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Temecula/Vail Lake KOA

Trail Management Plan

Temecula/Vail Lake KOA

Vail Lake RV Resort, Gooseneck Bay Landing, Vail Lake Marina and Day Use Adventure Center

Prepared for: Rancho California Water District Submitted by: KAMP- VL, LLC with KAMPGROUNDS ENTERPRISES, INC. (KEI) Prepared by: KTUA, Planning and Landscape Architecture Rincon Consultants, Inc. Prepared : February 2019


Temecula/Vail Lake KOA

Project Team KAMPGROUNDS ENTERPRISES, INC. KTUA RINCON CONSULTANTS, INC.

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Trail Management Plan

Table of Contents

List of Figures

1. Project Overview

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2. Camp Improvement Goals

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3. Notes on Initial Design Efforts

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4. Overall Intent of Temecula/Vail Lake KOA Trail Program

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5. Trail Management Guidelines

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6. Proposed Management Areas

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7. Lessor Constraints and Requirements

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8. Mtn. Bike Trail System Existing Conditions

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9. Determining Use Levels and Use Areas

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10. Organizations with Interests and Trail Volunteer Efforts

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11. Proposed Trail Typology

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12. Mtn. Bike Trail Difficulty Rating

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13. Mtn. Bike Trail Modification Recommendations

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14. Vail Village and Campground Trails

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15. Equestrian Trail Management Area

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16. Vail Lake Trails Overview

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17. Amenities to Support Trail Program

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18. Monitoring and Management

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19. Trail Maintenance Program

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20. User Fee Structure

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21. Access Control / Permits / Monitoring

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Figure 1: Project Vicinity Map Figure 2: Trail Management Areas Figure 3: Existing Trails – Mountain Bike Trail Management Area Figure 4: Erodibility Map – Mountain Bike Trail Management Area Figure 5: Slope Map – Mountain Bike Trail Management Area Figure 6: Recommended Disposition of All Mountain Bike Trail Management Area Trails Figure 7: Existing Village Area Trail Improvements Figure 8: Disposition of Village Area Trail Improvements Figure 9: Existing Trails – Equestrian Trail Management Area Figure 10: Slope Map – Equestrian Trail Management Area Figure 11: Erodibility Map – Equestrian Trail Management Area Figure 12: Recommended Disposition of All Equestrian Trail Management Area Trails Figure 13: Overview of All Vail Lake Trails Figure 14: Kiosk and Signage Locations

01 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 19

List of Tables Table 1: IMBA Trail Difficulty Rating System Table Table 2: User Fee Structure Table 3: Mileage of Combined Trails

08 23 24

22. Conclusions 24 23. Repair and Upgrades Projects

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24. Resources 24

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Temecula/Vail Lake KOA

1. Project Overview

Figure 1: Project Vicinity Map

KAMP-VL, LLC (KAMP) as the future operator (lessee and licensee) for the Temecula / Vail Lake KOA (see Figure 1) intends to upgrade the Vail Lake RV Resort (renamed as the Temecula / Vail Lake KOA Resort) into a premier Southern California family camping destination. KAMP’s mission is to create a community of satisfied camping guests from both local, national, and international origins, encouraging them to explore the natural resources, take part in the many activities offered by the surrounding landscape, and enjoy an abundance of on-site recreation activities. The overall plan strives to create unique, family-oriented campground experiences through an assortment of existing recreational activities and a range of high-quality accommodation offerings to appeal to an expansive and diverse market. KAMP’s approach is designed to leverage and maximize the revenue of the existing operable campground areas, maintain a high level of service during redevelopment, and minimize disruptions to guests on site by rotating through various areas or “neighborhoods” of the campground.

2. Camp Improvement Goals KAMP strives to provide safe and fun recreational opportunities to connect guests with their natural surroundings, with the aquatic resources of the lake, with the trails system of the adjacent hills, with other campers and enthusiasts and into natural areas through camping, boating, playing or through the use of mountain biking, hiking and equestrian uses. At the same time, KAMP wants to provide experiences for guests and visitors that will have minimal impact on the surrounding lake and surrounding natural areas. KAMP hopes to operate a successful rental business of equipment to explore the trails as well as creating opportunities for education, skill development and a venue for various mountain bike race events and activities as well as providing hiking paths and educational opportunities for visiting school’s and guests

3. Notes on Initial Design Efforts Diagrams, site plans, precedence photos and written descriptions in this study are not intended to represent a final plan for the upgraded facilities. They represent the likely elements that will be included and are in the area preferred by KAMP and identified as polygons on many of the maps and figures. However, without the benefit of engineering, design and adequate base maps, the actual configuration of the project elements is likely to evolve. Detailed site plans, elevations, perspectives and engineering feasibility has not been done and will be affected by subsequent environmental review, CUP County conformance review, technical studies, cost estimating and site planning efforts at subsequent stages of the development process. These design development products will also be affected by final construction document preparation, final budget constraints and building code and policy interpretations discovered through the building permit process. This document is limited, however, to upgrades, restorations and modifications to existing facilities in support of existing uses. New construction is not part of this program, with the definition of an upgrade as improvements, changed materials and modifications to an existing facility that is based on an existing use that does not result in new disturbances around the existing facility (not including a construction buffer of 10’-20’) nor something that would introduce a new use or an increase in capacity of this new use. This Trail Management Plan is intended to help direct the development of guidelines to sustain, maintain and manage the extensive existing trail network across designated a Mountain Biking and Equestrian Trail Management Area, all within the Temecula/Vail Lake KOA open space. These guidelines and management practices will be part of the lease agreement between the lessee, KAMP-VL, with KEI as the management entity, and the land owner/ lessor, the Rancho California Water District (RCWD).

