKGTV XQP ( *COGTCPK CWH UGKPG 'TJGDWPI \WO 2CRUV WPF CWH FCU   *GKNKIG,CJT$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV5V#PFTGCU5V2GVTWUWPFFGTKO,CJTJGKNKIIG URTQEJGPG2CRUV5V2KWU8CWH9QNMGPOOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC  9KP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 + WPUKIPKGTV CWH FCU *GKNKIG ,CJT $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG   <GTGOQPKGFGT5EJNKG­WPIFGT*GKNKIGP2HQTVGOO2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP , %JT 4GKEJ CWH UGKPG'TJGDWPI\WO2CRUV$TWUVDKNFHCUVXXKPIGKUVNK EJGO 1TPCV OKV UGIPGPFGT 4GEJVGP&CU R·RUVNKEJG 9CRRGP CWH IGMTGW\VGP 5EJNÒUUGNP QDGP 6KCTC   OOI2CVTKIPCPK FQTVKP<KPP  445GJTUEJÌP



1928

1,5:1



1,5:1

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP , %JT 4GKEJ CWH UGKPG 9CJN $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV9GKDNKEJG   )GUVCNVUVGJVPCEJNWPFIKG­VGKPG2CNOGKO*KPVGTITWPF.CPFUEJCHVOOI2CVTKIPCPKC 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPC 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 209


PIUS VI.

1929



1931

1930

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP)<9GDGTCWHUGKPG'TJGDWPI\WO2CRUV$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV 9GKDNKEJG )GUVCNV MPKGV PCEJ T XQT GKPGO #NVCT CWH FGO GKP 1RHGTNCOO NKGIV QDGP UVTCJNGPFGU   )QVVGUCWIGOOI2CVTKIPCPKD 445GJTUEJÌP





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP ) < 9GDGT CWH UGKPG 'TJGDWPI \WO 2CRUV $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO   1TPCV9GKDNKEJG)GUVCNVMPKGVPCEJTXQTGKPGO#NVCTCWHFGOGKP1RHGTNCOONKGIVQDGPUVTCJNGPFGU )QVVGUCWIGOO2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG #0 + WPUKIPKGTV XQP ( *COGTCPK CWH FCU *GKNKIG ,CJT $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNK   EJGO1TPCV&KG<GTGOQPKGFGT¤HHPWPIFGT*GKNKIGP2HQTVGOO2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1932

1,5:1



210

1,5:1

)QNFOGFCKNNGXQP,5EJYGPFKOCPP2T·OKGFGT#ECFGOKC5CP.WECIGUVKHVGVFWTEJ%NGOGPU:+ 9GKDNKEJG)GUVCNVOKV6KCTCKONKPMGP#TOWPF5EJNÒUUGNRCCTKPFGT.KPMGPUVGJVPCEJNWPFJ·NVGKPGP .QTDGGTMTCP\ÒDGTGKPGP#NVCTCWHFGOFKG#VVTKDWVGXQP/CNGTGK$KNFJCWGTGKWPF#TEJKVGMVWTNKGIGP 5KGDGP<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI2CVTKIPCPKp  )1.&2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT)QNFVÌPWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\




PIUS VI.

1935

1934

1933



1933

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP , 5EJYGPFKOCPP WPF OKV 5KIPCVWT $ 2 CWH FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG 2T·OKG FGT   #ECFGOKC5CP.WEC9GKDNKEJG)GUVCNVOKV6KCTCKONKPMGP#TOWPF5EJNÒUUGNRCCTKPFGT.KPMGPUVGJV PCEJ N WPF J·NV GKPGP .QTDGGTMTCP\ ÒDGT GKPGP #NVCT CWH FGO FKG #VVTKDWVG XQP /CNGTGK$KNFJCWGTGK WPF #TEJKVGMVWT NKGIGP5V .WMCU UKV\V PCEJ N WPF OCNV /CFQPPGPDKNF FCJKPVGT 'PIGN T NKGIGPFGT   1EJUGQDGP/CFQPPCOKV-KPFKP5VTCJNGPOOI2CVTKIPCPKp  5EJÌPG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 ++ WPUKIPKGTV XQP ( *COGTCPK CWH FKG 'KPYGKJWPI FGT PGWGP -CUGTPG KP   %KXKVCXGEEJKC $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT -CUGTPG  OO  I $CTVQNQVVK   2CVTKIPCPKC 448QT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0++WPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG)TWPFUVGKPNGIWPI\WTPGWGP5CMTKUVGKFGU2GVGTUFQOGU $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV5GEJU <GKNGP 5EJTKHV QDGP WPF WPVGP LG GKP 5VGTP  OO   2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1936

1937



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#+++WPUKIPKGTVXQP(*COGTCPKCWHFKG)TÒPFWPIFGT)GOGKPFG5CP.QTGP\Q 0QWXQ .CVKWO  $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT )GOGKPFG CWU FGT 8QIGNRGTURGMVKXG   OOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKD 44(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 +8 WPUKIPKGTV XQP ( *COGTCPK CWH FKG #DUEJCHHWPI FGT $KPPGP\ÌNNG KO   -KTEJGPUVCCV $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV.KDGTVCU OKV (TGKJGKVUJWV WPF 5VCD UVGJV X X \W FGP   5GKVGP\YGK2WVVGPXQPFGPGPGKPGTGKPG#DURGTTMGVVGCWUFGT*CNVGTWPIGPVHGTPVOOI $CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKD (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



1938



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG4GUVCWTKGTWPIFGU(QTVG7TDCPQKP%CUVGNHTCPEQ'OKNKC$TWUV DKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV OKV UGIPGPFGT 4GEJVGP0GWP <GKNGP 5EJTKHV QDGP 5VGTP  OO   2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 211


PIUS VI.

1940

1939

1941



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#08WPUKIPKGTVXQP(*COGTCPKCWHFCUGTÌHHPGVG%QPUGTXCVQTKQ2KQHÒT /·FEJGP GTDCWV CO (W­ FGU )KCPKEQNQ KP 4QO $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT *QEJ   UEJWNGOOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKD 445GJTUEJÌP





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG # 8+ WPUKIPKGTV XQP ( *COGTCPK CWH FKG PGWG $TQVHCDTKM KP %KXKVCXGEEJKC   $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT (CDTKM  OO $CTVQNQVVK  2CVTKIPCPK    8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVXQP(*COGTCPKCWHFGP$CWFGU'T\KGJWPIUJGKOUKP(QNKIPQ 7OD TKGP  $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT *GKOU CWU FGT 8QIGNRGTURGMVKXG  OO   $CTVQNQVVK#PO2CVTKIPCPK (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





1942



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH UGKPG 4ÒEMMGJT CWU 9KGP $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV   &GT2CRUVKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCVVJTQPVHCUVXXOKVUGIPGPFGT4GEJVGPOOI2CVTKIPCPK E5NI/QPVGPWQXQp 44*GPMGNURWT(GNFGTDGCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌP



1943 1944





212

1944

5KNDGTPGT ,GVQP  XQP 6 4QUC CWH UGKPGP $GUWEJ KP #WIUDWTI CWH UGKPGT 4ÒEMTGKUG   CWU 9KGP $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV5KGDGP <GKNGP 5EJTKHV  OO  I (QTUVGT    2CVTKIPCPKD5NI/QPVGPWQXQ *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP , &QPPGT CWH UGKPG 4GKUG PCEJ 9KGP $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV   (ÒPH<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI2CVTKIPCPKD5NI/QPVGPWQXQ  5EJÌPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ




PIUS VI.

1945



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 6 4QUC CWH UGKPGP $GUWEJ KP #WIUDWTI CWH UGKPGT 4ÒEMTGKUG CWU 9KGP   $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV <GKNGP 5EJTKHV FCTWPVGT 5VCFVR[T \YKUEJGP \YGK 5VGTPGP   OOI(QTUVGT2CVTKIPCPKD5NI/QPVGPWQXQ (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



1947

1946





1946

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP , . 1GZNGKP CWH UGKPGP 4GIKGTWPIUCPVTKVV CO  (GDTWCT $TWUVDKNF T KP   IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG $ÒUVGP XQP 2KWU + DKU 2KWU 8 GKPCPFGT IGIGPÒDGT  OO  I   2CVTKIPCPKD FQTVWPVGT  44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # 8+++ WPUKIPKGTV XQP ( *COGTCPK CWH UGKPGP $GUWEJ KP #WIUDWTI CWH UGKPGT   4ÒEMTGKUG CWU 9KGP $TWUVDKNF TKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&GT2CRUVVJTQPVPCEJTPGDGPKJOFGT<GTG OQPKGPOGKUVGTCWHFGTIGIGPÒDGTNKGIGPFGP5GKVGUKV\V%NGOGPU9GP\GUNCWU$KUEJQHXQP#WIUDWTIKO *KPVGTITWPF FGT #NVCT FGU KO ,CJT  JGKNKIIGURTQEJGPGP 2CRUVGU 5V 2KWU 8  OO  I   $CTVQNQVVK(QTUVGT2CVTKIPCPKD (GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



1948



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG #0 8+++   WPUKIPKGTV CWH UGKPG UKEJGTG 4ÒEMMGJT CWU 9KGP IGYKFOGV XQP   FGT 5VCFV $QNQIPC $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG 4GNKIKQP UVGJV X X KP FGT   .KPMGP -TGW\ WPF DNKEMV \W FGP CWU 9QNMGP MQOOGPFGP 5VTCJNGP GORQT \W FGP 5GKVGP 5  %   OOI2CVTKIPCPKCXCT FQTVCPFGTGT&WTEJOGUUGT   5EJÌPG2CVKPCYKP\$GCTDGKVWPIUURWTGPCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ

 213


PIUS VI.

1949



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#+:WPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG#WHUVGNNWPIFGU1DGNKUMGPXQTFGO3WKTKPCN$TWUVDKNFT KPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCVOKVUGIPGPFGT4GEJVGP<GJP<GKNGP5EJTKHVOO2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ

1950







1951



1952

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0+:WPUKIPKGTVXQP(*COGTCPKCWHFGP$CWFGTPGWGP5CMTKUVGKFGU2GVGTU FQOGU $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT PGWGP 5CMTKUVGK  OO  I $CTVQNQVVK   2CVTKIPCPKC 44(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # :   WPUKIPKGTV XQP ( *COGTCPK CWH FKG 5GNKIURTGEJWPIGP FGU ,CJTGU    $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&KG5GNKIIGURTQEJGPGP.QTGP\QFC$TKPFKUK/CTKC#PPCFK)GUÏWPF )KQXCPPC/CTKC$QPQOQCWH9QNMGPQDGP5VTCJNGPOOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



)QNFGPG)W­OGFCKNNG#:+WPUKIPKGTVPCEJ(*COGTCPKCWHFGP$CWFGU9CKUGPJCWUGUKP%KVV¯ FK%CUVGNNQ 7ODTKGP $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU9CKUGPJCWUGUOOI $CTVQNQVVK\W2CVTKIPCPK\WD )1.&5R·VGTGT0CEJIW­UGJTUEJÌP 

1953



214

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # :+ WPUKIPKGTV XQP ( *COGTCPK CWH FGP $CW FGU 9CKUGPJCWUGU KP %KVV¯ FK   %CUVGNNQ 7ODTKGP  $TWUVDKNF TKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU9CKUGPJCWUGUOOI $CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP




PIUS VI.

1954







1956

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#:++  WPUKIPKGTVXQP(*COGTCPKCWHFCUPGWG)GH·PIPKUXQP6TGLC /CTMGP  $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU)GH·PIPKUUGUOO$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPK  8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XQP (*COGTCPKCWHFKG'TÌHHPWPIFGT/·FEJGPUEJWNGKP(CDTKCPQ

/CTMGP  $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGT /·FEJGPUEJWNG  OO $CTVQNQVVK    2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#:+++  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHUGKPG(ÌTFGTWPIFGTUEJÌPGP-ÒPUVG$TWUV DKNF HCUV X X OKV UGIPGPFGT 4GEJVGP&GT R·RUVNKEJG )GPKWU J·NV FKG RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG <GKV FCXQP CD   CPVKMG-WPUVYGTMG\W\GTUVÌTGPOO2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1957





1955

1958

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#:+8XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG9KGFGTJGTUVGNNWPIFGT8KC#RRKC$TWUVDKNFTKP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PVKMG YGKDNKEJG )GUVCNV FKG 8KC #RRKC U[ODQNKUKGTGPF UKV\V PCEJ T FGP -QRH   \WTÒEMIGYCPFVKOTGEJVGP#TO(ÒNNJQTPFKG.KPMGCWHGKP4CFIGNGIVJKPVGTKJTGKP/GKNGPUVGKPOKV FGT#WHUEJTKHV/Û2:OOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC 44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # :8 XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH FKG 'KPYGKJWPI FGT -KTEJG 5V #PFTGC KP 5WDKCEQ  

.CVKWO  $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV'KPYGKJWPIUU\GPG OKV FGO 2CRUV WOIGDGP XQP 2T·NCVGP   WPF-CTFKP·NGPOOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC  44(CUUWPIUURWTGPNGKEJVDGCTDGKVGVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 215


PIUS VI.

1959



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0:8+XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG#DUEJCHHWPIFGT.GDGPUOKVVGNUVGWGT$TWUVDKNF TKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV9GKDNKEJG)GUVCNVUVGJVXXOKV(ÒNNJQTPWPF4WFGTKO*KPVGTITWPFT-CT TGPN7O\·WPWPIOOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC  44(GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



1960

1,5:1

1,5:1



)QNFOGFCKNNG\W&WMCVGP#0:8+XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG'TJGDWPIXQP/QPVGEEJKQ 2TQ XKP\ /CEGTCVC KP FGP /CTMGP  \WT 5VCFV WPF FGTGP 7ODGPGPPWPI KP FGP WTURTÒPINKEJGP TÌOKUEJGP   0COGP6TGKC$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&GT2CRUVUVGJVPCEJTWPFGTITGKHVFKG*CPFFGTXQT KJO MPKGPFGP 5VCFVIÌVVKP FKG GKP (ÒNNJQTP KO NKPMGP #TO J·NV  OO  I 2CVTKIPCPK  D   )1.&8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5EJÌPG)QNFVÌPWPIYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ 

1962

1961

1961



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0:8+XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG'TJGDWPIXQP/QPVGEEJKQ 2TQXKP\/CEGTCVC KP FGP /CTMGP  \WT 5VCFV WPF FGTGP 7ODGPGPPWPI KP FGP WTURTÒPINKEJGP TÌOKUEJGP 0COGP 6TGKC   $TWUVDKNF TKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&GT2CRUVUVGJVPCEJTWPFGTITGKHVFKG*CPFFGTXQTKJOMPKGPFGP 5VCFVIÌVVKPFKGGKP(ÒNNJQTPKONKPMGP#TOJ·NVOOI2CVTKIPCPKC  44/KPDGTKGDGPUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#0:8+XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG'TJGDWPIXQP/QPVGEEJKQ 2TQXKP\/CEGTCVC KP FGP /CTMGP  \WT 5VCFV WPF FGTGP 7ODGPGPPWPI KP FGP WTURTÒPINKEJGP TÌOKUEJGP 0COGP 6TGKC   $TWUVDKNF TKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV&GT2CRUVUVGJVPCEJTWPFGTITGKHVFKG*CPFFGTXQTKJOMPKGPFGP 5VCFVIÌVVKPFKGGKP(ÒNNJQTPKONKPMGP#TOJ·NVOO2CVTKIPCPK 8QT\ÒINKEJ



216


PIUS VI.

1963

1,5:1

1,5:1



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#:8++XQP)*COGTCPKCWHUGKPG7PVGTUVÒV\WPIDGKFGTXGTUWEJVGP6TQEMGPNG IWPI FGT 2QPVKPKUEJGP 5ÒORHG $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV%GTGU UKV\V PCEJ T OKV (ÒNNJQTP KO   TGEJVGP #TO WPF CWUIGUVTGEMVGT .KPMGP FKG (Ò­G CWH 3WGNNWTPGP IGUVGNNV KO*KPVGTITWPF.CPFUEJCHV OOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC 44(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

1964







1965



1966

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # :8+++ XQP ) *COGTCPK CWH FKG 5EJKHHDCTOCEJWPI FGU (NWUUGU #PKGPG XQP   6KXQNK PCEJ 4QO $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV(NW­IQVV #PKGPG NCIGTV PCEJ T OKV 4WFGT KP FGT   .KPMGP FGP TGEJVGP #TO CWH GKPG 3WGNNWTPG IGNGIV KO *KPVGTITWPF T 6GORGN FGT 5[DKNNG DGK 6KXQNK   OOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKD 9KP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#:+:  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKGPGWGP$GHGUVKIWPIGPXQP%KXKVCXGEEJKC$TWUV DKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG 5VCFV UKV\V PCEJ N KO NKPMGP #TO (ÒNNJQTP KP FGT   4GEJVGP 5RGGT JKPVGT KJT 5EJKHHUDWI OKV #PMGT KO *KPVGTITWPF N -CPQPG WPF -CPQPGPMWIGNP   OOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#0::XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG4GIWNKGTWPIFGU9CUUGTHCNNGUXQP/CTOQTGDGK 6GTPK $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&KG (NW­IÌVVGT XQP 0GTC WPF 8GNKPQ OKV 3WGNNWTPGP NCIGTP   GKPCPFGTIGIGPÒDGTOOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC  44-N-TCV\GTWPF4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 217


PIUS VI.

1967



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#::+  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG#WHPCJOGFGTHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP2T·NCVGPKP4QO $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&GT 2CRUV VJTQPV PCEJ T WPF GORH·PIV HTCP\ÌUKUEJG -NGTKMGT   OOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC  2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

1968







1969



1970

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#::+  XQP)*COGTCPKCWHFKG#WHPCJOGFGTHTCP\ÌUKUEJGP2T·NCVGPKP4QO $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV&GT 2CRUV VJTQPV PCEJ T WPF GORH·PIV HTCP\ÌUKUEJG -NGTKMGT   OOI$CTVQNQVVK2CVTKIPCPKC 44(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG#001::++XQP6/GTECPFGVVKCWHFKG(GTVKIUVGNNWPIFGU#RQUVQNKUEJGP*QURK VCNU KP 4QO $TWUVDKNF T KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV#PUKEJV FGU *QURKVCNU  OO  I $CTVQNQVVK   2CVTKIPCPKC 44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG # ::+++ XQP 6 /GTECPFGVVK CWH FKG 'TTKEJVWPI FGU 9CKUGPJCWUGU KP %COGTKPQ  

/CTMGP $TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#PUKEJVFGU9CKUGPJCWUGUOOI$CTVQNQVVK 2CVTKIPCPKD 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1971 1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC  218

1,5:1

&+'5'&+58#-#0<810

&QRRKC$$QNQIPCI(GKPIQNF(D2CICPK5EJN  )1.&5GNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\




GREGOR XVI.

2#256)4')14:8+

)GD5GRVGODGT$GNNWPQIGUV,WPK4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG$CTVQNQOGQ#NDGTVQ%CRGNNCTK 2QPVKHKMCV(GDTWCTņ,WPK

  



)TGIQT\GKIVGUKEJY·JTGPFUGKPGT#OVU\GKVCNU·W­GTUVTGCMVKQP·TGT2CRUV'TYCT5QJPGKPGUCFGNKIGP 4GEJVUCPYCNVUWPFUGKVKO'TGOKVGPQTFGPFGT-COCNFWNGPUGT5GKP1TFGPUPCOGYWTFG(TC/CWTQ +PUGKPGO1TFGPUVKGIGT\WO2TKGUVGTCWHCW­GTFGO\WO.GJTOGKUVGTYWTFGGT1TFGPUIG PGTCNWPF-CTFKPCN5GKPG9CJNFCWGTVGICP\GHÒP\KI6CIGNCPI&KGVTGKDGPFG-TCHVYCTGPJKGTFKG UVTGPIGTTGNKIKÌUGP<GNCPVKWPF(ÒTUVXQP/GVVGTPKEJ'TGORHKPIPCEJUGKPGT9CJN\WO2CRUVTCUEJFKG $KUEJQHUYGKJG CO  'KPG 4GHQTO FGU DCPMTQVVGP WPF XGTUEJWNFGVGP -KTEJGPUVCCVGU HCPF WPVGT   )TGIQT PKEJV UVCVV VTQV\ /CJPWPI GWTQR·KUEJGT /·EJVG &CHÒT IKPI )TGIQT WOUQ CMVKXGT CP FKG   $GM·ORHWPICPFGTGT)NCWDGPUYGKUGPWPFRQNKVKUEJGT5VTÌOWPIGP7PVGTUVÒV\VYWTFGGTFCDGKUVGVUXQP UGKPGP TGCMVKQP·TGP -CTFKPCNUVCCVUUGMTGV·TGP 6QOOCUQ $GTPGVVK WPF .WKIK .CODTWUEJKPK +P UGKPGT 'P   \[MNKMCŋ/KTCTKXQUŌXQO\GKIVGGTUGKPG8GTCEJVWPIIGIGPÒDGT5VTÌOWPIGPUGKPGT<GKVYKG FGO.KDGTCNKUOWUWPFFGT2TGUUGHTGKJGKV#WEJFKG6TGPPWPIXQP5VCCVWPF-KTEJGYCTKJOGKP&QTPKO #WIG 5GKPG *GTTUEJCHV UVCPF ICP\ WPVGT FGO 2TKOCV FGU2CRUVGUFGTŋ2NGPKVWFQRQVGUVCVKUŌ&GP(G DTQPKCPKUOWUFGTFKG$KUEJÌHGCNUJÌEJUVGMKTEJNKEJG+PUVCP\UKGJVXGTWTVGKNVGGTGDGPHCNNU+PFGPŋ-ÌN PGT 9KTTGPŌ FGO *ÌJGRWPMV FGT 5RCPPWPIGP KP FGP RTGW­KUEJGP 9GUVIGDKGVGP OKV FGT MCVJQNKUEJGP   -KTEJGMQPPVGGTUKEJGTHQNITGKEJFWTEJUGV\GP&GPPCVKQPCNIGUKPPVGP#WHUVCPFKP2QNGPKO0QXGODGT  IGIGP 4WUUNCPF XGTWTVGKNVG GT /KV FGO<CTGP0KMQNCWU+VTCHUKEJ)TGIQTKP4QORGTUÌP NKEJ FC GT FKG 8GTHQNIWPI XQP -CVJQNKMGP KO <CTGPTGKEJ PKEJV JKPPGJOGP YQNNVG )TQ­G 8GTFKGPUVG   GTNCPIVG)TGIQTKPªDGTUGG'TITÒPFGVG\CJNTGKEJG&KÌ\GUGPWPFGTPCPPVGHCUV\YGKJWPFGTV$KUEJÌHGHÒT FKG/KUUKQPGP'TMQPPVGFKG5VTGKVKIMGKVGPÒDGT$KUEJQHUDGUGV\WPIGPKP+PFKGPWPF.CVGKPCOGTKMCDGGP FGP +P UGKPGO $TGXG ŋ+P UWRTGOQŌ XQO  \GKIVG UKEJ )TGIQT CNU GPVUEJKGFGPGT )GIPGT FGT   5MNCXGTGK KP FGP 8GTGKPKIVGP 5VCCVGP <CJNTGKEJG $CWV·VKIMGKVGP YWTFGP Y·JTGPF )TGIQTU 2QPVKHKMCV   FWTEJIGHÒJTV 'T GTTKEJVGVG FCU GVTWUMKUEJG WPF ·I[RVKUEJG /WUGWO KO 8CVKMCP JGWVG FCU ŋ/WUGQ   )TGIQTKCPQ'IK\KQŌGDGPUQFCUEJTKUVNKEJG/WUGWOKO.CVGTCP  

3WGNNG5EJYCKIGT)GQTI)TGIQT:8+KP-CURGT9 *IWC .GZKMQPFGT2·RUVGWPFFGU2CRUV VWOU(TGKDWTI WC 5

1972 1,5:1

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG$QNQIPC 

5EWFK#08$$QNQIPCI(GKPIQNF(D2CICPK5EJN  )1.&8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 219


GREGOR XVI.

1,5:1

1973

1973

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU)TGIQT:8+ 

6TCIDCTGXGTIQNFGVGQXCNG$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP)%GTDCTCFGU#RQUVQNKUEJGP*QURKVCNU$TWUV DKNF FGU *GKNKIGP )GQTIU T OKV 6CWDG CO TGEJVGP 1JT OKV FGT 4GEJVGP UEJTGKDV GT KP GKP $WEJ   4QOWCNFQUKV\VPCEJNWPFDGNGJTVUGKPG/ÌPEJGZOO5NI$TGVVCWGTp5RKPMp  /KV*GPMGNUGJTUEJÌP



1974



220

8GTIQNFGVG $TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP ) )KTQOGVVK CWH FKG4GUVCWTKGTWPIFGT(CUUCFGFGT-CVJGFTCNG XQP 1TXKGVQ #PUKEJV FGT -CVJGFTCNG5GEJU <GKNGP 5EJTKHV FCTWPVGT 8GT\KGTWPI WOJGT .QTDGGTMTCP\   OO5RKPMp (CUV5VGORGNINCP\




PIUS IX.

2#2562+75+:

)GD/CK5KPKICNKC /CTMGP IGUV(GDTWCT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG)KQXCPPK/CTKC/CUVCK(GTGVVK 2QPVKHKMCV,WPKņ(GDTWCT 5GNKIURTGEJWPICO5GRVGODGT

   



$GK2KWUJCPFGNVGGUUKEJWOGKPGPTGCMVKQP·TGP2CRUV&WTEJFKG'TMN·TWPIFGTR·RUVNKEJGP7PHGJNDCT MGKV WPF FGU ,WTKUVKPMVKQPURTKOCVU IGNCPI GU KJO FKG 4QNNG FGU 2CRUVGU KP FGT MCVJQNKUEJGP -KTEJG \W   UV·TMGP WPF UQOKV FGP TÌOKUEJGP <GPVTCNKUOWU XQTCP\WVTGKDGP &KGU YCT ICP\ KP UGKPGO 5KPPG GKPGT   5V·TMWPI FGT EJTKUVNKEJGP -KTEJG IGIGP FKG KOOGT NCWVGT YGTFGPFGP 5VKOOGP PCEJ 5·MWNCTKUKGTWPI   &WTEJUGKPGTGCMVKQP·TG'KPUVGNNWPIIGNCPIFGT-KTEJGPUVCCVKPGKPGYKTVUEJCHVNKEJG-TKUGFKGUEJNKG­NKEJ FC\WHÒJTVGFCUU2KWUCOXQTGKPGO#WHUVCPFKP4QOPCEJ)CGVCHNKGJGPOWUUVG'TUVCO  MQPPVG GT WPVGT $GINGKVWPI HTCP\ÌUKUEJGT 5QNFCVGP PCEJ 4QO \WTÒEMMGJTGP #WEJ KP FGT   (QNIG\GKVICDGU2TQDNGOG&KGTÌOKUEJGP+PVGNNGMVWGNNGPUCJGPUKEJXQP2KWUKPKJTGTRQNKVKUEJGP(TGK JGKV GKPIGUEJT·PMV 7OUQ DGIGKUVGTVGT UEJNQUUGP UKG UKEJ FGUJCND %COKNQ $GPUQ XQP %CXQWT CP FGO   RQNKVKUEJGP'KPKIGTFGTKVCNKGPKUEJGP5VCCVGP<GJP,CJTGNCPIXGTVGKFKIVGUKEJFGT-KTEJGPUVCCVIGIGPFKG /QFGTPKUKGTGT DKU UEJNKG­NKEJ 4QO CO  XQP KVCNKGPKUEJGP 5QNFCVGP GKPIGPQOOGP YWTFG +O   #PUEJNWUUNGIVGOCP2KWUGKP)CTCPVKGIGUGV\XQTFCUUFCU8GTJ·NVPKU\YKUEJGP2CRUV-KTEJGWPF5VCCV TGIGNP UQNNVG 2KWU XGTYGKIGTVG UKEJ FGP 8QTUEJN·IGP +P FGT (QNIG XGTNQT FGT 8CVKMCP FGP )TQ­VGKN   UGKPGU 6GTTKVQTKWOU FCOCNU PQEJ DGUVGJGPF CWU .CVKWO WPF 4QO #WEJ OKV 4GKEJUMCP\NGT $KUOCTEM   MCOGU\W-QPHNKMVGPCPFGTGP'PFGKP&GWVUEJNCPFFGT-WNVWTMCORHWO5·MWNCTKUKGTWPIUVCPF  

3WGNNG #WDGTV 4QIGT 2KWU +: KP -CURGT 9 *I WC  .GZKMQP FGT 2·RUVG WPF FGU 2CRUVVWOU   (TGKDWTI WC 5

ex 1975

1,5:1

1,5:1

/ÒP\UV·VVG4QO 

.KTG#0::+#::+844QO+PUIGUCOVI(GKPIQNF(D Z 2CICPK 5EJN 5VÒEM)1.&5GJTUEJÌPWPFUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 221


PIUS IX.

1976

1977



.KTG#::+844QO&CX2CICPK  2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





-W$CKQEEJK#0018+44QO2CICPK



2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\

1978

/GFCKNNGPFGU2CRUVGU2KWU+: 

$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP%4CFPKV\M[CWHUGKPG9CJNCO,WPK$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV #PUKEJVFGU2GVGTURNCV\GUCWUFGT8QIGNRGTURGMVKXGOKVFGO1DGNKUMGPWPF\YGK5RTKPIDTWPPGPWOJGT FKG-QNQPPCFGPKO*KPVGTITWPF2GVGTUFQOOO5RKPMp 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1979



222

8GTUKNDGTVG$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP%4CFPKV\M[CWHUGKPG9CJNCO,WPK$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUV NKEJGO1TPCV9GKDNKEJG)GUVCNVOKV2CNO\YGKIKPFGT4GEJVGPWPF5VCDKPFGT.KPMGPUKV\VXXFGP -QRH PCEJ T IGYCPFV CWH GKPGO N UEJTGKVGPFGP .ÌYGP CO $QFGP NKGIGP \GTTKUUGPG -GVVGP   OO5RKPMp $GTKGDGPUGJTUEJÌP




PIUS IX.

1980



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP,WPF.9KGPGTCWHFKG,CJTHGKGTFGU(TQPNGKEJPCOHGUVGUFCUGTUVOCNU KO,CJTKO$KUVWO.ÒVVKEJIGHGKGTVYWTFG&TGKRC­FCTKP5·WNG\YKUEJGPFGOOKV/KVTCDGUGV\VGO 2CRUVYCRRGPWPFFGOOKV-CTFKPCNUJWVDGUGV\VGO9CRRGPFGU$KUEJQHUXCP$QOOGNWOJGTXGT\KGTVGT 9CRRGPMTCP\ FGT CP FGT )GUVCNVWPI FGT (GKGT DGVGKNKIVGP 'T\DKUEJÌHG WPF $KUEJÌHG+PPGPCPUKEJV FGT   -KTEJG5V/CTVKPKP.ÒVVKEJOO4GKPKEMG 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1981



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ,WPUKIPKGTVXGTOWVNKEJXQP))KTQOGVVKCWHFKGKO,CJTGIGITÒPFGVG)GUGNN UEJCHV\WT8GTDTGKVWPIFGU)NCWDGPUKP.[QP$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV5VTCJNGPFGU-TGW\CWH )NQDWU KP 9QNMGP IGRT·IV OKV FGO 4ÒEMUGKVGPUVGORGN FGT /GFCKNNG XQP    OO  I   5RKPMp 4ÒEMUGKVGUKGJGFQTVKP$TQP\G  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



1982



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ) )KTQOGVVK CWH UGKPG 4ÒEMMGJT PCEJ 4QO CO  #RTKN $TWUVDKNF T KP   IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV5KGDGP<GKNGP5EJTKHVQDGP4QUGVVGWPVGP8GT\KGTWPIOOI5RKPMp *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 223


PIUS IX.

1983



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP ) )KTQOGVVK CWH UGKPG 4Ã&#x2019;EMMGJT PCEJ 4QO CO  #RTKN $TWUVDKNF T KP   IGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV5KGDGP<GKNGP5EJTKHVQDGP4QUGVVGWPVGP8GT\KGTWPIOO5RKPMp  8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



1984 (90%)



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP + $KCPEJK CWH FKG 'KPYGKJWPI FGT YKGFGTJGTIGUVGNNVGP $CUKNKMC 5CP 2CQNQ   HWQTKNGOWTC$TWUVDKNFNKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV+PPGPCPUKEJVFGT-KTEJGOO5RKPMp8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



1985 (90%)



224

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP 0 %GTDCTC WPF $ <CEECIPKPK CWH FGP 9KGFGTCWHDCW FGT CPVKMGP $CUKNKMC   5CPV  #NGUUCPFTQ CP FGT 8KC 0QOGPVCPC CW­GTJCND 4QOU $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV<GKNGP 5EJTKHVQDGPWPFWPVGPLGGKPG4QUGVVGOO5RKPMp 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ




PIUS IX.

1986



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP $ <CEECIPKPK CWH FKG *GKNKIURTGEJWPI XQP  (TCP\KUMCPGTP FKG DGK FGT   /KUUKQPKP,CRCPCNU/·TV[TGTXQP0CICUCMKKJT.GDGPHÒTFGP)NCWDGPIGQRHGTVJCDGP'EENGUKC UKV\VXXKPFGT4GEJVGP\YGK2CNO\YGKIGOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\KPFGT.KPMGP5EJNÒUUGNRCCT6KCTCWPF -TGW\UVCD QDGP FKG 6CWDG FGU *GKNKIGP )GKUVGU KO *KPVGTITWPF 2GVGTUFQO WPF 8CVKMCP <GKNGP   5EJTKHVÒDGT8GT\KGTWPIQDGP4QUGVVGOOI(QTTGT55RKPMp  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



1987



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP+$KCPEJKCWHFKG'KPDGTWHWPIXQP/·PPGTP\WT$GTCVWPIÒDGTFKG7P VGTUVÒV\WPI FGT -CVJQNKUEJGP -KTEJG WPF FKG 'TJGDWPI FGU 2GVGTURHGPPKIU $TWUVDKNF N KP IGKUVNKEJGO   1TPCV5EJTKHVWPF0COGPUCPICDGPOO5RKPMp 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1988



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP , 5VQTFGWT WPF , 2 &GJCGP IGHGTVKIV \WT 'TKPPGTWPI CP FGP -CVJQNKMGP   -QPITG­KP/CNKPGU /GEJGNGP $GNIKGP$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCV#WHIGUEJNCIGPGU$WEJCWH MKTEJNKEJGP'ODNGOGPOOI5RKPMp (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

 225


PIUS IX.

1989



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP))KTQOGVVKCWHFKG(GTVKIUVGNNWPIFGT'KUGPDCJPNKPKGXQP1TXKGVQPCEJ4QO KP #PYGUGPJGKV FGU -ÌPKIU 8KVVQTKQ 'OCPWGNG #PUKEJV FGT KO ,CJT  WPVGT 2CRUV )TGIQT :8+   TGUVCWTKGTVGP -CVJGFTCNG XQP 1TXKGVQ5KGDGP <GKNGP 5EJTKHV  OO  I 5RKPM  FQTV   HCNUEJG,CJTGUCPICDG  (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



1990



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP % 8QKIV CWH FKG ,CJTHGKGT FGU /·TV[TGTVQFGU FGT #RQUVGN 2GVTWU WPF   2CWNWU %JTKUVWU UVGJV X X WPF DGMT·P\V 2GVTWU WPF 2CWNWU <GKNGP 5EJTKHV  OO  I   5RKPMp (GKPG6ÌPWPIMN4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



1991



226

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  8QTFGTUGKVG XQP ) %GTDCTC CWU FGO ,CJT  CWH FCU L·JTKIG ,WDKN·WO FGT   9KGFGTJGTUVGNNWPI FGT R·RUVNKEJGP *GTTUEJCHV KP 8GNNGVTK )GMTÌPVGT &QRRGNCFNGT OKV FGO IGMTÌPVGP   \YGKHGNFKIGU9CRRGPXQP8GNNGVTKCWHFGT$TWUV5KGDGP<GKNGP5EJTKHVQDGPWPFWPVGPLGGKPG4QUGVVG OOI5RKPMp9WT\DCEJp *GTTNKEJG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ




PIUS IX.

1992



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FCU ¤MWOGPKUEJG -QP\KN #PUKEJV FGU 2GVGTURNCV\GU CWU FGT 8Q   IGNRGTURGMVKXG OKV FGO 1DGNKUMGP WPF \YGK 5RTKPIDTWPPGP WOJGT FKG -QNQPPCFGP KO *KPVGTITWPF   2GVGTUFQO+PPGPCPUKEJVFGU2GVGTUFQOUOO5RKPMp 8QT\ÒINKEJ



1993



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP+$KCPEJKWPF(5RGTCP\CCWHUGKPL·JTKIGU$KUEJQHULWDKN·WO$TWUVDKNFT KP IGKUVNKEJGO 1TPCV0GWP <GKNGP 5EJTKHV QDGP 5VGTP WOJGT -TCP\ CWU .QTDGGT WPF 'KEJGPDN·VVGTP   OOI5RKPMp (GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



227


PIUS IX.

1994



'KPUGKVKIG$TQP\GJQJNIW­RNCMGVVGQ,WPUKIPKGTV$TWUVDKNFTKPIGKUVNKEJGO1TPCVOO  8QT\ÒINKEJ



1995



228

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP#&WDQKUCWHUGKPGP6QF&GT2CRUVUVGJVHCUVXXXQTUGKPGO6JTQPOKV FGT4GEJVGPJ·NVGTGKPIGÌHHPGVGU2GTICOGPVFCUCWHGKPGO6KUEJNKGIVWPFCWHFGOXGTUEJKGFGPG'T GKIPKUUG CWU UGKPGO 2QPVKHKMCV XGTOGTMV UKPF JKPVGT FGO 2GTICOGPV DGHKPFGP UKEJ 6KCTC CWH -KUUGP   UQYKGGKP-TGW\'T\GPIGN/KEJCGNGTUVKEJVFGP6GWHGNOOI5RKPMp  4(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ




PIUS XI.

2#2562+75:+

)GD/CK&GUKQ .QODCTFGK IGUV(GDTWCT4QO $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG#EJKNNG#ODTQIKQ&QOKCPQ4CVVK 2QPVKHKMCV(GDTWCT(GDTWCT

  



2KWU:+UVWFKGTVGKP/CKNCPF6JGQNQIKGWPFYWTFGKO&G\GODGT\WO2TKGUVGTIGYGKJV#NUFTGK HCEJRTQOQXKGTVGT)GNGJTVGT 6JGQNQIKG2JKNQUQRJKGWPF,WTC GTJKGNVGTGKPG2TQHGUUWTHÒT&QI OCVKMCO2TKGUVGTUGOKPCTKP/CKNCPFYWTFGGT$KDNKQVJGMCTCPFGTDGTÒJOVGP/CKN·PFGT$KDNKQ VJGM#ODTQUKCPCCDNGKVGVGGTUKGCNU2T·HGMV2CRUV2KWU:DGTKGHKJPKO,CJTPCEJ4QO *KGT YWTFG GT  2T·HGMVFGT8CVKMCPKUEJGP$KDNKQVJGM#NU#RQUVQNKUEJGT8KUKVCVQTYWTFG2KWUXQP 2CRUV$GPGFKMV:8PCEJ2QNGPIGUCPFVHQNIVGFKG'TPGPPWPI\WO0WPVKWUUQYKG\WO6KVWNCTGT\ DKUEJQHXQP.GRCPVQ 0CWRCEVWU #NU$QVUEJCHVGTXGTHÒIVGGTWPVGTCPFGTGOFKG9KGFGTGTTKEJVWPIXQP HÒPH$KUVÒOGTPFKGWPVGTTWUUKUEJGT*GTTUEJCHVCWHIGJQDGPYQTFGPYCTGP*QJGU#PUGJGPGTNCPIVGGT FWTEJUGKPHWTEJVNQUGU8GTJCNVGPCPIGUKEJVUFGU8QTTÒEMGPUFGT4QVGP#TOGGCWH9CTUEJCWGTYCTFGT GKP\KIGCMMTGFKVKGTVG&KRNQOCVFGTKPFGP,CJTGPKPFGT5VCFVDNKGDYWTFGGTCWU2QNGP CDDGTWHGP WO CO  'T\DKUEJQH XQP /CKNCPF WPF MWT\ FCTCWH \WO -CTFKPCN GTPCPPV \W   YGTFGP 0CEJ FGO ÒDGTTCUEJGPFGP 6QF FGU2CRUVGU$GPGFKMV:8YWTFG-CTFKPCN4CVVKCOPCEJ XKGTV·IKIGO -QPMNCXG \WO 2CRUV IGY·JNV &GT9CJNURTWEJ2CRUV2KWUň:+YCTŋ2CZ%JTKUVKKPTGIPQ %JTKUVKŌ (TKGFG%JTKUVKKP%JTKUVK4GKEJ 2KWU:+YCTFGTGTUVGIGNGJTVG2CRUVUGKV$GPGFKMV:+8FGT ÒDGTGKPDTGKVGU9KUUGPDGVT·EJVNKEJG5RTCEJMGPPVPKUUGKPVGTPCVKQPCNG$G\KGJWPIGPWPFÒDGT-GPPVPKUUG OQFGTPGT YKUUGPUEJCHVNKEJGT (QTUEJWPI XGTHÒIVG &KG (ÌTFGTWPI FGT 9KUUGPUEJCHV YCT KJO GKP UGJT   YKEJVKIGU #PNKGIGP 'T ITÒPFGVG FGP 5GPFGT 4CFKQ 8CVKMCP WPF YCT FGT GTUVG 2CRUV FGT ÒDGT FGP   4WPFHWPM\WTICP\GP9GNVURTCEJ7PVGT2KWU:+IGNCPIFKG.ÌUWPIFGTŋ4ÌOKUEJGP(TCIGŌPCEJFGT 5QWXGT·PKV·V FGU -KTEJGPUVCCVGU /KV FGT 7PVGT\GKEJPWPI FGT .CVGTCPXGTVT·IG CO  FWTEJ   $GPKVQ/WUUQNKPKWPF2KWU:+GTNCPIVGFKG8CVKMCPUVCFVKJTG7PCDJ·PIKIMGKV&GPPQEJXGTUEJNGEJVGTVGP UKEJFKG$G\KGJWPIGP\WTHCUEJKUVKUEJGP4GIKGTWPI\WUGJGPFU+PUGKPGTXGTÌHHGPVNKEJVGP'P\[MNKMC ŋ0QP CDDKCOQ DKUQIPQŌ UEJTKGD GT ÒDGT FGP -CORH FGT -KTEJG IGIGP $GUEJT·PMWPIGP KP VQVCNKV·TGP   4GIKOGP 5GKP DGFGWVGPFUVGU -QPMQTFCV YCT YQJN FCU 4GKEJUMQPMQTFCV OKV FGO &GWVUEJGP 4GKEJ CO    'U UQNNVG CDGT MGKPG )WVJGK­WPI FGT .GJTG WPF <KGNG FGU 0CVKQPCNUQ\KCNKUOWU DGFGWVGP   *KVNGTJKGNVUKEJKPXKGNGTNGK*KPUKEJVPKEJVCPFKG8GTVT·IGUQFCUU2KWUKPUIGUCOV2TQVGUVUEJTGKDGPCP FKG4GIKGTWPIUEJTKGDWPFKPFGT'P\[MNKMCŋ/KVDTGPPGPFGT5QTIGŌFKGPCVKQPCNUQ\KCNKUVKUEJG+FGQNQIKG XGTWTVGKNVG OKV *KVNGTU 7PCWHTKEJVKIMGKV CDTGEJPGVG WPF FKG PCVKQPCNUQ\KCNKUVKUEJG 4GNKIKQPURQNKVKM   YGNVYGKVCPMNCIVG&GPPQEJYKTFKJOWPFUGKPGO0CEJHQNIGT2KWU:++J·WHKIXQTIGYQTHGPUKEJPKEJV FGWVNKEJ IGPWI IGIGP FGP 0CVKQPCNUQ\KCNKUOWU IGYCPFV \W JCDGP 8QP FGT 5QTIG WO FGP (TKGFGP   XGT\GJTVDQV2KWU:+CP9GKJPCEJVGP)QVVUGKP.GDGPHÒTFKG'TJCNVWPIFGU(TKGFGPUCPWPFUVCTD CO 229


PIUS XI.

1996

1,5:1

1,5:1

/Ã&#x2019;P\UV·VVG4QO 

.KTG#001+:4QOI(GKPIQNF(D2CICPK5EJN  )1.&0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



1997

1,5:1

1,5:1



.KTG#001:+4QOI(GKPIQNF(D2CICPK5EJN

)1.&8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



1998

1,5:1



230

1,5:1

.KTG#001:+84QOI(GKPIQNF(D2CICPK5EJN  )1.&8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\




PIUS XII.

2#2562+75:++

)GD/·T\4QOIGUV1MVQDGT%CUVGN)CPFQNHQ  $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG'WIGPKQ/CTKC)KWUGRRG)KQXCPPK2CEGNNK  2QPVKHKMCV/·T\1MVQDGT  5GNKIURTGEJWPI CO  &G\GODGT  'TJCNV FGU JGTQKUEJGP 6WIGPFITCFGU \WT 5GNKIURTGEJWPI HGJNV   FGT0CEJYGKUGKPGT9WPFGTJGKNWPI   

2CRUV2KWU:++UVCOOVCWUGKPGT(COKNKGXQP-KTEJGPLWTKUVGPFKGUGKV)GPGTCVKQPGPFGO8CVKMCPUVCTM XGTDWPFGP YCT 'T DGUWEJVG FCU JWOCPKUVKUEJG )[OPCUKWO 8KUEQPVK WPF GTNGTPVG JKGT PGDGP &GWVUEJ   PQEJUGEJUYGKVGTG(TGOFURTCEJGP#PUEJNKG­GPFUVWFKGTVGFGTUR·VGTG2CRUVCPFGT2·RUVNKEJGP7PKXGT UKV·V ŋ)TGIQTKCPCŌ CP FGT *QEJUEJWNG 5CPVň #RQNNKPCTG WPF CP FGT UVCCVNKEJGP 7PKXGTUKV·V 5CRKGP\CKP 4QO2JKNQUQRJKGWPFMCVJQNKUEJG6JGQNQIKG&GTJQEJDGICDVG#MCFGOKMGTUEJNQUUUGKPG5VWFKGPOKVFGP 2TQOQVKQPGP \WO &QMVQT FGT 2JKNQUQRJKG FGT 6JGQNQIKG WPF DGKFGT 4GEJVG CD #O    GTJKGNV 2KWU FKG 2TKGUVGTYGKJG /KV UGKPGT 2TQOQVKQP\WO&TKWTECP &QMVQTHÒTMCPQPKUEJGU4GEJV  GPVUEJKGFGTUKEJKO5KPPGFGT(COKNKGPVTCFKVKQPHÒTGKPGFKRNQOCVKUEJG-KTEJGPMCTTKGTGWPFDGICPPCO  CNU #WU\WDKNFGPFGT KO 5VCCVUUGMTGVCTKCV FGU 8CVKMCPU +P FGP P·EJUVGP ,CJTGP UCOOGNVG   2KWUGTUVGFKRNQOCVKUEJG'THCJTWPIGPFWTEJFKG6·VKIMGKVCNU5GMTGV·TFGTŋ-QOOKUUKQPHÒTFKG-QFKHK \KGTWPI FGU MKTEJNKEJGP 4GEJVUŌ WPF CNU /KVINKGF FGT -QPITGICVKQP HÒT CW­GTQTFGPVNKEJG MKTEJNKEJG   #PIGNGIGPJGKVGP$KUYWTFGGT\WOR·RUVNKEJGP*CWURT·NCVGPDGHÌTFGTV8QPDKUNGJTVG GT \WU·V\NKEJ CP FGT &KRNQOCVGP#MCFGOKG FGU 8CVKMCPU UQYKG CO +PUVKVWV 5CPVň #RQNNKPCTG -KTEJGP   TGEJV 2CRUV 2KWU : GTPCPPVG KJP CO  \W UGKPGO 7PVGTUGMTGV·T CO  \W UGKPGO   5GMTGV·T 0CEJ UGKPGT 9GKJG \WO 6KVWNCT'T\DKUEJQH KO ,CJT  FWTEJ 2CRUV $GPGFKMV :8 IKPI   GT CO  FGUUGNDGP ,CJTGU CNU 0WPVKWU PCEJ /ÒPEJGP #NU GTUVGT 0WPVKWU FGU &GWVUEJGP   4GKEJGU HÌTFGTVG GT UVCTM FKG -QPMQTFCVURQNKVKM UGKPGU 8QTI·PIGTU 2CRUV 2KWU :+  GTTGKEJVG 2KWU   :++ FKG -QPMQTFCVUWPVGT\GKEJPWPI OKV $C[GTP CO  FGP #DUEJNWUU OKV 2TGW­GP &CU   UR·VGTG 4GKEJUMQPMQTFCV #DUEJNWUU  KP UGKPGT (WPMVKQP CNU TGEJVNKEJGT 5VGNNXGTVTGVGT FGU   2CRUVGU DGKPJCNVGVGFGP8GT\KEJVFGTRQNKVKUEJGP$GV·VKIWPIFGU-NGTWUWPFUKEJGTVGFKGOCVGTKGNNGWPF KPUVKVWVKQPGNNG5KEJGTWPIFGTMCVJQNKUEJGP-KTEJGKO&GWVUEJGP4GKEJ0CEJFGO6QFUGKPGU8QTI·PIGTU 2CRUV 2KWU :+ YKTF 2KWU :++ CO  \WO 2CRUV IGY·JNV #WHITWPF UGKPGU 2QPVKHKMCVU XQT   Y·JTGPF WPF PCEJ FGO <YGKVGP 9GNVMTKGI IKDV GU \W UGKPGT *CNVWPI \WO 0CVKQPCNUQ\KCNKUOWU \YGK   ÌHHGPVNKEJG/GKPWPIGPFKGPKEJVOKVGKPCPFGTXGTGKPDCTUKPF9·JTGPFUGKPG$GHÒTYQTVGTUCIGPFCUUGT CNNGUKPUGKPGT/CEJVUVGJGPFGIGVCPJCDGWOFKG,WFGPKPFGPXGTHQNIVGP4GIKQPGP\WUEJÒV\GPUGKPG UGJT GPGTIKUEJG 'P\[MNKMC KP FGT GT FKG ,WFGPXGTHQNIWPI UVCTM CPRTCPIGTVG PWT PKEJV XGTÌHHGPVNKEJVG   WO FKG ,WFGP PKEJV PQEJ YGKVGT KP )GHCJT \W DTKPIGP YGTHGP KJO UGKPG )GIPGT XQT GKPHCEJ PWT IG   UEJYKGIGP WPF UQOKV FGO 054GIKOG \WIGUVKOOV \W JCDGP .CWV UGKPGP #PJ·PIGTP JCV 2KWU :++ KO   *KPVGTITWPF *KNHURTQLGMVG WPVGTUVÒV\V WO XGTHQNIVG ,WFGP \W GXCMWKGTGP KO UR·VGT DGUGV\GP +VCNKGP   CDIGUEJKGFGPG -KTEJGP WPF -NÌUVGT HÒT XGTHQNIVG ,WFGP IGÌHHPGV WPF ·JPNKEJG 7PVGTUVÒV\WPIUCTDGKV   IGNGKUVGV$GHÒTYQTVGTXGTYGKUGPCWHFKGGTUEJKGPGPG'P\[MNKMCŋ/KVDTGPPGPFGT5QTIGŌFKG2CRUV 2KWU:+KPUGJTGPIGT<WUCOOGPCTDGKVOKVFGOUR·VGTGP2CRUV2KWU:++XGTHCUUVJCVWPFFKGUKEJXG JGOGPV IGIGP FCU 054GIKOG WPF 4CUUGPRQNKVKM CWUURTKEJV +P XGTUEJKGFGPGP $QVUEJCHVGP TKGH GT \W   /GPUEJNKEJMGKV WPF 8GTUÌJPWPI \YKUEJGP FGP 8ÌNMGTP CWH 5GKPG )GIPGT FCIGIGP UKPF FGT ªDGT\GW   IWPI 2CRUV 2KWU :++ JCDG UKEJ PKEJV GKPFGWVKI IGIGP FKG ,WFGPXGTHQNIWPI IG·W­GTV FC GT UGNDUV CWU   TGNKIKÌUGP WPF TCUUKUVKUEJGP )TÒPFGP #PVKUGOKV YCT 5KG YGTHGP KJO XQT FKG ,WFGP KP 4QO PCEJ FGT   $GUGV\WPIFWTEJFKG&GWVUEJGPPKEJVIGYCTPV\WJCDGPWPF\WFGP&GRQTVCVKQPGPVCVGPNQUIGUEJYKGIGP \W JCDGP &CU  GTUEJKGPGPG &TCOC ŋ&GT 5VGNNXGTVTGVGTŌ XQP 4QNH *QEJJWVJ KP FGO FKG *CNVWPI   2KWU :++ \WO 0CVKQPCNUQ\KCNKUOWU CPIGMNCIV YKTF NÌUVG GKPG DKU FCVQ PQEJ PKEJV XQTJCPFGPG &KUMWU   UKQPKPFGT¤HHGPVNKEJMGKV\WO2QPVKHKMCV2KWU:++CWUņQDYQJNFGT4QOCPPKEJVCWH6CVUCEJGPDGTWJVG WPF TGKP HKMVKX YCT #O  UVCTD 2CRUV 2KWU :++ PCEJ NCPIGT -TCPMJGKV KO R·RUVNKEJGP   5QOOGTUKV\%CUVGN)CPFQNHQ#WEJJGWVGNKGIVMGKPGGKPFGWVKIG$GYGKUNCIG\WFGT*CNVWPI2KWU:++XQT 231


PIUS XII.

1999

1,5:1

1,5:1

/Ã&#x2019;P\UV·VVG4QO 

.KTG#00184QOI(GKPIQNF(D2CICPK5EJN  )1.&440WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2000 1,5:1



1,5:1

.KTG#001:+4QOI(GKPIQNF(D2CICPK5EJN  )1.&5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2001 1,5:1



1,5:1

.KTG#0:+++4QOI(GKPIQNF(D2CICPK5EJN  )1.&440WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2002 1,5:1



1,5:1

.KTG#0:+:4QOI(GKPIQNF(D2CICPK5EJN  )1.&0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV5VGORGNINCP\



2003

 232

.KTG#0:+:4QOI(GKPIQNF(D2CICPK5EJN  )1.&0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV(CUV5VGORGNINCP\




JOHANNES PAUL II.

2#256,1*#00'52#7.++

)GD/CK9CFQYKEG 0·JG-TCMCW IGUV#RTKN8CVKMCP5VCFV $ÒTIGTNKEJGT0COG-CTQN,Q\GH9QLV[NC 2QPVKHKMCV1MVQDGT#RTKN 5GNKIURTGEJWPICO/CKFWTEJ2CRUV$GPGFKMV:8+

   



,QJCPPGU2CWN++YWTFGCNULÒPIUVGT5QJPGKPGURQNPKUEJGP7PVGTQHHK\KGTUKPFGT0·JGXQP-TCMCWIGDQ TGP$GTGKVUOKVPGWP,CJTGPXGTNQTGTUGKPG/WVVGTKO,CJTUGKPGP$TWFGT'FOWPFWPFDGTGKVUOKV ,CJTGPUGKPGP8CVGT0CEJUGKPGO#DKVWTDGICPPFGTLWPIG9QLV[NCOKVUGKPGO.KVGTCVWTWPF 2JKNQUQRJKGUVWFKWO CP FGT ,CIKGNNQPGP7PKXGTUKV·V KP -TCMCW )NGKEJ\GKVKI IKPI GT UGKPGT .GKFGPUEJCHV   FGO 6JGCVGTURKGN PCEJ WPF UEJTKGD UKEJ CP GKPGT 5EJCWURKGNUEJWNG GKP 0CEJ #WUDTWEJ FGU <YGKVGP   9GNVMTKGIGU YWTFG FKG 7PKXGTUKV·V WPVGT FGWVUEJGT $GUCV\WPI QHHK\KGNN IGUEJNQUUGP GZKUVKGTVG CDGT VGKN   YGKUGKO7PVGTITWPFYGKVGTUQFCUUGTUGKPG5VWFKGPHQTVUGV\GPMQPPVGVTCVGTKPUKNNGICNG7PVGT ITWPFRTKGUVGTUGOKPCT GKP CW­GTFGO YCT GT /KVINKGF FGU 7PVGTITWPF6JGCVGTU ŋ4JCRUQFKGŌ +P FGP   ,CJTGPCTDGKVGVG,QJCPPGU2CWN++KPGKPGO5VGKPDTWEJWPFGKPGO%JGOKGYGTMCNU<YCPIU CTDGKVGTWPFGPVIKPIFCFWTEJFGT&GRQTVCVKQP'KP,CJTPCEJ$GGPFKIWPIFGU-TKGIGUYWTFG9QLV[NCKP -TCMCW KO )GJGKOGP \WO 2TKGUVGT IGYGKJV WPF UGV\VG UGKPG 5VWFKGP CP FGT 2·RUVNKEJGP 7PKXGTUKV·V KP   4QOHQTV&QTVRTQOQXKGTVGGTKP6JGQNQIKGWPF2JKNQUQRJKGMGJTVG9QLV[NCPCEJ2QNGP\WTÒEM WOCNU-CRNCPKP0KGIQYKEGWPFUR·VGTCPFGT5VWFGPVGPMKTEJGKP-TCMCWV·VKI\WUGKP#DGTJKGNV GT GKPG 2TQHGUUWT HÒT /QTCNGVJKM CP FGT 7PKXGTUKV·V KP -TCMCW UR·VGT NGJTVG 9QLV[NC 2JKNQURJKG WPF   /QTCNGVJKMKP.WDNKP+O,CJTGTPCPPVG2CRUV2KWU:++KJP\WO6KVWNCTDKUEJQHXQP1ODKWPF\WO 9GKJDKUEJQH XQP -TCMCW /KV FGT $KUEJQHUYGKJG CO  YWTFG 9QLV[NC \WO LÒPIUVGP   /KVINKGF FGU RQNPKUEJGP 'RKUMQRCVU +P FKGUGT (WPMVKQP PCJO GT CP FGO XQP 2CRUV ,QJCPPGU ::+++   GKPDGTWHGPGP <YGKVGP 8CVKMCPWO VGKN 2CRUV 2CWN 8+ GTPCPPVG KJP CO  \WO 'T\DKUEJQH   XQP-TCMCW&TGK,CJTGUR·VGTGTJKGNV,QJCPPGU2CWN++FKG-CTFKPCNUYÒTFG0CEJFGO6QFUGKPGU8QT I·PIGTU 2CRUV ,QJCPPGU 2CWN + Y·JNVG FCU -QPMNCXG ,QJCPPGU 2CWN ++ CO  \WO   GTUVGP PKEJVKVCNKGPKUEJGP 2CRUV UGKV *CFTKCP 8+ )GVTGW UGKPGU .GKVOQVKXU ŋ0QP CDDKCVG RCWTCŌ *CDV   MGKPG#PIUV WPVGTPCJOFGT2CRUVY·JTGPFUGKPGUNCPIGO2QPVKHKMCVU#WUNCPFUTGKUGP+PFGPGTUVGP ,CJTGPFGU2QPVKHKMCVUUVCPFGPFCU$GJCTTGPCWH4GNKIKQPUHTGKJGKVWPFGKPGFCOKVXGTDWPFGPG-QPHTQPVC VKQP OKV FGP MQOOWPKUVKUEJGP 4GIKOGU 1UVGWTQRCU KO 8QTFGTITWPF /KV UGKPGT RQNKVKUEJGP *CNVWPI   YWTFG GT \WO 5[ODQN FGU RQNPKUEJGP 9KFGTUVCPFU #O  XGTÌHHGPVNKEJVG ,QJCPPGU 2CWN ++   UGKPG #PVTKVVUGP\[MNKMC 4GFGORVQT *QOKPKU FKG KJP CNU 2CRUV FGT /GPUEJGPTGEJVG GTUEJGKPGP NKG­ WPF   FGPOCTMCPVGP5CV\GPVJKGNV&GT9GIFGT-KTEJGKUVFGT/GPUEJ&GT6ÒTMG#NK#IECXGTÒDVGCO  KP 4QO GKP #VVGPVCV CWH ,QJCPPGU 2CWN ++ CWU &GT 2CRUV YWTFG UEJYGT XGTNGV\V 'KPGP YGKVG   TGP #VVGPVCVUXGTUWEJ KO /CK  KO RQTVWIKGUKUEJGP 9CNNHCJTVUQTV (CVKOC ÒDGTUVCPF GT WPXGTNGV\V   ,QJCPPGU2CWN++DGUWEJVGCNUGTUVGT2CRUVGKPRTQVGUVCPVKUEJGUGKPLÒFKUEJGUWPFGKPKUNCOKUEJGU)QVVGU JCWU+PFGPGT,CJTGPTKGHGTFKG9GNVLWIGPFVCIGUQYKGFKG9GNVHCOKNKGPVCIGKPU.GDGPWPFKPKVKKGTVG CO  KP #UUKUK GKP 9GNVIGDGVUVTGHHGP HÒT FGP (TKGFGP  GTMCPPVG FGT 2CRUV FKG /KV   UEJWNF XQP %JTKUVGP CO *QNQECWUV CP WPF DKVVGV KO ŋ/GC %WNRCŌ CO  WO 8GTIGDWPI FGT   5ÒPFGPFKG%JTKUVGPKO.CWHGFGT-KTEJGPIGUEJKEJVGXQTCNNGOCP,WFGP(TCWGPWPF7TXÌNMGTPDGICP IGPJCDGP#OUVCTDFGTUEJYGTMTCPMG2CRUVKO#RQUVQNKUEJGP2CNCUVKP4QO 

'WTQ-WTUOÒP\GPUCV\  4 DGUVGJGPF CWU      WPF  %GPVU  WPF 'WTQUQYKGGKPGT 5KNDGTOGFCKNNG+O1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV<GTVKHKMCVWPF7OXGTRCEMWPI  0WT5·V\GIGRT·IV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG

 233


SAMMLUNGEN - LITERATUR

5#//.70)'0810/ª0<'070&/'&#+..'0&'42256' 

-NGKPG 5COONWPI XQP /ÒP\GP FGT 2·RUVG FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU KP OGKUV O·­KIGP 'TJCNVWPIGP   FCTWPVGTCDGTCWEJGKPKIGDGUUGTG5VÒEMG*QEJKPVGTGUUCPVGU.QVFCUDGUKEJVKIVYGTFGPUQNNVG  EC5VÒEM/GKUVOKV/·PIGNPUEJÌPWPFUGJTUEJÌP 



7OHCPITGKEJG5COONWPIFKXGTUGT/GFCKNNGPKP5KNDGT 5VÒEM WPFWPGFNGP/GVCNNGP 5VÒEM FGT 2·RUVGFGU,CJTJWPFGTVUFCTWPVGT\CJNTGKEJG5GNVGPJGKVGPWPFDGUUGTG5VÒEMG*QEJKPVGTGUUCPVGU .QVFCUWPDGFKPIVDGUKEJVKIVYGTFGPUQNNVG  5VÒEM7PVGTUEJKGFNKEJGTJCNVGP\6OKV/·PIGNPUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



-NGKPG5COONWPIXQP/GFCKNNGPFGT2·RUVGFGU,CJTJWPFGTVUXQP2CWN8DKU,QJCPPGU2CWN++ &C\WGKPKIGUR·VGTG2T·IWPIGPHTÒJGTGT2·RUVGUQYKG\YGKTGNKIKÌUG2NCMGVVGP*QEJKPVGTGUUCPVGU1DLGMV OKVUGNVGPGP#WUICDGPDKVVGDGUKEJVKIGP 5VÒEM(CUVUGJTUEJÌPpRQNKGTVG2NCVVG





2256.+%*'70&+6#.+'0+5%*'&1-7/'06'70&$.'+$7..'0 

,WNKWU++$WNNG.CVGKPKUEJG*CPFUEJTKHVCWH2GTICOGPV

8QT\ÒINKEJGTJCNVGP





7TDCP8+++$WNNG.CVGKPKUEJG*CPFUEJTKHVCWH2GTICOGPV

.ÌEJGTUGJTUEJÌP





+PPQEGP\:+$WNNG.CVGKPKUEJG*CPFUEJTKHVCWH2GTICOGPV

-N.QEJXQT\ÒINKEJ





%NGOGPU:++$WNNG.CVGKPKUEJG*CPFUEJTKHVCWH2GTICOGPV

8QT\ÒINKEJ





.16-NGKPG5GTKGXQP$NGKDWNNGPFKXGTUGT2·RUVG

5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP





8'0'&+) #NXKUG ++ /QEGPKIQ  $WNNG XQO  /·T\  +VCNKGPKUEJG *CPFUEJTKHV CWH   2GTICOGPV$GGPFKIWPIFGT)CTPKUQPKPFGP(GUVWPIGP8GTQPCWPF.GIPCIQ 8QT\ÒINKEJGTJCNVGP



2014

.+6'4#674 

234

$10#00+ (5,   0WOKUOCVC 2QPVKHKEKWO 4QOCPQTWO 3XCG # 6GORQTG /CTVKPK   87USWG #F #PPWO /&%:%+: $CPF  WPF  4QO  :::8+  5  6HP  (CNVVHP    6HP 5   6HP  (CNVVHP &GMGUGN $  <YGK $·PFG KO 2GTICOGPV FGT <GKV -NGKPGT   $GUKV\GTXGTOGTM KO 8QTUCV\ 4ÒEMGP OKPKOCN DGUEJ·FKIV UQPUV VCFGNNQUGU 'ZGORNCT FKGUGU UGNVGPGP   9GTMGU  


RÖMISCH-DEUTSCHES REICH

*#$5$74)+5%*''4$.#0&'¤56'44'+%*

2015

4¤/+5%*&'765%*'54'+%* 

/CZKOKNKCP+&QRRGNVGT5EJCWIWNFKPGTIGRT·IVKP#PVYGTRGPCWHFKG#PPCJOG FGU-CKUGTVKVGNUI5VGORGNUEJPGKFGT7NTKEJ7TUGPVJCNGT&GTIGJCTPKUEJVG-CKUGTOKV*GNOTGKVGV TOKVFGT4GEJVGPFKG4GKEJUHCJPGUEJWNVGTPFXQTFGO4Q­4QUGVVG)GMTÌPVGU9CRRGPWOIGDGPXQP UKGDGPMNGKPGTGP9CRRGPWOJGTGKP-TCP\CWUYGKVGTGP9CRRGP&CX'II/6 FQTV CNU)QNFCDUEJNCI\W&WMCVGP  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI 5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



'IIDGOGTMVKPUGKPGO9GTMÒDGTFKG/ÒP\GP-CKUGT/CZKOKNKCPUFC­FCU5EJCWUVÒEMXQPKPFGPHQNIGPFGP ,CJTGPUEJGKPDCTKOOGTYKGFGTIGRT·IVYWTFG#NUUKEJFGT-CKUGTKPFGP0KGFGTNCPFGPCWHJKGNVHQTFGTVGGT FTGK5VGORGNGKUGPFGT*CNNGT/ÒP\GCPWOFQTV'JTGPRHGPPKIGRT·IGP\WMÌPPGP0CEJNCPIGO<ÌIGTPUCPFVGFKG 6KTQNGT4GIKGTWPIUEJNKG­NKEJFTGK'KUGPFKGUKGCDGTOKVGKPGT4QUGVVGCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGP&CTUVGNNWPIMGPPVNKEJ OCEJVGYKGGUCWEJDGKFGOXQTNKGIGPFGP5VÒEMFGT(CNNKUV&KG-TÌPWPIUFQRRGNIWNFKPGTUKPFV[RKUEJG4GRT·UGPVC VKQPUUVÒEMG WPF 2TQRCICPFCIGRT·IG &GT -CKUGT KO *CTPKUEJ \W2HGTFGPVURTKEJVFGT+FGGFGUITQ­GP/CZKOKNKCP FGPMOCNU KP 5V 7NTKEJ WPF #HTC KP #WIUDWTI FCU PKG XQNNGPFGV YWTFG CDGT KP XKGNGP <GKEJPWPIGP WPF   *QN\UEJPKVVGPGTJCNVGPKUV&KG4ÒEMUGKVGOKVFGP9CRRGPFGTUKGDGP-ÌPKITGKEJGWPF.·PFGTKUVGKPGUFGTXKGNGP $GKURKGNGHÒTFKG#DUKEJV/CZKOKNKCPUFWTEJ9CRRGPMQODKPCVKQPGP'KPFTWEM\WOCEJGPWPFUGKPG+FGGCNU-ÌPKI XKGNGT2TQXKP\GP'WTQRCUWPFO·EJVKIUVGT(ÒTUV\WFQMWOGPVKGTGP  

/CZKOKNKCP +  9KGPGT 0GWUVCFV Ó 9GNU JGKTCVGVG  /CTKC XQP $WTIWPF YWTFG  TÌOKUEJGT   -ÌPKIWPFHQNIVGUGKPGO8CVGT(TKGFTKEJ+++KPFGT4GIKGTWPI&CGKPG-CKUGTMTÌPWPIFWTEJFGP2CRUVYGIGP FGTCPIGURCPPVGPOKNKV·TKUEJGPWPFRQNKVKUEJGP.CIGKP+VCNKGPPKEJVOÌINKEJYCTPCJO/CZKOKNKCPFGP6KVGN 'TY·JNVGT TÌOKUEJGT -CKUGT CP 1DYQJN GT RGTUÌPNKEJ VCRHGT M·ORHVG WPF FCJGT KO 8QNMUOWPF CNU FGT NGV\VG   4KVVGTDG\GKEJPGVYWTFGNKGIVUGKPG$GFGWVWPIYGPKIGTCWHOKNKV·TKUEJGO)GDKGVCNUKPUGKPGTITQ­CPIGNGIVGPFGP YGEJUGNPFGP (TQPVGP CPIGRC­VGP *GKTCVU WPF 8GTVTCIURQNKVKM OKVFGTGTFKG/CEJVFGU*CWUGU*CDUDWTIUV·TMVG &WTEJFKG8GTJGKTCVWPIUGKPGU5QJPGU2JKNKRRUFGU5EJÌPGPOKV,QJCPPCFGT9CJPUKPPKIGPNGIVGGTFGP)TWPFUVGKP HÒTFKG9GNVIGNVWPIUGKPGT(COKNKG+PPGPRQNKVKUEJHÒJTVGFGTNGV\VG4KVVGTDGFGWVGPFG4GHQTOGPFWTEJ \$'YKIGT .CPFHTKGFG'KPHÒJTWPIFGU)GOGKPGP2HGPPKIU WPFTKEJVGVG\GPVTCNG4GKEJUDGJÌTFGPGKP \$4GKEJUMCOOGTIG TKEJV4GKEJUTGIKOGPV /CZKOKNKCPDGV·VKIVGUKEJCWEJNKVGTCTKUEJWPFXGTCPNC­VGFKG#DHCUUWPIFGU6JGWGTFCPM GKPGT&CTUVGNNWPIUGKPGT$TCWVHCJTVUQYKGFGU9GK­MWPKIGKPGT8GTJGTTNKEJWPIUGKPGT6CVGP

2016

2017



(GTFKPCPF+6CNGTQ,*CNN&CX/68QINJ+  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4GKEJUVCNGTQ,*CNN2QUVJWOG2T·IWPIXQP#WHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGGKPG4QUGVVGCO#PHCPI FGT7OUEJTKHVCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVGGKP-TGW\&CX/6XCT8QINJ\W  'VYCU$GNCIXQT\ÒINKEJ

 235


RÖMISCH-DEUTSCHES REICH

2018

2019

2018



6CNGTQ,9KGP/CTMNXCT  /KP-QTTQUKQPUURWTGPCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT2CVKPC





2HWPFPGT9KGP/CTMN



2020

  

2HWPFPGT9KGP/CTMN 2HWPFPGT9KGP/CTMN 2HWPFPGT.KP\/CTMN

2023

5CWDGTCWUIGRT·IVGU'ZGORNCTMN5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­XQT\ÒINKEJ

2021

2022

(GKPG2CVKPCUEJCTHCWUIGRT·IVGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 5CWDGTCWUIGRT·IVGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 5EJCTHCWUIGRT·IVGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT

2025

  

2024



6CNGT Q ,   ,QCEJKOUVCN /ÒP\OGKUVGT /CTVKP -GORH &CX  &KGVKMGT  *CNCEMC   8QINJ 5GJTUEJÌP





6CNGTQ,  ,QCEJKOUVCN/ÒP\OGKUVGT/CTVKP-GORH&CX&KGVKMGT*CNCEMC 8QINJ 45GJTUEJÌP





6CNGT,QCEJKOUVCN/ÒP\OGKUVGT4WRRTGEJV2WGNNCEJGT&KGVKMGT*CNCEMC/CTMN 45GJTUEJÌP



236


RÖMISCH-DEUTSCHES REICH

2026

 

2027

4GKEJUVCNGT -TGW\GT 9KGP/CTMN 6CNGT-WVVGPDGTI&KGVKMGT*CNCEMCC/CTMNXCT

2026

4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 445GJTUEJÌP

 

2029

2028

2028



/CZKOKNKCP++)WNFGPVCNGT -TGW\GT ,QCEJKOUVCN/ÒP\OGKUVGT,ÌTI)GKV\MÌHNGT &CX&KGVKMGT*CNCEMC8QINJ 5GJTUEJÌP



-TGW\GT,QCEJKOUVCN/ÒP\OGKUVGT,ÌTI)GKV\MQHNGT&KGVKMGT*CNCEMC

2030

 445GJTUEJÌP

 

2031



)WNFGPVCNGT -TGW\GT 2TCI/ÒP\OGKUVGT*CPU*CTFGT&CX&KGVKMGT*CNCEMC 8QINJ++ 44/KP$GCTDGKVWPIUUVGNNGPKO(GNFFGT8QTFGTUGKVGUGJTUEJÌP





)WNFGPVCNGT -TGW\GT 2TCI/ÒP\OGKUVGT*CPU*CTFGT&CX&KGVKMGT*CNCEMC 8QINJ++ 44.GKEJVG-QTTQUKQPUURWTGPUGJTUEJÌP



2032 2033

2033



)WNFGPVCNGT -TGW\GT 2TCI/ÒP\OGKUVGT*CPU*CTFGT&KGVKMGT*CNCEMC  44-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





4GKEJUVCNGT  ,QCEJKOUVCN /ÒP\OGKUVGT ,ÌTI )GKV\MÌHNGT &CX  &KGVKMGT  *CNCEMC    8QINJ+ 4#VVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT

 237


RÖMISCH-DEUTSCHES REICH

2034

2036

2035



4GKEJUVCNGT  -WVVGPDGTI /ÒP\OGKUVGT ) 5CVPÓ XQP 1NKXGV OKV 5COWGN 9QFQNKPUMÓ &CX    &KGVKMGT*CNCEMC8QINJ 5GJTUEJÌP





4GKEJUVCNGT-WVVGPDGTI/ÒP\OGKUVGT,KTÃ5CVPÓXQP1NKXGV2QUVJWOG2T·IWPI&CX&KG VKMGT*CNCEMC8QINJ 'VYCUTCWGT5EJTÌVNKPINGKEJVG$GNCITGUVGUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





'T\JGT\QI (GTFKPCPF  4GKEJUVCNGT Q , *CNN &CX  # XCT /6  8QINJ    8CT 8QT\ÒINKEJ



2038 2037

 

2037

4GKEJUVCNGTQ,*CNN&CX#XCT/6XCT8QINJ8CTXCT 5GJTUEJÌP 4GKEJUVCNGTQ,*CNN/6 (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI

 

2039

2040

2040



<GJPGT/ÒJNCW/6

8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI





4WFQNH++4GKEJUVCNGT9KGP&CX8QINJ+++  44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCMN2T·IGUEJY·EJGHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



7PIGYÌJPNKEJIWVGTJCNVGPGU'ZGORNCTFKGUGUUGJTUGNVGPGP/ÒP\V[RU

238


RÖMISCH-DEUTSCHES REICH

2041

2042

2043



4GKEJUVCNGT0$0CI[DCP[C&CX8QINJ8++



'T\JGT\QI /CZKOKNKCP CNU *QEJOGKUVGT FGU &GWVUEJGP 1TFGPU  4GKEJUVCNGT    *CNN&CX/62TQMKUEJ%E (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4GKEJUVCNGT*CNN&CX/62TQMKUEJ%E  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCMN-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2045

2044

44-N5VGORGNHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



2046



&QRRGNVGT4GKEJUVCNGT*CNNI&CX/62TQMKUEJ  (GKPG2CVKPCYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





/CVVJKCU4GKEJUVCNGT9KGP&CX8QINJ+  45GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





4GKEJUVCNGT-$-TGOPKV\*WU\CT



442TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

239


RÖMISCH-DEUTSCHES REICH

2048

2047

2047



4GKEJUVCNGT-$-TGOPKV\2QUVJWOG2T·IWPI*WU\CT

445EJÌPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





(GTFKPCPF++4GKEJUVCNGT*CNN&CX#/68QINJ+  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCMN<CKPGPFGUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2049

2051

2050



4GKEJUVCNGT9KGP&CX8QINJ8

8QT\ÒINKEJ





4GKEJUVCNGT,QCEJKOUVCN/ÒP\OGKUVGT)TGIQT5VGKPOÒNNGT&CX&KGVKMGT*CNCEMC 8QINJ++ 'VYCU$GNCIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





'T\JGT\QI .GQRQNF 8  &QRRGNVGT 4GKEJUVCNGT Q ,   *CNN CWH UGKPG 8GTO·JNWPI   OKV%NCWFKCXQP/GFKEKI&CX/6 9KP\<CKPGPFGUGJTUEJÌP



2052

 240

&QRRGNVGT4GKEJUVCNGT*CNNI&CX/6D  -N+PXGPVCTPWOOGT 6KPVGPUEJTKHV JÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ




RÖMISCH-DEUTSCHES REICH

2053

2054

2055



'T\JGT\QI(GTFKPCPF-CTN4GKEJUVCNGT*CNN&CX/68QINJ++ 2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



4GKEJUVCNGT*CNN&CX/68QINJ++



(GTFKPCPF+++4GKEJUVCNGT/+$TGUNCW&CX(W58QINJ+ 44*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

2056

2057

*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

  

2058



4GKEJUVCNGT  2TCI /ÒP\OGKUVGT ,CMQD 9 9QNMGT &CX  &KGVKMGT  *CNCEMC    8QINJ++ 5GJTUEJÌP 



4GKEJUVCNGT5V8GKV2T·UGPVVCNGTFGT-·TPVPGT5V·PFG&CXp8QINJ  1TKIKPCNXGTIQNFGVGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT





4GKEJUVCNGT-$-TGOPKV\&CX8QINJ  5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 241


RÖMISCH-DEUTSCHES REICH

2059

2060

2060



4GKEJUVCNGT-$-TGOPKV\*GTKPGM



.GQRQNF+$TGVVUVGKPCWUFWPMNGO#JQTPJQN\IGHGTVKIVKP0ÒTPDGTIXQP2*/ÒNNGT CWHFKG-TÌPWPIUGKPGU5QJPGU,QUGH\WOTÌOKUEJGP-ÌPKI'KP'PIGNJ·NVFTGKIGMTÌPVG/GFCKNNQPUOKV FGP $TWUVDKNFGTP .GQRQNFU + ,QUGHU WPF 'NGQPQTG /CIFCNGPCU FCTÒDGT FTGK 5QPPGP2CPPQPKC   )GTOCPKCWPF$QJGOKCUVGJGPXXCWHKJTG9CRRGPUEJKNFGIGUVÒV\VOO*KOOGNJGDGT  4GRCTKGTVG$TWEJUVGNNGUGJTUEJÌP

2061

(GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

2062





2063



&QRRGNVGT4GKEJUVCNGTQ, PCEJ *CNNI&CX/6

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4GKEJUVCNGT-$-TGOPKV\&CX8QINJ8+  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





-CTN8+5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP%JTX.QJCWHFKG-TÌPWPI-CTNU8+\WOTÌOKUEJGP -CKUGT KP (TCPMHWTV )GTOCPKC OKV FGT -CKUGTMTQPG KP FGT 4GEJVGPUVGJVPCEJNKPGKPGT)CTVGPCPNCIG WPFJ·NVOKVFGT.KPMGPGKP/GFCKNNQPOKVFGOIGJCTPKUEJVGP$TWUVDKNF-CTNU8+TOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN QDGP WPVGT UVTCJNGPFGT 5QPPG FTGK XQP )GPKGP IGJCNVGPG YGKVGTG /GFCKNNQPU   OKVFGP$TWUVDKNFGTPXQP-CTNFGO)TQ­GP-CTN+8FGO9GKUGPWPF-CTN80ÌTFNKEJG'TFJCNDMW IGNOKVFGP$G\GKEJPWPIGP*+52)'4/#0+6#.QDGPGKP*CNDMTGKUOKVFGP5VGTP\GKEJGP.ÌYG ,WPIHTCW9CCIG5MQTRKQPWPF5EJÒV\GOOI(ÌTUEJPGT(QTUVGT,W( 5NI/QPVGPWQXQ 448QT\ÒINKEJ



242


RÖMISCH-DEUTSCHES REICH

2064



2065

2066

4GKEJUVCNGT5KGDGPDÒTIGP&CX8QINJ++  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





4GKEJUVCNGT5KGDGPDÒTIGP&CX8QINJ+++  44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





4GKEJUVCNGT9KGP&CX8QINJ+

2067

2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\

2068



2069



4GKEJUVCNGT9KGP&CX8QINJ+

 -CDKPGVVUVÒEM2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



4GKEJUVCNGT*CNN&CX/68QINJ++



4GKEJUVCNGT  2TCI /ÒP\OGKUVGT (GTFKPCPF 5EJCTHH &CX  &KGVKMGT  *CNCEMC    8QINJ:+: 2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCYKP\-TCV\GTHCUV5VGORGNINCP\

(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

   243


RÖMISCH-DEUTSCHES REICH

2071

2070

2072



4GKEJUVCNGT9KGP&CX8QINJ+8

*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





/CTKC6JGTGUKC4GKEJUVCNGT9KGP&CX'[RGNVCWGT  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



4GKEJUVCNGT  2TCI /ÒP\OGKUVGT 2CXGN 'TFOCPP &CX  &KGVKMGT  '[RGNVCWGT    *CNCEMC/ÒUGNGT 45GJTUEJÌP



$GK FKGUGT 2T·IWPI JCPFGNV GU UKEJ WO FGP GTUVGP 9KGPGT 6CNGT XQP /CTKC 6JGTGUKC FGT FCJGT CWEJ #PVTKVVUVCNGT   IGPCPPVYKTF



2073



-W-TGW\GT99KGP&C\W-W*GNNGT9KGP'[RGNVCWGT  5VÒEM2TCEJVGZGORNCT Z *GTTNKEJG-WRHGTRCVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