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4. Overall Intent of Temecula/Vail Lake KOA Trail Program In keeping with Rancho California Water District’s (RCWD) trail recreation objective to provide a variety of multi-purpose trails utilizing existing roads and trails for equestrian use, mountain biking, and hiking. It is the goal of the lessee to make the trail network a regional destination for mountain biking, with managed existing trail systems that challenge experienced riders, while also introducing novice riders to the sport. Trails will be available to all camping guests as a part of their overnight fees, and will also be available to day use, annual pass, and special event guests. The trails within the designated Mountain Bike Trail Management Area will be available for other non-motorized uses such as hiking, trail running, and other endurance and trail-based events. Equestrian use is planned to take place east of the Village in an Equestrian Trail Management Area designated for this use (see Figure 1) to take advantage of existing equestrian infrastructure, and to safely separate use types. Motorized recreational vehicle use on trails will be prohibited with the exception of Class 1 or Type 1 E-bikes as defined by State of CA guidelines, as well as necessary equipment and camp vehicles for trail maintenance, emergencies and safety.


Trail Management Plan

5. Trail Management Guidelines Based on review of existing plans and industry best practices, this plan addresses management practices for a sustainable, natural surface, multipurpose recreational trail system. The recommended Temecula/Vail Lake KOA trail management guidelines took into account existing County of Riverside Trail Design Standards, as well as regional and national guidelines for natural surface open space trails, including those of the International Mountain Bicycling Association (IMBA) and the National Park Service, the acknowledged sustainable trail experts. The resulting trail guidelines are to be used to manage the existing trail network and to address any future trail modifications.

6. Proposed Management Areas The lease associated with Temecula / Vail Lake KOA, will include several management areas. Figure 2 shows the Mountain Bike Trail Management Area, the Equestrian Trail Management Area and the Vail Lake Village In Camp areas. Other trails exist throughout Vail Lake, that will not be part of the Management Area and will therefore not be monitored by Temecula / Vail Lake KOA.

7. Lessor Constraints and Requirements This plan aims for consistency with the Rancho California Water District’s operating objectives for Temecula/Vail Lake KOA, as described in the lease RFP and Property Guidance Document: Continue to provide the existing mountain biking activities, equestrian activities, and provide additional trail recreation activities in support of the Temecula/Vail Lake KOA operation. The Lessee will be required to perform the following during the term of the lease:     

Maintenance of existing trails, the lake access road, recreation facilities, and replacement of the existing perimeter fencing, and signage. Maintenance of access gates for the Lease Area and recreational use areas.

The Lessee may provide trail recreation activities, as generally described in the Property Guidance Document, during the term of the lease, within the following parameters:        

       

Lessee to manage and provide exclusive trail recreation activities for the Temecula/Vail Lake KOA guests and the daily-use visitors; Trails are intended to be multi-purpose trails for equestrian, mountain biking, and hiking uses; Interpretive trails should be provided within and near the Temecula/ Vail Lake KOA area for historical, cultural, and biological education purposes; Some trails may need to be designated for mountain bike purposes only; No new trails allowed without RCWD’s prior approval and county/environmental clearance; Motorized recreational vehicle use on trails is prohibited;

 

 

 

Some trails may be used by RCWD’s or Temecula / Vail Lake KOA personnel with the use of motorized vehicles for District or Lessee purposes, Type 1/Class 1 E-bikes excepted; All camp paved roads will be allowed for use by all uses, including scooters, bikes, electric bikes (1E) and electric or gas golf carts. Golf carts will also be allowed on Lake Road, Morena Road and the Old Dam Road. Special events shall comply with County of Riverside permit requirements.

8. Mtn. Bike Trail System Existing Conditions Digitizing from high-resolution aerial photographs highlighted virtually every conceivable trail segment within the RCWD property. These are shown in Figure 63, and have been ranked per individual segments, as average slopes based on topographic conditions. Vegetation within the Trail Management Areas is primarily chamise chaparral with substantial levels of disturbance. Vegetation is generally sparse enough that the surface soil and rock is readily visible. There are areas of non-native grassland, as well as stands of mature oak woodland in the larger canyons. Outside of these canyons, shade is rare. Visually, the Trail Management Areas are highlighted by a distinctive series of ridges and canyons running from southeast to northwest. Those within the Mountain Bike Trail Management Area rise to a ridgeline forming the western horizon formed by Oak Mountain when viewed from the central Temecula/Vail Lake KOA village area. On-site trails found within Vail Village and the Campground areas, were reviewed for their ability to connect different parts of the RV resort for inner camp connections and to identify trails that are problematic with slope and erosion problems. This included analysis of existing overall trail sustainability based on soil erodibility, topography and natural features, observed usage patterns, user groups, and connectivity with other Temecula/Vail Lake KOA facilities.