2075

2074

2074



-QPX6CNGT*CNN&CX'[RGNVCWGT/6

(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP#9KFGOCPPCWHFKG8GTO·JNWPIXQP'T\JGT\QI.GQRQNFOKV/CTKC.WFQ XKEC XQP 5RCPKGP $TWUVDKNFGT FGU $TCWVRCCTGU GKPCPFGT IGIGPÒDGT&KG 5VCFVIÌVVKP XQP +PPUDTWEM OKV   ÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJGO 5EJKNF GORH·PIV GKPGP )GPKWU OKV (CEMGN WPF URCPKUEJGO5EJKNFOOI 5NI/QPVGPWQXQ *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ /CTKC .WFQXKEC YCT FKG 6QEJVGT -CTNU +++ XQP 0GCRGN WPF 5K\KNKGP &KG *QEJ\GKV HCPF CO  #WIWUV  KP   +PPUDTWEMUVCVV

244






RÃ&#x2013;MISCH-DEUTSCHES REICH

2076

2077



-QPX6CNGT)Ã&#x2019;P\DWTI8CTKCPVGOKVPCEJTXGTNCWHGPFGT$Ã&#x2019;IGNMTQPGQJPG/Ã&#x2019;P\\GKEJGPWPFOKV $74)18+#'KPFGT4Ã&#x2019;EMUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV&CX'[RGNVCWGTC 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG Q ,   XQP 6 XCP $GTEMGN CWH FGP MCKUGTNKEJGP (KPCP\OKPKUVGT 6JQOCU )WP   FCEMGT)TCH5VCTJGODGTI

&G\GODGTKP9KGPÃ&#x201C;,WNKKP2TCI $TWUVDKNFFGU/KPKUVGTU T2KGVCU WPF /KPGTXC TGKEJGP UKEJ Ã&#x2019;DGT DTGPPGPFGO #NVCT FKG *CPF  OO -GPKU  5NI   /QPVGPWQXQ FQTVFCU'ZGORNCTXQP/&QPPGT  8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



6JGQFQTXCP$GTEMGNUEJWHFKGUG/GFCKNNGKO,CJTPCEJFGO8QTDKNFFGTXQP/CVVJKCU&QPPGTKO,CJTG IGUEJCHHGPGP/GFCKNNGCWHFGP6QFFGU)TCHGP/KVFGTXQTNKGIGPFGP/GFCKNNGUGV\VGUKEJXCP$GTEMGNKO9GVVDG YGTDOKVHÃ&#x2019;PHYGKVGTGP-CPFKFCVGPWOFGP2QUVGPFGU)GPGTCNUVGORGNUEJPGKFGTUCPFGT$TÃ&#x2019;UUGNGT/Ã&#x2019;P\GFWTEJ

2078

2080

2081



$GNIKUEJGT#WHUVCPF(NQTKP$TÃ&#x2019;UUGN6[R+,



(NQTKP$TÃ&#x2019;UUGN6[R++,

 

2079

8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



48QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



5QNU (NQTKP $TÃ&#x2019;UUGN,

8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



5QNU (NQTKP $TÃ&#x2019;UUGN,

/KPLWUVKGTVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2083 2082

2084



(TCP\++-TGW\GT )TQUEJGP $-TGOPKV\,  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





-TGW\GT)0CI[D±P[C,

48QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





-TGW\GT )TQUEJGP #9KGP,  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 245


KAISERREICH ÖSTERREICH

2086

2085

-#+5'44'+%*¤56'44'+%* 

(TCP\ +  -QPX6CNGT  # 9KGP /KV $ÒIGNMTQPG FGU *GKNKIGP 4ÌOKUEJGP 4GKEJU KP   FGT4ÒEMUGKVGPFCTUVGNNWPI&CX,-CJPV  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI&WPMNG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



-QPX6CNGT#9KGP&CX,-CJPV  5GNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(NGEMKIG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

1DYQJN UKEJ (TCP\ + ++  DGTGKVU CO  #WIWUV  \WO 'TDMCKUGT XQP ¤UVGTTGKEJ RTQMNCOKGTVG NGIVG GT GTUV   \YGK,CJTGUR·VGTFKG-TQPGFGU*GKNKIGP4ÌOKUEJGP4GKEJGUPKGFGT&CJGTGTUEJGKPVCWHWPUGTGO6CNGTXQP PQEJFGT6KVGN(TCP\++

2087

2089

2088



2090



-TGW\GT#9KGP,



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 2 , 6KQNKGT (TCP\ÌUKUEJG 2TQDGRT·IWPI GKPGU (TCPE5VÒEMGU /QFWNG FG    (TCPEU  &TGK .KNKGP CWH )NQDWU WOJGT )#..+# 4'&&+6# '7412#'Ü WPVGP #24+.' Ü   (4#0•1+5+Û'/2Û& #764+%*'ÜKPFGT/KVVG#0)'&'2#+:ÜWPVGP2#4+5ÜWPF6KQNKGT /KV 4CPFUEJTKHV i &+'7 2416')' .# (4#0%'  OO  I )CFQWT[  D   5NI/QPVGPWQXQ 5VGORGNINCP\ -TGW\GT#9KGP, 4#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ -TGW\GT%2TCI, 5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 



5GNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



  

2093

2091

2092



-TGW\GT88GPGFKI/KV5VGORGNHGJNGT(0#0%+5%75KPFGT8QTFGTUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV, 44(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





-TGW\GT#9KGP,

8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





-TGW\GT )TQUEJGP #9KGP,  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT(GKPG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



246


KAISERREICH ÖSTERREICH

2095

2094

2094



-QPX6CNGT#9KGP&CX,-CJPV

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





-TGW\GT#9KGP,  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPC5VGORGNINCP\



2096

2097



-TGW\GT#9KGP,

 5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



-TGW\GT#9KGP,

5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 

2098



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,&$QGJOCWHFKG-TÌPWPIFGU-TQPRTKP\GP(GTFKPCPFCO5GRVGODGT \WO -ÌPKI XQP 7PICTP KP 2TGUUDWTI &GT -QRH FGU -CKUGTU OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF -QRH (GTFKPCPFU   PGDGPGKPCPFGT T&CU IGMTÌPVG WPICTKUEJG 9CRRGP CP GKPG CNVG 'KEJG FKG XQP 9GKPTGDGP WOYKEMGNV   YKTFIGNGJPVQDGPUVTCJNGPFGU)QVVGUCWIG/KV4CPFUEJTKHVOOI5NI/QPVGPWQXQ /KV6WUEJG\KHHGTCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGOKP4CPFHGJNGTMN&TWEMUVGNNGXQT\ÒINKEJ

2099



2100



-QPX6CNGT#9KGPHÒT7PICTP,  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI'TUVCDUEJNCIHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





-QPX6CNGT#9KGP,



*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

247


KAISERREICH ÖSTERREICH

1,5:1



2101 1,5:1

(GTFKPCPF+-TGW\GT#9KGP,  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV2TCEJVGZGORNCT(GKPG2CVKPC5VGORGNINCP\

2102

2103



2102



-QPX6CNGT#9KGP,



4GXQNWVKQPKP7PICTP-TCLE\±T-$-TGOPKV\/KVOCI[CTKUEJGT7OUEJTKHV, 48QT\ÒINKEJ

2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 

2104 1,5:1

1,5:1



(TCP\,QUGH+-QPX6CNGT )WNFGP #9KGP,  442TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\

2105



-QPX6CNGT#9KGP&CX,-CJPV

1,5:1

2105

445VGORGNINCP\

'U IKDV XQP FGP 6CNGTP OKVFGONKPMUIGYCPFVGP2QTVT·V(TCP\,QUGHULGYGKNU5VÒEMOKVFGP,CJTGU\CJNGP $GKFGP6CNGTPOKVFGT,CJTGU\CJNHGJNVFCU9QTV&CNOCVKCKPFGT7OUEJTKHV#WEJXQP FKGUGO,CJTICPIIKDVGUPWT5VÒEM&KGUG/ÒP\GPYWTFGPCNNGKO,CJTGIGRT·IVMCOGPPKGKP7ONCWHWPF UKPF2TQDGRT·IWPIGP&KG&CTUVGNNWPIUGKPGU2QTVT·VUOKVFGO)GUKEJVPCEJNKPMUOK­HKGN-CKUGT(TCP\,QUGH&CTWO YWTFG FKGUGT 6[R PKEJV YGKVGT IGRT·IV &KG JGTIGUVGNNVGP  5VÒEM YWTFGP YKG 8QIGNJWDGT CPIKDV CP ÌHHGPVNKEJG   /ÒP\MCDKPGVVGWPF#PUVCNVGPUQYKGCPJQJG2GTUÌPNKEJMGKVGPCDIGIGDGP#WEJ-CKUGT(TCP\,QUGHUGNDUVJCVOÌI NKEJGTYGKUG 'ZGORNCTG GTJCNVGP UQ FC­ FGPMDCT KUV FC­ XQP FGP JKGT CPIGDQVGPGP 5VÒEMGP FCU GKPG QFGT CPFGTG   QFGTICTDGKFGFWTEJFKG*CPF-CKUGT(TCP\,QUGHUIGICPIGPUKPF

248






KAISERREICH ÖSTERREICH

2106

2107

2107



-QPX6CNGT )WNFGP #9KGP&KG$N·VVGTFGU.QTDGGTMTCP\GU\GKIGPCWHFKG$WEJUVCDGP#8

KP#8564+# , 448QT\ÒINKEJ





-TGW\GT#9KGP,



2109

2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\

2108

2109



-TGW\GTQJPG/ÒP\\GKEJGP2TQDGI,XIN  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGT5VGORGNINCP\



)WNFGP#9KGPCWHUGKPG8GTO·JNWPIOKV'NKUCDGVJXQP$C[GTP,

8QT\ÒINKEJ

 

2110



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP95GKFCPCWHFKG,CJTHGKGTFGU/CTKC6JGTGUKC1TFGPU$TWUVDKNF/CTKC 6JGTGUKCU T1TFGP FCJKPVGT 5EJYGTV WPF .QTDGGT\YGKI IGMTGW\V  OO  I 5NI *QTUM[   XIN FQTVKP)QNF 5NI/QPVGPWQXQp 8QT\ÒINKEJ

1,5:1



1,5:1

-TGW\GT#9KGP2TQDGI,XIN  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV2TCEJVGZGORNCT(GKPG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\

1,5:1



2111

-TGW\GT//CKNCPF,

2112





1,5:1

2TCEJVGZGORNCT5VGORGNINCP\

 249


KAISERREICH Ã&#x2013;STERREICH

2113

1,5:1

1,5:1



&QRRGNIWNFGPQJPG/Ã&#x2019;P\\GKEJGP2TQDGKP-WRHGTXQP,6CWVGPJC[PI/KV4CPFUEJTKHV 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV-CDKPGVVUVÃ&#x2019;EM2TCEJVXQNNG-WRHGTRCVKPC5VGORGNINCP\ 

2114

1,5:1



&QRRGNIWNFGPQJPG/Ã&#x2019;P\\GKEJGP2TQDGKP-WRHGTXQP95GKFCPI/KV4CPFUEJTKHV  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV2TCEJVGZGORNCT(GKPG-WRHGTRCVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\

2115

 250

1,5:1

1,5:1



2115

$TQP\GCDUEJNCIXQPFGP5VGORGNPFGU(GKPVCNGTU+++&GWVUEJGU$WPFGUUEJKG­GPKP9KGP&CXp

XIN ,p XIN 6JWPp XIN  48QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ




KAISERREICH ÖSTERREICH

2116

2117

2118



&QRRGNIWNFGP  9KGP CWH FCU (GUVUEJKG­GP FGU 9KGPGT 5EJÒV\GPXGTGKPU \WO L·JTKIGP 4GIKG   TWPIULWDKN·WOFGU-CKUGTU&CX,6JWP 4*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 



&QRRGNIWNFGP9KGPCWHUGKPG5KNDGTJQEJ\GKVOKV'NKUCDGVJXQP$C[GTP&CX,6JWP (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



&QRRGNIWNFGP9KGP¤UVGTTGKEJKUEJGU$WPFGUUEJKG­GPKP9KGP&CX6JWP  42TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\

 

2119

1,5:1

1,5:1



5EJÒV\GPRTGKU \W GKPGO &QRRGNIWNFGP  CWH FCU  0KGFGTÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJG .CPFGUUEJKG­GP KP   5V 2ÌNVGP 2TQDG KP -WRHGT  I 5VGORGN XQP # 5EJCTHH 9CRRGP KP XGT\KGTVGT -CTVWUEJG   5EJYGDGPFGYGKDNKEJG)GUVCNVT-PCDGOKV#TODTWUVOO5NI*QTUM[ FQTVKP5KNDGT  5NI2GNV\GT FQTVKP5KNDGT  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5VGORGNINCP\ 

2120



5EJÒV\GPRTGKU\WGKPGO&QRRGNIWNFGPXQP#5EJCTHHCWHFCU6ÒTMGPDGHTGKWPIUWPF,WDKN·WOU UEJKG­GP \WT )TÒPFWPI FGU 9KGPGT 5EJÒV\GPXGTGKPU &QRRGNCFNGT OKV 9CRRGPUEJKNF CWH FGT $TWUV KP   IGMTÌPVGTXGT\KGTVGT-CTVWUEJGWOJGT1TFGPUMGVVG5EJÒV\GOKV$ÒEJUGKPFGT4GEJVGPUVGJVXXKO *KPVGTITWPF5VCFVCPUKEJVXQP#NV9KGPWOOOI5NI*QTUM[5NI2GNV\GT 448QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\  251


KAISERREICH ÖSTERREICH

1,5:1



2121

1,5:1

 (TCPMGP  (QTKPV   -$ -TGOPKV\ )GNQEJVG 2TQDG KP 0KEMGN  I /KV IGTKHHGNVGO 4CPF   (DXIN*WU\CTC,XIND5EJNXIN 8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5VGORGNINCP\ 

2122

1,5:1



1,5:1

5EJÒV\GPRTGKU\W-TQPGPCWHFCU¤UVGTTGKEJKUEJG$WPFGUUEJKG­GPKP$TÒPP2TQDGKP-WRHGT I5VGORGNXQPXQP#0GWFGEM5VCFVCPUKEJVXQP$TÒPPQDGPIGMTÌPVGU5VCFVYCRRGP\YKUEJGP #TCDGUMGPWPVGP-CTVWUEJGFCTKP#FNGTOKV$ÒEJUGXQT5EJGKDG5VCFVYCRRGPCWHIGMTÌPVGT-CTWUEJG WOJGTXKGT-CTVWUEJGPOKV5EJTKHVOO5NI*QTUM[ FQTVKP5KNDGT 5NI2GNV\GT FQTV KP5KNDGT 5VGWNOCPP0CEJVTCI5C 8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5VGORGNINCP\



$GK FGT XQTNKGIGPFGP 2T·IWPI JCPFGNV GU UKEJ WO GKPGP &KEMCDUEJNCI KP -WRHGT \W FGT GPVURTGEJGPFGP   5KNDGTOGFCKNNG

2123 1,5:1



 (TCPMGP  (QTKPV   -$ -TGOPKV\ )GNQEJVG 2TQDG KP 0KEMGN  I /KV IGTKHHGNVGO 4CPF   (DXIN*WU\CTC,XIND5EJNXIN 8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ 

2124 1,5:1

 252

1,5:1

1,5:1

-W-TGW\GT  -$ -TGOPKV\ 2TQDG KP #NWOKPKWO  I /KV INCVVGO 4CPF *WU\CT  E   ,XIND 42TCEJVGZGORNCT5VGORGNINCP\ 


GEISTLICHKEIT

2125

1,5:1



*GNNGT9KGP,



*GNNGT9KGP2TQDGI/KVINCVVGO4CPF,XIN

1,5:1

445GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



448QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2126

1,5:1



2127

1,5:1

&GPCT  PCEJ FGO 6[R FGU -ÌPKIU 'OGTKEJ   /KNNGPKWORT·IWPI \WT ,CJTVCWUGPFHGKGT   FGT.CPFPCJOGXQP7PICTP*GTKPGM 4*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2128



5EJÒV\GPRTGKU \W  -TQPGP  CWH FCU  ¤UVGTTGKEJKUEJG $WPFGUUEJKG­GP KP 9KGP \W UGKPGO   L·JTKIGP4GIKGTWPIULWDKN·WO2TQDGKP$TQP\GI5VGORGNXQP#5EJCTHH$TWUVDKNFT9GKD NKEJG )GUVCNV UVGJV X X WPF UEJPGKFGV KP GKPG 'KEJG FKG ,CJTGU\CJN  FCTÒDGT UVGJGP XKGT YGKVGTG   ,CJTGU\CJNGP N 5VCFVYCRRGP KO *KPVGTITWPF 5VCFVCPUKEJV XQP 9KGP  OO 5NI *QTUM[   

FQTVKP5KNDGT 5NI2GNV\GT FQTVKP5KNDGT 5VGWNOCPP5  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5VGORGNINCP\ 



-NGKPG 5GTKG XQP JCDUDWTIKUEJGP -NGKPOÒP\GP FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU XQO -W-TGW\GT DKU \WO   6CNGTFCTWPVGTCWEJGKPKIG)GFGPMRT·IWPIGPUQYKGGKPKIGGKPUGKVKIG<KPPCDUEJN·IG*QEJKPVGTGUUCPVGU .QVOKVDGUUGTGP6[RGPWPF\CJNTGKEJGPJGTTNKEJGP3WCNKV·VGPDKVVGDGUKEJVKIGP  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPp5VGORGNINCP\ 



&KXGTUGÌUVGTTGKEJKUEJG5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGU,CJTJWPFGTVUXQO5EJKNNKPIDKU\WO5EJKNNKPI5VÒEM 5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJpRQNKGTVG2NCVVG

.165*#$5$74)



2131

&+')'+56.+%*-'+6+0&'0*#$5$74)+5%*'0'4$.#0&'0 $4+:'0$+567/ 

-CURCT +IPC\ XQP -ÒPKIN  6CNGT  #WIUDWTI &CX  (QTUVGT  )WOOGTGT   KP*CNNGT/ÒP\DN·VVGT$CPF+++/·T\0T 44(GKPG2CVKPCMN<CKPGPFGXQT\ÒINKEJ  $GKFGOXQTNKGIGPFGP5VÒEMJCPFGNVGUUKEJWOGKPG#TDGKVFGU/ÒP\OGKUVGTU%JTKUVKCP*QNGKUGPWPFFGU5VGORGN UEJPGKFGTU2JKNKRR*GKPTKEJ/ÒNNGT

253


GEISTLICHKEIT

2132

1./ª6<$+567/5'+6'4<$+567/ 

9QNHICPIXQP5EJTCVVGPDCEJ4GKEJUVCNGT&CX5WEJQOGN8KFGOCP  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



2134

2133

2133

24#)'4<$+567/ 

(GTFKPCPF )TCH XQP -JÒGPDWTI  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XQP ) 9 8GUVPGT   CWH FKG +PKVKCVKXG \WT *GKNKIURTGEJWPI ,QJCPP XQP 0GRQOWMU FWTEJ 2CRUV %NGOGPU :+ $TWUVDKNF FGU   *GKNKIGP T OKV $CTGVV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF -TGW\&CU R·RUVNKEJG 9CRRGP XQP %NGOGPU :+ CWH   IGMTGW\VGP5EJNÒUUGNPQDGP6KCTCOOI$GTPJGKOGTp XIN &QPGD/KUGNNK 5NI*QTUM[ 44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



(GTFKPCPF )TCH XQP -JÒGPDWTI YWTFG  CNU 5QJP FGU )TCHGP ,QJCPP (TKGFTKEJ WPF UGKPGT )GOCJNKP ,QJCPPC   )WUUOCPIGDQTGP'TYWTFGPCEJFGO6QFFGU'T\DKUEJQHU,QJCPP,QUGRJ)TCHGPXQP$TGWPGT\WUGKPGO0CEJHQN IGTGTPCPPVVTCVCDGTUGKP#OVYGIGPFGTKP2TCIJGTTUEJGPFGP2GUVGTUVCP'TUVCTDCO

5#.<$74)'4<$+567/  5CN\DWTIGT/ÒP\GPFGU/KVVGNCNVGTUHKPFGP5KGKP-CVCNQIWPVGTFGP0TP 

/CTMWU5KVVKMWUXQP*QJGPGOU-NKRRGPHÌTOKIGT4GEJGPRHGPPKI<ÌVVN  4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2135

2136

2136



)WKFQDCNFXQP6JWPWPF*QJGPUVGKP4GKEJUVCNGT<ÌVVN

8QT\ÒINKEJ





/CZ)CPFQNRJXQP-ÒGPDWTI4GKEJUVCNGT&CX<ÌVVN  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



254


GEISTLICHKEIT

2137

2138

2139



,QJCPP'TPUVXQP6JWPWPF*QJGPUVGKP4GKEJUVCNGT&CX<ÌVVN  2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



,CMQD 'TPUV XQP .KGEJVGPUVGKP  4GKEJUVCNGT  1JPG 5KIPCVWT (/- CWH FGO   5QEMGN&CX<ÌVVN 4#VVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI 



4GKEJUVCNGT/KV5KIPCVWT(/-CWHFGO5QEMGN&CX<ÌVVN

48QT\ÒINKEJ





2140



5GFKUXCMCP\  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ( /CV\GPMQRH *ÒHVDKNF FGU 5V 4WFDGTVWU   X X OKV /KVTC 5CN\IGH·­ WPF $KUEJQHUUVCD CWH 2QUVCOGPVFCXQT-CRKVGNYCRRGPQDGP-TQPGWOJGT 9CRRGPMTCP\*ÒHVDKNFFGU5V8KTIKNKWUJCNDNOKV/KVTC/QFGNNFGT&QOMKTEJGWPF$KUEJQHUUVCDCWH 2QUVCOGPVQDGP-TQPGWOJGT9CRRGPMTCP\OOI<GRGTPKEM<ÌVVN  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 

2141



5#.<$74)-74(ª456'067/

(GTFKPCPF-QPX6CNGT&CX<ÌVVN (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 255


HABSBURGISCHE STÄDTE

2142

2143

2142



-TGW\GT<ÌVVN

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





-TGW\GT8CTKCPVGOKVFGT,CJTGU\CJNKPNKGIGPFGT4CWVG<ÌVVN

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2145

2144

2146

&+'¤56'44'+%*+5%*'056#0&'5*'44'0 5%*.+%-)4#('0 

5VGRJCP $WTKCP *GKPTKEJ *KGTQP[OWU WPF .QTGP\  6CNGT Q , ,QCEJKOUVCN   OKV 6KVGN .WFYKIU ++ -ÌPKI XQP 7PICTP WPF $ÌJOGP #WUDGWVG FGT ,QCEJKOUVCNGT )TWDGP #WH FGT   4ÒEMUGKVGFWTEJDTKEJVFGT.ÌYGPMQRHFGPKPPGTGP(CFGPMTGKU&CX&QPGD  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP  &KG 2T·IWPIGP FGT )TCHGP 5EJNKEM UKPF OKV YGPKIGP #WUPCJOGP #WUDGWVGRT·IWPIGP &KG HTÒJGUVGP UVCOOGP CWU   FGO CNU $GTIUVCFV IGITÒPFGVGP 5V ,QCEJKOUVCN   #NU TGFGPFGU <GKEJGP GTUEJGKPV FCJGT 5V ,QCEJKO CWH FGP   /ÒP\GP ·JPNKEJ YKG KO *CT\ 5V #PFTGCU CWH GPVURTGEJGPFGP 2T·IWPIGP &KG ITQ­G #WUDGWVG FGU ,CJTGU   

6CNGT OCEJVGFKG'KPTKEJVWPIGKPGT/ÒP\UV·VVG\YKPIGPFYWTFGOKVFGTTGIWN·TGP2T·IWPIDGIQPPGP  IKPI FKG /ÒP\UV·VVG CWH -ÌPKI (GTFKPCPF + ÒDGT  XGTNQTGP FKG )TCHGP 5EJNKEM CWEJ FKG OGKUVGP   $GTIYGTMGWO,QCEJKOUVCNKP(QNIGFGT5EJNCEJVDGK/ÒJNDGTI#DUEJWHGPFKG)TCHGP5EJNKEMUKEJGKPPGWGU 5KNDGT$GTIDCWTGXKGT WO /KEJCGNUDGTI DGK 2NCP WCFKG5V#PPC(WPFITWDGYWTFGFCU/ÒP\TGEJVGTPGWV GTYQTDGPWPFKP2NCPGKPG/ÒP\UV·VVGGTTKEJVGVYQFCU$GTIUKNDGTXGTRT·IVYWTFG'UKUVJKUVQTKUEJDGOGTMGPUYGTV FC­ FKG 6CNGT CWU ,QCEJKOUVCN FKG 0COGPUIGDGT FGU 6CNGTU KO FGWVUEJURTCEJKIGP 4CWO WPF KP #OGTKMC YCTGP  

6CNGT &QNNCT  Y·JTGPF KP 4W­NCPF FGT GTUVG 6GKN FGU 5VCFVPCOGPU ,QCEJKO FGP TWUUKUEJGP 6CNGTP FGP 0COGP   ,GHKOQMICDGP ,GHKOQM,QCEJKO 



.GQRQNF *GKPTKEJ  -QPX6CNGT  2TCI OKV 6KVGN /CTKC6JGTGUKCU&CX*QN\ OCKT #VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

56&6'+0&'0*#$5$74)+5%*'0'4$.#0&'0 #.6$70<.#7 

256

5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 2 2 9GTPGT CWH FKG +PKVKCVKXG \WT *GKNKIURTGEJWPI ,QJCPP XQP 0GRQOWMU   FWTEJ 2CRUV %NGOGPU :+ $TWUVDKNF FGU *GKNKIGP T OKV $CTGVV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF -TGW\   /CFQPPCOKV-KPFXXCWH9QNMGPOOI&QPGD5NI'TNCPIGT++  45EJÌPG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ




BALTIKUM

'7412+5%*'/ª0<'070&/'&#+..'0

2148 2149

2147

#.$#0+'0 

<QIW+(TCPMGP44QO-/

*GTTNKEJG6ÌPWPIHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





(TCPMGP44QO-/

*GTTNKEJG6ÌPWPIHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





.GM44QO-/

(GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



4GXQNWVKQP-W%GPVKOQU-/:  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV2TCEJVGZGORNCT5VGORGNINCP\



2150

#0&144# 

2151 1,5:1

$#.6+-7/

-74.#0& 

(TKGFTKEJ-GVVNGT)TÌUEJGT/KVCW+IGT-W(C 4 -QRKEMK 4   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP

2152 1,5:1



1,5:1



1,5:1

9KNJGNO-GVVNGT)TÌUEJGT/KVCW+IGT-W9ED 4 -QRKEMK 4   8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 257


BALTIKUM

2153

1,5:1

1,5:1

4+)#56#&6 

(GTFKPI 6CNGT I%+8+6#6+54+)'05+55VCFVYCRRGPWPVGP9GTVCPICDGÚ(\W FGP 5GKVGP 8GT\KGTWPIGP QDGP IGMTGW\VG 5EJNÒUUGNY &'0#4+85u01885u#4)'06'85 8GT \KGTWPI )GMTGW\VG5EJNÒUUGNKPXGT\KGTVGT-CTVWUEJG\WFGP5GKVGP&CX*CNLCM 4  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV#VVTCMVKXGUUEJCTHCWUIGRT·IVGU'ZGORNCTXQT\ÒINKEJ 

2155

2154



7PVGT2QNGP5VGRJCP$CVJQT[)TÌUEJGT+IGT4C 4 -QRKEMK 4   9KP\<CKPGPFGUGJTUEJÌP



5KIKUOWPF+++XQP2QNGP6CNGT &TGKRÌNMGT 8KNPKWU-QRKEMK 4   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5EJYCEJCWUIGRT·IVMN<CKPGPFGUGJTUEJÌP



.+6#7'0 

2156

1,5:1

1,5:1

.+8.#0&*'4<1)67/ 

258

,QJCPP%JQFMKGYKE\/CTMI&GTNKXN·PFKUEJG)TGKHUEJTGKVGVNOKVGTJQ DGPGO5EJYGTVKPFGP2TCPMGPWOJGT.QTDGGTMTCP\&KG9CRRGPUEJKNFGXQP2QNGPWPF.KVCWGPPGDGP GKPCPFGTQDGP'+0'/#4%-WPVGTÚÚWOJGT.QTDGGTMTCP\*CNLCM 4 -QRKEMK 4  8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV&WPMNG2CVKPCMN5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­UGJTUEJÌP




BELGIEN

2157

#069'42'0 

2158

$'.)+'0

5VCFV-W%GPVKOGU8IGRT·IVY·JTGPFFGT$GNCIGTWPIFWTEJFKG#NNKKGTVGP$TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H)CFQWT[D/C\CTF .GKEJVLWUVKGTVUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



$4#$#06 

#PVQKPGXQP$WTIWPF&QWDNGITQUQ,.QWXCKP$QVFTCIGT8CPJQWFV)  (CUVUGJTUEJÌP

2159 (doppelt)

2160



2161



2JKNKRR+8XQP5RCPKGP&QRRGNVGT&WMCVQP$TÒUUGN&CX&GNOC 4   44*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT





2CVCIQP#PVYGTRGP&CX&GNO  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(GKPG2CVKPCYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





2JKNKRR8XQP5RCPKGP&WMCVQP#PVYGTRGP&CX&GNOD  4#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2162

(.#0&'40 

2JKNKRR++XQP5RCPKGP4GKEJUVCNGTPCEJDWTIWPFKUEJGO(W­&CX&GNO 4  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCMN5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­XQT\ÒINKEJ

 259


BELGIEN

2163

2164

2165

*#+0#76 *'00')#7  

2JKNKRR++XQP5RCPKGP'EW2JKNKRRG/QPU $GTIGP &GNO  2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP



)GQTIXQP¤UVGTTGKEJ6CNGT*CUUGNVOKV6KVGN-CTNU8&CX&GNO 4  /KIPQNGV 4  44-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTGVYCU$GNCIUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





)GTJCTFXQP)TQGUDGEM4GKEJUVCNGT*CUUGNVOKV6KVGN/CZKOKNKCPU++&CX &GNO 5GJTUEJÌP





.ª66+%*

2167

2166



2166

0#/74

2JKNKRR++XQP5RCPKGP-W&GPKGTX)*p

5GJTUEJÌP



/CTICTGVJCXQP$TGFGTQFG6CNGTOKV6KVGN-CTNU8&GNO 4   8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



6*14'0 

2168

1,5:1

1,5:1

-¤0+)4'+%*$'.)+'0  260

.GQRQNF+(TCPEU/QTKPD  W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT(GKPG2CVKPCRQNKGTVG2NCVVG




BELGIEN

2170 2169

2169





5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFGP$GUWEJFGTGPINKUEJGP-ÌPKIKP8KEVQTKCKP$GNIKGP&KG$ÒUVGP XQP.GQRQNF+OKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFUGKPGT)GOCJNKP.QWKUGF 1TN¾CPUPGDGPGKPCPFGTT(ÒPH<GKNGP 5EJTKHVWOJGT(TÒEJVGMTCP\OOI6QWTPGWT  2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\ (TCPEU-NGKPGT-QRH/QTKP 9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

1,5:1



2171

 

1,5:1

(TCPE/QTKP  W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



2172



(TCPEUCWHFKG8GTO·JNWPIFGU6JTQPHQNIGTU.GQRQNF UR·VGT.GQRQNF++ OKV2TKP\GUUKP/CTKG *GPTKGVVGXQP¤UVGTTGKEJ&CX/QTKP/ #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



2173 1,5:1

1,5:1



.GQRQNF++(TCPEU$TÒUUGN/QTKP  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



2174



'KPUGKVKIGT #DUEJNCI XQO 4ÒEMUGKVGPUVGORGN FGU  (TCPE5VÒEMGU I/KVIGTKHHGNVGO4CPF /QTKPXIN 2QNKGTVG2NCVVG

 261


DÄNEMARK

ex 2176

ex 2175



(TCPEUCWHFKG,CJTHGKGTFGU-ÌPKITGKEJU&CX/QTKP/&C\WGKPYGKVGTGU'ZGORNCT KP$TQP\G 5VÒEM5VGORGNINCP\





.GQRQNF +++   (TCPEU  $TÒUUGN CWH FKG 9GNVCWUUVGNNWPI KP $TÒUUGN WPF CWH FKG   ,CJTHGKGT FGT DGNIKUEJGP 'KUGPDCJP <YGK 8CTKCPVGP OKV HN·OKUEJGT D\Y HTCP\ÌUKUEJGT .GIGPFG   &CX#PO/QTKP 5VÒEM(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



2177

2178

2178

&0'/#4- /KVVGNCNVGTOÒP\GPCWU&·PGOCTMHKPFGP5KGKP-CVCNQIWPVGTFGP0TP -¤0+)4'+%*



%JTKUVKCP+85MKNNKPI-QRGPJCIGP*GFG

5GJTUEJÌP



%JTKUVKCP85KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ,  XQP%JT5EJPGKFGTCWHFKG'TQDGTWPIFGT5VCFV *GNUKPIDQTICO,WNK$NKEMÒDGTFGP¤TGUWPFCWHFCU5EJNQ­WPFFKG/CTKGPMKTEJGXQP*GNUKPIDQTI <YGKOKVFGTIGMTÌPVGP+PKVKCNGFGU-ÌPKIUWPFF·PKUEJGP(CJPGIGUEJOÒEMVG5·WNGPCWHDGKFGP5GKVGP FGU XQP5EJKHHGPDGHCJTGPGP¤TGUWPFUKO*KPVGTITWPF5VCFVCPUKEJVOOI)CNUVGT 44(GKPG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ

+PFGPNGV\VGP,WPKVCIGPFGU,CJTGUHKGNGKPDGFGWVGPFGT6GKNFGUF·PKUEJGP*GGTGUKPFGTUÒFNKEJUVGPUEJYGFK UEJGP DKU  F·PKUEJGP  2TQXKP\ 5EJQPGP 5M¹PG  GKP YCU FGO -TKGI UGKPG KP 5EJYGFGP ÒDNKEJG $GPGPPWPI  

5M¹PUMC-TKIGV GKPDTCEJVG'KPGUFGTGTUVGPF·PKUEJGP<KGNGYCTFKGCPFGTGPIUVGP5VGNNGFGU¤TGUWPFUKP5KEJV YGKVGFGUF·PKUEJGP-ÌPKIUEJNQUUGU-TQPDQTIIGNGIGPG5VCFV*GNUKPIDQTI#O,WNKDGICPPGPFKG&·PGPFGP $GUEJW­$GTGKVUCOP·EJUVGP6CIUEJNWIGKPGF·PKUEJG$QODGKPGKPGP2WNXGTMGNNGTGKPFGTFCTCWHJKPKPFKG.WHV HNQIWPFITQ­GP5EJCFGPCPFGPWONKGIGPFGP*·WUGTPXGTWTUCEJVG&GTUEJYGFKUEJG-QOOCPFCPV1DGTUVNGWVPCPV 2GT*·UVGUMQMCRKVWNKGTVGPQEJCOUGNDGP6CIQDYQJNGTOKV-CPQPGPUQYKGCWUTGKEJGPFGT/WPKVKQPWPF2TQXK CPVCWUIGTÒUVGVYCT&CTCWHJKPYWTFGGTXQTFCU-TKGIUIGTKEJVIGUVGNNV\WO6QFGXGTWTVGKNVWPFJKPIGTKEJVGV  &KG IGO·­ FGT CPVKMGP /[VJQNQIKG CP FGP 7HGTP DGKFUGKVU FGT /GGTGPIG XQP )KDTCNVCT CWHIGUVGNNVGP 5·WNGP FGU   *GTCMNGU UKPF FKG 8QTNCIG HÒT FCU FGP ¤TGUWPF HNCPMKGTGPFG 5·WNGPOQVKX CWH FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG FGT XQTNKGIGPFGP /G   FCKNNG





2179



(TGFGTKM+8-TQPGP-QRGPJCIGPI&CX*GFG  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV $TQUEJKGTURWTGPKO(GNFFGT4ÒEMUGKVGNGKEJVDGTKGDGPUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

'ZGORNCTFGT5NI*1*CPUGP#WMVKQP$TWWP4CUOWUUGP-QRGPJCIGP0T

262




FRANKREICH

2181

2180



2180

%JTKUVKCP8+5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP)99CJNCWHFKG8GTO·JNWPIFGU-TQPRTKP\GP (TKGFTKEJ UR·VGT -ÌPKI (TKGFTKEJ 8  OKV .WKUG 6QEJVGT )GQTIU ++ XQP $TCWPUEJYGKI%CNGPDGTI   *CPPQXGT -ÌPKI XQP )TQ­DTKVCPPKGP #EJV -T·P\G OKV 0COGP FGT XGTUVQTDGPGP 8GTYCPFVGP FKG KP   8GTDKPFWPI \W &·PGOCTM 'PINCPF WPF .ÒPGDWTI UVGJGP KP FGT /KVVG GKP -TCP\ OKV FGP 0COGP FGU   *QEJ\GKVURCCTGU)GHNÒIGNVGT*[OGPOKV(CEMGNWPF#DWPFCPVKCOKV(ÒNNJQTPJCNVGPGKPGP/[TVGPMTCP\ FCTKP DGHKPFGP UKEJ FKG IGMTÌPVGP 9CRRGPUEJKNFG XQP &·PGOCTM 'PINCPF WPF .ÒPGDWTI  OO   I$TQEMOCPP'KOGTp)CNUVGT *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



.WKUG KP.QPFQPÓKP%JTKUVKCPUDQTIYCTFKGFTKVVG6QEJVGT)GQTIU++WPFUGKPGT)GOCJNKP9KNJGN OKPG -CTQNKPG XQP$TCPFGPDWTI#PUDCEJ-WNODCEJ&KGXQTNKGIGPFG/GFCKNNGYGKUVCWHFKGXKGNH·NVKIGPGJGNKEJGP 8GTDKPFWPIGP\YKUEJGPFGOYGNHKUEJGPWPFFGOF·PKUEJGP(ÒTUVGPJCWUJKP0CEJ#PICDGPXQP)CNUVGTYWTFGPXQP FKGUGO5VÒEM'ZGORNCTKP)QNFWPF'ZGORNCTGKP5KNDGTCWUIGRT·IV

(+00.#0& 

4GRWDNKMUGKV/CTMMCC*GNUKPMKCWHFKG:81N[ORKUEJGP5RKGNGKP*GNUKPMK -/ 5GJTUGNVGPGT,CJTICPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

2182



2183

(4#0-4'+%* (TCP\ÌUKUEJG/ÒP\GPFGU/KVVGNCNVGTUHKPFGP5KGKP-CVCNQIWPVGTFGP0TP -¤0+)4'+%* 

(TCP¼QKU+6GUVQPQ,  6[R2CTKU&WRNGUU[  #WUIG\GKEJPGVGU2QTVT·VYKP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



6GUVQPQ,  6[R.[QP/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP&TGKDNCVVCO'PFGFGT8QTFGTWPF4ÒEM UGKVGPWOUEJTKHV&WRNGUU[ 5GJTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPC

2184



6GUVQPQ,  6[R&KLQP&WRNGUU[XCT



6GUVQPQ,  6[R.[QP&WRNGUU[

 

2185

5GJTUEJÌP



*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

 263


FRANKREICH

2186

2187



6GUVQPQ,  6[R&.[QP&WRNGUU[

4#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTUGJTUEJÌP





6GUVQPFW&CWRJKP¾Q,  6[R44QOCPU&WRNGUU[  5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



2189

2188



6GUVQPFG$TGVCIPGQ,  6[R4GPPGU&WRNGUU[

445GJTUEJÌP





*GPTK++6GUVQP)2QKVKGTU&WRNGUU[  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT



2190



%JCTNGU +:  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV XQP ) 2KNNQP )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF FGU   -ÌPKIUNOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\$TWUVDKNFUGKPGT)GOCJNKP'NKUCDGVJXQP¤UVGTTGKEJNOOI ,QPGU+C 5R·VGTG2T·IWPIFGU,CJTJWPFGTVU*GTTNKEJG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2192

2191



*GPTK +++   (TCPE#2CTKU&KEMCDUEJNCI 2K¾HQTV KP5KNDGTWPUKIPKGTVI /KV4CPFUEJTKHV&WRNGUU[XIN 44*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 



*GPTK+8'EWFG0CXCTTG5CKPV2CNCKU&WRNGUU[  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

2193

 264



2193

(TCPE#2CTKU&KEMCDUEJNCI 2K¾HQTV KP5KNDGTWPUKIPKGTVI/KV4CPFUEJTKHV%KCPK &WRNGUU[p 44-N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP




FRANKREICH

2195

2194



.QWKU :+++  &QW\CKP  # 2CTKU &KEMCDUEJNCI 2K¾HQTV  KP 5KNDGT WPUKIPKGTV XQP   0$TKQVI/KVIGTKHHGNVGO4CPF%KCPK&WRNGUU[p 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP





.QWKUF QT2TQDGKP<KPPI/KVINCVVGO4CPF)GRT·IVOKVFGO8QTFGTUGKVGPUVGORGNFGU .QWKU F QT  &WRNGUU[   &KG 4ÒEMUGKVG KUV FGO &QW\CKP FGU *GPTK +8 PCEJGORHWPFGP XIN   &WRNGUU[  8QT\ÒINKEJ



2196



 'EW  # 2CTKU &KEMCDUEJNCI 2K¾HQTV  KP 5KNDGT WPUKIPKGTV  I /KV 4CPFUEJTKHV   &WRNGUU[XIN)CFQWT[XIN  44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP 

2198

2197

2199



.QWKU :+8  -W &GPKGTU .KCTF  Q ,   /ÒP\\GKEJGP # 2CTKU 'KPUGKVKIGT     &KEMCDUEJNCI 2K¾HQTV  FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG KP -WRHGT WPUKIPKGTV XQP , 9CTKP  I /KV IGTKHHGNVGO   4CPF&WRNGUU[)CFQWT[ 4ÒEMUGKVG  448QT\ÒINKEJ 