8.1 Trails in Lease Area to be monitored by Licensee The full study area incorporated the land ownership of the Rancho California Water District, but trails assessment was specifically focused on defined Trail Management Areas. Separate mountain bike and equestrian use areas were designated, with mountain biking generally west of the Temecula/Vail Lake KOA village core and equestrian activity generally to the east of the village and south of Vail Lake. All trails in the two management areas will either be managed, maintained and monitored by Temecula / Vail Lake KOA as active trails or they will be signed for closing. Trail outside of the management areas and those not covered by the licensed roadways and back country roads will not be managed and monitored by the Lessee. The vast majority of managed routes within the Trail Management Areas are natural surface single-track trails with widths varying between one and six feet, primarily along ridgelines and within parallel canyons. These are shown in Figure 4 as solid blue lines. There are also two natural surface roads and one gravel road within the Mountain Bike Trail Management Area, including a segment known as Ambulance Road that runs generally northwest-south-

Camp trail to close (sensitive habitat)

Camp trail to close (excessively steep)

east west of the village core, Oak Mountain Road, a gravel road paralleling the western shore of Vail Lake, and a ridgeline dirt road segment that connects these two, known as the Dam Road. These three roadway segments form a continuous loop loosely circling the Mountain Bike Trail Management Area and are shown on the figures as red dashed lines. Together, these single-track trails and dirt/gravel roads form a well-connected trail network with a number of potential loop routes. However, downhill-friendly riding routes far outnumber uphill-friendly routes. Some existing trails can be made to create more friendly uphill routes. Within the Mountain Bike Trails Management Area, most users ride up Ambulance Road, from which they can then take advantage of numerous downhill routes

8.2 Trails to remain but will not be maintained or monitored by Licensee Only trails within the Trail Management Areas will be subject to the plan’s recommended management practices, and trails outside these areas will be marked as “out-of-bounds” and unmaintained, with their use being at the user’s own risk. These trails are different than those that have serious enough of problems that they need to be closed and either barriered and signed or revegetated. PAGE

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Temecula/Vail Lake KOA

Figure 2: Trail Management Areas

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Trail Management Plan

Figure 3: Existing Trails – Mountain Bike Trail Management Area

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Temecula/Vail Lake KOA

Figure 4: Erodibility Map – Mountain Bike Trail Management Area

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Trail Management Plan

Figure 5: Slope Map – Mountain Bike Trail Management Area

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Temecula/Vail Lake KOA

8.3 Closed trails due to erosion, redundancy or sensitivity Slope and erodibility data were compiled for both Trail Management Areas as shown on Figure 4 and 5. These formed the basis of recommended trail closures. The trail alignments shown in Figure 6 include closed trails as well as non-monitored or managed trails that are to remain open. While digitizing highlighted virtually every conceivable trail segment, not all are intended to remain since many are short, redundant segments, and others are outside the designated Trail Management Areas. Primarily due to issues of steepness and redundancy, trails not recommended to remain are shown as light colored dashed lines. It is likely that the removal of many of these shortcut “stubs” will not only help focus management commitments on the more popular trails, but will improve the riding experience by directing mountain bikers and other users to the higher quality, more established, and sustainable routes. Some parallel stubs and areas will be preserved to create strategic pullout areas to allow for riders to stop and clear the trail if needing to take a break. The majority of existing trails within the Mountain Bike Trail Management Area are recommended to be retained and have been highlighted in Figure 6. These are known to be regularly used based on discussions with experienced mountain bikers, field evaluation and review of several online crowd-sourced mapping resources such as Strava, Trailforks, and MTB Project, as well as the National Interscholastic Cycling Association (NICA), and race organizer SoCal Endurance, both of which hold annual race series at the Temecula/Vail Lake KOA trails. For this Trail Management Plan, a data base developed from the digitized mapping includes numbering to distinguish individual trail segments within the Mountain Bike Trail Management Area. One issue in compiling this comprehensive mapping is that the various data sources utilize different names for the same segments. A component of future trail management will be to codify trail identification with numbers and/or names consistent across all mapping types, such as on trailhead kiosk maps and within mobile mapping apps. Some contiguous trail segments will be combined under a single trail alignment because they are already well known and recognized as a specific route, such as “Ambulance Road,” or simply “Ambulance,” depending on the source. Intersections of identified trail segments are indicated with diamond-shaped symbols to help distinguish the beginning and end of individual segments and to help define specific sign locations in future signage planning and implementation.

ditions. The actual number of day uses passes allowed would need to be determined based on these other factors and based upon monitoring the system for signs of excessive use levels. The number of day use riders per day figure should factor in Temecula/Vail Lake KOA’s camping guests who are actively riding as well. A 10% reserve for RCWD rate payers will be maintained to ensure rate payer use of trail network.

10. Organizations with Interests and Trail Volunteer Efforts For trail system maintenance and some trail construction projects, many public open space managers have had to address budgetary constraints by depending on volunteers led by knowledgeable advocates trained in trail design and construction to help maintain their trail networks. While no formal mountain biking interest group is known to exist in the Temecula area, local shops contacted for this management plan suggested mountain bikers who regularly ride the Temecula/Vail Lake KOA area’s trails may be a ready source of knowledgeable volunteers willing to work on trail projects. THE Bike Shop, for example, suggested that trail work events should take place on Sundays when their shop is closed and that the lessee should coordinate trail work events to take advantage of THE Bike Shop’s extensive contacts to help generate interest and to publicize events. Due to weekend traffic, most trail work will be done during non-peak days of the week. The high school race teams that participate in the annual National Interscholastic Cycling Association (NICA) race series may be available to help perform routine trail maintenance. Another potential resource may be requiring follow-up trail maintenance as part of event site use permit obligations for mountain bike events (such as by race organizer SoCal Endurance) after using the Temecula/Vail Lake KOA trail network. Finally, the regional bicycle advocacy group (Inland Empire Bicycle Alliance) and regional mountain biking advocacy groups (San Diego Mountain Biking Association and Inland Valley Mountain Bike Association) may be additional sources for knowledgeable volunteers.