'EW¯NCO½EJGEQWTVG#2CTKU&WRNGUU[)CFQWT[  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





'EW¯NCO½EJGNQPIWG*.C4QEJGNNG&WRNGUU[)CFQWT[  2TCEJVGZGORNCT#WUFTWEMUXQNNG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



2200 2201





2201

 .KU F CTIGPV  &KEMCDUEJNCI 2K¾HQTV  FGT 2TQDG 'UUCK  KP -WRHGT WPUKIPKGTV  I /KV   IGTKHHGNVGO4CPF%KCPK\W 8QTFGTUGKVG  8QTFGTUGKVG &WRNGUU[p)CFQWT[p  448QT\ÒINKEJ



'EWFG0CXCTTG¯NCO½EJGNQPIWG85CKPV2CNCKU&CX&WRNGUU[)CFQWT[  .GKEJVLWUVKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 265


FRANKREICH

2203

2202

2202



'EWCWDWUVGLWX¾PKNG60CPVGU&WRNGUU[)CFQWT[  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





'EWCWDWUVGLWX¾PKNG.$C[QPPG&CX&WRNGUU[)CFQWT[  (GKPG6ÌPWPI\YGKMN-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ



2204

2205



'EWCWZJWKV.#2CTKU4¾HQTOCVKQP&CX&WRNGUU[#)CFQWT[  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





'EWCWZJWKV.:#OKGPU4¾HQTOCVKQP&CX&WRNGUU[#)CFQWT[  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



2206

2207



'EWCWZJWKV.*.C4QEJGNNG4¾HQTOCVKQP&CX&WRNGUU[#)CFQWT[  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





'EWFG(NCPFTGCWZRCNOGU+.KOQIGU4¾HQTOCVKQP&WRNGUU[)CFQWT[  45GJTUEJÌPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2208

2209



'EWCWZJWKV./ÒP\\GKEJGP4GPPGU&CX&WRNGUU[)CFQWT[  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





'EWCWZVTQKUEQWTQPPGU2CW&CX&WRNGUU[)CFQWT[  4.GKEJVLWUVKGTVUGJTUEJÌP



266


FRANKREICH

2210 2211

2211



'EWCWZVTQKUEQWTQPPGU#2CTKU&WRNGUU[)CFQWT[  'VYCUDGTKGDGPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





.QWKU :8  'EW XGTVWICFKP  /ÒP\\GKEJGP PKEJV NGUDCT 4¾HQTOCVKQP &CX    &WRNGUU[#)CFQWT[ ªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPGVYCU$GNCIUGJTUEJÌP



2213 2212

2212



'EWXGTVWICFKP54GKOU4¾HQTOCVKQP&CX&WRNGUU[#)CFQWT[  48QT\ÒINKEJ





2K½EGFGFGWZNKXTGUFG5VTCUDQWTI$$5VTCUDQWTI4¾HQTOCVKQP&WRNGUU[)CFQWT[  44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCOKPªDGTRT·IWPIUURWTGPXQT\ÒINKEJ



2214

2215



5QNUFG0CXCTTG 'EW #2CTKU&WRNGUU[)CFQWT[

8QT\ÒINKEJ





5QNUFG0CXCTTG 'EW )2QKVKGTU&WRNGUU[)CFQWT[  2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



2216

2217



'EWFG(TCPEG#2CTKU4¾HQTOCVKQP&CX&WRNGUU[)CFQWT[  /KPLWUVKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJ





'EWCWZJWKV.9.KNNG&CX&WRNGUU[)CFQWT[  48QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPC

 267


FRANKREICH

2218

2220

2219



'EWCWZTCOGCWZF QNKXKGT;$QWTIGU&CX&WRNGUU[)CFQWT[  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT





'EW CWZ TCOGCWZ F QNKXKGT  /ÒP\\GKEJGP  4GPPGU &CX  &WRNGUU[  )CFQWT[    *GTTNKEJG2CVKPC4ÒEMUGKVGLWUVKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





5KNDGTLGVQP  XQP $ &WXKXKGT FGU HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP -NGTWU &TGKOCUVGTCWU5GGWOJGT(GNUGP8KGT <GKNGP5EJTKHVWOJGT.QTDGGTMTCP\OOI(GWCTFGPV 5GJTUEJÌP



2222

2221





2221

-W,GVQPWPUKIPKGTVCWH(TCP¼QKU/QTKECWF$ÒTIGTOGKUVGTXQP0CPVGU  )GMTÌPVGU 9CRRGP XQP 0CPVGU WOJGT UGEJU .KGDGUMPQVGP)GMTÌPVGU 9CRRGP FGU $ÒTIGTOGKUVGTU  OO   I(GWCTFGPV -CDKPGVVUVÒEM(GKPG-WRHGTRCVKPC5VGORGNINCP\



'EWCWDCPFGCW60CPVGU&CX&WRNGUU[)CFQWT[



/KPLWUVKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJ

2223 2224

2224



.QWKU:8+'EWCWZTCOGCWZF QNKXKGT*.C4QEJGNNG&WRNGUU[)CFQWT[ 2TCEJVGZGORNCT(GKPG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





'EWCWZTCOGCWZF QNKXKGT#2CTKU&CX&WRNGUU[)CFQWT[  /KPLWUVKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJ



268


FRANKREICH

2226

2225





-NGKPG 5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q ,   XQP & ( WPF ( 9 .QQU CWH FCU WPIGYKUUG 5EJKEMUCN UGKPGT   -KPFGT .QWKU %JCTNGU WPF /CTKG 6JGTGUG %JCTNQVVG &KG $TWUVDKNFGT UGKPGT -KPFGT PGDGPGKPCPFGT T   'KPJGTWPVGTIGNCUUGPGT8QTJCPIOOI5NI,WNKWUp5QOOGT#  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



%QPUVKVWVKQP  -W 5QNU #0 +++ %CKUUG FG $QPPG (QK 2CTKU $TCWUG/CPUHGNF   6H/C\CTF *Ã&#x2019;DUEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJGU'ZGORNCT



2228

2227



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG FG EQPHKCPEG \W  5QNU #0 +8 2CTKU 9GTMUVCVV FGT $TÃ&#x2019;FGT /QPPGTQP 2CTKU   $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/C\CTF 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG FG EQPHKCPEG \W  5QNU #0 +8 2CTKU 9GTMUVCVV FGT $TÃ&#x2019;FGT /QPPGTQP 2CTKU   $TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/C\CTF (CUVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



2230

2229



'EWEQPUVKVWVKQPPGN#0#2CTKU&CX&WRNGUU[)CFQWT[

8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ





5QNU 'EWEQPUVKVWVKQPPGN #0+.KOQIGU&WRNGUU[)CFQWT[  (GKPG2CVKPCOKPLWUVKGTVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2231 2232





2232

%QPXGPVKQP$TQP\GPG2TQDGOÃ&#x2019;P\GHÃ&#x2019;T5QNU /QFWNGFG5QNU WPUKIPKGTV9GTM UVCVVFGT$TÃ&#x2019;FGT/QPPGTQPI/KVXGTVKGHVGT4CPFUEJTKHV)CFQWT[p/C\CTF  4#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



.KXTGU#0++#2CTKU&CX)CFQWT[/C\CTF  .GKEJVLWUVKGTVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPC

 269


FRANKREICH

2234 2233

2233



&KTGEVQKTG(TCPEU#0  #2CTKU&CX)CFQWT[/C\CTF  W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





-W&¾EKOGU#0  #2CTKU)CFQWT[/C\CTF  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG-WRHGTRCVKPC5VGORGNINCP\



2236

2235



(TCPEU#0  32GTRKIPCP&CX)CFQWT[/C\CTF



-W&¾EKOG#0  #2CTKU)CFQWT[/C\CTF

2235

 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



8QT\ÒINKEJ



2237

2238

2238



%QPUWNCV   &GEKOGU #0    # 2CTKU 2TQDG 'UUCK  KP 5KNDGT XQP 2 , .QTVJKQT   I/KVIGTKHHGNVGO4CPF)CFQWT[/C\CTFC *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





(TCPEU#0:+  #2CTKU&CX)CFQWT[/C\CTF  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2239

2:1

 270

2:1

3WCTV#0  #2CTKU)CFQWT[/C\CTF  5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVRTCEJVXQNNGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\




FRANKREICH

2241

2240





2240

0CRQN¾QP+$TQP\GOGFCKNNG#:+++  XQP#)CNNGWPF48,GWHHTQ[CWHFCU (GUVOCJNFGT5VCFV2CTKU$Ã&#x2019;UVGNOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\0CRQN¾QPVJTQPVPCEJTKPCPVKMGT7PKHQTOKPFGT .KPMGP #FNGT\GKEJGP XQT KJO UVGJV FKG 2GTUQPKHKMCVKQP XQP 2CTKU OKV /CWGTMTQPG T PGDGP KJT GKP   5EJKHHUJGEMOKVGKPGOTWFGTPFGP)GPKWUOO5NI,WNKWU<GKV\  1TKIKPCNRT·IWPI9KP\-TCV\GTXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP$#PFTKGWWPF#)CNNGCWHFKG5EJNCEJVDGK,GPCCO1MVQDGT$Ã&#x2019;UVGT OKV.QTDGGTMTCP\0CRQN¾QPUKV\VPCEJTCWHHNKGIGPFGO#FNGTOKV$NKV\KPFGTGTJQDGPGP4GEJVGPCO $QFGPNKGIGPFTGKDGUKGIVG)KICPVGPOO5NI,WNKWU5NI/GTUGDp<GKV\  1TKIKPCNRT·IWPI8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2243

2242

2244



(TCPEU$$5VTC­DWTI&CX)CFQWT[/C\CTF  44(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



$TQP\GOGFCKNNGXQP$#PFTKGWCWHFKG(GTVKIUVGNNWPIFGT5KORNQPRC­5VTC­GKP9CNNKU$Ã&#x2019;UVGT OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\&GT $GTIIQVV 5KORNQP UKV\V X X OKV Ã&#x2019;DGTGKPCPFGTIGUEJNCIGPGP $GKPGP CWH (GNUGP   WPVGTKJO6TWRRGPFKGÃ&#x2019;DGTFKGPGWGTDGWVG2C­5VTC­GOCTUEJKGTGPOO5EJYGK\GT/GFCKNNGP #WMVKQP.GW<Ã&#x2019;TKEJ0T5NI,WNKWU FQTVKP5KNDGT <GKV\  41TKIKPCNRT·IWPI(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP $ #PFTKGW WPF 0 ) $TGPGV CWH FGP $TWEJ FGU 8GTVTCIGU XQP 2TGUUDWTI   FWTEJFKG¤UVGTTGKEJGTWPFFKG5EJNCEJVGPXQP#DGPUDGTIWPF'IIOÃ&#x2019;JN,CPWUVGORGNOKVDGUEJ·FKIVGO 2QTVCN FCTCWH ,CPWUMQRH OKV XKGT )GUKEJVGTP0CRQN¾QP UVGJV X X KP CPVKMGT 7PKHQTO OKV CWUIGDTGK   VGVGP#TOGP\YKUEJGP\YGK6TQRJ·GPOO5NI,WNKWU<GKV\  1TKIKPCNRT·IWPI(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





271


FRANKREICH

2246



2245

2247

$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP * 8CUUCNNQ WPF . /CPHTGFKPK CWH FKG 5EJNCEJV DGK 4GIGPUDWTI $ÒUVG N   FCJKPVGT$NKV\'PMGNCFQUWPVGT(GNUVTÒOOGTPOO5NI,WNKWU<GKV\  441TKIKPCNRT·IWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





(TCPEU#2CTKU&CX)CFQWT[/C\CTF  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





(TCPEU$4QWGP&CX)CFQWT[/C\CTF  2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2248

2249



(TCPEU#2CTKU)CFQWT[/C\CTF

*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





(TCPEU&.[QP)CFQWT[/C\CTF  2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



2250

2251

2250



(TCPEU*.C4QEJGNNG)CFQWT[/C\CTF  2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



'KPUGKVKIGT 2TQDGCDUEJNCI KP -WRHGT XQO WPDTCWEJDCT IGOCEJVGP 4ÒEMUGKVGPUVGORGN FGU  (TCPE  5VÒEMGU/ÒP\\GKEJGP(KUEJWPF/CUV7VTGEJVCWHXKGTGEMKIGO5EJTÌVNKPII/KVINCVVGO 4CPF)CFQWT[p XIN4ÒEMUGKVG /C\CTFp XIN4ÒEMUGKVG  48QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

272






FRANKREICH

2253 2252

2252



(TCPEU+.KOQIGU2¾TKQFGFGU%GPV,QWTU&CX)CFQWT[/C\CTF  4/KPLWUVKGTVUGJTUEJÌP





.QWKU :8+++    (TCPE  2TQDG 'UUCK  KP $TQP\G WPUKIPKGTV  I /KV   INCVVGO 4CPF /KV FGO $KNFPKU XQP 0CRQN¾QP ++ 0CRQN¾QP (TCP\ $QPCRCTVG 5QJP XQP 0CRQN¾QP   $QPCRCTVG CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG)CFQWT[/C\CTF  2TCEJVGZGORNCT(GKPG-WRHGTRCVKPC5VGORGNINCP\



2254

2255

2256



-W %GPVKOGU  2TQDG 'UUCK  WPUKIPKGTV  I /KV INCVVGO 4CPF /KV FGO $KNFPKU XQP   0CRQN¾QP ++ 0CRQN¾QP (TCP\ $QPCRCTVG 5QJP XQP 0CRQN¾QP $QPCRCTVG  CWH FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG   )CFQWT[/C\CTF *GTTNKEJG-WRHGTRCVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





-W %GPVKOGU  2TQDG 'UUCK  WPUKIPKGTV  I /KV INCVVGO 4CPF /KV FGO $KNFPKU XQP   0CRQN¾QP ++ 0CRQN¾QP (TCP\ $QPCRCTVG 5QJP XQP 0CRQN¾QP $QPCRCTVG  CWH FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG   )CFQWT[/C\CTF  -N5COONGTRWP\G#'KO(GNFFGT8QTFGTUGKVGJGTTNKEJG-WRHGTRCVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





-W %GPVKOGU  2TQDG 'UUCK  WPUKIPKGTV  I /KV INCVVGO 4CPF /KV FGO $KNFPKU XQP   0CRQN¾QP ++ 0CRQN¾QP (TCP\ $QPCRCTVG 5QJP XQP 0CRQN¾QP $QPCRCTVG  CWH FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG   )CFQWT[/C\CTF 2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



2257

2258





2258

-W%GPVKOG&KEMCDUEJNCI 2K¾HQTV FGT2TQDG 'UUCK WPUKIPKGTVI/KVINCVVGO4CPF/KV FGO $KNFPKU XQP 0CRQN¾QP ++ 0CRQN¾QP (TCP\ $QPCRCTVG 5QJP XQP 0CRQN¾QP $QPCRCTVG  CWH FGT   8QTFGTUGKVG)CFQWT[2/C\CTFXIN FQTVCNU2TQDG   2TCEJVGZGORNCT(GKPG-WRHGTRCVKPC5VGORGNINCP\



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP # , &GRCWNKU CWH FKG ,CJTHGKGT FGT 4GHQTOCVKQP KP 2CTKU $TWUVDKNF   /CTVKP.WVJGTUTOKVWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN&KGRGTUQPKHK\KGTVG4GNKIKQPUVGJVXXKP9QNMGPCWH'TF MWIGNFCPGDGP$WEJCWH#NVCTOOI5NI9JKVKPI 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 273


FRANKREICH

2259

2261

2260



-W 5QW  # 2CTKU 2TQDG 'UUCK  WPUKIPKGTV XGTOWVNKEJXQP06KQNKGTI/KV-GTDTCPF )CFQWT[/C\CTF  5GNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI-CDKPGVVUVÃ&#x2019;EM2TCEJVXQNNG-WRHGTRCVKPC5VGORGNINCP\





-W%GPVKOGU#2CTKU2TQDG 'UUCK XQP06KQNKGTI/KVIGTKHHGNVGO4CPF)CFQWT[ /C\CTF 2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





-W%GPVKOGU#2CTKU2TQDG 'UUCK XQP06KQNKGTI/KVINCVVGO4CPF)CFQWT[ /C\CTF 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



2263 2262

2262



(TCPEU#2CTKU&CX)CFQWT[/C\CTF  2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



%JCTNGU :  $TQP\GPG 2TQDGOÃ&#x2019;P\G HÃ&#x2019;T  (TCPEU /QFWNG FG  (TCPEU  Q ,   XQP   /QTGCWI/KV4CPFUEJTKHV)CFQWT[p/C\CTFC  *Ã&#x2019;DUEJG2CVKPCOKP4CPFHGJNGTXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

2264

2265





2266



(TCPEU2CTKU5KNDGTPG2TQDGOÃ&#x2019;P\G /QFWNGFG(TCPEU XQP06KQNKGTCWHFGP$GUWEJFGU 2TKP\GP XQP 5CNGTPQ WPF FGT *GT\QIKP XQP $GTT[ KP FGT 2CTKUGT /Ã&#x2019;P\G  I /KV 4CPFUEJTKHV   )CFQWT[C/C\CTF 42TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





(TCPEU#2CTKU&CX)CFQWT[/C\CTF

*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ





(TCPEU.$C[QPPG&CX)CFQWT[/C\CTF  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJGU'ZGORNCT



274


FRANKREICH

2268 2267





2267

*GPTK8*GT\QIXQP$QTFGCWZ2T·VGPFGPV

Ó (TCPEU2TQDG 'UUCK KP5KNDGT WPUKIPKGTVI/KVINCVVGO4CPF)CFQWT[/C\CTFCD\YDXCT FQTVOKV4CPFUEJTKHV QFGTJÌJGTGO)GYKEJV  2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



$TQP\GPG 2TQDGOÒP\G HÒT  (TCPEU /QFWNG FG  (TCPEU   WPUKIPKGTV  I /KV INCVVGO   4CPF)CFQWT[p/C\CTFp 8QT\ÒINKEJ



2269

2270



.QWKU2JKNKRRG(TCPE$$C[QPPG)CFQWT[/C\CTF  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT





-W%GPVKOGUQ,  #2CTKU2TQDG 'UUCK XQP(&QOCTFI/KVINCVVGO4CPF )CFQWT[/C\CTF 2TCEJVGZGORNCT(GKPG-WRHGTRCVKPC5VGORGNINCP\



2272

2271

2273

2274



(TCPEU$4QWGP)CFQWT[/C\CTF



$TQP\GPG2TQDGOÒP\GHÒT%GPVKOGU /QFWNGFG%GPVKOGU WPUKIPKGTVI/KVINCVVGO 4CPF)CFQWT[/C\CTFC 2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG-WRHGTRCVKPC5VGORGNINCP\





-W%GPVKOGU2TQDG 'UUCK XQP,,$CTTGI/KVINCVVGO4CPF)CFQWT[/C\CTFp 2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG-WRHGTRCVKPC5VGORGNINCP\





$TQP\GPG2TQDGOÒP\GHÒT&¾EKOG /QFWNGFG&¾EKOG XQP,,$CTTGI/KVINCVVGO 4CPF)CFQWT[/C\CTF 2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPC5VGORGNINCP\



2275

2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2276



(TCPE#2CTKU)CFQWT[/C\CTF  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



$TQP\GPG2TQDGOÒP\GHÒT%GPVKOGU /QFWNGFG%GPVKOGU XQP,,$CTTGI/KVINCV VGO4CPF)CFQWT[/C\CTF 2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\

  275


FRANKREICH

2280

2277

2279



-W%GPVKOGU2TQDG 'UUCK XQP,,$CTTGI/KVINCVVGO4CPF)CFQWT[/C\CTF 2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPC5VGORGNINCP\





4GRWDNKM-W5EJTÌVNKPIQJPG9GTVCPICDGQ, WO I/KVINCVVGO4CPF 8QT\ÒINKEJ





.QWKU0CRQN¾QP2T·UKFGPVFGT4GRWDNKM(TCPEU#2CTKU&CX)CFQWT[ /C\CTF 8QT\ÒINKEJ





(TCPE#2CTKU)CFQWT[/C\CTF



(GKPG6ÌPWPI5VGORGNINCP\

2281 2283

2282



0CRQN¾QP+++%GPVKOGU#2CTKU)CFQWT[/C\CTF  2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



$TQP\GPG2TQDGOÒP\GHÒT%GPVKOGU /QFWNGFG%GPVKOGU .KNNGXQP,,$CTTGCWHUGK PGP$GUWEJKP.KNNGI/KVINCVVGO4CPF)CFQWT[E/C\CTFD  2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



$TQP\GPG2TQDGOÒP\GHÒT%GPVKOGU /QFWNGFG%GPVKOGU .KNNGXQP,,$CTTGCWHUGKPGP $GUWEJFGT*CPFGNUMCOOGTKP.KNNGI/KVINCVVGO4CPF)CFQWT[E/C\CTFD  2TCEJVGZGORNCT(GKPG-WRHGTRCVKPC5VGORGNINCP\







2286

2284







276

2285

5KNDGTPG2TQDGOÒP\GHÒT%GPVKOGU /QFWNGFG%GPVKOGU 2CTKUXQP,,$CTTGCWHUGKPGP $GUWEJKPFGT2CTKUGT/ÒP\GI/KVINCVVGO4CPF)CFQWT[D/C\CTFC  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\ $TQP\GPG 2TQDGOÒP\G HÒT  %GPVKOGU /QFWNG FG  %GPVKOGU   .KNNG XQP , , $CTTG CWH   FKG 'TTKEJVWPI FGU &GPMOCNU HÒT 0CRQN¾QP + KP .KNNG  I /KV INCVVGO 4CPF )CFQWT[    /C\CTFD 2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\ (TCPEU#2CTKU)CFQWT[/C\CTF  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\








FRANKREICH

2287

2288



4GRWDNKM(TCPEU#2CTKU&CX)CFQWT[/C\CTF  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



(TCPEU#2CTKU&CX)CFQWT[/C\CTF





2290

2289



 *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FKG $GNCIGTWPI XQP 2CTKU &TGK <GKNGP 5EJTKHV&GT $CNNQP .G   (CKFJGTDGWOJGT\YGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVOO$WVVQPp XIN -CKUGTp  8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



$TQP\GOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH FKG $GNCIGTWPI XQP 2CTKU &TGK <GKNGP 5EJTKHV&GT $CNNQP .G   %CODTQPPGWOJGT\YGK<GKNGP5EJTKHVOO$WVVQPp XIN -CKUGTp  8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2291

2292



(TCPE-$QTFGCWZ)CFQWT[C/C\CTF



(TCPEU#2CTKU)CFQWT[C/C\CTF

2293



2292

(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



(GKPG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



2294

 (TCPEU  2TQDG 'UUCK  KP 5KNDGT XQP 2 6WTKP  I /KV IGTKHHGNVGO 4CPF )CFQWT[    /C\CTFp XINFQTVCNU&KEMCDUEJNCI  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV5VGORGNINCP\ 

56#&6564#55$74) 

5VTC­DWTI -W&¾EKOG  $$ 5VTC­DWTI IGRT·IV Y·JTGPF FGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP $GNCIGTWPI FWTEJ   0CRQN¾QP+$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H/C\CTF  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 277


FRANKREICH

2295 2296

2296

(4#0-4'+%*('1&#.'5

$'5#0•10 

5VCFV4GKEJUVCNGTOKV6KVGN-CTNU8%CTXCNJQ%NCKTCPF-KPF/  (GKPG2CVKPCFWTEJIGJGPFGT5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



$174)1)0' 

2JKNKRRG+8XQP5RCPKGP2CVCIQP&ÊNG&CX&GNO 4   (GKPG2CVKPCMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



2297 2298

2298

%#/$4#+ 

/CZKOKNKGPFG$GTIJGU2CVCTFU4QDGTV5XCT  4(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





6CNGTOKV6KVGN/CZKOKNKCPU++&CX&GNO 4 



2299

2300

2302

5GJTUEJÌP

2301

2302

&1/$'5 

#PPG/CTKG.QWKUGF 1TN¾CPUF 'EWFG5QNU .WKIKPQ %COOCTCPQ 4  &KXQ 48QT\ÒINKEJ





F 'EWFG5QNU .WKIKPQ %COOCTCPQ&KXQ

8QT\ÒINKEJ





F 'EWFG5QNU .WKIKPQ %COOCTCPQ&KXQ

45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



.+..'  278

5VCFV -W 5QNU  IGRT·IV Y·JTGPF FGT $GNCIGTWPI FWTEJ 2TKP\ 'WIGP XQP 5CXQ[GP $TCWUG   /CPUHGNF6HFG/G[C 8QT\ÒINKEJ




FRANKREICH

2304

2303

2303

(4#0-4'+%*'.5#55

564#55$74)56#&6 

4GKEJUVCNGTMNKRRG  CWH FKG ,CJTHGKGT FGT 4GHQTOCVKQP &CX  #PO 'PIGN.GJT    5NI9JKVKPI 4#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 



4GKEJUVCNGTQ, ,CJTJWPFGTV &CX'PIGN.GJT

*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

2305

*'4<1)67/ 



2306

(4#0-4'+%*.16*4+0)'0

#PVQP6GUVQP0CPE[(NQP  2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



(4#0-4'+%*-1.10+'0 %1.10+'5)'0'4#.'5 

.QWKU:8-W5QNU#2CTKU.GEQORVG  W­GTUVUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI 5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT-WRHGTRCVKPCNGKEJVLWUVKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

2307



2308



.QWKU:8+++%GPVKOGU#2CTKU2TQDG 'UUCK KP$TQP\GWPUKIPKGTVI /KVINCVVGO4CPF.GEQORVG 2TCEJVXQNNG-WRHGTRCVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





-W%GPVKOGU#2CTKU2TQDG 'UUCK WPUKIPKGTVI/KVINCVVGO4CPF.GEQORVG  8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 279


FRANKREICH

2309

2310



%JCTNGU:-W%GPVKOGU#2CTKUHÒT)W[CPCWPFFGP5GPGICN.GEQORVG  2TCEJVGZGORNCT(GKPG-WRHGTRCVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





.QWKU2JKNKRRG-W%GPVKOGU#2CTKUHÒT)WCFGNQWRG.GEQORVG  2TCEJVGZGORNCT(GKPG-WRHGTRCVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



2311

  

2313

2314

2312

-W%GPVKOGU#2CTKUHÒT/CTSWGUCU.GEQORVG

2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



-W5CRGSWG#2CTKU.GEQORVG 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ -W%GPV#2CTKU.GEQORVG 2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG-WRHGTRCVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\

 

(4#0<¤5+5%*+0&1%*+0#

+5.'5&78'06 #06+..'5  

.QWKU:85QNU*.C4QEJGNNG.GEQORVG 5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI 5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2316

2315

2315

#4#7%#0+'2#6#)10+' 0QWXGNNG(TCPEG  

1T¾NKG#PVQKPG+2GUQ'2TQDG 'UUCK KP$TQP\GWPUKIPKGTVI/KVINCVVGO 4CPF.GEQORVG 5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT *GTTNKEJG-WRHGTRCVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



.+$#010  280

4GRWDNKM WPVGT HTCP\ÌUKUEJGO /CPFCV   2KCUVGT  2TQDG 'UUCK  KP 5KNDGT XQP   .$C\QTI/KVIGTKHHGNVGO4CPF.GEQORVG 442TCEJVGZGORNCT5VGORGNINCP\




GRIECHENLAND

2317

1,5:1

1,5:1

)4+'%*'0.#0& 

,QJCPPGU-CRQFKUVTKCU2T·UKFGPV2JÌPKZIKPC&KXQ-CVUQWTQU  5GNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



2318

1,5:1

1,5:1



-W .GRVC  IKPC 8CTKCPVG OKV XGT·PFGTVGP 5VTCJNGP CWH FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG WPF XGT·PFGTVGT   4ÒEMUGKVGPFCTUVGNNWPI&KXQXCT-CVUQWTQUXCT  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTXQT\ÒINKEJ  $GKFGOXQTNKGIGPFGP5VÒEMMÌPPVGGUUKEJCWEJWOGKPG-WRHGTRTQDGJCPFGNP

2319

1,5:1



1,5:1

-W.GRVCIKPC8CTKCPVGOKVHÒPHUVTCJNKIGP5VGTPGPCWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVGWPFXGT·PFGTVGT4ÒEM UGKVGPWOUEJTKHV&KXQXCT-CVUQWTQU  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT-WRHGTRCVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ $GKFGOXQTNKGIGPFGP5VÒEMMÌPPVGGUUKEJCWEJWOGKPG-WRHGTRTQDGJCPFGNP

 281


GRIECHENLAND

2320 1,5:1



1VVQ+&TCEJOG/Ã&#x2019;PEJGP&KXQE  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI-CDKPGVVUVÃ&#x2019;EM2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPC5VGORGNINCP\

1,5:1



1,5:1

2321 1,5:1

&TCEJOG#VJGP&KXQE  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJGU'ZGORNCT

2322





2322

1,5:1

&TCEJOGP#VJGP&CX&KXQF



44(GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



2323 2:1

2:1



&TCEJOG9KGP&KXQC

8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



2324 2:1

 282

&TCEJOG9KGP&KXQC

2:1

8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ




GROSSBRITANNIEN

2325 1,5:1

1,5:1



)GQTI+&TCEJOGQ, WO 2CTKU2TQDGKP-W0KEMGNOKV9CRRGPWPF9GTVCP ICDGCWHDGKFGP5GKVGPI/KVINCVVGO4CPF&KXQp XIN2FQTVCNU&TCEJOGPp5VÒEM   8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

2326

1,5:1

1,5:1





 .GRVC  OKV /ÒP\\GKEJGP (ÒNNJQTP WPF (CEMGN 2CTKU 2TQDG KP 0KEMGN  I /KV INCVVGO   4CPF&KXQp XINWPF2 -/'  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV)GNQEJVJGTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\ 

2328

2327

2327

+10+5%*'+05'.0 



7PVGT DTKVKUEJGT 8GTYCNVWPI  $TQP\GOGFCKNNG  IGRT·IV   XQP # , &GRCWNKU   CWUFGT5WKVGXQP,/WFKG9GTMUVCVV'FYCTF6JQOCUQP$KTOKPIJCOCWHFKG#PPCJOGFGT8GTHCU UWPI $TKVCPPKC UKV\V PCEJ N WPF J·NV KP KJTGT 4GEJVGP FKG )GUGV\GUVCHGN FKG .KPMG CWH FGP DTKVKUEJGP   9CRRGPUEJKNF IGNGJPV KO *KPVGTITWPF 0GRVWPUVCVWG5KGDGP YGKDNKEJG )GUVCNVGP FKG 8GTVTGVGT FGT   +PUGNP XGTUCOOGNPUKEJWPVGTFGTDTKVKUEJGP(NCIIGWPFJCNVGPUKEJDGKFGP*·PFGPOO'KOGT WPF 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ -W.GRVQP-/2TKFOQTG -N4CPFHGJNGTHCUV5VGORGNINCP\

 

2329

)4155$4+6#00+'0+4.#0& 'PINKUEJG/ÒP\GPFGU/KVVGNCNVGTUHKPFGP5KGKP-CVCNQIWPVGTFGP0TP 8'4'+0+)6'5-¤0+)4'+%* 

%JCTNGU +  %TQYP Q ,   .QPFQP 2T·IWPI WPVGT FGT *GTTUEJCHV FGU 2CTNCOGPVU   /ÒP\\GKEJGP#WIG&CX5GCD[  44DGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT  283


GROSSBRITANNIEN

2331

2330

2330



%QOOQPYGCNVJ  %TQYP  5JKNNKPIU   .QPFQP 6QYGT OKPV  /ÒP\\GKEJGP 5QPPG   &CX5GCD[ 44*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUEJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP  5EJQP WPVGT 'NK\CDGVJ + JCVVG UKEJ GKP NCDKNGU 8GTJ·NVPKU\YKUEJGP-TQPGWPF2CTNCOGPVURG\KGNN\YKUEJGP-TQPG WPF 7PVGTJCWU GPVYKEMGNV &KGUG 5RCPPWPIGP XGTUV·TMVGP UKEJ GTJGDNKEJ Y·JTGPF FGT *GTTUEJCHV FGTDGKFGPGTUVGP 5VWCTVMÌPKIG ,COGU + WPF %JCTNGU + FKG UKEJ KP UV·PFKIGT (KPCP\PQV DGHCPFGP WPF FCJGT CWH FKG $GTGKVUVGNNWPI   \WU·V\NKEJGT /KVVGN FWTEJ FCU 7PVGTJCWUCPIGYKGUGPYCTGP&CU2CTNCOGPVURCNVGVGUKEJ\W#PHCPIFGTGT,CJTG FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU KP FKG MÌPKIUVTGWGP -CXCNKGTG FKG UR·VGTGP 6QTKGU  WPF FKG 4WPFMÌRHG FKGUR·VGTGP9JKIU  FKG FKG #WHHCUUWPI XQO IÌVVNKEJGP 4GEJV FGT -ÌPKIG KP (TCIG UVGNNVGP 'U MCO \WT 2WTKVCPKUEJGP 4GXQNWVKQP WPF   \WOITQ­GP$ÒTIGTMTKGI0CEJFGO5KGIFGU2CTNCOGPVUJGGTGUYWTFG'PINCPFCO/CK\WGKPGOHTGKGP %QOOQPYGCNVJ GTMN·TV GKPGT XQP GKPGO MÌRHKIGP 5VCCVUTCV TGIKGTVGP4GRWDNKM#WEJCWHFGTJKGTCPIGDQVGPGP UGNVGPGP%TQYPMQOOVFGTRQNKVKUEJG7OUEJYWPI\WO#WUFTWEM&KG7OUEJTKHVKUVGPINKUEJ.CVGKPKUEJG.GIGPFGP YWTFGPCNUÒDGTVTKGDGPG2CRUVVTGWGCPIGUGJGP



%TQYP 5JKNNKPIU2GPEG .QPFQP 6QYGTOKPV /ÒP\\GKEJGP5QPPG5GCD[  4'VYCU(WPFDGNCIUGJTUEJÌP

2332





2333

1NKXGT%TQOYGNN%TQYP ,CJTGU\CJNKO5VGORGNCWUIG·PFGTV .QPFQP 6QYGT OKPV /KV4CPFUEJTKHV&CX5GCD[  44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCÒDNKEJGT5VGORGNHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



&WTEJ FCU +PUVTWOGPV QH )QXGTPOGPV XQO  &G\GODGT  YWTFG FGT (ÒJTGT FGU 2CTNCOGPVUJGGTGU 1NKXGT   %TQOYGNNCNU.QTF2TQVGMVQT\WO#NNGKPJGTTUEJGTGTPCPPV0GDGPKJOGZKUVKGTVGP5VCCVUTCVWPF2CTNCOGPVFCUDCNF 1RRQUKVKQPÒDVGWPFFKG#DNGJPWPIFGUPGWGP5[UVGOUFWTEJITQ­G$GXÌNMGTWPIUVGKNGGTMGPPGPNKG­+O,CPWCT YWTFGFCU2CTNCOGPVCWHIGNÌUVWPF%TQOYGNNDGICPPGKPG/KNKV·TFKMVCVWT6TQV\FGTGTPGWVGP'KPDGTWHWPIFGU2CT NCOGPVUWPFFGT'TPGPPWPI\WO.QTF2TQVGMVQTCWH.GDGPU\GKVIGTKGV1NKXGT%TQOYGNNKP+UQNCVKQPXQPRTCM VKUEJ CNNGP RQNKVKUEJIGUGNNUEJCHVNKEJGP )TWRRGP -WT\ XQT UGKPGO 6QF CO  5GRVGODGT  GTPCPPVG %TQOYGNN   UGKPGPWPH·JKIGP5QJP4KEJCTF\WO0CEJHQNIGTFGTUKEJLGFQEJPWTGKPJCNDGU,CJTCPFGT4GIKGTWPIJCNVGPMQPPVG #WH FGT XQTNKGIGPFGP 2QTVT·VOÒP\G YKTF 1NKXGT %TQOYGNN CNU TÌOKUEJGT -CKUGT FTCRKGTV WPF OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\   FCTIGUVGNNV&KG.GIGPFGKUVYKGFGTNCVGKPKUEJWPFCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVGDGHKPFGVUKEJFGT9CJNURTWEJFGU.QTF2TQVGM VQTU2#:38“4+684$'..1 &GT(TKGFGYKTFFWTEJ-TKGIGTYQTDGP OKVFGOFKG$GGPFKIWPIFGU$ÒTIGTMTKGIU WPFFGTGTNCPIVG(TKGFGDGUEJYQTGPYKTF



284

%JCTNGU ++  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q ,   WPUKIPKGTV XQP ) $QYGT CWH FKG FWTEJ FGP   MQTTWRVGP -NGTKMGT 6KVWU 1CVGU KPKVKKGTVG 2CRKUVGP8GTUEJYÌTWPI ,GUWKV WPF /ÌPEJ YKG GKP ,CPWUMQRH   FCTIGUVGNNV5KGDGP )GUKEJVGT MÌPKINKEJGU -CDKPGVV  YKG GKPG 6TCWDG FCTIGUVGNNV  OO  I   %QNN(KGYGIGT FQTVKP$NGK 'KOGT *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ




GROSSBRITANNIEN

2334

2335



#PPG%TQYP.QPFQP2QUV7PKQPV[RG/KV4CPFUEJTKHV5GCD[  5GJTUEJÌP





)GQTIG+%TQYP.QPFQP5GCD[  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



2336

2337



)GQTIG++%TQYP.QPFQP&CX5GCD[

*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





)GQTIG+++-W2GPEG$KTOKPIJCO5GCD[

 9KP\4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2338

2339



-W2GPP[$KTOKPIJCO5GCD[

8QT\ÒINKEJ





5JKNNKPIU $CPM&QNNCT .QPFQP&CX5GCD[  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCRQNKGTVG2NCVVGOKPDGTÒJTV



2340



5JKNNKPIU $CPM&QNNCT .QPFQP&CX5GCD[



-W2GPP[$KTOKPIJCO5GCD[

2341

*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



(GKPG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\

 285


GROSSBRITANNIEN

2343

2342

2344



5JKNNKPIU2GPEG6QMGP $CPM&QNNCT 2TQDGKP-WRHGTI'5%-/2P& .5 445R·VGTGT#DUEJNCI5VGORGNINCP\





%TQYP 4GIKGTWPIULCJT .QPFQP/KV4CPFUEJTKHV&CX5GCD[  2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





%TQYP 4GIKGTWPIULCJT .QPFQP/KV4CPFUEJTKHV&CX5GCD[  (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



2345

2346

2347



%TQYP 4GIKGTWPIULCJT .QPFQP/KV4CPFUEJTKHV&CX5GCD[  /CVVKGTV8QT\ÒINKEJ



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  UR·VGTG 2T·IWPI FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU  XQP 6 2KPIQ CWH FKG 'KPPCJOG XQP   2QPFKEJGTT[ CO  ,CPWCT WPVGT #FOKTCN 5KT '[TG %QQVG WPF FGO -QPVGTCFOKTCN %JCTNGU 5VGGXGPU   $ÒUVG FGU -ÌPKIU T OKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPVGP.QTDGGTWPF2CNO\YGKIIGMTGW\V8KMVQTKCUVGJVPCEJT CP GKPGT 5·WNG WPF UEJTGKDV CWH GKP 5EJKNF FKG 0COGP FGT )GPGT·NG \W FGP 5GKVGP LG GKPG 2CNOG GKP   4WFGTWPFFKG9CUUGTWTPGPFGT(NÒUUG+0&85WPF)#0)'5OOI'KOGT  8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



)GQTIG+8%TQYP 4GIKGTWPIULCJT .QPFQP/KV4CPFUEJTKHV&CX5GCD[ -N-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



 286




GROSSBRITANNIEN

2349 2348

 

%TQYP.QPFQP5GCD[ 5JKNNKPI.QPFQP5GCD[

2348

2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ 2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 

2350

2351

2351



%TQYP.QPFQP5GCD[

2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ





8KEVQTKC-W2GPP[.QPFQP5GCD[  *Ã&#x2019;DUEJG2CVKPCMN&TWEMUVGNNGXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



2352

2353



%TQYP 4GIKGTWPIULCJT .QPFQP)QVKUEJGT6[R/KV4CPFUEJTKHV&CX5GCD[  2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





%TQYP 4GIKGTWPIULCJT .QPFQP)QVKUEJGT6[R/KV4CPFUEJTKHV&CX5GCD[  (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ



2354

2355



%TQYP 4GIKGTWPIULCJT .QPFQP)QVKUEJGT6[R/KV4CPFUEJTKHV&CX5GCD[  *Ã&#x2019;DUEJG2CVKPCXQT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ





%TQYP.QPFQP)QVKUEJGT6[R)NCVVGT4CPF&CXXCT FQTVOKV4CPFUEJTKHV 5GCD[ 8QT\Ã&#x2019;INKEJ

 287


GROSSBRITANNIEN

2356



'FYCTF8++%TQYP 4GIKGTWPIULCJT .QPFQP&CX5GCD[  /CVVKGTV(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



ex 2357



)GQTIG 8+  -NGKPG 5GTKG XQP DTKVKUEJGP $TQP\GOGFCKNNGP FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU CWH   DGTÒJOVG OKNKV·TKUEJG 2GTUÌPNKEJMGKVGP UQYKG JKUVQTKUEJ TGNGXCPVG -TKGIUUEJCWRN·V\G +PVGTGUUCPVGU 1D   LGMVDKVVGDGUKEJVKIGP 5VÒEM+PDWEJHÌTOKIGT-CUUGVVG)GTGKPKIVUQPUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

2359

2358

2360

+4.#0& 

,COGU ++  /GUUKPI %TQYP \W  2GPEG  /·T\GOKUUKQP  &WDNKP QFGT .KOGTKEM   .CTIG5K\GI)WPOQPG[%QKPCIG5GCD[/  -N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



+5.'1(/#0 

8KEVQTKC-W(CTVJKPI.QPFQP5GCD[  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



$4+6+5%*'-1.10+'0  288

$TKVKUJ 0QTVJ $QTPGQ %QORCP[ 5CTCYCM  %GPVU  * *GCVQP %JCTNGU #PVJQPK ,QJPUQP   $TQQMG2TKFOQTG 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ




ITALIEN

2361

2362



$TKVKUJ'CUV#HTKEC%QORCP[/QODCUC4WRGG*$KTOKPIJCO-/  (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





4WRGG*$KTOKPIJCO-/



(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

.16)4155$4+6#00+'0 

-NGKPG 5COONWPI XQP /ÒP\GP FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU W C %TQYP   Z        Z         GVE *QEJKPVGTGUUCPVGU .QV DKVVG   DGUKEJVKIGP 5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌPWPFDGUUGT 

2364

2365

+6#.+'0 +VCNKGPKUEJG/ÒP\GPFGU/KVVGNCNVGTUHKPFGP5KGKP-CVCNQIWPVGTFGP0TP #437#6# 

)KWNKQWPF)GTCTFQ5RKPQNC.WKIKPQ%COOCTCPQ 4 8CTGUK 4   44*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCMN<CKPGPFGOKPMQTTQFKGTVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





.WKIKPQ%COOCTCPQ 4 8CTGUK 4 



2366

4(CUVUGJTUEJÌP

2367

#56+ 

.WFQXKEQ++*GT\QIXQP1TN¾CPU6GUVQPGQ,8CTGUK 4   W­GTUVUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



$1.1)0# 

2TQXKUQTKUEJG4GIKGTWPI5EWFQ 2CQNK 8CTGUK  8QT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI

2368



2369

%#4/#)01.# 



/KEJGNG#PVQPKQFK5CNW\\Q%QTPWVQQ,8CTGUK 4   4-N5EJTÌVNKPIUTKUUGUGJTUEJÌP

%#5#.'/106('44#6

)WINKGNOQ++%QTPWVQQ,%0+++5

45GJTUEJÌP

  289


ITALIEN

2370

2371

(15&+0181 

/CTKC/CFFCNGPC)GOCJNKPFGU2CUSWCNG/CNCURKPC.WKIKPQ%COOCTCPQ  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





.WKIKPQ%COOCTCPQ



5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

2373

2372

2374

)'07# 

4GRWDNKM &QIK$KGPPCNK 5EWFQUVTGVVQ)GPWC/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP*2CWHFGT4ÒEM UGKVG&CX.WPCTFK 4  5GJTUEJÌP





5EWFQUVTGVVQ)GPWC/KV/ÒP\\GKEJGP+$/CWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG&CX.WPCTFK 4   -N4CPFHGJNGT5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





.KIWTKUEJG4GRWDNKM.KTG#001&CX.WPCTFK 4   <CKPGPFGUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2377 2375

2376

.1#01 

8KQNCPVG&QTKC.QOGNNKPK.WKIKPQ%COOCTCPQ 4 8CTGUK 4   445GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





.WKIKPQ%COOCTCPQ 4 8CTGUK 4 

445GJTUEJÌP





.WKIKPQ%COOCTCPQ8CTGUK 4 

45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



290


ITALIEN

2379

2380

2378

2378

.1/$#4&'+ 

2TQXKUQTKUEJG4GIKGTWPI.KTG//CKNCPF)GRT·IVY·JTGPFFGU#WHUVCPFGUKP/CKNCPF 8CTKCPVGOKVMNGKPGTGO#DUVCPF\YKUEJGP5VGTPWPF-TQPGWPFOKVNCPIGP<YGKIGPFGPÒDGTFGT,CJTGU \CJN&CX,2CICPKD 8QT\ÒINKEJ



.7%%# 

4GRWDNKM.WKIKPQ$GNNGUKC%COOCTCPQ 4   44-N2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP





'NKUC$QPCRCTVGWPF(GNKZ$CEKQEEJK(TCPEQ(NQTGP\2CICPK  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



2381

2382

2383

2384

/#+.#0& 

)CNGC\\Q /CTKC 5HQT\C  )TQUUQ FC  5QNFK Q , %TKRRC $ #PO 8CT 4  6QHHCPKP    44  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

 



6GUVQPGQ,%TKRRC 4 6QHHCPKP 4 



)KCP )CNGC\\Q /CTKC 5HQT\C WPF .WFQXKEQ /CTKC 5HQT\C  6GUVQPG Q , %TKRRC  4    6QHHCPKP 4  4*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 



.QFQXKEQ:++XQP1TN¾CPU)TQUUQTGICNGFC5QNFKQ,%TKRRC6QHHCPKP  (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

2385

4*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



2385

2386



)TQUUQTGICNGFC5QNFKQ,%TKRRC6QHHCPKP 44 

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





2JKNKRR++XQP5RCPKGP5EWFQQ,%TKRRC)&CX6QHHCPKP  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 291


ITALIEN

2388

2387



2389

-CTN +++ 8+  XQP *CDUDWTI  (KNKRRQ  %TKRRC  4  &CX  6QHHCPKP    4  4#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 

/'55'4#01 

.QFQXKEQ++6GUVQPGQ,/KV.8&18+%85KPFGT8QTFGTUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV8CTGUKXCT 445GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ



/1&'0# 

(TCPEGUEQ + F 'UVG  5EWFQ Q , .GXCPVKPKUEJGT $GKUEJNCI \W GKPGO 'OFGPGT  5VÒDGT   &CX#)CODGTKPK8CTGUK #VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT

2390

2391





2391

'TEQNG+++F 'UVG5EWFQ8CTGUK 4  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI 5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



0'#2'.70&5+<+.+'0 

-CTN + XQP #PLQW  5CNWVQ F CTIGPVQ Q ,  I <YGKHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP/CTK· 8GTMÒP   FKIWPI2CPPWVK4KEEKQ 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

2392



2393



-CTN++XQP#PLQW)KINKCVQQ,I&GTIGMTÌPVG-ÌPKIVJTQPVXXOKV<GRVGTWPF 4GKEJUCRHGN$NWOGPMTGW\OKV.KNKGPKPFGP9KPMGNP2CPPWVK4KEEKQ 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





2JKNKRR ++ XQP 5RCPKGP  6CTK Q ,   0GCRGN /ÒP\OGKUVGT )KQXCP $CVVKUVC   4CXUEJKGTQ2CPPWVK4KEEKQ *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



292


ITALIEN

2394

2395



(GTFKPCPF +8 +  XQP $QWTDQP  2GTKQFG    -W 6QTPGUK  0GCRGN   2CPPWVK4KEEKQ 8QT\ÒINKEJ





,QCEJKO/WTCV-ÌPKIXQP0GCRGN-W)TCPC0GCRGN2CICPKXCT  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI*GTTNKEJG-WRHGTRCVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2397 2396

 

.KTG0GCRGN&CX2CICPKE  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ (GTFKPCPF++-W6QTPGUK0GCRGN2CICPK *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

5#4&+0+'0 

%CTNQ 'OCPWGNG +++  -W &GPCTK  &C\W 8KVVQTKQ #OGFGQ +++    -W&GPCTK%WFC\\QQK 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

2400

2399





8KEVQT'OCPWGN++.KTG6WTKP&CX2CICPK  5GNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT5VGORGNINCP\



5+<+.+'0 

)KCEQOQXQP#TCIQP2KGTTGCNGQ,/GUUKPCI#FNGTXXFGP-QRHPCEJTIGYCPFV WOJGT#EJVRC­9CRRGPWOJGT#EJVRC­$KCIIK5RCJT #VVTCMVKXG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

2401





2402

(GFGTKEQ+++2KGTTGCNGQ,/GUUKPCI#FNGTXXFGP-QRHPCEJTIGYCPFVWOJGT #EJVRC­9CRRGPWOJGT#EJVRC­$KCIIK5RCJT -N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



6#55#41.1 

(KNKRRQ5RKPQNC.WKIKPQQ,%COOCTCPQp \W4FQTVOKV,CJTGU\CJN 8CTGUKp

\W4FQTVOKV,CJTGU\CJNGP  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV'VYCU)TÒPURCPUGJTUEJÌP

 293


ITALIEN

2403

2405

2404

6144+).+# 

8KQNCPVG&QTKC.QOGNNKPK.WKIKPQ%COOCTCPQ8CTGUK 4   4-T·HVKIG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



 

.WKIKPQ/KV$10+6KPFGT4ÒEMUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV%COOCTCPQ8CTGUKp 445GJTUEJÌP .WKIKPQ/KV$10+6#6+5KPFGT4ÒEMUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV%COOCTCPQ8CTGUKp 45GJTUEJÌP

 

2407

2406

2406

615%#0# 

%QUKOQ+/GFKEKCNU*GT\QIXQP(NQTGP\WPF5KGPC )KWNKQQ,(NQTGP\ /KV%115KPFGT4ÒEMUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV/QPVCICPQXCT *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



%QUKOQ+++/GFKEK2G\\CFGNNC4QUC.KXQTPQ&CX/QPVCICPQ 4   44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

2408

2409

 

2409



.GQRQNFQ++FK.QTGPC(TCPEGUEQPG(NQTGP\2CICPK  (GKPG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



-W3WCVVTKPK(NQTGP\2CICPK

8QT\ÒINKEJ

 

2410 2411

2411

8'0'&+) 

#NXKUG%QPVCTKPK1UGNNC#0018+++/ÒP\OGKUVGT&QOGPGIQ6TGXKUCP/QPVGPGITQ  4  5GJTUEJÌP





5KNXGUVTQ8CNKGT&WECVQQ, WO 2T·IWPIHÒTFKG.GXCPVG/ÒP\OGKUVGT(TCPEGUEQ 6TGXKUCP&CX/QPVGPGITQ 4  4-N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



294


ITALIEN

2412

2413

2414



)KQXCPPK ++ %QTPGT  5EWFQ FGNNC ETQEG  5QNFK  Q , WO   /ÒP\OGKUVGT   #NXKUG/KPQVVQ&CX/QPVGPGITQ *ÒDUEJG2CVKPC5EJTÌVNKPIUTK­UGJTUEJÌP





1UGNNC#0018+++/ÒP\OGKUVGT&QOGPGIQ&KGIQ/QPVGPGITQ 4 

5GJTUEJÌP





#NXKUG+8/QEGPKIQ1UGNNC#00+++/QPVGPGITQ 4   44*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



2415

2415

1,5:1

-¤0+)4'+%*+6#.+'0 

8KEVQT'OCPWGN++.KTG(NQTGP\&CX2CICPK  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



2417 2416

  

-W%GPVGUKOK//CKNCPF2CICPK -W%GPVGUKOQ//CKNCPF2CICPK .KTG00GCRGN2CICPK

2418

*ÒDUEJG-WRHGTRCVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\ 2TCEJVGZGORNCT(GKPG-WRHGTRCVKPC5VGORGNINCP\ 5GJTUEJÌP

   295


LUXEMBURG

2419

2421

2420



.KTG44QO&CX2CICPK

*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





8KEVQT'OCPWGN+++.KTG#8+44QO&CX2CICPK  2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



-1.10+''4+64'# 

7ODGTVQ+.KTG4QO2CICPK

 *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2422 2423

(ª456'067/ 

2423

.+'%*6'056'+0

(TCP\,QUGRJ-TGW\GT9KGP&KXQ  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



.7:'/$74) *'4<1)67/#$)4155*'4<1)67/ 

2JKNKRR+8XQP5RCPKGP2CVCIQP.WZGODWTI&GNO 4 2TQDUV.p 44.GKEJVMQTTQFKGTVUGJTUEJÌP

2424

2425



,QUGH++-W5QN$TÒUUGN2TQDUV.p  W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT5VGORGNINCP\



.GQRQNF++-W5QN*)ÒP\DWTI2TQDUV.p

296



5GJTUEJÌP

 


MONACO

2426



2429

2427

2430

9KNJGNO+++XQP0CUUCW-W%GPVKOGU2CTKU2TQDUV.p  W­GTUVUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI 2TCEJVGZGORNCT(GKPG-WRHGTRCVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



  

-W%GPVKOGU#2CTKU2TQDUV.p -W%GPVKOGU#2CTKU2TQDUV.p -W%GPVKOGU#2CTKU2TQDUV.p

  



#FQNHXQP0CUUCW%GPVKOGU$TÒUUGN2TQDGKP-WRHGTI5GNVGPG8CTKCPVG OKVUEJOCNGO9CRRGPUEJKNFCWHFGT4ÒEMUGKVG/KVINCVVGO4CPF2TQDUV.p  440WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV(GKPG-WRHGTRCVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\

2432



2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ (GKPG-WRHGTRCVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 2TCEJVXQNNG-WRHGTRCVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

2432

2431

(ª456'067/



/10#%1

*QPQT¾++5EWFQ&CX8CTGUK

445GJTUEJÌP



'UIGNCPI*QPQT¾++CWUFGT(COKNKG)TKOCNFKFKGUGKVFGO,CJTJWPFGTVFKG*GTTUEJCHVÒDGT/QPCEQKPPGJCVVG KO,CJTFWTEJFGP8GTVTCIXQP2¾TQPPGOKV-ÌPKI.WFYKI:+++XQP(TCPMTGKEJFKG'TJGDWPI/QPCEQU\WO (ÒTUVGPVWO\WGTTGKEJGP&CDGKYWTFG*QPQT¾++CWEJFCU/ÒP\TGEJV\WGTMCPPVPCEJFGOGTDGTGKVU/ÒP\GP JCVVGRT·IGPNCUUGP+O,CJTYWTFGFGPOQPGICUUKUEJGP/ÒP\GPRGT)GUGV\)ÒNVKIMGKVKOIGUCOVGPHTCP\ÌUK UEJGP-ÌPKITGKEJXGTNKGJGP



F 'EWFG5QNU .WKIKPQ %COOCTCPQ 4 8CTGUK 4   44)GUVQRHVGU.QEJUEJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP

2433

2434



2435



.QWKU+F 'EWFG5QNU .WKIKPQ %COOCTCPQ 4 8CTGUK 4   44(GKPG2CVKPCOKPLWUVKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJ



 

F 'EWFG5QNU .WKIKPQ %COOCTCPQ8CTGUK 4  F 'EWFG5QNU .WKIKPQ %COOCTCPQ8CTGUK 4 

 

45GJTUEJÌP 44,WUVKGTVHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

297


NIEDERLANDE

2437

2436

2438

 

F 'EWFG5QNU .WKIKPQ %COOCTCPQ8CTGUK 4  44(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ F 'EWFG5QNU .WKIKPQ %COOCTCPQ8CTGUK 4  44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 



F 'EWFG5QNU .WKIKPQ %COOCTCPQ 4 8CTGUK 4   44(GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2439

0+'&'4.#0&' 0KGFGTN·PFKUEJG/ÒP\GPFGU/KVVGNCNVGTUHKPFGP5KGKP-CVCNQIWPVGTFGP0TPWPF /'&#+..'0 *+5614+'2'00+0)'0  

5KNDGTPG*QJNIW­OGFCKNNGQ, WO WPUKIPKGTVXGTOWVNKEJXQP2XCP#DGGNGCWHFKG.KGDGWPF FKG'JG'KP2CCTUKV\VXXFKG-ÌRHGGKPCPFGT\WIGYCPFVFWTEJGKPG-GVVGCPFGTGKP*GT\J·PIV OKVGKPCPFGT XGTDWPFGP \W KJTGP (Ò­GP 5EJNCPIGP T 9GKPUVÌEMG9GKDNKEJG )GUVCNV OKV .QTDGGT   MTCP\FGTOKV(TÒEJVGPDGUVGEMVKUVUKV\VXXKPFGT4GEJVGP-GNEJKONKPMGP#TO.QTDGGT\YGKITCO $QFGP(ÒNNJQTPN$NWOGPMÒDGNOKV#ICXGOOI -N5VKHVUNQEJUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

2440

2441



2440

%#/2'0 

5VCFV 5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV \W 'JTGP FGT XQP FGP (TCP\QUGP GPVHÒJTVGP )GKUGNP FGT 5VCFV   %CORGP<YGK.ÌYGPJCNVGPFGPIGMTÌPVGP9CRRGPUEJKNFXQP%CORGPFCTWPVGTMNGKPG5VGKPOCWGTOKV ,CJTGU\CJN&KG0COGPFGT\YÌNH)GKUGNPOOI-2-X.QQP+++5  44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 



5VCFV'KPUGKVKIG6CNGTMNKRRG\W5VÒDGTPIGRT·IVY·JTGPFFGT$GNCIGTWPIFWTEJFKG6TWRRGP FGT)GPGTCNUVCCVGP$TCWUG/CPUHGNF6H&GNO 4  4(GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

/+&&'.$74)

298




NIEDERLANDE

2442



0+,/')'0

5VCFV5VGRJCPWUVCNGTQ,  &CX&GNO

44-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



2443



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP , 4QVVKGT CWH FGP (TKGFGP XQP 0KLOGIGP WPF FGP 6QF XQP )GTCTF XCP FGT   .[PFGP&KGRGTUQPKHK\KGTVG'KVGNMGKVDGVTCEJVGVUKEJKO5RKGIGNKPFGT.KPMGPJ·NVUKGGKP5GKNCPFGO UKG (QTVWPC OKV XGTDWPFGPGP #WIGP HÒJTV KO *KPVGTITWPF 5EJKHH CWH 5GG)TCDFGPMOCN OKV 7TPG   FCXQT \YGK VTCWGTPFG IGHNÒIGNVG )GPKGP FKG GKP 6WEJ XQT GKP XKGTHGNFKIGU 9CRRGP JCNVGP KO 8QTFGT   ITWPF #VVTKDWVG FGT /GFK\KP  OO  I -2- p 2CZ KP 0WOOKU p X .QQP p  

XIN+++58QTFGTUGKVG  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPC4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ 

2444



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,XCP&KUJQGEMGCWHFGP(TKGFGPXQP0KLOGIGPCO#WIWUV\YKUEJGP(TCPM TGKEJWPFFGP0KGFGTNCPFGP5VCFVCPUKEJVXQP0KLOGIGPWPFFGT(GUVWPI-PQVUGPDWTIKO8QTFGTITWPF UKEJ DGITÒ­GPFG )GUCPFVG WPVGT KJPGP FGT )GUCPFVG XQP $TCPFGPDWTI QDGP 5VCFVYCRRGP \YKUEJGP   2CNO\YGKIGPWPF5RTWEJDCPF2CZOKV5EJNCPIGPTKPI FCU5[ODQNFGT'YKIMGKV WPF2CNO\YGKIUVGJV CWH9CHHGPJKPVGTFGP9CRRGPXQP$TCPFGPDWTI&·PGOCTM(TCPMTGKEJFGOFGWVUEJGP-CKUGT5RCPKGP 5EJYGFGPWPFFGP0KGFGTNCPFGPKO*KPVGTITWPFFCUQHHGPG/GGTOKV5GIGNUEJKHHGPOOI 2CZKP0WOOKUX.QQP+++5 #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ  299


NIEDERLANDE

2446

2445

2445

18'4+,55'. 

2TQXKP\  HCEJGT 5EJCWVCNGT Q ,   WPUKIPKGTV CWH FKG .QUNÌUWPI FGT 2TQXKP\ XQP FGT   URCPKUEJGP *GTTUEJCHV &CU 9CRRGP XQP 1XGTKLUUGN FCTWPVGT FKG MNGKPGTGP 9CRRGPUEJKNFG FGT 5V·FVG   %CORGP &GXGPVGT WPF <YQNNG WOJGT 9CRRGPMTCP\ FGT  .GJGP FGU .CPFVCIGU&GT 5VCVVJCNVGT   /QTKV\ XQP 0CUUCW1TCPKGP KO *CTPKUEJ TGKVGV T KP FGT GTJQDGPGP 4GEJVGP 5EJYGTV KO *KPVGTITWPF   5VCFVCPUKEJVOOIX.QQP+5 444GUVGXQP<CRQPNCEMUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 



2TQXKP\4GKEJUVCNGT&GNO 4 

9'56(4+'5.#0&

2447



4GKEJUVCNGT&CX&GNO

-N2T·IGUEJY·EJGMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



2449

2448 (doppelt)

/KP-QTTQUKQPUURWTGPHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



<''.#0& 

2TQXKP\&QRRGNVGT5KNDGTFWMCVI&CX&GNOC 4 

45GJTUEJÌP





5VCFV4GKEJUVCNGTOKV6KVGNXQP/CVVJKCU&CX&GNO 4   -N2T·IGUEJY·EJGUGJTUEJÌP



<91..'

300


NIEDERLANDE

2450

1,5:1

1,5:1



.WKIKPQ%COOCTCPQ 4 

8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV(CUVUGJTUEJÌP

2451



2451

1,5:1

-¤0+)4'+%**1..#0& 

.WFYKI0CRQNGQP5KNDGTFWMCV 4GKEJUVCNGT 7VTGEJV&CX5EJWNOCP  W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPC5VGORGNINCP\



2453 2452

2452



5KNDGTFWMCV 4GKEJUVCNGT 7VTGEJV&CX5EJWNOCPC  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



)WNFGP7VTGEJV2TQDGKP-WRHGTXQP)GQTIGI/KV4CPFUEJTKHV5EJWNOCPC8CTG 44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

2454



1,5:1

 

2454

)WNFGP7VTGEJV&CX5EJWNOCPC  442TCEJVGZGORNCT9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTHCUV5VGORGNINCP\

 301


NIEDERLANDE

2455



5VÒDGT7VTGEJV&CX5EJWNOCP  5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2456

1,5:1



1,5:1

)WNFGP7VTGEJV5EJWNOCP  44-CDKPGVVUVÒEMXQPRQNKGTVGP5VGORGNP2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



2457

1,5:1

1,5:1

-¤0+)4'+%*&'40+'&'4.#0&' 

302

9KNJGNO+)WNFGP7VTGEJV&CX5EJWNOCP  8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV 8QPRQNKGTVGP5VGORGNPHCUV5VGORGNINCP\ 


NORWEGEN

2458 1,5:1

1,5:1



9KNJGNOKPC)WNFGP7VTGEJV5EJWNOCP  W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



.160+'&'4.#0&' 

&KXGTUG 6CNGT WPF *CNDVCNGT FGU  WPF  ,CJTJWPFGTVU FCTWPVGT GKPKIG 5VÒEMGOKV)GIGPUVGORGNP *QEJKPVGTGUUCPVGU.QVOKVUGNVGPGP5VÒEMGPDKVVGDGUKEJVKIGP 5VÒEM5EJÌPpUGJTUEJÌP 

2461

2462

2460

0149')'0

-¤0+)4'+%* 

%JTKUVKCP+85RGEKGFCNGT ,CJTGU\CJNKO5VGORGNCWUIG·PFGTV %JTKUVKCPKC #JNUVTÌO :4  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV'VYCURQTÌUGT5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌP





5RGEKGFCNGT%JTKUVKCPKC#JNUVTÌO&CX





5RGEKGFCNGT%JTKUVKCPKCI)GMTÌPVGUWPFIGJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVWOIGNGIVGT(GNF DKPFG)GMTÌPVGT .ÌYG N OKV IGDQIGPGT *GNNGDCTFG \W FGP 5GKVGP      WPVGP FKG 5KIPCVWT 2)  

2GVGT)TÒPGT/ÒP\OGKUVGTKP%JTKUVKCPKC #JNUVTÌO&CX  44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ 

2463

445GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

2464



%JTKUVKCP8/CTM 5MKNNKPI %JTKUVKCPKC#JNUVTÌO



5KNDGTPG 2TQDGOÒP\G Q ,   %JTKUVKCPKC IGHGTVKIV KO #WHVTCI XQP 7NTKM (TGFTKM )[NFGPNÎXG   F·PKUEJGT5VCVVJCNVGTKP0QTYGIGPI#JNUVTÌO 4  445GJTUEJÌP 

445GJTUEJÌP



303


POLEN

2466

2465



-CTN:+8,QJCP5RGEKGFCNGT-QPIUDGTI#JNUVTÌO  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT'TUVCDUEJNCIHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





1UMCT++-TQPGP-QPIUDGTI#JNUVTÌO *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2467

1,5:1

1,5:1

21.'0 'KPGPRQNPKUEJGP&TGKITÌUEJGTXQPHKPFGP5KGKP-CVCNQIWPVGT0T 9GKVGTGRQNPKUEJG4CTKV·VGPHKPFGP5KGCO#PHCPIFKGUGU-CVCNQIGU 0TP  -¤0+)4'+%* 

5VGRJCP $CVJQT[  )TÌUEJGT  /ÒP\\GKEJGP (KUEJ 1NMWU\ +IGT 1 D 4    -QRKEMKC 4  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP 

2468 1,5:1

1,5:1



)TQUEJGP  1NMWU\ /KV /ÒP\\GKEJGP FTGKUVKGNKIGU $NCVV WPVGT FGP 9CRRGP KP FGT 4ÒEMUGKVGPFCT   UVGNNWPI-QRKEMK 4  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP 

2469

2471

2470

2471



5KIKUOWPF+++)TÌUEJGT+(.WDNKP-QRKEMK 4   8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP





)TÌUEJGT/CTKGPDWTI+P752NCUVKMJQNFGTFGT0)%OKVFGT$GYGTVWPI/5-QRKEMK 4  8QT\ÒINKEJ





4GKEJUVCNGT  ++ $TQODGTI +P 752NCUVKMJQNFGT FGT 0)% OKV FGT $GYGTVWPI :(  &CX    -QRKEMK 4  5GJTUEJÌP



304


POLEN

2472



#WIWUV++FGT5VCTMG5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP)98GUVPGTCWHUGKPGP6QF)GJCT PKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV .QTDGGTMTCP\ WPF WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN2[TCOKFG OKV FGP #VVTKDWVGP FGU   *GTMWNGUKP.CPFUEJCHVNGKP\WO*KOOGNUEJYGDGPFGT)GPKWUOKVUVGTPGPWOMT·P\VGP/GFCKNNQPOKV FGO$TWUVDKNFFGU-ÌPKIUOOI$GTPJGKOGT*%\5NI/GTUGD  8QT\ÒINKEJ 

2473

2474

2475



5VCPKUNCWU#WIWUV-QPX6CNGT(59CTUEJCW&CX-QRKEMK 4   (GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



 

6CNGT <NQV[EJ 9CTUEJCW&CX-QRKEMK 4  6CNGT <NQV[EJ 9CTUEJCW&CX-QRKEMK 4 

 

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ (GKPG2CVKPCLWUVKGTVUGJTUEJÌP

2478

2476

2477



4GXQNWVKQP<NQV[EJ-)9CTUEJCW2T·IWPIFGT#WHUV·PFKUEJGP-QRKEMK 4  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





<NQVG-)9CTUEJCW2T·IWPIFGT#WHUV·PFKUEJGP-QRKEMK 4   5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





4GRWDNKM)TQU\[9KGP-QRKEMK  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI+P22PWT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG

 305


POLEN

2479



8QNMUTGRWDNKM<NQV[EJ2CRUV,QJCPPGU2CWN++2CTEJKOQYKE\C  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



2480



<NQV[EJ<NQV[EJ2CRUV,QJCPPGU2CWN++$GKFGKP752NCUVKMJQNFGTFGT2%)5OKV FGP$GYGTVWPIGP/52CTEJKOQYKE\HH  5VÒEM440WTWPF'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



2481



<NQV[EJ<NQV[EJ2CRUV,QJCPPGU2CWN++$GKFGKP752NCUVKMJQNFGTFGT2%)5OKV FGP$GYGTVWPIGP/52CTEJKOQYKE\HH  5VÒEM440WTWPF'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG

2482



2483



4GRWDNKMUGKV<NQV[EJ2TQDGKP6QODCM/KVINCVVGO4CPF6CFGWU\-QUEKWU\MQ +P752NCUVKMJQNFGTFGT2%)5OKVFGT$GYGTVWPI242CTEJKOQYKE\p \W   8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG 



 <NQV[EJ  2TQDG KP 6QODCM ,É\GH 2KNUWFUMK /KV INCVVGO 4CPF +P 752NCUVKMJQNFGT FGT   2%)5OKVFGT$GYGTVWPI242CTEJKOQYKE\p \W  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG 

306


PORTUGAL

2484



<NQV[EJ2TQDGKP6QODCM(T¾F¾TKE%JQRKP/KVINCVVGO4CPF+P752NCUVKMJQNFGTFGT 2%)5OKVFGT$GYGTVWPI242CTEJKOQYKE\p \W  8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



.1621.'0 

#WIWUV +++ )TÌUEJGT 1TV  4GKEJUVCNGT   .GKR\KI 5KIKUOWPF +++ )TÌUEJGT    /CTKGPDWTI)TÌUEJGT1NMWU\ 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2486

2487

2487

&#0<+) 

5VCFV )TQUEJGP  OKV6KVGN5VGRJCP$CVJQT[U  +P752NCUVKMJQNFGTFGT0)%OKVFGT $GYGTVWPI/5&WVMQYUMK5WEJCPGM-QRKEMK 4  48QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



4GKEJUVCNGT  OKV 6KVGN 9NCFKUNCYU +8   &CX  &WVMQYUMK5WEJCPGM  +   -QRKEMK 4   *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFYKP\2TQDKGTURWTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 



2489

2488



4GKEJUVCNGTOKV6KVGN,QJCPP-CUKOKTU  &CX&WVMQYUMK5WEJCPGM+CXCT -QRKEMK 4  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT

-¤0+)4'+%* 

2488



21467)#.

/CTKC++4GKU 0GPPYGTV4GKU%TW\CFQPQXQ .KUUCDQP)QOGU/ (CUV5VGORGNINCP\

 307


SCHWEDEN

2491 2490

2490

47/0+'0

-¤0+)4'+%* 

-CTN +   .GK  $ $WMCTGUV /KV 5VGORGNUEJPGKFGTUKIPCVWT CO 2GTNMTGKU &CX    5EJ·HHGT5VCODWNKWC 5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





.GW$$WMCTGUV5EJ·HHGT5VCODWNKW



45EJÌPG6ÌPWPIYKP\4CPFHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ

2493

2492

 

2492

5%*9'&'0

-¤0+)4'+%*

)WUVCX8CUC&CNGT5XCTVULÌ#JNUVTÌOD&CX 5GJTUEJÌP /CTM5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO ªDGTFWTEJUEJPKVVNKEJGTJCNVGP(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

2495

2494

2494



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q , WO   XQP # -CTNUVGGP CWH UGKPGP -CORH HÒTFCU8CVGTNCPF)GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN6TKWORJDQIGP FCTCWH 4GKVGTUVCVWG FGU -ÌPKIU \YKUEJGP IGMTÌP   VGO 9CRRGPUEJKNF WPF %JTKUVWUOQPQITCOO  OO  I *KNFGDTCPF + 5   5VGPUVTÌO  

00’  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPC5EJÒTHURWTCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q , WO WPUKIPKGTVXQP#-CTNUVGGPCWHFKG'KPHÒJTWPIFGT4GHQTOCVKQPCWH FGO 4GKEJUVCI KP 8·UVGT¹U KO ,CJT  )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN#NVCT   FCTCWH CWHIGUEJNCIGPG $KDGN OKV FGO %JTKUVWUOQPQITCOO WPF FGP $WEJUVCDGP # WPF W  OO   I*KNFGDTCPF+5 *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



308


SCHWEDEN

2496

1,5:1



1,5:1

'TKM:+8&CNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVTCMVKXGUUEJCTHCWUIGRT·IVGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



2497

1,5:1



1,5:1

5KIKUOWPF  &CNGT  5VQEMJQNO  I /ÒP\OGKUVGT )KNNKU ,WNKWU  %Q[GV F    /KVHGJNGTJCHVIGUEJTKGDGPGP-ÌPKIUPCOGP5+)+/80&85CWHFGT8QTFGTUGKVG5+)+/80&85Ê&'+ Ê)4#6+#Ê58'%148/)GMTÌPVGUWPFIGJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKVIGUEJWNVGTVGO5EJYGTVKPFGT 4GEJVGP WPF 4GKEJUCRHGN KP FGT .KPMGP)16148/ Û 9#0&#.148/ Ú 3 Ú  Û 21.10+“ Û   4':)GMTÌPVGUXKGTHGNFKIGU9CRRGP&TGK-TQPGP 6TGMTQPQT 2QNGP(QNMWPIGT.ÌYG (QNMWPICT  .KVCWGPOKV/KVVGNUEJKNF-QTPICTDG 8CUC \WFGP5GKVGPFKGIGVGKNVG,CJTGU\CJN#JNUVTÌOXCT

4 &CX-QRKEMK 4 5NI*CICPFGT6GKN #WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT  8QPCNNGTITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT  'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPIFGT(TGKJGTTGP$QPFG6GKN#WMVKQP0QTFNKPF5VQEMJQNO0T

309


SCHWEDEN

2498

1,5:1



1,5:1

-CTN +:  *GT\QI XQP 5ÌFGTOCPNCPF  4GKEJUXGTYGUGT  WPF    &CNGT5VQEMJQNOI)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFNFCXQTIGMTÌPVGUXKGTHGNFKIGU9CRRGPOKV /KVVGNUEJKNF5VTCJNGPFGT0COG,GJQXCU#JNUVTÌO&CX  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 

2499

2501

2500



-CTN+:  /CTM5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO



/CTM5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO



4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO8CTKCPVGOKV/'8/KPFGT4ÒEMUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV#JNUVTÌOC&CX #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

310

(GNFGTIGIN·VVGVUGJTUEJÌP



5EJÌPG2CVKPCYKP\5VGORGNHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP






SCHWEDEN

2502

2504

2503



4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO8CTKCPVGOKV/'8/KPFGT4ÒEMUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV#JNUVTÌOC&CX 5GJTUEJÌP



-CTN +:     /CTM  ,CJTGU\CJN KO 5VGORGN CWU  IG·PFGTV  5VQEMJQNO   #JNUVTÌOD 45GJTUEJÌP





5KNDGTPG5WKVGPOGFCKNNGQ,  XQP,%*GFNKPIGTCWH-ÌPKI-CTN+:)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNF -CTNU+:TOKV.QTDGGTMTCP\WPFWOIGNGIVGO/CPVGN<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI(GNFGT *KNFGDTCPF++5 8QT\ÒINKEJ



2505

2506



2507



)WUVCX++#FQNH4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO8CTKCPVGOKVITQ­GP9CRRGPUEJKNFGPCWHFGT 4ÒEMUGKVG#JNUVTÌOD&CX 4/KP)N·VVWPIUURWTGPYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





/CTM5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO

45GJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT





4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX

*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

 311


SCHWEDEN

2508



4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX

5GJTUEJÌP



2509



6TCIDCTG QXCNG XGTIQNFGVG 5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  WPUKIPKGTV CWH UGKPG .CPFWPI OKV FGP UEJYGFKUEJGP   6TWRRGP CWH FGT +PUGN 7UGFQO CO  ,WPK WPF FGP 'KPVTKVV 5EJYGFGPU KP FGP &TGK­KIL·JTKIGP -TKGI   )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF JCNDT OKV ITQ­GO 5RKV\GPMTCIGP.ÌYG UVGJV HCUV X X OKV GTJQDGPGO   5EJYGTVKPFGT4GEJVGPWPFFGT$KDGNKPFGT.KPMGP2TCPMGCO$QFGPGKPG-TQPGQDGPFGTUVTCJNGPFG 0COG,GJQXCUKP9QNMGPZOOI*KNFGDTCPF+5  44#NVXGTIQNFGVHGKP\KUKNKGTVGUCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 

2510



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP ,CP XCP .QQHH /KFFGNDWTI CWH UGKPGP 6QF KP FGT 5EJNCEJV DGK .ÒV\GP CO    0QXGODGT &CU IGMTÌPVG UEJYGFKUEJG 9CRRGP WPF  <GKNGP 5EJTKHV)GJCTPKUEJVGT #TO CWU9QN MGPJ·NV5EJYGTVFCTÒDGTFGTUVTCJNGPFG0COG,GJQXCUWPVGPNKGIVKPGKPGT.CPFUEJCHVGKP5MGNGVV6GKN

GKPNKPMGT#TO OOI*KNFGDTCPF+5  44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ  &KGUGEJ\GJP\GKNKIG.QDGUJ[OPGCWHFGTXQTNKGIGPFGP/GFCKNNGNCWVGVÒDGTUGV\V&GTWPDGUKGIVG(ÒTUV)WUVCXFGT \YGKVGOKVFKGUGO0COGP-ÌPKIFGT5EJYGFGPGVEGYKIGT5EJOWEMUGKPGU8CVGTNCPFGUWPFFGTICP\GP9GNVFGT $GUEJNGWPKIGT 2CVTQP WPF 8GTVGKFKIGT FGT FGWVUEJGP (TGKJGKV GKP WPXGTINGKEJNKEJGU$GKURKGNHÒT(TÌOOKIMGKVWPF 6CRHGTMGKV KUV Y·JTGPF GKPGU DNWVKIGP -CORHGU DGK .GKR\KI KP FGO GT YKG UEJQP XQTJGT WPF ÒDGTCNN GKPGP 5KGI   GTTGKEJVGQJPG\WYCPMGPFWTEJOGJTCNUGKPG8GTYWPFWPIIGHCNNGPWPFYWTFGFGO*KOOGNXQPFGOGTIGMQO OGPYCT\WTÒEMIGIGDGPGTJKPVGTNKG­UKEJUGNDUVGKPGWPUVGTDNKEJG'JTGUGKPGP(GKPFGP0GKFWPFUGKPGP(TGWPFGP 5GJPUWEJV WPF 6T·PGP #WH FGT 4ÒEMUGKVG YKTF FKG #NNGIQTKG GTN·WVGTV &':64# /#085 58'%+5 582'4'56   2'4'806'5+0+564# &KGTGEJVG*CPFDNGKDVFGP5EJYGFGPY·JTGPFUKGFKGNKPMGXGTNQTGPJCDGP 

312


SCHWEDEN

2511



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP5&CFNGTCWHFKGUEJYGFKUEJRTQVGUVCPVKUEJGP5KGIGKP&GWVUEJNCPFWPVGTFGO UEJYGFKUEJGP-ÌPKI)WUVCX++#FQNHKO,CJT)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFJCNDTKPXGT\KGTVGT-CTVW UEJG&GT -ÌPKI CNU 5VTGKVGT )QVVGU KO CPVKMGP *CTPKUEJ OKV 5EJYGTV WPF -TGW\UEJKNF UVGJV JCNDN CWH   UGKPGP IGHCNNGPGP (GKPFGP \W FGP 5GKVGP LG GKPG UVTCJNGPFG 5QPPG  OO  I *KNFGDTCPF +   5/CW¾ #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 

2512



4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌOD&CX  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



2513



5KNDGTOGFCKNNQP  XQP 5 &CFNGT CWH UGKP $GIT·DPKU KP FGT 4KFFCTJQNOUM[TMCP KP 5VQEMJQNO CO   ,WPK&GTCWHIGDCJTVG-ÌPKINKGIVKO8QTFGTITWPFKO*KPVGTITWPF5EJNCEJVU\GPGQDGPFGT0COG ,GJQXCU ÒDGT GKPGO UKEJ \WO -ÌPKI JKP ÌHHPGPFGP 9QNMGPDCPF OKV  'PIGNP&GT -ÌPKI KO /CPVGN   OKV5EJYGTVWPF$WEJFGT-ÌTRGTJCNDKO*CTPKUEJJCNDCNU5MGNGVVUKV\VKPGKPGOXQPFTGKIGHNÒIGNVGP 2HGTFGPIG\QIGPGO9CIGPÒDGTUGKPGO-QRHGKP.QTDGGTMTCP\FGTIGOGKPUCOXQPFGTNKPMUUVGJGP FGP4GNKIKQPUHTGKJGKVWPFFGTTGEJVUUVGJGPFGP6CRHGTMGKVIGJCNVGPYKTF7PVGTFGO9CIGPXKGNMÌRHKIG 5EJNCPIG .ÌYGPMQRH WPF IGHNÒIGNVGT /CPP  OO I&CX# FQTVWPVGT'THWTVCNU HCEJGT4GKEJUVCNGT *KNFGDTCPF+5/CW¾  445GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ  313


SCHWEDEN

2514

2516

2515



%JTKUVKPC4KMUFCNGT5CNC#JNUVTÌO&CX  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIMN<CKPGPFGUGJTUEJÌP





4KMUFCNGT5CNC#JNUVTÌO&CX  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI





4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO/KV5KIPCVWT#)WPVGP\WFGP5GKVGPFGU*GKNKIGP#JNUVTÌOD  4#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVUEJÌPGT2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2517

2518

2518



4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO/KV5KIPCVWT#)WPVGP\WFGP5GKVGPFGU*GKNKIGP#JNUVTÌOD  4-N*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP , 5OGNV\KPI CWH FGP 6QF FGU UEJYGFKUEJGP )GUCPFVGP KP 2CTKU *WKI FG   )TQQV *WIQ )TQVKWU  $TWUVDKNF FG )TQQVU HCUV X X-KUVG FCTCWH \YGK -TQPGP KO *KPVGTITWPF T   5EJNQ­.QGXGUVGKPOOI*KNFGDTCPFp2CZKP0WOOKU FQTVKP<KPP X.QQP++ 5 2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ



*WIQ )TQVKWU  &GNHV Ó 4QUVQEM UVWFKGTVG CP FGT 7PKXGTUKV·V .GKFGP WPF UEJNQ­ UKEJ FGO 0CEJHQNIGT   9KNJGNOU+XQP1TCPKGPKO0KGFGTN·PFKUEJGP(TGKJGKVUMCORH1NFGPXCTPGXGNVCPFGPGTPCEJ2CTKUDGINGK VGVG#D4GEJVUCPYCNVHÒTFKG1UVKPFKUEJG-QORCPKGUEJTKGDGTUGKP5GGTGEJVUYGTMªDGTFCU-TKGIU DGWVGTGEJV  YWTFG GT )GPGTCNCPYCNV FGT 2TQXKP\ *QNNCPF  4CVURGPUKQP·T XQP 4QVVGTFCO WPF /KVINKGF   FGT)GPGTCNUVCCVGPYWTFGGTKO<WUCOOGPJCPIOKVFGO4GOQPUVTCPVGP5VTGKV\WNGDGPUNCPIGT*CHVXGTWTVGKNV +O)GH·PIPKUGPVUVCPFUGKPGRQEJCNGU9GTMÒDGTFKGPKGFGTN·PFKUEJG4GEJVUIGUEJKEJVGFCUGTUVXGTÌHHGPVNKEJV YWTFGIGNCPIKJOOKVUGKPGT(COKNKGFKG(NWEJVPCEJ(TCPMTGKEJ0CEJGKPGOOK­NWPIGPGP4ÒEMMGJTXGTUWEJ KP FKG 0KGFGTNCPFG VTCV )TQVKWU KP UEJYGFKUEJG &KGPUVG WPF YWTFG  )GUCPFVGT KP 2CTKU  DCV GT -ÌPKIKP   %JTKUVKPCWOUGKPG#DDGTWHWPI#WHFGT4ÒEMTGKUGXQP5VQEMJQNOUEJKHHDTÒEJKIIGYQTFGPUVCTD*WIQ)TQVKWUCO  #WIWUV  KP 4QUVQEM &KG 4ÒEMUGKVGPFCTUVGNNWPI FGT XQTNKGIGPFGP /GFCKNNG DG\KGJV UKEJ CWH UGKPG   URGMVCMWN·TG(NWEJVCWUFGO)GH·PIPKU)TQVKWUGPVMCOUGKPGT*CHVCWH5EJNQ­.QGXGUVGKPKPGKPGT$ÒEJGTMKUVG

314


SCHWEDEN

2520

2519



/CTM5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌOD



¤TG /CTM 5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO

2521

2519

2522

ªDGTFWTEJUEJPKVVNKEJGTJCNVGP5GJTUEJÌP



45GJTUEJÌP



2523



4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX  (GKPG6ÌPWPIYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUpWPF5VGORGNHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ





-CTN:)WUVCX4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌOC&CX  44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌOC&CX

44*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP



5GJTUEJÌP



2524



/CTM5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO 4 

315


SCHWEDEN

2525



5KNDGTPG*QJNIW­OGFCKNNGXQP2XCP#DGGNG#OUVGTFCOCWHFGP<WIFGUUEJYGFKUEJGP*GGTGU CWHFGO'KUÒDGTFGP)TQ­GP$GNVXQP(ÒPGPPCEJ5GGNCPFKO(GDTWCT)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFHCUVX X OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN&GT IGJCTPKUEJVG -ÌPKI TGKVGV T OKV (GFGTJWV WPF -QOOCPFQUVCD KO   *KPVGTITWPFCPIGFGWVGVFKG5VCFVCPUKEJVXQP4QUMKNFGOOI*KNFGDTCPF+5  44*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 

2526



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ,  XQP#-CTNUVGGPCWHFGP<WIFGUUEJYGFKUEJGP*GGTGUCWHFGO'KUÒDGT FGP )TQ­GP$GNVXQP(ÒPGPPCEJ5GGNCPFKO(GDTWCT)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFFGUUEJYGFKUEJGP -ÌPKIU -CTN : )WUVCX T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN&GT <WI ÒDGT FCU 'KU KO 8QTFGTITWPF FKG +PUGN   (ÒPGPCO*QTK\QPVFKG+PUGN5GGNCPFOOI*KNFGDTCPF+55VGPUVTÌO 00’   445GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ  #O,CPWCTÒDGTSWGTVGFGTUEJYGFKUEJG-ÌPKIXQP,ÒVNCPFCWUFGP\WIGHTQTGPGP-NGKPGP$GNVPCEJ(ÒPGP &QTVUEJNWIGTFCUF·PKUEJG*GGTWPFPCJOGKPGP6GKNIGHCPIGP+PFGT0CEJVXQOCWHFGP(GDTWCTUGV\VGGT UGKPGP<WIÒDGTFKG\WIGHTQTGPG1UVUGGÒDGT.CPIGNCPFWPF(CNUVGTPCEJ5GGNCPFHQTVWPFMCOCO(GDTWCTKO UGGN·PFKUEJGP 8QTFKPIDQTI CP &KGUGT ªDGTTCUEJWPIUCPITKHH FGT CNU GKPG FGT YCIGOWVKIUVGP 6CVGP FGT /KNKV·TIG   UEJKEJVG IKNV DTCEJVG FKG GTUEJTQEMGPGP &·PGP \WT 'KPYKNNKIWPI KP FGP HÒT UKG WPIÒPUVKIGP (TKGFGP XQP 4QUMKNFG   XQO(GDTWCT

2527

 316

-CTN:+¤TG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌOE

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ




SCHWEDEN

2528

2530

2529



/CTM5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌOC&CX

44(GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP





-W¤TG5KNXGTO[PV#XGUVC#JNUVTÌO  .GKEJVFG\GPVTKGTVMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





/CTM5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX

44(GKPG6ÌPWPIUGJTUEJÌP



2531 2532

2532

 

/CTM5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO -W¤TG5KNXGTO[PV#XGUVC#JNUVTÌO

4CPFNGKEJVDGCTDGKVGVUGJTUEJÌP 9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

2533



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP,)$TGWGTCWHFGPUEJYGFKUEJGP5KGIDGK.WPFÒDGTFKG&·PGPCO&G\GO DGT)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFTOKV*GNOWOIGDGPXQPGKPGT5VTCJNGPMTQPG4WPFGT#NVCTCWHFGOFGT )QTFKUEJG-PQVGPOKVFGT$G\GKEJPWPI01&85Ü)14&+NKGIVFCTÒDGTYCCIGTGEJVGKP5EJYGTVKO *KPVGTITWPFFCU5EJNCEJVHGNFOKVFGPHNKGJGPFGP&·PGPQDGPFGTUVTCJNGPFG0COG,GJQXCUOO I*KNFGDTCPF+5 44#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

 317


SCHWEDEN

2534

2534 1,5:1



4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNOI/ÒP\OGKUVGT&CPKGN(CZGNN)GJCTPKUEJVGU$TWUVDKNFNOKVWOIG NGIVGO/CPVGN<YGKIGMTÌPVG.ÌYGPJCNVGPFCUIGMTÌPVGXKGTHGNFKIG9CRRGP&TGK-TQPGP 6TGMTQ PQT   (QNMWPIGT.ÌYG (QNMWPICT  KP FGT /KVVG FGT HÒPHHGNFKIG 5EJKNF XQP2HCN\<YGKDTÒEMGP1JPG 4CPFUEJTKHV#JNUVTÌOC&CX 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCYKP\2T·IGUEJY·EJGCVVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT



9·JTGPF FGT IGUCOVGP CNU -CTQNKPKUEJG <GKV DG\GKEJPGVGP <GKVURCPPG XQP    YCT FCU UEJYGFKUEJG   *CWRVPQOKPCN FGT %CTQNKP FCU /CTM5VÒEM KP 5KNDGT UQYKG FCU OGJTHCEJG WPF 6GKNG FCXQP 4KMUFCNGT YWTFGP   JKPIGIGP ·W­GTUV UGNVGP WPF PWT KP MNGKPGP #WHNCIGP IGRT·IV +P FGT L·JTKIGP 4GIKGTWPIU\GKV -CTNU :+ IGUEJCJ   FKGU PWT GKP GKP\KIGU /CN KO ,CJTCNU4KMUFCNGTKPGKPGT#WHNCIGXQPPWT5VÒEMGPIGRT·IVYWTFGP&KG 5VGORGNYWTFGPXGTOWVNKEJXQP#PVQP/G[DWUEJIGUEJPKVVGPWPFFKG4ÒEMUGKVGKUVGKPGGZCMVG+OKVCVKQPFGU4KMU FCNGTUOKVFGO9CJNURTWEJ+P,GJQXCUQTUOGCKRUGHCEKGV /GKP5EJKEMUCNNKGIVDGK)QVVGTUQNNGUUGNDUV IGUVCNVGP  5QPUV KUV FKGUG &GXKUG FGU -ÌPKIU -CTN : )WUVCX FGU8CVGTU-CTNU:+PWTCWHFGPHTÒJGP&WMCVGP -CTNU:+CWUFGP,CJTGP\WHKPFGP5GKVNCWVGVGFGT9CJNURTWEJCWHFGP)QNFWPF5KNDGTOÒP\GP &QOKPWURTQVGEVQTOGWU )QVVKUVOGKP$GUEJÒV\GT &KG7OUEJTKHVCWHFGO4KMUFCNGTYCTUQOKVXGTCNVGV &GT 8QTFGTUGKVGPUVGORGN YGKUV GKP WPIGYÌJPNKEJ VKGHGU 4GNKGH CWH YGUJCND FKG JÌEJUVGP 2CTVKGP FGT 8QTFGTUGKVG   UQYKGFKGGPVURTGEJGPFGP5VGNNGPFGT4ÒEMUGKVGQHVUEJYCEJCWUIGRT·IVUKPF

2535



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGQ,  XQP#-CTNUVGGPCWHFGP(TKGFGPXQP.WPF\YKUEJGP5EJYGFGPWPF&· PGOCTM CO  5GRVGODGT  WPF FKG WOUKEJVKIG 5VCCVUHÒJTWPI FGU UEJYGFKUEJGP -ÌPKIU )GJCT   PKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF .ÌYGPMQRHUEJWNVGT&GT 0QTFUVGTP \YKUEJGP FGO   )TQ­GP WPF -NGKPGP $·TGP UQYKG YGKVGTG 5VGTPDKNFGT CWH *KOOGNUINQDWU  OO  I *KNFG   DTCPF+55VGPUVTÌO 00’   442TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\  &KG /GFCKNNG VT·IV FKG &GXKUG FGU UR·VGTGP 0QTFUVGTPQTFGPU 0'5%+6 1%%#58/  'T MGPPV MGKPGP 7PVGT   ICPI   

&GT (TKGFG XQP .WPF CO  5GRVGODGT  YCT GKPG $GUV·VKIWPI FGU XQO HTCP\ÌUKUEJGP 5QPPGPMÌPKI FWTEJIG   UGV\VGP (TKGFGPU XQP (QPVCKPGDNGCW XQO  #WIWUV  FGT FKG 4ÒEMICDG FGT XQP &·PGOCTM KO 5EJQPKUEJGP   -TKGIGTQDGTVGP)GDKGVGWPFFKG9KGFGTJGTUVGNNWPIFGU5VCVWU3WQPCEJFGP(TKGFGPUEJNÒUUGPXQP$TÌOUGDTQ 4QUMKNFGWPF-QRGPJCIGPXQTUCJ-CTN:+YQNNVGFGP5EJQPKUEJGP-TKGIFGTHCMVKUEJ\WGKPGT0KGFGT NCIGHÒT&·PGOCTMIGHÒJTVJCVVGKP5EJQPGPDGGPFGPWPFY·JNVGFCJGT.WPFCNU8GTVTCIUQTV

318


SCHWEDEN

2537

2536



2536

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP#-CTNUVGGPCWHUGKPGP$GUWEJKPFGT5KNDGTITWDGXQP5CNCCO#WIWUV )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN WPF .ÌYGPMQRHUEJWNVGT)TWDGPCWHTK­ OKV $GTICT   DGKVGTPKO(ÒNNQTVUKPFUKGDGP$GUWEJGT\WUGJGPKO5EJCEJVJ·PIGP\YGK-ÒDGNCO(ÌTFGTUGKNQDGP UVTCJNGPFG5QPPG1JPG4CPFUEJTKHVOOI*KNFGDTCPF+5C/ÒUGNGTC 44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ  +P$GINGKVWPIUGKPGU(TGWPFGU(TGKJGTT(CDKCP9TGFG2T·UKFGPVFGU$GTIMQNNGIKWOUUVKGI-ÌPKI-CTN:+CO #WIWUV  KP FKG 5KNDGTITWDG XQP 5CNC 8·UVOCPNCPF  JKPCD WPF DGUKEJVKIVG FCU $GTIYGTM FCU PQEJ JGWVG FKG   DGFGWVGPFUVG5GJGPUYÒTFKIMGKVFGT4GIKQPKUV<WFGP#VVTCMVKQPGPIGJÌTVFKG6QPPGOKVFGT-ÌPKI-CTN:+KPFKG )TWDGJGTWPVGTIGHCJTGPKUV



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP 4 (CNV\ CWH FKG 'TJGDWPI FGU UEJYGFKUEJGP 5VCCVUUGMTGV·TU 1NQH 6JGIPGT  

 &G\GODGT  Ó /·T\   \WO $CTQP $TWUVDKNF 6JGIGPGTU T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN   )GHNÒIGNVG8KMVQTKCUVGJVPCEJTCPGKPGT5·WNGKPFGT4GEJVGP<GRVGTKPFGT.KPMGP.QTDGGTMTCP\KO *KPVGTITWPF.CPFUEJCHVOOI*KNFGDTCPF5*[EMGTV:8+++55VGIWYGKV *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



2538

2539



/CTM5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO



/CTM5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX

2539

5GJTUEJÌP



 5EJÌPG2CVKPCYKP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 319


SCHWEDEN

2540



5KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVXQP#-CTNUVGGPCWHFKG,CJTHGKGTFGU4GNKIKQPUVTGHHGPUKP7RRUCNC CO  (GDTWCT 5EJKHH OKV -TGW\ CO #EJVGT WPF GKPGT (CJPG OKV FGO /QPQITCOO %JTKUVK H·JTV KP   VQUGPFGO/GGT#EJV<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI*KNFGDTCPF+55NI9JKVKPI 5VGPUVTÌO 00’  4*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



0QEJDGXQTFGTMCVJQNKUEJGRQNPKUEJG-ÌPKI5KIKUOWPF+++KO(GDTWCTCWEJ\WOUEJYGFKUEJGP-ÌPKIIGMTÌPV YGTFGPUQNNVGMQPPVGUGKP1PMGNFGTUR·VGTG-ÌPKI-CTN+:CWHFGT-KTEJGPU[PQFGXQP7RRUCNCFCUGKPFGW VKIG$GMGPPVPKU\WOGXCPIGNKUEJGP)NCWDGPGTTGKEJGP

2541



/CTM5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX

 #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



2542



320

5KNDGTOGFCKNNGXQP#-CTNUVGGPCWHUGKPG4GKUGKPFKG2TQXKP\8·UVGTDQVVGP\WT$GQDCEJVWPIFGT /KVVGTPCEJVUUQPPG XQO  ,WPK )GJCTPKUEJVGU $TWUVDKNF OKV 4ÒEMGPCPUKEJV T OKV WOIGNGIVGO   /CPVGN6GKN XQO )NQDWU CWH FGO FGT $QVVPKUEJG /GGTDWUGP OKV \YGK (NÒUUGP DGUEJTKHVGV 5KPWU   $QVPKEWU WPF 6QTPG  \W UGJGP KUV FCTÒDGT FKG UVTCJNGPFG WPF CWHIGJGPFG /KVVGTPCEJVUUQPPG   OOI*KNFGDTCPF+55VGPUVTÌO 00’   44*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 


SCHWEDEN

2544

2543



/CTM5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX

(GKPG2CVKPCYKP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP



-CTN:++/CTM5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

2546

2545



4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX

4*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP





/CTM ,CJTGU\CJNKO5VGORGNCWUIG·PFGTV 5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



2547

2548

2549

2550



/CTM5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO

(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ





4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO/KV5VGTPKO/KVVGNUEJKNF#JNUVTÌOC&CX  -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP





%CTQNKPGT &CNGT5KNXGTO[PV 5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX  9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ





7NTKMC'NGQPQTC/CTM5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO5/*  4(GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ

 321


SCHWEDEN

2551



-WRHGTRNCVVG \W  &CNGT 5KNXGTO[PV  #XGUVC  Z  OO #JNUVTÌO  5/*    6KPIUVTÌO5& 45GJTUEJÌP

2552

2553



2554



(TKGFTKEJ +  4KMUFCNGT  5VQEMJQNO CWH FKG ,CJTHGKGTFGT'KPHÒJTWPIFGT4GHQT OCVKQP#JNUVTÌOD&CX5/* (GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ 



4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO5/*  2TCEJVGZGORNCT(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX5/*  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



322


SCHWEDEN

2555

2557

2556



4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX5/*  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX5/*



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG Q ,   XQP , % *GFNKPIGT .CIQO/GFCKNNG $ÒUVG *GFNKPIGTU N'WNG OKV   *GNO5RGGTWPF5EJKNFUVGJVPCEJNFGP-QRH\WTÒEMIGYCPFVOOI(GNFGT*KNFG DTCPF5 4*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

45GJTUEJÌP

 



&CUOKVITKGEJKUEJGP$WEJUVCDGPIGUEJTKGDGPGUEJYGFKUEJG9QTV.CIQO PKEJV\WXKGNWPFPKEJV\WYGPKI YCT *GFNKPIGTU&GXKUG

2559

2558

2558



4KMUFCNGT  5VQEMJQNO 8CTKCPVG OKV (4+&'4+%85 KP FGT 8QTFGTUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV #JNUVTÌO    &CX5/* *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCMN4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX5/*  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ

  323


SCHWEDEN

2560



-WRHGTRNCVVG \W  &CNGT 5KNXGTO[PV  *WU¹  Z  OO #JNUVTÌO  5/*  6KPIUVTÌO   5$ 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5GJTUEJÌP

2561

2563



2562



4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX5/*



#FQNH (TKGFTKEJ  5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP / ) #TDKGP CWH FGP UEJYGFKUEJGP   )GUCPFVGP CO F·PKUEJGP *QH (TGKJGTT 1VVQ (NGOKPI

 Ó 0QXGODGT   )GJCTPKUEJVGU   $TWUVDKNF (NGOKPIU T OKV WOIGNGIVGO /CPVGN&CU 9CRRGP (NGOKPIU XQO -QOOCPFGWTUDCPF FGU   5EJYGTVQTFGPU OKV 1TFGPU\GKEJGP WOIGDGP CWH .ÌYGPHGNN OKV (TGKJGTTGPMTQPG  OO  I   *[EMGTV:8+++5 #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



¤TG5KNXGTO[PV5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO5/*  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT6ÌPWPI(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



 324

(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ




SCHWEDEN

2564

2565

2566



4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO5/* 5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



)WUVCX +++  4KMUFCNGT  &CNGT 5KNXGTO[PV   5VQEMJQNO #JNUVTÌO  &CX    5/* -N-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌP





4KMUFCNGT &CNGT5KNXGTO[PV 5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX5/*  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2568

2567



2567



4KMUFCNGT &CNGT5KNXGTO[PV 5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO5/*  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO5/*  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI-CDKPGVVUVÒEM(GKPG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



2569 2570

2570



4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO5/*  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT





4KMUFCNGT ,CJTGU\CJNKO5VGORGNCWUIG·PFGTV 5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX5/* 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 325


SCHWEDEN

2571

2573

2572



4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX5/*

8QT\ÒINKEJ





4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO/KV4CPFUEJTKHV#JNUVTÌOC&CX5/*

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX5/*

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO5/*  -CDKPGVVUVÒEM(GKPG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO5/*  2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2574

2575

2576

2578

2577

2578



4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO5/*

(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO5/*  2TCEJVGZGORNCT/KPLWUVKGTVHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX5/*



326

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\


SCHWEDEN

2579



2580

2581

)WUVCX+8#FQNH4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX5/*  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI 5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCOKPLWUVKGTVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX5/*  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI-CDKPGVVUVÒEM(GKPG2CVKPC5VGORGNINCP\





4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX5/*  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT/KPLWUVKGTVHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



2583

2582



4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO5/* W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI -CDKPGVVUVÒEM2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCOKPLWUVKGTV5VGORGNINCP\





4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO5/*  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI#VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2585

2584

2586



4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO5/*

*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO5/*  2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO5/*  (GKPG6ÌPWPIYKP\,WUVKGTURWTGPHCUV5VGORGNINCP\

 327


SCHWEDEN

2588

2587

2587



-CTN:+++4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO5/*  W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



4KMUFCNGT  ,CJTGU\CJNKO5VGORGNCWUIG·PFGTV 5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO#PO&CX 5/* #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCOKP,WUVKGTURWTGPXQT\ÒINKEJ 

2590

2589





2591

4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX5/*  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT 9KP\,WUVKGTURWTGPOKP5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX5/*  (GKPG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT





-CTN:+8,QJCPP4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX  2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVRTCEJVXQNNGT2CVKPC8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2592

2593



4KMUFCNGT  IGRT·IV   5VQEMJQNO CWH FKG ,CJTHGKGT FGT 'KPHÒJTWPI FGT 4GHQTOCVKQP   #JNUVTÌO&CX (GKPG6ÌPWPIYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ





4KMUFCNGT  IGRT·IV   5VQEMJQNO CWH FKG ,CJTHGKGT FGT 'KPHÒJTWPI FGT 4GHQTOCVKQP   #JNUVTÌO&CX 9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFMN-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJ



328


SCHWEDEN

2595

2594

2594





5KNDGTOGFCKNNG  XQP *)WDGIGHGTVKIVKPFGT9GTMUVCVV.QQUCWHFKG'TÌHHPWPIFGU)ÌVC -CPCNU$ÒUVGT&KG(NW­IÌVVGT8·VVGTWPF8·PGTOKV9CUUGTWTPGWPF4WFGTUKV\GPXQTGKPGT5EJNGWUG WPFJCNVGPLGGKPGP#TOCWHFGP$WIGKPGUCWUFGT5EJNGWUGMQOOGPFGP5EJKHHUKO*KPVGTITWPFUKPF 5EJKHHUOCUVGPWPFGKP1DGNKUM\WUGJGPOOI*KNFGDTCPF++5  2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ 4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX

2596 1,5:1



4KMUFCNGT5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO

2597



1,5:1

 4KMUFCNGT  5VQEMJQNO &KEMCDUEJNCI 2K¾HQTV  FGT 2TQDG 'UUCK  KP 5KNDGT XQP % $QTI   I/KVINCVVGO4CPF#JNUVTÌOD 4  W­GTUVUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI 2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPC5VGORGNINCP\

2598



1,5:1

5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI -CDKPGVVUVÒEM2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\

1,5:1



(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





2599



-W5MKNNKPI5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO  9KP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





4KMUFCNGTURGEKG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌOC



2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\

329


SCHWEDEN

2601

2600

2602



4KMUFCNGTURGEKG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX

8QT\ÒINKEJ





4KMUFCNGTURGEKG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX

 5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





4KMUFCNGT URGEKG  5VQEMJQNO /KV XGTVKGHVGT 4CPFUEJTKHV  &'.#4 (+05+.(8'4 8GT\KG   TWPI #JNUVTÌO&CX (CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2604

2603

2603



1UMCT+4KMUFCNGTURGEKG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





4KMUFCNGTURGEKG ,CJTGU\CJNKO5VGORGNCWUIG·PFGTV 5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌOD  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2605 2606

2606



4KMUFCNGTURGEKG ,CJTGU\CJNKO5VGORGNCWUIG·PFGTV 5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌOD  5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ





-W5MKNNKPIDCPEQ5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO



330

5EJÌPG-WRHGTRCVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ


SCHWEDEN

2607

2607

2608



-W5MKNNKPIDCPEQ5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO



4KMUFCNGTURGEKG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX 5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI 2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT6ÌPWPI(CUV5VGORGNINCP\

2609

(GKPG-WRHGTVÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 

2610

2611



4KMUFCNGTURGEKG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO

(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ





4KMUFCNGTURGEKG ,CJTGU\CJNKO5VGORGNCWUIG·PFGTV 5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌOD  2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





-W¤TG5VQEMJQNO2TQDGOKVIGTKHHGNVGO4CPFI#JNUVTÌOD



-W ¤TG Q ,   5VQEMJQNO 2TQDG OKV INCVVGO 4CPF  I &C\W -W ¤TG Q ,  

 5VQEMJQNO2TQDGOKVINCVVGO4CPFI#JNUVTÌO  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

2614

2616

8QT\ÒINKEJ





2615

2613

2613



-W5MKNNKPIDCPEQ5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO

(GKPG-WRHGTRCVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





4KMUFCNGTURGEKG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO

2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





¤TG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO

2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





¤TG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌOE

2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



2618

2617



4KMUFCNGTURGEKG 4KMUFCNGT4KMUO[PV 5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌOD&CX

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4KMUFCNGT4KMUO[PV5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO

(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 331


SCHWEDEN

2620

2621

2619



2619

4KMUFCNGT4KMUO[PV5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO

48QT\ÒINKEJ





¤TG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO

42TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





¤TG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO

4(GKPG6ÌPWPIXQT\ÒINKEJ



2622

2623

2623



-CTN:84KMUFCNGT4KMUO[PV5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX  2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPC2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



-W¤TG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌOC

*GTTNKEJG-WRHGTRCVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\

 

2625

2624



4KMUFCNGT4KMUO[PV5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX  2TCEJVGZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT6ÌPWPI2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



4KMUFCNGT4KMUO[PV5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌOC&CX

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 

2628 2626

2627



4KMUFCNGTTKMUO[PV5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



-W¤TG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌOC



-W¤TG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO

332



(GKPG-WRHGTRCVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



*GTTNKEJG-WRHGTRCVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\




SCHWEDEN

2630 2629

2629



4KMUFCNGT4KMUO[PV5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO&CX  2TCEJVGZGORNCT(GKPG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



4KMUFCNGT4KMUO[PV5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌOD

 -CDKPGVVUVÒEM(GKPG6ÌPWPIHCUV5VGORGNINCP\

2633

2631

 

2631



¤TG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌOC

2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



.QV-W¤TG-W¤TGDGKFG/ÒP\UV·VVG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌOC&C\W1UMCT+ -W¤TG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO 5VÒEM*GTTNKEJG-WRHGTRCVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



1UMCT++-TQPG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO

42QNKGTVG2NCVVGOKPDGTÒJTV

2634

  

2635



-TQPGP5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO  -CDKPGVVUVÒEM5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(GKPG2CVKPC5VGORGNINCP\





-TQPGP5VQEMJQNO8CTKCPVGOKV1%*KPFGT8QTFGTUGKVGPWOUEJTKHV#JNUVTÌO  W­GTUVUGNVGPGT,CJTICPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2636

    

2637

¤TG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO ¤TG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO -TQPG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO ¤TG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO ¤TG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO

2638

2640

2639

8QT\ÒINKEJ 42TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ 4-CDKPGVVUVÒEM5VGORGNINCP\ 8QT\ÒINKEJ 5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT2QNKGTVG2NCVVG

     333


SCHWEDEN

2641



5KNDGTRNCMGVVGXQP65\KTOCKCWHFGP$GUWEJFGUUEJYGFKUEJPQTYGIKUEJGP-ÌPKIU1UMCT++KO UEJYGFKUEJGP2CXKNNQPCWHFGT9GNVCWUUVGNNWPIKP2CTKUKO,WPK&GTUEJYGFKUEJG2CXKNNQPNUKV\V FCU RGTUQPKHK\KGTVG 5EJYGFGP OKV GKPGO #PMGT WPF \YGK (KUEJGP CP GKPGO 5VGWGTTWFGT T J·NV GKPG   YGKDNKEJG )GUVCNV FCU IGMTÌPVG UEJYGFKUEJG 4GKEJUYCRRGP QDGP J·NV GKP 'PIGN GKPGP 5EJKNF OKV FGO   0COGP FGU -ÌPKIU9GKDNKEJG )GUVCNV OKV /CWGTMTQPG UKV\V XQT $CNWUVTCFG FCTÒDGT FTGK <GKNGP ITC   XKGTVG5EJTKHVZOOI#WIWUVKP 8QTFGTUGKVG  8QT\ÒINKEJ



'ZGORNCTFGT5COONWPIFGT(TGKJGTTGP$QPFG#WMVKQP(TKV\4WFQNH-ÒPMGT0QTFNKPF1UPCDTÒEM0T

2642

2643



-TQPGP5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO

8QT\ÒINKEJ





-TQPGP5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO

2TCEJVGZGORNCT5VGORGNINCP\



334


SCHWEIZ

2644

2645



-TQPG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





-TQPGP5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO 5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



2646

 

2647

¤TG5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO -TQPGP5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO

-CDKPGVVUVÒEM5VGORGNINCP\ -CDKPGVVUVÒEM5VGORGNINCP\

 

2649

2648



2648

)WUVCX8-TQPGP5VQEMJQNO#JNUVTÌO

'TUVCDUEJNCI5VGORGNINCP\





%JTKUVKCP+++XQP&·PGOCTM5MKNNKPI8KUD[)CNUVGT Z   5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFUEJÌP





7OHCPITGKEJG 5COONWPI UEJYGFKUEJGT /GFCKNNGP OGKUV FGU  WPF  ,CJTJWPFGTVU KP 5KNDGT WPF   $TQP\G &CTWPVGT \CJNTGKEJG DGUUGTG 5VÒEMG W C OKV $G\WI WPF CWU FGT <GKV XQP )WUVCX ++ #FQNH   %JTKUVKPC-CTN:+-CTN:++GVE*QEJKPVGTGUUCPVG5COONWPIFKGWPDGFKPIVDGUKEJVKIVYGTFGPUQNNVG 5VÒEM7PVGTUEJKGFNKEJGTJCNVGP/GKUVXQT\ÒINKEJ 



-NGKPG 5COONWPI FKXGTUGT UEJYGFKUEJGT /ÒP\GP FGU  ,CJTJWPFGTVU FCTWPVGT GKP 6CNGT WPF   OGJTGTG6GKNUVÒEMGFGU-ÌPKIU)WUVCX+++ 5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP

)16.#0&

.1655%*9'&'0



2652



$#5'.

5VCFV6CNGT&6&CX

5%*9'+< 5EJÌPG2CVKPCMN2T·IGUEJY·EJGXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 335


SCHWEIZ

2653

2654

2654

$'40 



5VCFV&KEMGPI5VCFVYCRRGPXQP$GTPFCTÒDGT#FNGT\WFGP5GKVGPBe&GT*GKNKIG 8KP\GP\UVGJVJCNDNOKV2CNO\YGKIKPFGT4GEJVGPWPF$WEJKPFGT.KPMGP*/<pF  44-N5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTCVVTCMVKXGUUGJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI &KEMGPQ, WO */<pD

44(GKPG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

 

2656

2655

2655



5KNDGTOGFCKNNG 5GEJ\GJPGTRHGPPKI  Q , CD XQP,%/ÌTKMQHGTWPF,&CUUKGT5EJWNRT·OKG &GT$GTPGT$·TOKVGKPGO5EJWRRGPRCP\GTUVGJVPCEJNCWH9CHHGPVTQRJ·GPFGP-QRH\WTÒEMIGYCPFV KPFGT4GEJVGP<GRVGTOKVFGT.KPMGPJ·NVGTFGP9CRRGPUEJKNFXQP$GTP4GNKIKQOKV5EJYGTV<GRVGT WPF(CUEGUUVGJVXXPGDGPGKPGO#NVCTFCTCWHCWHIGUEJNCIGPGU$WEJN-TCPKEJT'WNGOO I5EJYGK\GT/GFCKNNGP#WMVKQP.GW<ÒTKEJ0T *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ



6CNGT\W$CV\GP&6C&CX

(4'+$74)  336

5VCFV&KEMGPQ,*/<pC

 2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\

 

2657

45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ




SCHWEIZ

2658



)WNFKPGT Q , CD   Ia%8&'$#6a4'528$a(4+$84)+a*'.8'%+148/$WTI WPVGTFQRRGNMÌRHKIGO#FNGTWOJGT9CRRGPMTGKUa'561Ù01$+5Ù&0'Ù6844Ù(146+6Ù#Ù (#%+'Ù+0+/+%Û5#0%685aÚ0+%1.#85&GT*GKNKIG0KMQNCWUUVGJVXXFGP-QRHPCEJT IGYCPFVKPFGT4GEJVGP-TWOOUVCDKPFGT.KPMGPFTGK5VGKPG*/<pC 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJGTTNKEJGT2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 

2659



-CPVQP(TCPMGP 0GWVCNGT (TGKDWTI&6&CX  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



2660

<ª4+%* 

5VCFV )WNFKPGT   I &KG FTGK5VCFVJGKNKIGP(GNKZ4GIWNCWPF'ZWRGTCPVKWUUVGJGPPGDGPGK PCPFGT X X WPF JCNVGP KJTG CDIGUEJNCIGPGP -ÌRHG KP FGP *·PFGP WOJGT DQIGPHÌTOKIG 8GT\KGTWPI   )GMTÌPVGU4GKEJUYCRRGPXQP\YGK.ÌYGPIGJCNVGPFCTWPVGT\YGK\WUCOOGPIGDWPFGPG9CRRGPUEJKNFG XQP<ÒTKEJWOJGT9CRRGPMTCP\&CX*/<pC 44(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ  &GTGTUVG<ÒTKEJGT6CNGT

2661 (doppelt)



&KEMGT &QRRGNVCNGT   I .ÌYG UVGJV PCEJ N WPF J·NV OKV FGT .KPMGP FCU 5EJYGTV WPF FCU   5VCFVYCRRGPXQP<ÒTKEJKPFGTGTJQDGPGP4GEJVGP4GKEJUCRHGN)GMTÌPVGT&QRRGNCFNGT&6E &CX W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI 5GJTCVVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVRTCEJVXQNNGT2CVKPCYKP\5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJ  337


SPANIEN

2663

2662

'+&)'0155'05%*#(6 

(TCPMGP#2CTKU&CX&KXQ  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\





(TCPMGP#2CTKU&CX&KXQ



2TCEJVGZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

2664 2665

2665



(TCPMGP$$GTP&KXQ



5%*ª6<'06#.'4(TCPMGP$GTP'KFIGPÌUUKUEJGU5EJÒV\GPHGUVKP5EJY[\&CX&KXQ5 8QT\ÒINKEJ

-N-QPVCMVUVGNNGCWHFGT9GTVUGKVGUQPUV5VGORGNINCP\

 

.165%*9'+< 

-NGKPG 5GTKG XQP 5EJYGK\GT /ÒP\GPFGU,CJTJWPFGTVUFCTWPVGTWC(TCPMGP .CW RGP5EJÒV\GPHGUV.W\GTP GVE+PVGTGUUCPVGU.QVOKVDGUUGTGP6[RGPDKVVGDGUKEJVKIGP  5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJpRQNKGTVG2NCVVG



2667

$#4%'.10# 

52#0+'0

,QUG0CRQNGQP2GUGVCU$CTEGNQPC%CNKEÉ&CX  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT

2668



2669

-¤0+)4'+%* 

,WCP+-ÌPKIXQP-CUVKNKGPWPF.GQP4GCNQ,5GXKNNC%%  5GJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT6ÌPWPI





(GTPCPFQ84GCNQ,0CXCTTC%% 6KRQp% 



338

5GJTUEJÌP


SPANIEN

2671

2670

2670



(GTPCPFQ WPF +UCDGN   4GCN Q , 5GXKNNC /KV /ÒP\UV·VVGP\GKEJGP 5 WPF TGVTQITCFGO   0KPFGT.GIGPFG%% 5GJTUEJÌP



(GNKRG++4GCNGU5GIQXKC%CNKEÉ&CX

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 

2672 2673

2673



%CTNQU+++-W/CTCXGFKU5GIQXKC%CNKEÉ



(GTPCPFQ 8++   2GUGVCU  6CTTCIQPC IGRT·IV Y·JTGPF FGT URCPKUEJGP +PUWT   TGMVKQP IGIGP FKG HTCP\ÌUKUEJG $GUCV\WPI $TCWUG/CPUHGNF 6H   XCT %CNKEÉ  &CX    *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP

2674

2676

2675

8QT\ÒINKEJ

 

2677

  

-W/CTCXGFKU,,WDKC%CNKEÉ -W/CTCXGFKU,,WDKC%CNKEÉ -W/CTCXGFKU222CORNQPC%CNKEÉ

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 8QT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJ

  



+UCDGNNC++-W/CTCXGFKU5GIQXKC%CNKEÉ  #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVHGKPGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2678

 

2679

-W/CTCXGFKU5GIQXKC%CNKEÉ 4GCNGU2TQDGKP<KPPI/KVINCVVGO4CPF%CNKEÉ5

2678

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 448QT\ÒINKEJ

  339


TÜRKEI

2681 ex 2680

1,5:1

1,5:1

65%*'%*+'0

/KVVGNCNVGTOÒP\GPCWU$ÌJOGP/·JTGPHKPFGP5KGKP-CVCNQIWPVGTFGP0TP 

65%*'%*15.19#-'+

4GRWDNKM-QTWP-/ Z 

5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



6ª4-'+ 

$C[G\KF++#MEG*'FKTPG+O4GXGTUIGIGPIGUVGORGNVWPVGTFGT#S3W[WPNW*GTT UEJCHV CFN 5JÄT³\ \W *'  2GTG  #TVWM  5TGEMQXKE 5  0T  &COCNK '&)   /CE-GP\KG0WOKUOCVKE%KTEWNCT1EV0T9KNUMK5H0TI 445GJTUEJÌP



ex 2682



5ÒNG[OCP +  )TQ­GU .QV XQP  /C[FKP #OKF *CNCD -JCTDKTV &KOCUJS 4WJ³   /CTFÄP/KUT/CT CUJ WPF#MEG .CTCPFC/WMWUQ/\UV CWUFGPHTÒJGP,CJTGP5WNC[OCPU CWU FGO 4CWO 0QTFU[TKGP0QTFOGUQRQVCOKGP CNNG OKV $GUVKOOWPIGP XQP -GPPGVJ /CE-GP\KG 'KPG   XQPKJODGCDUKEJVKIVG8GTÌHHGPVNKEJWPIYWTFGFWTEJUGKPGP6QFWPOÌINKEJ  /GKUVUGJTUEJÌPQFGTDGUUGTXKGNG5GNVGPJGKVGP 

2683

2684

2685



5GNKO ++  #MEG  * UKE HÒT   5KFTG 3CRUÄ 6KVGN WPF 0COG FGU 5WNVCPU5GIGPU   YWPUEJ /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJTGU\CJN \W *' HH 5WNVCP  5TGEMQXKE  5 0T&COCNK 5&)I 4)GNQEJVUQTIH·NVKIG2T·IWPICWHDTGKVGO5EJTÌVNKPIUGJTUEJÌP





/WTCF+++5JCJK*/CYUKN /QUWN 6KVGNWPF0COGFGU5WNVCPU8CVGTUPCOGOKV 6KVGN GKPOCN CNU MJ³P DGK GKPGO \YGKVGP 5VÒEM CNU UJ³JGKPFTKVVGUOKVXQTCPIGUVGNNVGOUWNV³P/ÒP\ UV·VVGKO-TGKU5GIGPUYWPUEJWPF,CJTKP7OUEJTKHVFCDGKÒDGTFGO9QTVUCPCFCPCEJ*' #TVWM&COCNK/7)I 5GJTUEJÌP





-WRHGTIGYKEJV\WGKPGO&KTJCO6WIJTC+O4GEJVGEMOW ³OCNC )GNF 8IN-ÒTMOCPI  445GJTUEJÌP



2686

2686 2687



#JOGF+/CPIKTQ,$GNGP#WUVCPFFGU #NÄKDP,³PDWN³V6WIJTC/ÒP\UV·VVG#TVWM I 5GJTUEJÌP



5GNKO +++  -WTWU  *,CJT  UKE HÒT   6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6WIJTC OKV $WOG   /ÒP\UV·VVGWPF2T·IGLCJT2GTG-/I 44,WUVKGTURWTGPCO4CPFXQT\ÒINKEJ

340

 


TÜRKEI

ex 2688

2689

2690

2690







8KGTVGN $WLW  WPF  * ,C\³ KT #NIKGT  6KVGN 0COG WPF 5GIGPUYWPUEJ/ÒP\UV·VVG WPF   2T·IGLCJT#TVWM * 5WNVCP * WPF-/WPFI  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



/CJOWV++2CTC*,CJT  $CIJFCF6WIJTCOKV$NWOGKPFTGKHCEJGO-TGKU 4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU¤N¼GT-/I  5GJTUEJÌP



 2CTC  UKE HÒT   *,CJT  6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6WIJTC OKV 5HÌTOKIGT $NWOG KP <KGTTCPF   4GIKGTWPIULCJT/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTFGU4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIUKP<KGTTCPFYKGKO#X¤N¼GT-/ I 45GJTUEJÌP



2691









2691

$KNNQP-WTWU  *,CJT  6CT³DNWU IJCTD 6WIJTC OKV $NÒVGPUVGPIGN ÒDGT /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF,CJTFGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPHCPIU6KVGN UWNV³P CNDCTTC[P  FCU 4GIKGTWPIULCJT ÒDGT FGO 'PFG FGT FTKVVGP <GKNG   ¤N¼GT6[R-/I 44)GTKPIG5KNDGTUWFTGUVGUGJTUEJÌP



.QV XQP UKGDGP -WRHGTRCTC  * VGKNU OKV WPMQTTGMVGP ,CJTGU\CJNGP    VGKNU QJPG ,CJT   GKP5VÒEMKPMWUIGRT·IVXGTUEJKGFGPG6[RGPFC\WGKP8KGTVGN$WLW*,C\³ KTCWHFCU)GYKEJV GKPGU5GEJUVGNUDGUEJPKVVGP 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPWPFXQT\ÒINKEJ



#DFWN /GLKF  5EJTÌVNKPIURTQDGP HÒT QUOCPKUEJG 0KEMGNOÒP\GP \W  2KCUVTGU -WTWUJ    2KCUVTGWPF2CTCU9GTVCPICDGKO-TGKUFCTWOQDGP'/2+4'1661/#0WPVGP&CVWO '55#+&'/100#+'5&'0+%-'.8IN6WTCVJ%QNNGEVKQP.GW#WMVKQP/·T\5 0TWPFI 5VÒEM448QT\ÒINKEJWPF5VGORGNINCP\