Existing single-track trails

Existing downhill trails

9. Determining Use Levels and Use Areas Classifying use levels can be determined through analysis of daily entrance logs since mountain bikers must stop at the entrance booth to pay a fee and sign a release. Use areas can be determined through regular trail area monitoring, especially on weekends when the majority of use occurs. This monitoring could also be accomplished, at least in part, by volunteers. The overall goal of use levels would be to maximize use without overtaxing the mountain bike trail system from a safety or trail wear and tear perspective. Some of this may be seasonal, some of it may be based on weather conPAGE

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Volunteers

Typical single-track trail conditions


Trail Management Plan

11. Proposed Trail Typology

12. Mtn. Bike Trail Difficulty Rating

11.1 Wide access Back Country Roads

Establishing a mountain bike trail difficulty rating system can help trail users make informed decisions about trails that match their skill level. A trail difficulty rating system provides the management benefits of reduced risk and injuries, which improves users’ experience, as well as aids in the planning of any rehabilitated or re-routed trails in the future. It is recommended that this trail network employ a rating system that focuses on how technically challenging a trail segment is, not the physical exertion of riding it. It is not practical to rate both types of difficulty simultaneously. Instead, it works best to independently rate technical challenge, and to indicate physical exertion by posting trail segment length and elevation change. Where it is not immediately obvious when viewed from the sign location that the trail segment trends up or down, cumulative elevation change can be shown as a positive or negative number. The accompanying International Mountain Biking Association (IMBA) Trail Difficulty Rating System table (Table 1) describes a list of trail measurements for several criteria.

This category type is represented by existing dirt or gravel roads, including a segment known as Ambulance Road that runs generally northwest-southeast west of the village core, Oak Mountain Road, and Lake Road, a gravel road paralleling the western shore of Vail Lake, and a dirt road segment that connects these two, known as the Dam Road. These three roadway segments form a continuous loop circling the trails area.

11.2 Two-way single-track trails These trails usually make up the bulk of open space trail networks and are represented by the existing single-track trails of similar width. These trails are intended to provide a riding and hiking experience amenable to wide range of users, and to be equally navigable uphill or down.

11.3 One-way downhill single-track trails These trails make up a significant amount of the Temecula/Vail Lake KOA trail network within the Mountain Bike Trail Management Area. These trails are generally steeper than the two-way trails and often include technical challenges, such as drop-offs and rocky segments. Due to likely downhill speeds and other considerations, they are intended to be used in the downhill direction only.

Difficulty level sign

Table 1: IMBA Trail Difficulty Rating System Table Easiest

Easy

More Difficult

Very Difficult

Extremely Difficult

White Circle

Green Circle

Blue Square

Black Diamond

Double Black Diamond

(Beginner)

(Beginner)

(Intermediate)

(Expert)

(Advanced)

Trail Width

72” or more

36” or more

24” or more

12” or more

6” or more

Trail Surface

Hardened or surfaced

Firm and stable

Mostly stable with some variability

Widely variable

Widely variable and unpredictable

Average Trail Grade

Less than 5%

5% or less

10% or less

15% or less

20% or more

Maximum Trail Grade

Max 10%

Max 15%

Max 15% or greater

Max 15% or greater

Max 15% or greater

Natural Obstacles and Technical Trail Features (TTFs)

None

Signage Symbol

Rocks

Bypass

Unavoidable obstacles 2” Unavoidable obstacles 15” Unavoidable obstacles 15” Unavoidable obstacles 15” or less tall or less tall or less tall or less Avoidable obstacles may be present

Avoidable obstacles may be present

Avoidable obstacles may be present

Avoidable obstacles may be present

Unavoidable bridges 36” or wider

Unavoidable bridges 24” or wider

Unavoidable bridges 24” or wider

Unavoidable bridges 24” or narrower

TTFs 24” high or less, deck width less than half of height

TTFs 48” high or less, deck width less than half of height

TTFs 48” high or less, deck width unpredictable

Short sections may exceed criteria

Short sections may exceed criteria

Many sections may exceed criteria

May include loose rocks

May include loose rocks

Extreme grade

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Temecula/Vail Lake KOA

While there is no prescribed method for tallying a trail segment’s “score” based on these criteria, each one should be evaluated against the table and a score assigned using professional judgment and experienced trail user input. It is unlikely that any particular trail segment will measure at the same difficulty level for every criterion. For example, a trail segment may rate as green in three criteria, but blue in two other criteria. Some open spaces employ hybrid ratings to address cases like this, signing such a trail with both blue and green symbols. Trail designations are shown on Figure 6. Because of the nature of the sporting activity associated with these trails, the fact that these trails are all existing, and the very steep nature of the area, these trails are not intended to be accessible under American’s with Disabilities Act (ADA). If future trails are considered, it may be important to provide similar levels of outdoor experience that are accessible or accessible to the point of where the requirements do not permanently change natural and cultural resources.

13. Mtn. Bike Trail Modification Recommendations 13.1 Overall recommendations During a typical day of mountain biking on Temecula/Vail Lake KOA’s trails, experienced riders ride up Ambulance Road and then turn off it to ride back toward the trailhead area via any of several different trails, all trending downhill. They repeat this through the course of their day’s riding, often returning via a number of routes that trend downhill, followed by trips back up Ambulance Road. While this is acceptable for fit and experienced riders, Ambulance Road poses a steep challenge for novices or families. Also, once they reach the higher elevation areas of the Mountain Bike Trails Management Area, most of the routes available to take them back downhill are considered difficult for novices. Not only are they relatively steep, they are often interspersed with what may be unexpected technical challenges, such as very rough rocky areas and drop-offs. While many experienced riders consider these technical challenges an asset, novices may be unprepared for them and unwilling to take the risk to try them. Even with their overall downhill trend, some trails also have short but extremely steep uphill segments. Most of these steep segments were cut into the underlying sandstone of Temecula/Vail Lake KOA area’s ridgelines and are therefore sustainable, but they are daunting challenges to novice or inexperienced riders, most of whom must stop and push their bikes up these slopes. In some cases, these extremely steep segments occur in a wave-like series. In the central portion of the Management Area network, within the area accessed primarily from the Lower Merlot trailhead, topography is less steep and there are less technical challenges than the southwestern portion accessed from the entrance trailhead. There are more trails that riders can use to both climb and return to the trailhead. Even so, while this area’s trail segments are more conducive for novice riders, many are fairly steep. PAGE