2694



ex 2693

2695

$TQP\GPG/CUEJKPGPRTQDGFGU2T·IGOCUEJKPGPJGTUVGNNGTU/CWFUNC[5QPU(KGNFKP.CODGVJ.QPFQP *GTUVGNNGTPCOGWO#TCDGUMG#DUEJNCIXQO-WTWUJ5VGORGN¤NEGTI  45GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



 4K[CN-WTWU  * 6ÑPKU 0COGP FGU 5WNVCPU KP <YGKIGP0COG FGU $C[U /WJCOOCF /ÒP\   UV·VVG9GTV V³ CNU9GTVDG\GKEJPWPIOKV\YGKÒDGTGKPCPFGTUVGJGPFGP2WPMVGP WPF,CJT¤NEGT -/I 44-CWOUKEJVDCTG*GPMGNURWTUGJTUEJÌP

 341


TÜRKEI

2697

2696





#DFWN#\K\'KPUGKVKIGT<KPPCDUEJNCIFGT8QTFGTUGKVGGKPGU2CTC5VÒEMU,CJT6WIJTC ÒDGT &CVWO 8IN #DUEJNCI FGU UGNDGP 5VGORGNU CWH DTGKVGTGO 5EJTÌVNKPI KP FGT 6WTCVJ 5COONWPI   #WMVKQP.GW/·T\50TI  8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV)GNQEJVWPFOKVTÒEMUGKVKICPMNGDGPFGO2CRKGTTGUVUGJTUEJÌP



'KPUGKVKIGT-WRHGTRTQDGCDUEJNCIFGT8QTFGTUGKVGGKPGU2CTC5VÒEMUOKVKO5VGORGNHGJNGPFGO4GIKG TWPIULCJT 6WIJTC ÒDGT UCPC/ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT FGU 4GIKGTWPIUCPVTKVVU WO 9GTV\CJN #WMVKQP .GW   /·T\50T FKGUGU'ZGORNCT I 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5VGORGNINCP\



2698

2699

2701

2700



-WRHGTRTQDG  2CTC OKV KO 5VGORGN HGJNGPFGO 4GIKGTWPIULCJT 6WIJTC ÒDGT UCPC <W -/    I 8QPITQ­GT5GNVGPJGKV5VGORGNINCP\





2TQDG  -WTWUJ  * D\Y  KP -WRHGT /KUT 2CTKU  6WIJTC/ÒP\UV·VVG WPF &CVWO   DGKFGTUGKVUCO4CPF'55#+¤NEGT-/20CI 448QT\ÒINKEJ





2TQDG  2CTC  * D\Y  KP -WRHGT /KUT 2CTKU  6WIJTC/ÒP\UV·VVG WPF &CVWODGKFGT UGKVUCO4CPF'55#+-/20I 448QT\ÒINKEJ





2CTC*KO0COGPFGU-JGFKXGP/WJCOOCF5C ÄF YGIGPUVCCVUTGEJVNKEJGT2TQDNGOGPKEJV\WT #WUICDGIGNCPIV /KUT0COGKO-TGKUCO4CPF*CNDOQPFG9GTVWPF,CJTCO4CPF.CPFGUPCOG 5NI(QPTQDGTV-/2PI 448QT\ÒINKEJ



2703 2702



 342

2702

-WRHGTCDUEJNCIFGU4K[CN*6ÑPKU *GCVQP/KPV$KTOKPIJCO 0COGFGU5WNVCPUKP<YGK IGP0COGFGU$C[XQP6WPKU/WJCOOCFCU5³FKS/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTKP<YGKIGP¤NEGT -/2PI 42QNKGTVG2NCVVG



-WRHGTCDUEJNCIFGU4K[CN*6ÑPKU *GCVQP/KPV$KTOKPIJCO 0COGFGU5WNVCPUKP<YGKIGP 0COGFGU$C[XQP6WPKU/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTKP<YGKIGP-/2PI 42QNKGTVG2NCVVG




UNGARN

2704

2705

2704



-WRHGTCDUEJNCIFGU4K[CN*6ÑPKU *GCVQP/KPV$KTOKPIJCO 0COGFGU5WNVCPUKP<YGKIGP 0COG FGU $C[ XQP 6WPKU /ÒP\UV·VVG WPF ,CJT KP <YGKIGP ¤NEGT  -/ 2P   I   42QNKGTVG2NCVVG





-WRHGTCDUEJNCIFGU4K[CN*6ÑPKU *GCVQP/KPV$KTOKPIJCO 0COGFGU5WNVCPUKP<YGKIGP 0COGFGU$C[XQP6WPKU/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTKP<YGKIGP¤NEGT-/2PI  42QNKGTVG2NCVVG



2708 2706

2706



-WRHGT-JCTTÑDC*6ÑPKU *GCVQP/KPV$KTOKPIJCO 0COGFGU5WNVCPUKO-TGKUKP<YGKIGP 0COGFGU$C[XQP6WPKU/ÒP\UV·VVGWPF,CJTKO-TGKUKP<YGKIGP¤NEGT-/I 2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





/QJCOOGF8.QVXQP-WRHGTPKEMGNOÒP\GPOKV)GIGPUVGORGNP*KL³\CWUFGO-ÌPKI TGKEJ*KL³\2CTC*,CJTG Z WPF2CTC*,CJTG Z  Z FC\WGKP YGKVGTGU5VÒEMOKVCPFGTGOWPFGWVNKEJGO5VGORGNUQYKGGKP/CTKC6JGTGUKGP6CNGTOKV\YGKYQJN TG\GPVGP WO! )GIGPUVGORGNP*KL³\WPF0CLF 5VÒEM/GKUVUGJTUEJÌP





1TPCOGPVCNG -WRHGTOÒP\RT·IWPI EC  ,J /CPIJKT Q, WPF QJPG /ÒP\UV·VVGPCPICDG 5VGTP KP   GKPGOHÒPH\CEMKIGP5VGTP4X5VGTPKPGKPGTHÒPHDN·VVTKIGP$NÒVGÒDGTRT·IVCWHGKPGP%GPVGPKQPCNKUFGU %QPUVCPVKP + OKV NGUDCTGP NCVGKPKUEJGP 7OUEJTKHVGP %1056#06+085 /#: 2(#8) WPF ).14+#   41/#0148/-I 5GJTUEJÌP



ªDGTRT·IWPIGPFKGUGT#TVUKPFMGKPGTGKPGP-WTKQUKV·VGPFCUKGCDJ·PIKIUKPFXQPFGT2TCZKUFGT-WRHGTOÒP\CWUIC DGPWPFFGU4ÒEMMCWHUFGTCNVGP-WRHGTOÒP\GPªDGTRT·IWPIGPUR·VTÌOKUEJGT-WRHGTOÒP\GPFWTEJWOC[[CFKUEJG (WNWUFGU,CJTJWPFGTVUUKPFTGNCVKXJ·WHKIOCONWMKUEJGWPFQUOCPKUEJGªDGTRT·IWPIGPFKGUGT#TVCWUFGO WPF,CJTJWPFGTVUKPFFCIGIGPTGNCVKXUGNVGP+PLGFGO(CNN\GKIGPUKGCPFCUUCPVKMG(WPFOÒP\GPKPFGP-NGKP IGNFWONCWHUR·VGTGT<GKVGPMCOGP

2709



.QV XQP FTGK INGKEJCTVKIGP $NGK QFGT <KPPCDUEJN·IGP XQP 1TKIKPCNUVGORGNP QUOCPKUEJGT /ÒP\GP     ·I[RVKUEJGT 5WNVCPKUVGORGN FGU 5WNC[OCP +   /C[FKPUVGORGN /WJCOOCF +8     -WTWUJ   5VGORGNFGU #DFCN/CLÄFCWU-QPUVCPVKPQRGN 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌP



2710

70)#40 /KVVGNCNVGTOÒP\GPCWU7PICTPHKPFGP5KGKP-CVCNQIWPVGTFGP0TP 

(TCP\ ,QUGH +  $TQP\GOGFCKNNG  XQP 9 5GKFCP CWH FKG 8GTUCOONWPI WPICTKUEJGT   0CVWTHQTUEJGT WPF T\VG KP 'IGT 'TNCW  #PUKEJV FGU .[\GWOU KP 'IGT<YGK CPGKPCPFGTIGNGJPVG   9CRRGPFCTÒDGTIGHNÒIGNVGT)GPKWUWOJGT)GVTGKFGWPF(TÒEJVG\YGKIOO5NI$TGVVCWGT 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

 343


ÄTHIOPIEN

2712

2711

5+'$'0$ª4)'0(ª456'0 

,QJCPP++5KIKUOWPF'KPUGKVKIGT0QVVCNGT&CX4GUEJ  (GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





5KIKUOWPF$CVJQT[4GKEJUVCNGT&CX4GUEJ



5GJTUEJÌPGU'ZGORNCT

2713

2713 1,5:1



,QJCPP -GOGP[  4GKEJUVCNGT  %8 -NCWUGPDWTI  I +1#0 Ù -'/'0;  

FCU;MNGKPGTWPFJQEJIGUVGNNV &Ù)Ù24+Ù64#Ú)GJCTPKUEJVGU*ÒHVDKNFTOKV-CNRCS 2GN\ JCWDG OKVFGT4GEJVGPFCU<GRVGTUEJWNVGTPFFKG.KPMGCO5EJYGTVITKHH2#4Ù4')Ù*80Ù&1Ù '6Ù5+%Ù%1Ù)GMTÌPVGOKV#FNGTMÌRHGPXGT\KGTVG-CTVWUEJGFCTKPFCUXKGTHGNFKIGUKGDGPDÒT IKUEJG9CRRGPOKVFGO(COKNKGPYCRRGP-GOGP[ CWUGKPGT-TQPGYCEJUGPFGT*KTUEJ CNU/KVVGNUEJKNF WPVGP\WFGP5GKVGPFCU/ÒP\\GKEJGP%8 %QNQU8±T/ÒP\UV·VVG-NCWUGPDWTI &CX4GUEJ 449KP\-TCV\GTUGJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ 

/ª0<'070&/'&#+..'0#75ª$'45''

2714

2715

6*+12+'0 

/GPGNKM++$KTT 6CNCTK  '' &CX-/  1TKIKPCNXGTIQNFGVXQT\ÒINKEJ





$KTT 6CNCTK  '' &CX-/



344

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\


CHILE

2717

2716



$KTT 6CNCTK  '' &CX-/

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





2TQXKP\GPFGU4KQFGNC2NCVC4GCNGU4#24KQLC-/  (GKPG2CVKPCMN5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



#4)'06+0+'0

2718

$4#5+.+'0 

4GRWDNKM UGKV  /ÒP\UCV\  2CTKU DGUVGJGPF CWU    WPF  4GKU CWH FKG   ,CJTHGKGTFGT'PVFGEMWPI$TCUKNKGPU-/  5VÒEM+P1TKIKPCNGVWK8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 

.16$4#5+.+'0 

-NGKPG5GTKGXQPDTCUKNKCPKUEJGP5KNDGTOÒP\GPFGU,CJTJWPFGTVUFCTWPVGT4GKU  5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



2721 2720

2720

4'27$.+-

%*+.'



2GUQ5CPVKCIQ-/

(GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





4GCN5Q+,5CPVKCIQ+P752NCUVKMJQNFGTFGT0)%OKVFGT$GYGTVWPI/5-/  *GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

 345


CHINA

2722

2723

%*+0#  

2TQXKP\-YCPIVWPI&QNNCTQ,  &CX./ 2TQXKP\2GK;CPI&QNNCT,CJT  &CX./

2724

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ -N4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP

 

2727

2726



4GRWDNKM  &QNNCT Q ,   CWH FKG 9CJN XQP .K ;WCP *WPI \WO 8K\GRT·UKFGPVGP &CX    ./ 5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ



&QNNCT,CJT  ;WCP5JKJ-CK&CX Z ./ Z 

5VÒEM/GKUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





&QNNCTQ,  CWHFKG)TÒPFWPIFGT4GRWDNKM5WP;CV5GP&CX./  2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





&QNNCTQ,  CWHFKG)TÒPFWPIFGT4GRWDNKM5WP;CV5GP&CX./  8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





8QNMUTGRWDNKM 5GTKG  -QORNGVVG #WUICDG FGT GTUVGP 5GTKG FGT EJKPGUKUEJGP 6KGTMTGKU\GK   EJGP  #NNG 5VÒEMG JCDGP FCU $TWVVQIGYKEJV XQP  )TCOO UEJYCPMGP CDGT KO (GKPIGJCNV DKU    HGKPCDHGKP  5VÒEM2QNKGTVG2NCVVGNGKEJVDGTKGDGP 

ex 2729



 346



2730

 ;WCP  <YGK 'ZGORNCTG FGT  2CPFCCWUICDG KP 5KNDGT &C\W  ;WCP  2CPFC   #NNG5VÒEMGOKVMNGKPGP/·PIGNPDKVVGDGUKEJVKIGP-/ Z   5VÒEM2QNKGTVG2NCVVGNGKEJVDGTKGDGP



;WCP,CJTFGT4CVVGI(GKPUKNDGT-/  +P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG




CHINA

2731

ex 2732



;WCPQ,  70+PVGTPCVKQPCNGU,CJT\GJPVHÒT(TCWGP-/  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV+P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





;WCPQ,  70+PVGTPCVKQPCNGU,CJT\GJPVHÒT(TCWGP-/ Z   5VÒEM0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2QNKGTVG2NCVVGNGKEJVDGTKGDGP



2733

ex 2734

ex 2735



;WCP)GDWTVUVCIXQP&T%JGPI,KCIGPII(GKPUKNDGT-/



 ;WCP  )TQ­G 2GTUÌPNKEJMGKVGP FGT EJKPGUKUEJGP )GUEJKEJVG  -QORNGVVG  5GTKG 6GTTCMQVVCCT   OGG+PUIGUCOVI(GKPUKNDGT-/  5VÒEM+P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



 ;WCP  )TQ­G 2GTUÌPNKEJMGKVGP FGT EJKPGUKUEJGP )GUEJKEJVG  -QORNGVVG  5GTKG 6GTTCMQVVCCT   OGG+PUIGUCOVI(GKPUKNDGT-/  5VÒEM+P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





ex 2736





2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



ex 2737

 ;WCP  )TQ­G 2GTUÌPNKEJMGKVGP FGT EJKPGUKUEJGP )GUEJKEJVG  -QORNGVVG  5GTKG 6GTTCMQVVCCT   OGG+PUIGUCOVI(GKPUKNDGT-/  5VÒEM+P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



 ;WCP  )TQ­G 2GTUÌPNKEJMGKVGP FGT EJKPGUKUEJGP )GUEJKEJVG  -QORNGVVG  5GTKG 6GTTCMQVVCCT   OGG+PUIGUCOVI(GKPUKNDGT-/  5VÒEM+P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG

 347


CHINA

ex 2738

2740

ex 2739 (1:1,3)



 ;WCP  )TQ­G 2GTUÌPNKEJMGKVGP FGT EJKPGUKUEJGP )GUEJKEJVG  -QORNGVVG  5GTKG 6GTTCMQVVCCT   OGG+PUIGUCOVI(GKPUKNDGT-/  5VÒEM+P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





/ÒP\UGVDGUVGJGPFCWUFGP9GTVUVWHGPWPF(GPWPF,KCQWPF;WCPFC\WFKG/GFCKNNG \WO,CJTFGT4CVVG1TKIKPCN-WTUOÒP\GPUCV\KPDNCWGT*CTVRNCUVGQJPG7OXGTRCEMWPI 2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





;WCP2CPFCI(GKPUKNDGT-/



/KV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG

2741 (1:1,3)



348

/ÒP\UGVDGUVGJGPFCWUFGP9GTVUVWHGPWPF(GPWPF,KCQWPF;WCPFC\WFKG/G FCKNNG \WO ,CJT FGU 1EJUGP 1TKIKPCN -WTUOÒP\GPUCV\ KP DNCWGT *CTVRNCUVG QJPG 7OXGTRCEMWPI #EJ   VWPIFKG;WCPOÒP\GKUVH·NUEJNKEJGTYGKUGCWUFGO,CJTICPIGKPIGNGIV 2QNKGTVG2NCVVG




CHINA

ex 2742



/Ã&#x2019;P\UGV  DGUVGJGPF CWU  ;WCP 5KNDGT PWT  'ZGORNCTG  WPF  ;WCP -WRHGT0KEMGN    ,CJTGCWVQPQOGU)GDKGVKP6KDGVI(GKPUKNDGT-/  5VÃ&#x2019;EM+P1TKIKPCNGVWK2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



2743



 7P\GP  ,CJTHGKGT FGU 5VCVWU XQP 5KPMKCPI CNU CWVQPQOG 4GIKQP  I (GKPUKNDGT   -/:/$ 0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV +P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



2744



;WCP)GDWTVUVCIXQP&T5WP;CVUGPI(GKPUKNDGT-/  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV+P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG

 349


CHINA

2746

2745

2745



;WCP)GDWTVUVCIXQP&T5WP;CVUGPI(GKPUKNDGT-/  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV+P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





;WCP,CJTFGU6KIGTUI(GKPUKNDGT-/  +P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



ex 2748

2747



;WCP,CJTFGU(TKGFGPUI(GKPUKNDGT-/  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV+P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





;WCP)TQ­G2GTUÌPNKEJMGKVGPFGTEJKPGUKUEJGP)GUEJKEJVG-QORNGVVG5GTKG+PUIGUCOVI (GKPUKNDGT-/ 5VÒEM+P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



2749

 350

;WCP)GDWTVUVCIXQP<JCP6KCP[QWI(GKPUKNDGT-/  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV+P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG




CHINA

2750



;WCP,CJTFGU*CUGPI(GKPUKNDGT-/  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV+P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG

2751



ex 2752



;WCP,CJTFGU*CUGPI(GKPUKNDGT-/  +P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





;WCP)TQ­G2GTUÌPNKEJMGKVGPFGT9GNVMWNVWT-QORNGVVG5GTKG+PUIGUCOVI(GKPUKN DGT-/ 5VÒEM+P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



2753



7P\GP+PVGTPCVKQPCNG/ÒP\OGUUGKP/ÒPEJGP2CPFCI(GKPUKNDGT-/:/$ 0WT5VÒEMIGRT·IV+P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG

 351


CHINA

2754



;WCP::+81N[ORKUEJG5QOOGTURKGNGKP5GQWN8QNNG[DCNNURKGNGTKPPGPI(GKP UKNDGT-/ /KV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG

2755



ex 2756



;WCP,CJTFGU&TCEJGPUI(GKPUKNDGT-/  +P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





;WCP)TQ­G2GTUÌPNKEJMGKVGPFGTEJKPGUKUEJGP)GUEJKEJVG-QORNGVVG5GTKG+PUIGUCOVI (GKPUKNDGT-/ FQTVHCNUEJG#DDKNFWPI   5VÒEM+P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



ex 2757

2759

ex 2758



;WCP)TQ­G2GTUÌPNKEJMGKVGPFGTEJKPGUKUEJGP)GUEJKEJVG-QORNGVVG5GTKG+PUIGUCOVI (GKPUKNDGT-/ FQTVHCNUEJG#DDKNFWPI  5VÒEM+P1TKIKPCNGVWK2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





;WCP)TQ­G2GTUÌPNKEJMGKVGPFGTEJKPGUKUEJGP)GUEJKEJVG-QORNGVVG5GTKG+PUIGUCOVI (GKPUKNDGT-/ 5VÒEM+P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





7P\G+PVGTPCVKQPCNG/ÒP\OGUUGKP/ÒPEJGP2CPFCI(GKPUKNDGT-/:/$  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV+P1TKIKPCNGVWK2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



352


CHINA

2760



;WCP 7P\GP5KNDGT 2CPFCI(GKPUKNDGT-/  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV+P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



2761



;WCP 7P\GP5KNDGT 2CPFCI(GKPUKNDGT-/  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV+P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG

ex 2762







ex 2763

;WCP#TEJ·QNQIKUEJG(WPFGFGT$TQP\G\GKV-QORNGVVG5GTKG+PUIGUCOVI(GKPUKNDGT -/## 5VÒEM,GYGKNUPWT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV +P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCVG2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



;WCP)TQ­G2GTUÌPNKEJMGKVGPFGTEJKPGUKUEJGP)GUEJKEJVG-QORNGVVG5GTKG+PUIGUCOVI (GKPUKNDGT-/ 5VÒEM+P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG

 353


CHINA

ex 2765

ex 2764



 ;WCP )TQ­G2GTUÌPNKEJMGKVGPFGT9GNVMWNVWT-QORNGVVG5GTKG+PUIGUCOVI(GKPUKN DGT-/ 5VÒEM+P1TKIKPCNGVWKOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





 ;WCP  WPF  'THKPFWPIGP WPF 'PVFGEMWPIGP FGU #NVGTVWOU  -QORNGVVG  WPF  5GTKG   +PUIGUCOVI(GKPUKNDGT-/pp 5VÒEM2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



2766



;WCP$GFTQJVG6KGTYGNV$TCWPD·TOKV,WPIGOI(GKPUKNDGT-/  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



2767

 354

;WCP,CJTGUVCIFGT4ÒEMMGJTXQP/CTEQ2QNQI(GKPUKNDGT-/p  0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG




CHINA

ex 2768

ex 2769

ex 2770



 ;WCP  &C\W YGKVGTG 'ZGORNCTG FGT ,CJTG  Z  WPF  Z  #NNGU 2CPFCCWUICDGP OKV   /ÒP\UV·VVGP\GKEJGP2KP-TGKU-/ Z  5VÒEM2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





 ;WCP  'THKPFWPIGP WPF 'PVFGEMWPIGP FGU #NVGTVWOU  -QORNGVVG  5GTKG +PUIGUCOV    (GKPUKNDGT-/ 5VÒEM2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





 ;WCP  %JKPGUKUEJG -WNVWT  -QORNGVVG  5GTKG FC\W  5GKFGPUVTCUUG  5GTKG WPF    -WNVWTFGU)GNDGP(NWUUGU5GTKG 5VÒEM2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



ex 2771



;WCP 7P\GP5KNDGT #PVKMG/CNGTGK TGEJVGEMKIG$CTTGPOÒP\GP -QORNGVVG5GTKG+PUIG UCOVI(GKPUKNDGT-/  5VÒEM+PITQ­GTTGRT·UGPVCVKXGT*QN\UEJCVWNNGOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



.165%*+0# 

-QPXQNWVXQP#WUICDGP\WWPF;WCPOGKUVCWUFKXGTUGP5GTKGPYKG'THKPFWPIGPWPF'PVFG EMWPIGP 5GKFGPUVTCUUG )GNDGT (NWUU &TGK 4GKEJG %JKPGUKUEJG -WNVWT GVE 'U UKPFMGKPGMQORNGVVGP 5GTKGPGPVJCNVGP 5VÒEM2QNKGTVG2NCVVG\6NGKEJVDGTKGDGP





5GTKG FGT JKUVQTKUEJGP 2GTUÌPNKEJMGKVGP FGT EJKPGUKUEJGP )GUEJKEJVG -QPXQNWV XQP XGTUEJKGFGPGP #WU   ICDGP\W;WCPFGT,CJTGDKU6GKNYGKUGUKPFMQORNGVVG5·V\GGPVJCNVGPDKVVGDGUKEJVKIGP  5VÒEM2QNKGTVG2NCVVG\6NGKEJVDGTKGDGP 



 ;WCP  1N[ORKCFG  *QEJURTWPI -/   I (GKPUKNDGT   ;WCP  %JKPC 3WGGP   -/ I(GKPUKNDGT ;WCP(W­DCNN-/ I(GKPUKNDGT ;WCP 1N[ORKCFG5GIGNTGICVVC-/ I(GKPUKNDGT ;WCP1N[ORKCFG(GEJVGP-/

I(GKPUKNDGT ;WCP1N[ORKCFG8QNNG[DCNN-/C I(GKPUKNDGT ;WCP 1N[ORKCFG'KUUEJPGNN.CWH-/ I(GKPUKNDGT  5VÒEM2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



 ;WCP  ,CJT FGT 5EJNCPIG -/   I (GKPUKNDGT   ;WCP  ,CJT FGT <KGIG   -/ I(GKPUKNDGT ;WCP,CJTFGU#HHGP-/ I(GKPUKNDGT   5VÒEM#NNGKP1TKIKPCNGVWKUOKV1TKIKPCN\GTVKHKMCVGP2QNKGTVG2NCVVG







-NGKPGU -QPXQNWV XQP  ;WCP 5KNDGTRCPFCCWUICDGP FGT ,CJTG  DKU  'PVJCNVGP UKPF HQNIGPFG   ,CJTGZZZZZZZ HTQUVGFTKPI WPF &C\WMQOOGPPQEJ5QPFGTCWUICDGPOKV(CTDD\Y)QNFCRRNKMCVKQPGPUQYKGZ;WCP   8KGNG5VÒEMGUKPFNQUGQJPG-CRUGN 5VÒEM/GKUV5VGORGNINCP\  355


HAITI 

-NGKPGU-QPXQNWVXQPFKXGTUGP6KGTOQVKXOÒP\GP\WWPF;WCP&CDGKWCZ;WCP2KP IWKPGWPFGKPKIG6KGTMTGKU\GKEJGPFGT\YGKVGP5GTKG+PVGTGUUCPVGU.QUDKVVGDGUKEJVKIGP  5VÒEM/GKUV2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





-QPXQNWV XQP #WUICDGP XGTUEJKGFGPGT 'RQEJGP FCDGK  OQFGTPG 5KNDGTOÒP\GP W C  ;WCP ,CJT   FGU-KPFGU;WCP/CTEQ2QNQ Z&QNNCT;WCP5JK-CK,CJT%CUJOÒP\GPWPF#OW NGVVG FCXQP GKPKIGGXGPVWGNNPKEJV\GKVIGPÌUUKUEJ&CDGKCWEJ,CRCPWPF#PPCO$GKIGIGDGP\YGK$Ò EJGT\WTOQFGTPGPEJKPGUKUEJGP0WOKUOCVKM+PVGTGUUCPVGU.QVDKVVGDGUKEJVKIGP  5VÒEM5EJÌPDKURQNKGTVG2NCVVG



-NGKPGU-QPXQNWVXQP#WUICDGP\WWPF;WCPOKVFKXGTUGP5RQTVOQVKXGP 1N[ORKCFGPWPF 9GNVOGKUVGTUEJCHVGP CWUFGO<GKVTCWODKU&CDGKWCZ;WCP#DHCJTVUN·WHGT  5VÒEM2QNKGTVG2NCVVG\6NGKEJVDGTKGDGP





2780

&1/+0+-#0+5%*'4'27$.+- 

4GRWDNKM2GUQ-/

 5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2781

)7+0'# 

4GRWDNKM 2CVTK\G 5VGORGN  \WT 4ÒEMUGKVG FGU  (TCPEU5VÒEM  CWH FGP  ,CJTGUVCI FGT   7PCDJ·PIKIMGKV 8QT\ÒINKEJGTJCNVGP

2782

2784



2783

*#+6+ 

#NGZCPFTG2GVKQP2T·UKFGPVXQP9GUV*CKVK%GPVKOGU#0:+  -/  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



 

%GPVKOGU#0:+  -/ %GPVKOGU#0  -/

 

356

*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCYKP\2T·IGUEJY·EJGXQT\ÒINKEJ


HONG KONG

2785

2786

2787



%GPVKOGU#0  -/



,GCP 2KGTTG $Q[GT 2T·UKFGPV  UGKV  2T·UKFGPV XQP 9GUV*CKVK  %GPVKOGU #0   

 -/ 5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI-N2T·IGUEJY·EJGXQT\ÒINKEJ

8QT\ÒINKEJ

 



%GPVKOGU#0  -/  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI(GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2788 2790

2789



%GPVKOGU#0  -/  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





%GPVKOGU#0  -/  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





%GPVKOGU#0  -/

2791

*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ

2792



2793



%GPVKOGU#0  -/#  W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI-CDKPGVVUVÒEM2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





%GPVKOGU#0  -/#  5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCOKP5EJTÌVNKPIUHGJNGTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





%GPVKOGU#0  -/#

(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



8KEVQTKC-W%GPV-/2TKFOQTG  *GTTNKEJG-WRHGTRCVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



2794

*10)-10) 

357


KUBA

2796

2795

 

&QNNCT&CX (GKPG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTCVVTCMVKXGUHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT &QNNCT&CX-/ 5GJTUEJÌP

 

2797

2798

2798

,#2#0  

/WVUWJKVQ5GP,CJT/GKLKTC  1UCMC,CEQDU8GTOGWNG8 $QGMK)KP 6TCFG&QNNCT ,CJT/GKLKTC  &CX,CEQDU8GTOGWNG4

8QT\ÒINKEJ 8QT\ÒINKEJ

 



0QTQFQO+-W%GPVKOGQ,  .GEQORVG  4(GKPG2CVKPCYKP\-TCV\GTXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





-W%GPVKOGQ,  .GEQORVG



2800

2799

-¤0+)4'+%*

-#/$1&5%*#

8QT\ÒINKEJ

2801

-7$# 

358

7PVGTURCPKUEJGT*GTTUEJCHV2JKNKRR+85KNDGTOGFCKNNGWPUKIPKGTVCWHFKG'TDGW VWPI FGT CWU /GZKMQ MQOOGPFGP  URCPKUEJGP 5KNDGTHNQVVG FWTEJ FGP PKGFGTN·PFKUEJGP #FOKTCN 2KGV   *G[P KP FGT $WEJV XQP /CVCP\CU &CTUVGNNWPI XQP FGT 7O\KPIGNWPI FGT URCPKUEJGP 5KNDGTHNQVVG FWTEJ   FKGPKGFGTN·PFKUEJGP5EJKHHG<GKNGP5EJTKHVOOI5NI(QPTQDGTVpX.QQP++5 8QPITÌ­VGT5GNVGPJGKV2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCUGJTCVVTCMVKXGUXQT\ÒINKEJGU'ZGORNCT 


MEXIKO 2KGV 2GVGT  *G[P  &GNHUJCXGP DGK 4QVVGTFCO HWJT NCPIG <GKV CNU GKPHCEJGT 5EJKHHUMCRKV·P CWH *CPFGNU   UEJKHHGP 'T YCT \GKVYGKNKI KP URCPKUEJGT )GHCPIGPUEJCHV WPF OW­VG CWH GKPGT )CNGGTG TWFGTP  VTCV GT CNU   8K\GCFOKTCNKPFGP&KGPUVFGT9GUVKPFKUEJGP-QORCPKG'TUEJNWIFKG5RCPKGTDGK5CP5CNXCFQTWPFKP FGT#NNGTJGKNKIGPDWEJV $TCUKNKGP YQGTTGKEJDGNCFGPG5EJKHHGXQPFGP5RCPKGTPÒDGTPCJO  

0CEJFGOGTXQPFGT-QORCPKG\WO#FOKTCNGTPCPPVYQTFGPYCTGTQDGTVGGTKPFGT$WEJVXQP/CVCP\CUCWH-WDC  FKG ITQ­G URCPKUEJG 5KNDGTHNQVVG FGTGP .CFWPI CWH  /KNNKQPGP )WNFGP IGUEJ·V\V YWTFG <WT $GNQJPWPI   YWTFGGT\WO#FOKTCNNGWVPCPVCNUQ\WO1DGTDGHGJNUJCDGTFGTPKGFGTN·PFKUEJGP(NQVVGGTPCPPV5GKPGPGWG #WHICDGYCTFKG$NQEMCFGFGUHN·OKUEJGP&ÒPMKTEJGPFCXQPFQTVCWUXKGNGURCPKUEJG-CRGTHCJTGTQRGTKGTVGP2KGV *G[PUVCTDKO,WPKY·JTGPFGKPGT5GGUEJNCEJVDGK1QUVGPFGKO5EJGNFG-CPCN'TYWTFGKPFGT#NVGP-KTEJG \W&GNHVDGKIGUGV\V

2803

2802

2802

.+$'4+# 

4GRWDNKM-W%GPVU2CNODCWO-/

2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



7PVGTDTKVKUEJGT*GTTUEJCHV8KEVQTKC-W%GPVU-/  2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



/#74+6+75 

2805

2804

2806

/':+-1 

%CTNQU+84GCNGU6*/GZKMQ%KV[)TQXG

2TCEJVGZGORNCT5VGORGNINCP\





4GRWDNKM-W%GPVCXQ/Q/GZKEQ%KV[)TQXG  *GTTNKEJG-WRHGTRCVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





-W%GPVCXQ/Q/GZKEQ%KV[)TQXG



*GTTNKEJG-WRHGTRCVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

.16/':+-1 

-NGKPG5GTKGXQPOGZKMCPKUEJGP/ÒP\GPFGU,CJTJWPFGTVUXQO2GUQDKU\WO4GCNGU5VÒEM +PVGTGUUCPVGU.QVDKVVGDGUKEJVKIGP 5VÒEM5GJTUEJÌPpHCUV5VGORGNINCP\

 359


SIERRA LEONE

2810

2808

2809

0'75''.#0& 

)GQTIG8%TQYPCWHUGKPL·JTKIGU4GIKGTWPIULWDKN·WO&CX-/  440WT5VÒEMIGRT·IV(GKPG2CVKPCYKP\-QPVCMVUVGNNGRQNKGTVG2NCVVG





%TQYPCWHUGKPL·JTKIGU4GIKGTWPIULWDKN·WO&CX-/  440WT5VÒEMIGRT·IV2QNKGTVG2NCVVGOKPDGTKGDGP





)GQTIG8+(NQTKP-/  5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT(CUV5VGORGNINCP\



2812

2811

2'47 

4GRWDNKMUGKV2GUGVCU/./#[CEWEJQ)TWPVJCN5GNNUEJQRRE  (GKPG2CVKPCHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



5+'44#.'10' 

$TKVKUEJG -QNQPKG )GQTIG +++   &QNNCT KP -WRHGT  &CX  FQTV PWT KP 5KNDGT    -/C FQTVPWTKP2TQQH  48QT\ÒINKEJ



2813 1,5:1

 360

%GPVU-/

1,5:1

W­GTUVUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI 0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV-CDKPGVVUVÒEM2QNKGTVG2NCVVG




SIERRA LEONE

2814

1,5:1



1,5:1

%GPVU-/ 5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI 0WT'ZGORNCTGIGRT·IV-CDKPGVVUVÒEM2TCEJVXQNNG2CVKPCRQNKGTVG2NCVVGOKPDGTÒJTV

2815



2816



%GPVU-/

*ÒDUEJG2CVKPCUGJTUEJÌP





-W%GPVU-/C  5GJTUGNVGPDGUQPFGTUKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT2QNKGTVG2NCVVG



2817

2818

2819



-W2GPP[-/

5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2QNKGTVG2NCVVG





-W2GPP[-/

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





-W2GPP[-/

8QT\ÒINKEJ



2821

2820



-W%GPV-/

 

2822

2820

5GNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\



%GPVU-/

48QT\ÒINKEJ



%GPVU-/

5GJTUEJÌPpXQT\ÒINKEJ

 361


SÜDAFRIKA

2823

2824

5ª&#(4+-# 

5ÒFCHTKMCPKUEJG4GRWDNKM5JKNNKPIU9CIGPOKVGKPGT&GKEJUGN-/

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5JKNNKPIU9CIGPOKV\YGK&GKEJUGNP-/  *ÒDUEJG2CVKPCYKP\4CPFHGJNGTHCUVXQT\ÒINKEJ



2826

2825

 

-W2GPP[-/ -W2GPP[-/

8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\ 8QT\ÒINKEJ

2828

2827

 

-W2GPP[-/ )GQTIG8-W2GPP[-/

-W2GPP[-/ -W2GPP[-/

2832

8QT\ÒINKEJ 5GNVGPGT,CJTICPI8QT\ÒINKEJ

 

2830

2829

 

 

(CUV5VGORGNINCP\ 8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

2831

 

2832

)4+37#61902418+0%'%#2' 

/KUUKQPCT[6QMGP-W2GPP[Q,  -/6P  44-N5EJTÌVNKPIUpWPF4CPFHGJNGTUGJTUEJÌP



%#2'6190 -#256#&6   362

9J[VG%Q6GC/GTEJCPVU)TQEGTU-W2GPP[XQP9,6C[NQT.QPFQP  45GJTUEJÌP




USA

2833

1,5:1

1,5:1

14#0)'(4''56#6' 

2TQXKP\-W2GPP[2TQDGKP$TQP\GI-/2P  442TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



2835

2834

2834

8'4'+0+)6'56##6'0810#/'4+-#75# 

(ÌFGTCVKQP $TQP\GOGFCKNNG Q ,   XQP 5 $TQQMU WPF , /CPNG[ CWH )GQTIG 9CUJKPIVQP WPF   UGKPG9CJN\WO2T·UKFGPVGPFGT8GTGKPKIVGP5VCCVGPKO,CJT7PKHQTOKGTVGU$TWUVDKNFNOKV<QRH 8KGT<GKNGP5EJTKHVOO9WT\DCEJ 445GJTUEJÌP



5KNXGT&QNNCT2JKNCFGNRJKC&TCRGFDWUVV[RG;GQ5

5EJÌP





%GPVU &QNNCT 2JKNCFGNRJKC.KDGTV[%CRRGF$WUVV[RG;GQ5  4(CUVXQT\ÒINKEJ





%GPVU &QNNCT 2JKNCFGNRJKC.KDGTV[%CRRGF$WUVV[RG;GQ5  (GKPG2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





2836

2837

363


VIETNAM

2839

2838

2840



%GPVU &QNNCT 2JKNCFGNRJKC.KDGTV[%CRRGF$WUVV[RG;GQ5  8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





%GPVU &QNNCT 2JKNCFGNRJKC.KDGTV[%CRRGF$WUVV[RG;GQ5  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\





%GPVU &QNNCT 2JKNCFGNRJKC.KDGTV[%CRRGF$WUVV[RG;GQ5  5GJTUGNVGPKPFKGUGT'TJCNVWPI2TCEJVGZGORNCT*GTTNKEJG2CVKPCHCUV5VGORGNINCP\



2841

2841

2842



-W5OCNN%GPV2JKNCFGNRJKC+PFKCP*GCF6[RG;GQ5  4*GTTNKEJG-WRHGTRCVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\





5KNXGT&QNNCT%%%CTUQP%KV[/QTICP6[RG;GQ5





&QNNCT5151515151 515551+PVGTGUUCPVGU.QVOKVRTCEJVXQNNGP3WCNKV·VGPDKVVG DGUKEJVKIGP 5VÒEM8QT\ÒINKEJp5VGORGNINCP\

445EJÌP

.1675# 

2845 2844

2844

#00#/

8+'60#/



/KPJ/CPI6KGP 2KCUVGT ,CJT  &CX-/5EJTQGFGT6JKGTT[ %CVCNQIWGFGUOQPPCKGUXKGVPCOKGPPGU #VVTCMVKXGU'ZGORNCTOKVJÒDUEJGT2CVKPCXQT\ÒINKEJ





6W&WE6KGPQ,-/5EJTQGFGT6JKGTT[%CVCNQIWGFGUOQPPCKGUXKGVPC OKGPPGU 8QT\ÒINKEJ



364


DIE IN DIESEM KATALOG ANGEBOTENEN OBJEKTE UNTERLIEGEN DER DIFFERENZBESTEUERUNG MIT AUSNAHME DER NACHFOLGEND AUFGEFÜHRTEN LOSNUMMERN, DIE DER VOLLBESTEUERUNG UNTERLIEGEN:                                                            

                                                           

                                                           

                                                           

                                                           

                                                           

              

                                



 365


eLive Auction NEU Mit unseren eLive Auctions bieten wir Ihnen die Möglichkeit, direkt und unkompliziert über das Internet an regelmäßigen Auktionen mit einem virtuellen Auktionator live teilzunehmen.

NEW With our eLive Auctions, we offer you a direct and easy opportunity to participate in regular auctions live over the Internet.

Bequem von zuhause oder unterwegs können Sie Vorgebote abgeben und abschließend – ganz wie in einer echten Auktion im Bieterwettstreit mit anderen – den Ausgang der Auktionen live am Bildschirm für sich entscheiden.

From the convenience of your own home or when travelling, you can submit preliminary bids, and up to the last moment of the sale – as in a real auction, vying with other bidders – you can win auctions live on your computer screen.

Weitere Informationen erhalten Sie unter www.elive-auction.de/hilfe

Additional information is available at www.elive-auction.com/help

Künker eLive Auction: live auf www.elive-auction.de

366


Auktion 235 Russisches Reich (bis 1917). Kaiserlicher und Königlicher Orden vom Weißen Adler (Орден имперáторский и королéвский Белого Орла). Kleinod, 1. Modell (ohne Kronenpendilien, 1831 – 1856), feinst ziseliert und graviert, emailliert, 81,3 g, in der Öse St. Petersburger Stadtpunze bis 1899 und Meistermarke »KK« für Keibel und Kämmerer, auf der Rückseite der linken Adlerklaue St. Petersburger Jahrespunze. Von großer Seltenheit. II Schätzung: € 40.000,–

Dieses Jahr auch im Herbst!

Featured in Autumn this Year!

Künker versteigert Orden und Ehrenzeichen

Orders and Decorations at the Künker Auction

Schon jetzt arbeiten wir intensiv an unserer nächsten Auktion »Orden und Ehrenzeichen«, die für den Herbst diesen Jahres vorgesehen ist.

Already now we are intensively working on the preparation of our next auction of orders of chivalry, decorations and medals which is previewed to be held in autumn of this year.