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13.2 Jump line recommendations The existing jump line is a popular feature, especially among younger riders. Typical of well-designed jump parks, a return access trail separate from the downhill-only jump line gives riders a safer route to use for return trips to repeat their downhill jump runs. However, the overall jump area has several issues that need to be addressed. While the existing return trail is separate from the jump line for most of its length, the uppermost segment merges with the primary downhill jump line, and actually runs up the face of the most popular start hill. This forces all riders to have to climb up to the start point while riders ready to go must wait for the uphill riders to clear the trail before they can begin their runs. The return trail route should be modified and signed to be separate from the downhill-only jump line. Within the overall jump line, smaller table top jumps are interspersed with larger tabletops, and even full gap jumps. For safety reasons, these should be separated into a series of jump lines of different skill levels. A single jump line can accommodate multiple skill levels by providing a progressively scaled series of jumps at each location. Some bike parks include as many as four different sized jumps across a jump line, scaled from largest to smallest and clearly marked. Where possible, multiple take-off options for the same jump can accommodate various skills. The pitch of the ramp, landing area and length of the tabletop should be taken into account when modifying the difficulty. Proposed grading is very limited and constitutes a rehabilitation of these areas and not new construction. The installation of signage is also considered to be an upgrade and not new construction. Markings of degree of difficulty can be incorporated in colored lines defining each ramp. Such progressive skills jump lines should be table tops, reserving gap jumps for the expert level jump lines only. Also, the existing jump line and return trail cross each other at several locations. To avoid conflicts, these overlaps should be closed, modified and/or signed to keep them separate. Uphill from where most riders begin their jump runs are at least two large gap jumps. There is an existing bypass that allows riders to avoid these jumps, but it also bypasses the primary start hill. In addition it may be necessary to modify the tabletop to be a larger gap jump for safety purposes. Finally, signage is needed to direct users to stay on the return trail and not ride up the jump lines. This was observed during field work and the issue was raised by users as an annoyance and a safety issue. Signage is also recommended to clearly differentiate the proposed progressive jump line’s different skill levels. Signage should also note that users must to wear helmets to use this jump line, and recommend helmets for all other areas as well.

14. Vail Village and Campground Trails Aside from the Mountain Bike and Equestrian Trail Management Areas, several improvements of existing trails are proposed within the Temecula/Vail Lake KOA village core as part of planned capital improvements. These would be primarily intra-camp single-track routes for better pedestrian connectivity

between existing and planned destinations within the core area (see Figure 7). These are intended to allow guests to travel around the campground area without having to walk on the paved roadways shared by motor vehicles. Some of these trail improvements are intended to allow guests to travel around the campground area without having to walk on the paved roadways shared by motor vehicles. Others provide better connections to the adjacent Mountain Bike Trail Management Area and other proposed improvements to the Vail Village Campground and Resort area. Recommending trails for closure within this area is primarily due to their excessively steep routes subject to erosion, as well as a segment within the creek channel. A significant portion of the trails recommended in this area represent formalization of existing trails with appropriate upgrades. No new trails are proposed, just modifications to existing trails to avoid erosion and excessively steep hills. Figure 8 is a disposition summary of the proposed trails in the Camp Area.

15. Equestrian Trail Management Area 15.1 Equestrian trail Existing trails that are found in the equestrian management area are shown on Figure 9. Analysis of slopes, steepness and erodability are shown on Figure 10 and 11. Recommended disposition of trails in the Equestrian Trail Management Area are shown on Figure 12. The proposed network system includes the use of Dam Road and Lake Road to connect the northwestern portion of the site that may eventually be reconnected with Butterfield Valley with upgraded trails (not proposed under this initial management plan), to Gooseneck Bay, the campgrounds and the existing Equestrian Center and the Equestrian Trail Management Area. These connections will require upgrades to several roadside equestrian trails that have not be used for a number of years. They will need to follow along the edge of the upgraded Marina Road that runs by the equestrian center. No grading or clearing would be required for this trail rehabilitation. It is anticipated that most equestrian activity will initiate at the parking and staging areas located at the existing equestrian center. This center will only include upgraded staging areas, renovation of the barn, parking areas and the open paddock. No new construction or uses are proposed. The Equestrian Trail Management Area will have a looped set of trails that start at the equestrian center and find their way through the ridgelines of the hills. One connection would be maintained down to Gooseneck Bay and one connection to the Marina Area. Some trails would also be upgraded south of Marina Road to allow for additional trail options leading from or to the Equestrian Center.

16. Vail Lake Trails Overview A number of other trails outside of the management areas will remain open, although not managed and monitored (see Figure 13). For a summary of trail mileages, please see Table 3.