Profitieren Sie als Einlieferer von unserer Erfahrung und Kompetenz: Der Einlieferungsschluss für interessante Einzelstücke an Orden, Ehrenzeichen, tragbaren Medaillen, Abzeichen und Verleihungsurkunden oder diesbezüglicher Sammlungsteile oder gar ganzer Sammlungen ist der 15. August 2013. Nehmen Sie bitte direkt Kontakt mit unserem Experten auf:

Benefit from our experience in the field of Phaleristics becoming our consignor. The deadline for consignments of interesting single pieces of orders of chivalry, decorations, medals, badges or documents, or partial or entire collections of such items is August 15, 2013. Please, contact our expert directly:

Michael Autengruber · Repräsentant der Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG Schulthaißstraße 10 · 78462 Konstanz Tel.: +49 (0)7531 28 44 69 · Mobil: +49 (0)151 15 06 18 41 Fax: +49 (0)7531 28 44 70 · E-Mail: michael.autengruber@kuenker.de English spoken · On parle français · Si parla italiano

Einlieferungen sind willkommen! Consignments are Welcome!

367


Leitfaden zur erfolgreichen schriftlichen Auktionsteilnahme • • • • •

Studieren Sie den Katalog sorgfältig und notieren Sie alle Lose, die interessant für Sie sind. Legen Sie für jedes Los Ihr persönliches Limit fest, das Sie maximal zu zahlen bereit sind. Füllen Sie das beiliegende Formular aus (siehe unten) und tragen Sie für jedes Los Ihr Höchstgebot ein. Schicken Sie uns Ihren Auftrag frühzeitig. Bei gleich hohen Geboten erhält das zuerst eingegangene Gebot den Zuschlag. Sie haben interessante Lose für insgesamt € 10.000,– gefunden, möchten jedoch nur € 2.000,– ausgeben. Kein Problem: Sie geben als Gesamtlimit (ohne Aufgeld) € 2.000,– an. • Wenn Sie Fragen haben: Die MitarbeiterInnen unserer Kundenbetreuung sind für Sie da: Telefon 0800 583 65 37 (gebührenfrei). • Wenn Sie telefonisch an unseren Auktionen teilnehmen möchten, ist das ab einer Schätzung von € 500,– pro Los möglich. Bitte teilen Sie uns diesen Wunsch mindestens einen Werktag vor Beginn der Versteigerung schriftlich mit.

Musterauftrag für schriftliche Gebote Name, Adresse, Telefon Ihre vollständige Anschrift ist wichtig, damit wir Ihren Auktionsauftrag annehmen und bearbeiten können. Ihre Telefonnummer brauchen wir, um Sie bei Rückfragen zu Ihren Geboten schnell erreichen zu können.

Ihre Kundennummer Die Angabe Ihrer Kundennummer unterstützt uns bei der Bearbeitung Ihres Auktionsauftrages. Viele Vorarbeiten für die Auktion werden dadurch einfacher und es werden Fehler vermieden.

Losnummern und Gebote Listen Sie alle Lose, für die Sie sich interessieren, mit ihrer Katalognummer auf und legen Sie für sich selbst fest, wie viel Sie bereit sind, für jedes einzelne Los zu bieten.

Ihr Limit pro Einzellos An dieser Stelle geben Sie an, was Sie für jedes einzelne Stück maximal bereit sind auszugeben.

„Oder“-Gebote Wenn Sie sich für mehrere Münzen interessieren, aber nur ein Stück davon erwerben wollen, können Sie Ihre Gebote einfach mit einem „Oder“ verbinden. Wichtig: bei den „Oder“Geboten können Sie nicht auf frühere Katalognummern zurückgreifen (z. B. 2890 oder 1558), da die Nr. 1558 dann bereits versteigert ist. Unterschreiben Sie Ihren Auktionsauftrag ... ... nachdem Sie Ihre Angaben noch einmal überprüft haben. Ihre Unterschrift ist wichtig, denn damit bestätigen Sie uns, dass sie tatsächlich teilnehmen wollen.

368

Überschreitung Ihrer Limits pro Einzellos In der Praxis zeigt sich, dass oft mehrere Bieter mit ihren Geboten dicht beieinander liegen. Deshalb empfiehlt es sich, an dieser Stelle einer geringfügigen Überschreitung Ihrer Gebote zuzustimmen. Dadurch erhöhen sich Ihre Chancen, im Wettbewerb mit anderen den Zuschlag zu erhalten.

Begrenzung Ihres Gesamtlimits Hier können sie die Gesamtsumme Ihrer Gebote begrenzen und festlegen, was Sie insgesamt maximal bereit sind auszugeben. Aufgeld und Mehrwertsteuer kommen später noch hinzu.

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


Wie entsteht der Preis einer Auktion? Der im Auktionskatalog angegebene Preis ist ein Schätzpreis, der durch unsere Experten festgelegt wurde. Das Mindestgebot liegt bei 80 % dieses Wertes. Die Zuschlagpreise sind oft deutlich höher als die Schätzpreise. Als Auktionshaus müssen wir bereits vor der Auktion alle schriftlichen Gebote koordinieren. Folgende Beispiele sind im Bietverfahren möglich: Beispiel 1 (Schätzpreis: € 1.000,–) Es liegt kein schriftlicher Auftrag vor: Der Auktionator ruft das Los in der Auktion mit € 800,– aus. Wenn im Saal nur ein Bieter darauf ein Gebot abgibt, erhält der Saalbieter den Zuschlag für € 800,–.

Beispiel 3 (Schätzpreis: € 1.000,–) Es liegt dem Auktionator nur ein schriftliches Gebot von € 850,– vor: Das Los wird in der Auktion mit € 800,– ausgerufen. Falls kein Bieter im Saal ein Gegenangebot abgibt, erhält der schriftliche Bieter den Zuschlag bei € 800,–.

Beispiel 2 (Schätzpreis: € 1.000,–) Es liegen dem Auktionator drei schriftliche Gebote vor:

Beispiel 4 (Schätzpreis: € 1.000,–) Es liegt dem Auktionator nur ein schriftliches Gebot von € 1.200,– vor: Der Auktionator ruft das Los mit € 800,– aus. Gibt es im Saal keinen Gegenbieter, erhält der schriftliche Bieter den Zuschlag bei € 800,–. Falls es im Saal Gegenbieter gibt, bietet der Auktionator für seinen schriftlichen Bieter bis maximal € 1.200,– und erteilt einem Gegenbieter im Saal erst bei mehr als € 1.200,– den Zuschlag.

Bieter 1: Limit € 2.900,– Bieter 2: Limit € 1.800,– Bieter 3: Limit € 800,– Nach der Versteigerungsordnung muss der Auktionator im Interesse von Bieter 1 und 2 angemessen überbieten (um ca. 5 bis 10 %). Der Ausrufpreis in der Auktion beträgt daher im Interesse von Bieter 1 € 1.900,– (obwohl die Schätzung € 1.000,– beträgt). Falls keine höheren Gebote aus dem Saal erfolgen, erhält Bieter 1 den Zuschlag für € 1.900,–. Das Höchstangebot von € 2.900,– musste nicht ausgeschöpft werden.

Beispiel 5 (Schätzpreis: € 1.000,–) Es liegen drei Gebote von je € 975,– vor: Um Missverständnisse zu vermeiden, überzieht der Auktionator das zuerst eingegangene Gebot geringfügig und erteilt den Zuschlag bei € 1.000,–.

Antworten auf Fragen, die uns oft gestellt werden • Zuschlagpreis/Aufgeld: Wir berechnen für Kunden in Deutschland und Ländern der Europäischen Union ein Aufgeld von 23 % auf den Zuschlagpreis, darin ist die gesetzliche Mehrwertsteuer enthalten. Wir berechnen Kunden in Drittländern, z. B. Norwegen, Russland, Schweiz, USA, ein Aufgeld von 20 %, wenn die Münzen durch uns exportiert werden. Beispiel 1, Kunde in Deutschland

Zuschlagpreis Aufgeld 23 % (inkl. MwSt) Versandkosten, z. B. * Rechnungs-Betrag

€ € € €

100,00 23,00 5,90 128,90

Beispiel 2, Kunde in Russland

Zuschlagpreis Aufgeld 20 % Versandkosten, z. B. * Rechnungs-Betrag

€ 1.000,00 € 200,00 € 15,00 € 1.215,00

• Mehrwertsteuer: In Deutschland und Ländern der Europäischen Union ist die Mehrwertsteuer im Rechnungsbetrag enthalten. In Ausnahmefällen unterliegen die Objekte der Vollbesteuerung. Das wird durch eine Liste im Auktionskatalog angezeigt. Seit dem 01.01.2000 sind viele Goldmünzen, die nach 1800 geprägt wurden, steuerfrei. In diesem Fall berechnen wir ein Aufgeld in Höhe von 15 %. Bei Fragen zu der MwSt.-Berechnung rufen Sie uns an, gebührenfrei unter: 0800 583 65 37. • Rücklosverkauf: Alle Lose, die in der Auktion nicht verkauft wurden, können Sie innerhalb von vier Wochen nach der Versteigerung zu 80 % des Schätzpreises (zzgl. 23 % Aufgeld inkl. Mehrwertsteuer) erwerben. Achtung: Viele Rücklose sind schnell vergriffen. • Unser Spezialservice: Alle Bieter erhalten gratis die Ergebnisliste innerhalb von zwei Wochen nach der Auktion. Im Internet können Sie die Ergebnisliste der Auktion sofort nach der Auktion unter www.kuenker.de einsehen. * Die Kosten für Versand und Versicherung werden nach Aufwand berechnet.

Besuchen Sie uns doch einmal persönlich auf der Auktion! • Wir freuen uns sehr, wenn Sie persönlich nach Osnabrück kommen möchten. Das Flair einer Auktion und die Stimmung im Auktionssaal sind ein besonderes Erlebnis für Sie als Sammler. Osnabrück ist außerdem immer eine Reise wert und die persönliche Betreuung durch unsere Mitarbeiter wissen immer mehr Kunden zu schätzen. • Bitte rufen Sie uns rechtzeitig an, damit wir Ihnen Tipps für die Anreise geben und Ihnen ein Hotelzimmer reservieren können. Sie erreichen uns gebührenfrei unter: 0800 583 65 37. • Als erfolgreicher Bieter können Sie Ihre neu erworbenen Stücke gleich persönlich mit nach Hause nehmen. Als guter Kunde unseres Hauses haben Sie 20 Tage Zahlungsziel nach der Auktion.

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE

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Важная информация об участии на аукционе • Наши аукционные правила и условия Вы можете найти в конце каталога. • Мы просим Вас присылать Ваши ставки заранее. В противном случае вероятность ошибки при обработке заказа, присланного перед самым аукционом, возрастает. • Приложенный образец заполнения письменного заказа поможет Вам при отправлении Ваших письменных ставок. Ставки можно отправить как по почте, так и по факсу : +49 (0)541–96 20 222 круглосуточно. • Успешные заказы будут обрабатываться в порядке их поступления к нам. Все участники, которым не удалось что-либо купить на аукционе, будут также проинформированы после аукциона. • Если Вы впервые принимаете участие в нашем аукционе, то мы рекомендуем Вам сообщить нам Ваш референц – аукционные дома, с которыми Вы уже сотрудничали. Или свяжитесь с нами по телефону. • Мы гарантируем подлинность всех предметов, проданных на нашем аукционе, в течении неограниченного времени. • Все участники нашего аукциона получают в течении 2-ух недель результаты торгов бесплатно. • У Вас есть вопросы по определенной монете? Вы хотели бы лично принять участие в аукционе? У Вас возникли другие вопросы? Звоните нам по телефону +49 (0)541-96 20 268, и мы будем рады Вам помочь.

Мое заочное участие на аукционе • • • •

Тщательно изучите наш каталог и запишите те лоты, которые Вас заинтересовали. Определите для Себя ту максимальную сумму, которую Вы готовы заплатить за каждый лот. Заполните приложенный формуляр. Отправьте нам Ваш заказ заранее. При 2-ух и более равных ставок на один и тот же лот преимущество получает ставка, пришедшая к нам первой ( ранее других ). • Если стоимость выбранных Вами лотов составляет например 10.000 евро, а Вы могли бы потратить только 2.000 евро, то в этом случае укажите Ваш общий лимит в размере 2.000 евро. • Если у Вас возникли вопросы по заполнению формуляра, звоните нам по телефону +49 (0)541-96 20 268. Наши сотрудники будут рады Вам помочь.

Мое личное участие в Оснабрюке • Мы будем рады Вашему личному присутствию в Оснабрюке. Атмосфера, которая стоит во время аукционных торгов в зале, особенная и непередаваемая. • Для получения более подробной информации по Вашей поездке в Оснабрюк, в частности, бронирования номеров в гостинице, мы просим Вас заранее связаться с нами по телефону: +49 (0)541-96 20 268. • Приобретенные на аукционе лоты Вы можете лично забрать после окончания торгов. Наши постоянные клиенты осуществляют оплату в течение 20 дней после получения счета. Участвующие в аукционе впервые осуществляют 100%-ую предоплату.

Участие по интернету Все каталоги доступны для просмотра на нашем сайте в интернете по адресу www.kuenker.de. На сайте Вы можете выбрать интересующие Вас лоты и отправить Ваши ставки на нашу электронную почту service@kuenker.de. Если у Вас возникнут дополнительные вопросы, мы просим Вас связаться с нами по телефону +49 (0)5 41-96 20 268.

Участие по телефону Для участия в торгах по телефону просим Вас связаться с нами не позднее 48 часов до начала аукциона. Условием проведения телефонных торгов является письменное подтверждение ставки, равной как минимум стартовой цене. Участие в телефонных торгах возможно только для лотов со стартовой ценой свыше 500 евро. Для получения дополнительной информации и регистрации на аукционе звоните Анастасии Кепселль до аукциона по телефону +49 (0)5 41-96 20 268 и во время аукциона по телефону, указанному на первой странице каталога.

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TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


Как образовывается цена на аукционе? • Все лоты в нашем каталоге были предварительно оценены нашими экпертами. Минимальная ставка составляет 80 % от оценочной стоимости лота. Конечные цены зачастую намного превышают оценочные. • Ваши письменные ( заочные ) ставки должны быть обязательно обработаны нашими сотрудниками до начала аукциона. Рассмотрим несколько возможных примеров: Пример 1 ( Оценочная стоимость: € 1.000,– ) Заочных ставок нет. Аукционатор начинает торги с € 800,–. Если в зале только один человек, желающий приобрести этот лот, то соответственно он получит его за € 800,–. Пример 2 ( Оценочная стоимость: € 1.000,– ) У аукционатора имеются 3 заочные ставки: Заочный участник 1 : Лимит € 2.900,– Заочный участник 2 : Лимит € 1.800,– Заочный участник 3 : Лимит € 800,– По правилам аукциона аукционатор в интересах заочного участника 1 и 2 должен повышать ставку равномерно ( приблизительно на 5 – 10 % ). Поэтому в нашем случае в интересах заочного участника 1 аукционатор начнет торги с € 1.900,– ( хотя оценочная стоимость составляет € 1.000,–). Если среди очных участников никто не даст более высокую ставку, то заочный участник 1 получит этот лот за € 1.900,–. Его лимит в € 2.900,– ни в коем случае не будет исчерпан. Пример 3 (Оценочная стоимость: € 1.000,– ) У аукционатора имеется только 1 заочная ставка в размере € 850,–. Аукционатор начнет торги с € 800,–.

Если среди очных участников никто не даст более высокую ставку, то заочный участник получит этот лот за € 800,–. Пример 4 (Оценочная стоимость: € 1.000,– ) У аукционатора имеется только 1 заочная ставка в размере € 1.200,–. Аукционатор начнет торги с € 800,–. Если среди очных участников никто не даст более высокую ставку, то заочный участник получит этот лот за € 800,–. Если же в зале очный участник согласен на более высокую ставку ( больше € 800,– ), то в этом случае аукционатор в интересах заочного участника имеет право тоговаться до € 1.200,–. Следовательно только при ставке, превышающей € 1.200,–, данный лот получит очный участник в зале. Пример 5 (Оценочная стоимость: € 1.000,– ) У аукционатора имеются 3 заочные ставки, каждая в размере € 975,–. Среди очных участников интереса к лоту не имеется. В этом случае чтобы избежать недоразумений, аукционатор имеет право ненамного повысить лимит и сделать ставку равной € 1.000,–. Данный лот за € 1.000,– получит тот заочный участник, чей письменный формуляр мы получили раньше всего.

Ответы на часто задаваемые вопросы • Комиссионные для клиентов, проживающих в Евросоюзе составляют 23 % к удару молотка, эти проценты уже содержат НДС. Для наших клиентов, проживающих не в Евросоюзе ( например в Норвегии, России, Швейцарии, США ) комиссионные составляют 20 %, если экспорт будет осуществлен через фирму «Кюнкер». Пример 1, Удар молотка клиент из Комиссионные 23 % Евросоюза Почтовые расходы Rechnungs-Betrag

€ € € €

100,00 23,00 5,90 128,90

Пример 2, клиент из России

Удар молотка Комиссионные 20 % Почтовые расходы Rechnungs-Betrag

€ 1.000,00 € 200,00 € 15,00 € 1.215,00

• Непроданные на аукционе лоты Вы можете приобрести в течение 4 недель за 80 % от их оценочной стоимости, прибавив к ним комиссионные и почтовые расходы.

Как я могу получить приобретенные лоты? Вывоз приобретенных на аукционе предметов осуществляется одним из следующих способов по Вашему выбору: • Вы можете лично забрать Ваши лоты. По окончании торгов мы готовим все необходимые документы на вывоз из Германии. При вывозе за пределы Евросоюза, НДС Вам возвращается. • Почтовые отправки в Россию ( Беларусь, Украину ) приобретенных Вами лотов осуществляются по предварительной договоренности. Для связи с нами звоните нам по телефону +49 (0)541-96 20 268. С 1971 года имя Кюнкер является гарантией надежности и компетентности. Мы не станем изменять нашим принципам и в будущем. Спасибо Вам за Ваше доверие, которое является не только самым сильным стимулом в нашей работе, но и наилучшей ее оценкой. Я желаю Вам успехов на нашем аукционе!

Фриц-Рудольф Кюнкер

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE

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Versteigerungsbedingungen Wir versteigern als Kommissionär im eigenen Namen und für Rechnung der Einlieferer, die unbenannt bleiben. Durch die Teilnahme an der Versteigerung werden die Versteigerungsbedingungen anerkannt. Der Zuschlagpreis bildet die Berechnungsgrundlage für das vom Käufer zu zahlende Aufgeld. Für Käufer aus EU-Ländern gilt: Für Verbraucher wird einheitlich ein Aufgeld von 23 % (im Gesamtbetrag ist die gesetzliche Umsatzsteuer enthalten) erhoben. Für Unternehmer i. S. d. UStG wird bei differenzbesteuerter Ware ein Aufgeld von 23 % erhoben (im Gesamtbetrag ist die gesetzliche Umsatzsteuer bereits enthalten), bei regelbesteuerter Ware ein Aufgeld von 20 % (zzgl. gesetzlicher Umsatzsteuer auf Gesamtbetrag von Zuschlag und Aufgeld). Ausfuhrlieferungen in EU-Länder können bei Vorlage der gesetzlichen Voraussetzungen von der Umsatzsteuer befreit sein. Für Käufer mit Wohnsitz in Drittländern (außerhalb der EU) gilt: Das Aufgeld beträgt einheitlich 20 %. Wird die Ware vom Käufer selbst oder durch Dritte in Drittländer ausgeführt, wird die gesetzliche Umsatzsteuer berechnet, jedoch bei Vorlage der gesetzlich geforderten Ausfuhrnachweise erstattet. Führen wir diese Ware selbst in Drittländer aus, wird die gesetzliche Umsatzsteuer nicht berechnet. Für Goldmünzen, die von der gesetzlichen Umsatzsteuer befreit sind, wird ein Aufgeld von 15 % berechnet. Im Ausland anfallende (Einfuhr-)Umsatzsteuer und Zölle trägt in jedem Fall der Käufer. Die Versandkosten werden dem Käufer nach Aufwand berechnet. Der Zuschlag erfolgt nach dreimaligem Ausruf des höchsten Gebotes und verpflichtet zur unverzüglichen Abnahme der Ware. Bei Vorlage besonderer Gründe können wir den Zuschlag verweigern oder uns vorbehalten. Geben mehrere Bieter gleich hohe Gebote ab, können wir nach freiem Ermessen einem Bieter den Zuschlag erteilen, durch Los über den Zuschlag entscheiden oder die Nummer noch einmal ausrufen. Der Versteigerer ist berechtigt, aus wichtigem Grund Nummern zu vereinigen oder zu trennen, in einer anderen als der im Katalog vorgesehenen Reihenfolge aufzurufen oder zurückziehen. Erfolgt ein Zuschlag unter Vorbehalt, erlischt das Gebot mit Ablauf von 4 Wochen ab dem Tag des Zuschlags, es sei denn, wir haben dem Bieter innerhalb dieser Frist die vorbehaltlose Annahme des Gebotes mitgeteilt. Das Eigentum an der Ware geht erst mit vollständiger Bezahlung auf den Käufer über. Sofern nichts anderes vereinbart wird, ist der Kaufpreis von anwesenden Käufern sofort, bei schriftlichen bzw. telefonischen Bietern spätestens 20 Tage nach Erhalt der Rechnung zu zahlen. Bei Zahlungsverzug werden Zinsen i. H. v. 1 % pro Monat berechnet. Verweigert der Käufer ernsthaft und endgültig die Abnahme der Ware, können wir vom Kaufvertrag zurücktreten und Schadensersatz verlangen mit der Maßgabe, dass wir den Gegenstand nochmals versteigern und unseren Schaden in derselben Weise wie bei Zahlungsverzug des Käufers geltend machen können, ohne dass dem Käufer ein Mehrerlös aus der erneuten Versteigerung zusteht. Der Versand erfolgt auf Wunsch und nach den Anweisungen des Käufers und auf seine Kosten und Gefahr. Die Mindeststeigerungsstufen für das Bietungsverfahren betragen: bis zu bis zu bis zu bis zu bis zu bis zu bis zu bis zu bis zu ab

€ 100,– € 200,– € 500,– € 1.000,– € 2.000,– € 5.000,– € 10.000,– € 20.000,– € 50.000,– € 50.000,–

€ 5,– € 10,– € 20,– € 50,– € 100,– € 200,– € 500,– € 1.000,– € 2.000,– € 5.000,– (bzw. 10 %)

Wir berücksichtigen bestmöglich schriftliche oder fernmündliche Angebote bzw. Angebote übers Internet und behandeln diese grundsätzlich gleich wie Angebote aus dem Versteigerungssaal. Aufträge von uns unbekannten Sammlern können wir nur ausführen, wenn ein Depot hinterlegt wird oder Referenzen benannt werden. Schriftliche Gebote können nur bis 24 Stunden vor Auktionsbeginn berücksichtigt werden, telefonische Bieter müssen sich mindestens zwei Werktage vor der Auktion voranmelden.

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Im Bedarfsfall sind wir berechtigt, die Limits um 3 – 5 % zu überschreiten. Gebote, die unter 80 % des Schätzpreises liegen, werden nicht berücksichtigt. Unlimitierte Aufträge haben keinen Anspruch auf unbedingte Ausführung. Schriftliche, fernmündliche und Internet-Gebote werden von uns ohne Auftragsprovision ausgeführt; sie müssen den Gegenstand mit Katalognummer und des gebotenen Preises, der sich als Zuschlagsumme ohne Aufgeld und Umsatzsteuer versteht, benennen und sind bindend. Unklarheiten oder Ungenauigkeiten gehen zu Lasten des Bieters. Wir übernehmen für diese Gebote jedoch keinerlei Haftung, insbesondere nicht für das Zustandekommen und die Aufrechterhaltung von Telekommunikationsverbindungen oder/und Übermittlungsfehlern, ebenso wenig für Ausfall- und Verzögerungszeiten, verursacht durch Wartungen und Wiederherstellungen des jeweiligen Servers, durch Störungen und Probleme im Internetverkehr, durch höhere Gewalt, sowie weitere Störungen, die durch Umstände begründet sind, die außerhalb unserer Verantwortung liegen. Dies gilt nicht für den Fall, dass uns hieran der Vorwurf grober Fahrlässigkeit oder Vorsatz trifft. Die Katalogbeschreibungen sind keine vertraglich vereinbarten Beschaffenheiten i. S. d. § 434 BGB, sondern dienen lediglich zur Information und zur Abgrenzung der Ware. Die Angabe der Erhaltung ist streng nach den im deutschen Münzhandel üblichen Erhaltungseinstufungen vorgenommen und eine persönliche Beurteilung. Die Echtheit der Stücke wird gewährleistet, sofern nichts Gegenteiliges im Katalog oder bei der Versteigerung angegeben wird; hier haften wir für einen insoweit entstandenen Schaden bis zur Höhe des Kaufpreises. Im Übrigen übernehmen wir keine Rechts- oder Sachmängel bezüglich der im Katalog aufgeführten Ware. Wir geben durch Vorbesichtigung Gelegenheit, sich vom Erhaltungszustand der Ware zu überzeugen. Fehler, die sich bereits aus den Abbildungen ergeben, berechtigen nicht zur Beanstandung. Bei der Auktion anwesende Käufer kaufen grundsätzlich »wie besehen«. Bei Losen mit mehreren Stücken sind die Stückzahlen nur ca.-Angaben. Gewährleistungsansprüche wegen Sach- und Rechtsmängeln oder irrtümlichen Zuschreibungen sind ausgeschlossen. Innerhalb der gesetzlichen Gewährleistungsfrist vorgetragene und begründete Mängelrügen des Käufers leiten wir jedoch unverzüglich an den Einlieferer der bemängelten Sache weiter. Nach unserer Wahl treten wir unsere gegen den Einlieferer aus der Verletzung des Kommissionsvertrages zustehenden Ansprüche an den Käufer ab bzw. stellen den Käufer durch Rückabwicklung des Kaufvertrages schadlos, wobei ein über die Erstattung des Kaufpreises darüber hinausgehender Anspruch des Käufers ausgeschlossen ist. Wenn Sie die von uns erworbene Ware einem Grading Service übergeben wollen, übernehmen wir keine Garantie, dass die Münzen dort angenommen oder entsprechend unserer Bewertung eingestuft werden. Schadensersatzansprüche des Käufers gegen uns sind – gleich aus welchem Rechtsgrund – ausgeschlossen. Dies gilt nicht für Schäden, die auf einem vorsätzlichen oder grob fahrlässigen Verhalten von uns, unseren gesetzlichen Vertretern oder Erfüllungsgehilfen beruhen bzw. ihre Ursache in der Verletzung von vertraglichen Kardinalpflichten haben; im letzteren Fall ist Haftung jedoch auf den vorhersehbaren, vertragstypischen Schaden beschränkt. Die Haftung für Schäden aus der Verletzung des Lebens, des Körpers oder der Gesundheit bleibt unberührt. Der Käufer kann nicht aufrechnen, es sei denn, seine Gegenansprüche sind rechtskräftig festgestellt, unbestritten oder von uns anerkannt. Zurückbehaltungsrechte des Käufers sind ebenfalls ausgeschlossen, es sei denn, er ist nicht Unternehmer i. S. d. § 14 BGB und sein Gegenanspruch beruht auf demselben Vertragsverhältnis. Es gilt ausschließlich das Recht der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Das Übereinkommen der Vereinten Nationen über Verträge über den internationalen Warenkauf (CISG) findet keine Anwendung. Gegenüber Unternehmern i. S. d. § 14 BGB und Käufern ohne allgemeinen Gerichtsstand im Inland ist Erfüllungsort und ausschließlicher Gerichtsstand bei allen aus dem Vertragsverhältnis unmittelbar oder mittelbar sich ergebenden Streitigkeiten Osnabrück. Sollte eine der Bestimmungen ganz oder teilweise unwirksam sein oder werden, bleibt die Gültigkeit der übrigen davon unberührt. Die unwirksame ist durch eine wirksame zu ersetzen, die dem wirtschaftlichen Gehalt und Zweck der unwirksamen Bestimmung am nächsten kommt. Gleiches gilt für eine Lücke. Soweit die Versteigerungsbedingungen in mehreren Sprachen vorliegen, ist stets die deutsche Fassung maßgebend.

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


Terms and Conditions of Auction We auction goods as commission agent in our own name and for account of not named consignors. Participation in the auction shall be deemed express acknowledgement of these Terms and Conditions of Auction. The hammer price is the basis for the calculation of the buyer’s surcharge. For buyers from EEC countries the following applies: for consumers there is a standard surcharge of 23 % (relevant VAT already included). For traders according to the Value Added Tax Act the surcharge is 23 % (relevant VAT already included) for goods delivered by difference taxation; for goods delivered by standard taxation the surcharge is 20 % plus the relevant VAT on the entire amount of hammer price and surcharge. Export deliveries to EEC countries shall be free of VAT on existence of the respective legal requirements. For buyers from abroad (no EEC country) the following applies: there is a standard surcharge of 20 %. As far those buyers export the good in person or by third persons, the relevant VAT will be charged but refunded by presentation of the legal export certificate. In case we export these goods the relevant VAT will not be charged. For gold coins, which are not subject to the legal VAT, the surcharge is 15 % of the hammer price. Foreign taxes and custom duties shall be carried by buyer as well as shipping expenses charged according to effort. The hammer shall fall after the highest bid has been called out three times. The knockdown shall oblige to take immediately delivery of the goods. Upon good cause shown we can refuse or reserve the knock down. In the event of several equal bids we have the right to knock down at our own discretion, to decide by drawing lots or re-open the bidding. The auctioneer reserves the right to combine or to separate lots for good cause. In case of a reserved knock down the bid expires four weeks after the knock down unless we informed the bidder within this period of the unreserved acceptance. Ownership of the goods shall not pass until full payment. Unless mutually agreed otherwise, payment of the auction bill from buyers present at the auction is due immediately, for other buyers within 20 days after receipt of the bill. Defaulted payments shall bear an interest charge of 1 % per month in the amount in default. In case buyer is in default with the obligation and does not take over the goods in spite of a written deadline, or refuses to take over, we can withdraw from contract and claim damage provided that the item may be put again to auction at this buyer’s cost. In this event the buyer shall be liable for any shortfall, while he shall have no right or claim towards any excess proceeds. The shipment (by mail or otherwise) of the goods shall be for sole cost and risk of the purchaser or recipient, respectively. The minimum rates of increase for the bidding procedure are: up to up to up to up to up to up to up to up to up to above

€ 100.– € 200.– € 500.– € 1,000.– € 2,000.– € 5,000.– € 10,000.– € 20,000.– € 50,000.– € 50,000.–

€ 5.– € 10.– € 20.– € 50.– € 100.– € 200.– € 500.– € 1,000.– € 2,000.– € 5,000.– (respectively 10 %)

If necessary, we are allowed to increase the bids by 3 – 5 %. Bids amounting to less than 80 % of the estimate shall not be executed. Unlimited bids shall not oblige us to consider, accept or carry out such order. Written orders or those via telephone or Internet will be carried out without charge of an extra commission; they shall name the item with catalog number and the bid price and are binding. Ambiguities shall be carried by the bidder. We do not assume any liability for such bids, especially not for connecting and keeping up telephone lines and/or transmission errors, as well as not for off times and lag times, caused by attendance and restore of the server, by errors and problems of the Internet, by force majeure or reason outside of our responsibility. This does not apply in case we are acting in intentional or grossly negligence. The descriptions of the goods in the catalog do not constitute any warranty or liability in the meaning of § 434 BGB but are provided as mere information. The state of preservation of items is strictly assessed in accordance with the grades accepted by the German coin trade and only represents an individual and personal assessment. The authenticity of the coins is warranted (up to the total purchase price) unless anything to the contrary is noted in the catalog or the auction. In other respects, any and all warranty claims based on material defects of quality and defects of title are excluded. In view of the opportunity of prior inspection to ascertain the state and condition of the auction lots, complaints of errors resulting of the images are excluded. Buyers present at the auction acquire items strictly on the basis of »as is where is« and »as inspected«. If and when auctioned in lots, the quantities of individual pieces given, only represent an approximate figure. Any and all warranty claims based on material defects of quality and defects of title or on an error in the allocation of individual pieces to a certain lot are excluded. We forward quality complaints to the deliverer claimed within the legal period of warranty. To our own choice we assign possible claims resulting out of the commission contract to buyer or compensate buyer by unwinding of contract, at which a claim of buyer exceeding the purchase price is excluded. In case buyer intends to deliver goods to a Grading Service, we do not guarantee the respective acceptance or the classifying according to our valuation. Damage claims of buyer – irrespective of legal basis – are excluded. This shall not apply for damages resulting out of our intentional or grossly negligent conduct of our legal representatives respectively are caused in the breach of contractual cardinal obligations; to this degree, liability is limited to damages that are foreseeable and typical for this type of contract. This shall not effect our liability for damages to life, limb, or health. Offsetting counterclaims of buyer are excluded, unless the claim is uncontested or has been declared legally valid by court. Retentions rights of buyer are excluded unless he is not a trader (§ 14 BGB) and his counterclaim results from the same contractual relationship. This Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of Germany. The UN Convention (CISG) on the International Sale of Goods shall not apply. Against traders (§ 14 BGB) and purchasers from abroad the exclusive jurisdiction shall be the Court of Osnabrück in relation to any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with the purchase. The German version of these conditions shall be the legally binding. The invalidity or inefficiency of any provision shall not effect the validity of all other provisions. In lieu of the invalid or inefficient provision or for the purpose of closing the gap, a reasonable provision shall apply.

We carry out best possible written or orders via telephone or internet and treat them equal to orders to present bidders. Orders from collectors unknown to the auctioneer can only be accepted and carried out if a deposit or references to the satisfaction on the auctioneer are given. To be bindingly accepted, written bids need to be received at least 24 hours before auction, bidders via telephone need to be registered at the latest two work days before auction.

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE

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Numismatische Ausdrücke/Numismatic Terms/Expressions Numismatiques/ Termini di Numismatica/Нумизматические Термины DEUTSCH

ENGLISH

FRANCAIS

ITALIANO

RUSSKIJ

Abschlag Am Rand Berieben Blei Dezentriert Doppelschlag Einfassung Einseitig Emailliert Erhaltung Etwas Exemplar Fassungsspuren Fehlprägung

struck at the rim/border slightly polished lead uncentered double struck frame uniface enamelled condition/preservation slightly specimen, copy trace of mounting mis-strike

frappe en tranche frotté plomb décentré double frappe encadrement uniface émaillé conservation un peu exemplaire traces de monture défaut de frappe

coniazione al bordo trattato piombo non centrato ribattitura cornice uniface smaltato conservazione un poco esemplare tracce di montatura difetto di coniazione

Feld(er) Gedenkmünze Geglättet Gelocht Geprägt Gewellt Goldpatina Henkelspur Hübsch Jahrh. = Jahrhundert Kl. = klein Korrosionsspuren Kratzer Kupfer Legierung Leicht(e) l. = links Min. = minimal Nachahmung Prachtexemplar Prägeschwäche Randdelle Randfehler Randschrift r. = rechts Rückseite

field(s) commemorative coin tooled holed minted bent golden patina mount mark attractive century small traces of corrosion scratch(es) copper alloy slightly left minimal imitation attractive, perfect piece weakly struck edge nick edge faults lettered edge to right reverse

champ monnaie commémorative retouché troué frappé ondulé patine dorée trace de monture joli siècle petit traces de corrosion rayure cuivre alliage légèrement gauche minime imitation pièce magnifique de frappe faible défaut sur la tranche défaut sur la tranche tranche inscrite droite revers

campo moneta commemorativa liscio bucato coniato ondolato patina d´oro tracce di appicagnolo carino secolo piccolo segni di corrosione graffio(i) rame lega leggero sinistra minimamente contraffazione esemplare magnifico conio stanco ammaccatura al bordo errore nel bordo inscrizione sul bordo destra rovescio

оттиск на гурте потертая свинец ассиметричный двойной чекан кайма односторонняя эмалированная сохранность слегка экземпляр следы обработки ошибка в процессе чеканки поле памятная монета отглаженная проколатая отчеканенная волнистая золотая патина следы от ушка красивая столетие маленький следы коррозии царапина медь сплав легкий слева минимальный имитация превосходный экземпляр издержкн при чеканкe вмятина на гурте ошибка на гурте гуртовая надпись справа реверс

374

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE


DEUTSCH

ENGLISH

FRANCAIS

ITALIANO

RUSSKIJ

Schriftspuren

traces of inscription

traces de légende

tracce di leggenda

Schrötling Schrötlingsfehler Schwach ausgeprägt Selten in dieser Erhaltung

flan flan defect weakly struck rare in this condition

flan flan défectueux de frappe faible rare en cet état

tondello errore di tondello conio stanco conservazione rara

Seltener Jahrgang Stempel Stempelfehler Überdurchschnittlich erhalten Überprägt Unediert Unikum Vergoldet Von allergrößter Seltenheit Vorderseite Winz.= winzig Zain Zierrand Zinn ziseliert

rare year die(s) mistake in the die extraordinary condition

année rare coin erreur de frappe conservation extraordinaire

overstruck unpublished unique specimen gilt extremely rare averse tiny flan ornamental border tin chased

surfrappé inédit unique doré de toute rareté en face petit flan tranche ornée étain ciselé

annata rara conio errore di conio conservazione estraordinaria ribattuto inedito pezzo unico dorato di estrema raritá diritto veramente piccolo tondello taglio ornato stagno cesellato

следы предыдущей надписи заготовка брак заготовки слабо отчеканeна редкая в такой сохранности редкий год штамп ошибка штампа сохранность выше среднего перечекан неопубликованная монета уникальная позолоченная наиредчайшая аверс незначительный заготовка декоративный гурт цинк гравированный

Erhaltungsgrade/Grading Terms/Degrès de Conservation/Gradi di Conservazione/ Шкала сохранности DEUTSCH

ENGLISH

FRANCAIS

ITALIANO

RUSSKIJ

Polierte Platte Stempelglanz Vorzüglich Sehr schön Schön Gering erhalten

Proof Uncirculated Extremely fine Very fine Fine Very good

Flan bruni Fleur de coin Superbe Très beau Beau Très bien conservé

Fondo specchio Fior di conio Splendido Bellissimo Molto Bello Bello

полированная превосходная отличная очень хорошая хорошая удовлетворительная

Seltenheitsgrade/Rarity Terms/Degrés de Rareté/Grado di Raritá/ Шкала редкости DEUTSCH

ENGLISH

FRANCAIS

ITALIANO

RUSSKIJ

R = Selten RR = Sehr selten Von großer Seltenheit Von größter Seltenheit Von allergrößter Seltenheit Unediert

R = Rare RR = Very rare Very rare Extremely rare Extremely rare Unpublished

Rare Très rare De grande rareté Extrêmement rare De la plus extrême rareté Inédit

raro molto raro di grande raritá di grandissima raritá di estrema raritá inedito

редкая очень редкая большой редкости наибольшей редкости наиредчайшая ранее не описанная

TEL +49 (0)541 96 20 20, FAX +49 (0)541 96 20 222, SERVICE@KUENKER.DE, WWW.KUENKER.DE 375


IMPRESSUM NUMISMATISCHE BEARBEITUNG

Alexandra Spreu, Dr. Sebastian Steinbach, Jens Ulrich Thormann M. A., Eva Weber, Manuela Weiß

HISTORISCHE TEXTE SAMMLUNG KIRCHENSTAAT

Bettina Rietz, Christopher Selck

FOTOS

Lübke & Wiedemann, Stuttgart

LAYOUT DRUCK

danner pc - gesteuerte systeme waiblingen meister print und media, Kassel, April 2013 Jeglicher Nachdruck, auch auszugsweise, bedarf der Genehmigung des Auktionshauses

ZAHLUNGEN AUS DEM INLAND Deutsche Bank Osnabrück

(BLZ 265 700 90) Konto-Nummer 0 177 006

Commerzbank Osnabrück

(BLZ 265 800 70) Konto-Nummer 780 520 200

Sparkasse Osnabrück

(BLZ 265 501 05) Konto-Nummer 247 320

Volksbank eG Bad Laer-Borgloh-Hilter-Melle

(BLZ 265 624 90) Konto-Nummer 1 200 222 400

Bankhaus Lampe KG, Bielefeld

(BLZ 480 201 51) Konto-Nummer 174 076

Postbank Hannover HypoVereinsbank München Oldenburgische Landesbank AG Oldenburg Paypal

(BLZ 250 100 30) Konto-Nummer 2900 60-308 (BLZ 700 202 70) Konto-Nummer 24 17 952 (BLZ 280 200 50) Konto-Nummer 508 50338 00 paypal@kuenker.de, Service charge: 3,5 %

ZAHLUNGEN AUS DEM AUSLAND FOREIGN PAYMENTS Deutsche Bank Osnabrück

IBAN: DE11 2657 0090 0017 7006 00 Swift-Code: DEUTDE3B265

Sparkasse Osnabrück

IBAN: DE50 2655 0105 0000 2473 20 Swift-Code: NOLADE22XXX

Postbank Hannover

IBAN: DE73 2501 0030 0290 0603 08 Swift-Code: PBNKDEFF

Credit Suisse

IBAN: CH43 0483 5177 3509 0200 0 Swift-Code: CRESCHZZ80A

Credit Cards

We do accept VISA and MASTERCARD, Service charge: 4,5 %

Paypal

376

paypal@kuenker.de, Service charge: 3,5 %

Profile for Fritz Rudolf Kuenker GmbH & Co. KG

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Raritäten aus Polen, Pommern und Schlesien - Die Sammlung "Polonica Reconciliata", Teil 1 | Münzen und Medaillen der Päpste - Eine bedeutend...

Auktion 233 Künker  

Raritäten aus Polen, Pommern und Schlesien - Die Sammlung "Polonica Reconciliata", Teil 1 | Münzen und Medaillen der Päpste - Eine bedeutend...