Trail Management Plan

Figure 6: Recommended Disposition of All Mountain Bike Trail Management Area Trails

VAIL LAKE TRAILS Camp Roads

Mountain Bike Trails (In Order of Difficulty)

Double Black (downhill only) Black (downhill only) Blue (two-way) Green (two-way)

Radio Tower Viewpoint Major Trailhead

General Trails Multi-Use Trails Backcountry Roads Equestrian/Hiking Trails Camp Trails Proposed Closed Trails

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Temecula/Vail Lake KOA

Figure 7: Existing Village Area Trail Improvements

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Trail Management Plan

Figure 8: Disposition of Village Area Trail Improvements

VAIL LAKE TRAILS Camp Roads

Mountain Bike Trails (In Order of Difficulty)

Double Black (downhill only) Black (downhill only) Blue (two-way) Green (two-way)

Radio Tower Viewpoint Major Trailhead

General Trails Multi-Use Trails Backcountry Roads Equestrian/Hiking Trails Camp Trails Proposed Closed Trails

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Temecula/Vail Lake KOA

Figure 9: Existing Trails – Equestrian Trail Management Area

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Trail Management Plan

Figure 10: Slope Map – Equestrian Trail Management Area

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Temecula/Vail Lake KOA

Figure 11: Erodibility Map – Equestrian Trail Management Area

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Trail Management Plan

Figure 12: Recommended Disposition of All Equestrian Trail Management Area Trails

VAIL LAKE TRAILS Camp Roads

Mountain Bike Trails (In Order of Difficulty)

Double Black (downhill only) Black (downhill only) Blue (two-way) Green (two-way)

Radio Tower Viewpoint Major Trailhead

General Trails Multi-Use Trails Backcountry Roads Equestrian/Hiking Trails Camp Trails Proposed Closed Trails

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Temecula/Vail Lake KOA

Figure 13: Overview of All Vail Lake Trails

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Trail Management Plan

17. Amenities to Support Trail Program 17.1 Mapping (hand-outs, kiosk maps, and mobile apps) Signage will be an integral part of trail network improvements, with a consistent naming or numbering system to distinguish each trail segment. Signage will consist of an integrated tiered system keyed to anticipated use levels at specific locations. For example, the two trailheads through which all users will pass will have kiosk with large maps depicting the entire network. These trailhead kiosks should include, along with a complete map, a description of the nearby trails and facilities, regulations, emergency contact information, and relevant educational information. In addition to emergency contact information, the map should also indicate the locations of potential medical pick up locations and evacuation zones. Included in the map also should be the Fire response plan and necessary information for fire emergency evacuation to the village area for shelter in place procedures. Trailhead Kiosks should also advise of snake danger as well as safety information such as hydration concerns, heat stroke prevention etc. These trailhead kiosks will be rebuilt where existing trailheads are. They will consist of vertical wood in concrete footings with a roof line and a glass enclosed mapping panel system. No grading or clearing is to be done for these kiosks. The signage and trail identification system may be coordinated with development of a GPS-enabled trail map feature on a Temecula/Vail Lake KOA mobile device app. Ideally, this map should be easily downloadable by the user at the trailhead using available QR tag reader apps to scan a QR tag on the trailhead kiosk map to access the proper HTML file.

17.2 Directional and regulatory signage at trail starts Trailhead kiosks are ideal places to describe trail lengths and relative difficulty to help visitors make decisions about which trails to take. Kiosks can also be centralized places to post information concerning upcoming races, trail work, or other relevant events. Printed maps should be available at these locations as well. The locations of the proposed trail signage are shown on Figure 14. This signage is placed at all areas where a trail stops or where a secondary choice of a trail intersects with the primary trail. In some cases, where these signs on the map are next to a closed trail, the sign will indicate “trail closed”. No grading or clearing will be allowed for the installation of these signs with a requirement to put them only in disturbed, non-vegetated disturbed areas at the start of each trail system. The signage type proposed has very little digging or drilling required for its footing system, thereby limiting any on the ground disturbance.

17.3 Directional signage at trail intersections Major trail intersections will have signs incorporating smaller maps of the immediate area, specifically highlighting the next intersection along each departing trail segment. To aid cognitive wayfinding, vertically placed maps should be oriented in the primary direction of travel. Horizontally placed maps should be oriented by compass direction. These maps should also provide a clear “you are here” indicator, basic rules, emergency contact information, map coordinates, and/or first responder location indicators to help emergency workers to quickly reach injured users.

Mobile device mapping services could also be provided through an existing app like Trailforks, which provides a number of useful functions, and is available as a free download. It is currently the most accurate rendition of Temecula/Vail Lake KOA’s trails and allows users to post condition reports in real time, which Temecula/Vail Lake KOA trail staff could monitor. Other useful Trailforks features include the ability to download high resolution map files for printing, such as for use at mountain bike races or other events.

Trailforks screen grab (Relative popularity)

Trail intersection map with coordinates and distance information

Trailhead kiosk

Intersection sign with coordinates and elevation profile

Intersection sign with coordinates and difficulty rating PAGE

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Temecula/Vail Lake KOA

Figure 14: Kiosk and Signage Locations

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Trail Management Plan

The major trail intersection associated directional signs need to provide clear, concise directional information on how to stay on the desired trail or return to a trailhead. Trail level of difficulty icons should be clearly displayed, and if access rules are different among trails meeting at an intersection, both allowed and prohibited activities should be indicated using standard icons. This is especially important where one-way and two-way trails intersect. All other intersections will have composite “Carsonite” type flexible signs designating trail by name or number in each departing direction, as well as designated direction of travel. Other information may include level of difficulty, emergency contact information, map coordinates, and/or first responder location indicators.

though the day use initial limit has been set at 250 persons, the maximum parking limit could accommodate up to 500 persons, assuming an average of 2 persons / riders per vehicle. Given this assumption, 75 spaces in the Day Use area and 50 spaces in Lower Merlot, would equate to the 250 day use capacity initially set for the Mountain Bike Management Area.

17.5 Staging for special events (Mountain biking, runs, endurance events, etc.)

In addition jump lines and terrain features will also have a warning sign for options to “go around” or advising riders that there is no way to avoid the terrain features and to ride at their ability level.

The Temecula/Vail Lake KOA and its existing trail network provide a rare opportunity within southern California to accommodate large mountain bike events like the annual National Interscholastic Cycling Association (NICA) and SoCal Enduro race series. The campground amenities are in close proximity to the trail network within the Mountain Bike Trail Management Area, making the site particularly well suited to hosting such race events. In addition, the extensive trail network permits the routing of race courses that take racers out and back on multiple connecting trail segments, often totaling more than 10 miles per race lap, but never having to be more than one and a half miles from the start/finish line. This keeps the race course easily accessible to spectators, race staff, and first responders, when necessary. Special event staging will likely continue to occur near the Lower Merlot campground trailhead where most events start and finish. This will require participants to drive through the village and campgrounds to designated parking and staging areas.

17.4 Trail day use parking

17.6 Technical features

Fix-it station

Successful implementation of trail network improvements will result in increased use, and associated increases in parking demand. The existing day use parking area can be expanded northward and its parking spaces marked for greater efficiency. An estimated 100 to 150 vehicles could be accommodated in this area, depending on parking stall arrangement. Straight in 90 degree stalls eight feet wide would yield the most parking spaces. In Addition, parking and staging areas located in the Lower Merlot campground area, would accommodate another 50-100 vehicles. Al-

The Mountain Bike Trail Management Area’s existing trail network may be enhanced with additional challenge features similar to those that would be included in the proposed bike park. These could include man-made and natural jumps, berms, drop-offs, ladder bridges, rollers, or other features built into existing and rehabilitated trails. The level of difficulty should be calibrated with the affected trail. On blue and green level trails, all such challenge features should be parallel with the trail with the option to try it, along with explanatory signage.

Bike park

Day use parking

Trailside technical feature

Warning sign

Finally, unnecessary trail signage results in visual clutter and wasted resources. In most cases, restricting wayfinding signage to trailheads and intersections is appropriate. Warning signs may be employed as needed, placed well in advance of challenging trail features, such as drop-offs or other manufactured or natural elements. Signage will also need to be placed at the bottom of each trail indicating whether the trail is one-way, or two way. Signs at the bottom of one way trails will display clear “DO NOT ENTER-one way trail”

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Temecula/Vail Lake KOA

18. Monitoring and Management 18.1 Weather-related closure requirements

Bike park sign

During the development of this management plan, experienced mountain bikers familiar with the Temecula/Vail Lake KOA area’s trails indicated that they have a reputation for drying and returning to ridable condition rapidly following rains. Even so, weather conditions may require trail closure, especially following heavy rains to prevent damage to saturated soils. Most soils within the Trail Management Area appear to drain well, but the lessee would have the responsibility to close the trail network as needed to protect it from use until it has sufficiently dried. Pre-heavy storm events and post-heavy storm event decisions will need to be made by park managers based on expected soil or flooding problems. Three trail types near the trail heads should be identified to have park personnel determine if the Mountain Bike trails should be closed. A low trail, a hillside trail and a ridgeline trail should be selected in areas where muddy conditions have been found in the past. A decision in the early morning would be made and campground signage at the entrance and at staging areas would be changed to “trails closed due to weather and soil conditions”. Staff at the entrance gate would tell visitors, especially day use customers, that trails are closed. In addition, the Vail Lake-Temecula. System-wide closure should be widely disseminated so users do not come to the Temecula/Vail Lake KOA only to be disappointed. A closure sign may be appropriate at each trailhead.

18.2 Ongoing trailhead monitoring It is likely that ongoing trailhead monitoring can be efficiently incorporated into routine scheduled facilities and operations monitoring because both trailheads are in close proximity and clearly visible from either the Lower Merlot campground or the Temecula/Vail Lake KOA entrance.

18.3 Regular use levels and conditions monitoring Use levels and trail conditions will be monitored on a regular basis to prevent relatively minor issues from becoming major repairs. This may be done by Temecula/Vail Lake KOA staff or by partnering with local riders and rider organizations whose members regularly use the trail network. Trail capacity is initially set at 250 persons, given parking restrictions and other capacity issues. This capacity would not affect special events since parking and restroom facility capacity has to be addressed with additional permitting and approval processes. The management of these areas will need to be dynamic and adjusted based on monitoring results and tracked closely to see at what point do parking problems, gate congestion or trail use become excessive. The trail capacity will be adjusted after two years of monitoring, if it is found that 250 persons has resulted in any problems.

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18.4 Defining trail direction Within the Mountain Bike Trail Management Area, safety considerations such as likely downhill user speeds and sight distance zones will require defining some trails as downhill only. In particular, steeper trails on which high speeds can easily be generated should be designated one-way downhill. Wider, less steep trails and dirt roads should be designated as two-way, especially if they provide access to the upper ends of other steeper, high speed trails. Where one-way use is required, trail direction should be clearly conveyed on all trail signage, trailhead maps, and within trail map mobile apps. Oneway trails should also be designated for mountain bike use only. According to both the trail map given to mountain bikers upon entry and mobile device mapping apps reviewed for this Trails Management Plan, many of the existing trails are considered to be downhill only, while some are considered two-way, including the existing dirt roads considered to be the best climbing routes. Defining trail use direction should be a function of a follow-up analysis as part of a trails master plan, with input from experienced users.

19. Trail Maintenance Program The lessee will be responsible for trail maintenance within the Trail Management Areas. Single-track trail maintenance will include regular tasks such as clearing brush or tree limbs encroaching on trails that may be limiting sight distance, maintaining signage and any technical trail features, and trail surface tread repairs. While vegetation clearing and sign maintenance can occur at any time, trail tread maintenance should be confined to periods of sufficient soil moisture. Soil moisture is considered sufficient when it allows crews to adequately pack soil to hold in place following their work. Otherwise, any construction will collapse under use or wash away in subsequent rains. This means that under typical Riverside County weather conditions, trail repairs should only take place in late fall through spring, depending on adequate rainfall. Occasional summer storms may deliver enough moisture to allow a window of opportunity for trail repairs, though such rain events usually barely penetrate the sunbaked soil. Maintenance will occur in accordance with inspection and rating systems described in the following sections. Priority will be given to access roads/ trails to be repaired and kept in accessible condition. Monthly maintenance on these trails will include but not be limited to:           

All necessary safety repairs Brush clearance Erosion control Maintaining service vehicle and emergency equipment access


Trail Management Plan

19.1 Monitoring Requirements

ROLLING GRADE DIP Overall View

Monitoring refers to a regular program of inspections and modifications to trails to note issues and provide corrective actions. Trails designated with difficulty ratings of beginner (green level) and intermediate (black level) shall be monitored through an inspection of the facility once per month with a total of 12 inspections annually scheduled. Trails designated as advanced (black level) or expert (double black level) will be inspected each quarter or every three months. Access roads/trails that provide emergency services access will be inspected twice per month. Further inspections shall occur after each of the following:           

Surface runoff

Significant rain events of more than 0.75 inches in a four hour period After race events Significant natural events such as earthquake or fire Notification from a trail user of significant trail degradation

An evaluation system of “RED, YELLOW, GREEN” are defined as follows:     

Side View

 

RED = Significant damage making riding dangerous or impassable. Will result in trail closure until damage can be addressed and repaired. YELLOW = Damage present and will require monitoring on more frequent basis. Maintenance to be scheduled for repair. Trail is not closed, but advice given via map information system and website that trail is in “Degraded Condition.” If further degradation is observed trail will move to RED status. GREEN = Trail is in good condition and is ready for use for riders consistent with degree of difficulty rating.

19.3 Feature maintenance Features include jumps, berms, bridges, crossings, and other purposefully constructed trail obstacles within the trail management area. These will be maintained to professional standard and replaced or rebuilt as deemed appropriate by inspection and consultation with industry experts. All features will be maintained to ensure sound construction and be made free from hazards or degradation that may unintentionally create an additional hazard. Features such as bridges and crossings will have good surfaces and will be free from tire puncture possibilities that may exist from splinters, nails, screws or other sharp objects.

19.4 Sign maintenance Trail signage is a key component of guest enjoyment and will be maintained on a monthly basis. Sign inspections will be conducted at the same interval as trail inspections and be made part of the overall inspection protocol. Signage will be maintained to be:              

Free from vegetation overgrowth that may impede sign visibility In a good readable condition with all text and information clear and free from fading As installed and not leaning or impeding normal trail flow Updated with current information As originally installed for orientation and directional assistance

Dip

Ramp

6-10 Feet

10-20 Feet

19.2 Trail maintenance

19.5 Communication plan

Construction Notes

Degree of difficulty will be taken into consideration when evaluating trails. Those of higher degree of difficulty will have higher tolerance for natural obstacles and hazards. Those with a lower degree of difficulty will have fewer natural obstacles. Maintenance frequency will be as follows:

Using a stand-alone website, all trail closures and conditions will be posted as soon as possible following changes to alert riders prior to their arrival. On-site at kiosks and the adventure center, trail conditions will be posted via a display, either electronic or otherwise, to advise those arriving of trail conditions. Trails closed for maintenance, safety, or other purposes will be physically blocked and signed. For those annual pass holders and “opt-in” subscribers, a text alert and communication system will be used to transmit daily and real time trail information to keep users informed of changing conditions. In addition, pushing updates to popular trail apps such as Strava, MTB Project, Trailforks/PinkBike will also occur regularly.

Purpose Captures and diverts water off trail to prevent erosion further downhill Subtle enough that users will hardly notice them and won’t feel the need to go around them Unlike water bars, broad enough to be self-cleaning

Dip should be longer than a bicycle Soil from dip is used to build a long gentle ramp downtrail from dip Ramp should be nearly twice as long as dip

       

Primary trails should be monitored at least once per month. Beginner (green level) and intermediate (blue level) trails will be maintained once per quarter or as deemed necessary by an inspection event. Advanced and expert trails will be maintained bi-annually or as deemed necessary by an inspection event.

Rolling grade dip illustration

19.6 Erosion or sediment control Within the Mountain Bike Trail Management Area, most single-track trail segments are in fair to good condition, and require minimal attention. However, some segments are unsustainably steep and suffer from significant erosion, most commonly manifested as ruts down the center of the trail. Unchecked, these ruts will continue to worsen during each winter’s rains, encouraging users to widen trails as they attempt to avoid the growing rutted portions. Lightly eroded segments are often easily addressed with minor surface alterations that direct surface runoff from the trail tread and prevent further pooling. This can often be done when soil moisture is relatively low because it involves simply removing soil from the trail downhill edge where it has piled up from use and prevented surface runoff.

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Jumps PAGE

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Moderately eroded segments may be addressed during periods when soil moisture is sufficient by installing erosion control features such as rolling grade dips. These features control longitudinal flows during and after rainfall by diverting them off the trail at regular intervals, preventing the runoff from achieving velocities high enough to cause erosion. The number of erosion control features needed is proportional to the trail grade and surface soil’s ability to hold in place following maintenance re-construction. A problematic trail segment may therefore require so many erosion control features to adequately manage surface runoff that it may be preferable to instead re-route it and allow the old alignment to revegetate.

19.9 Steep trail segments to remain

Severely and persistently eroding segments should be re-routed and their old alignments closed, scarified, and allowed to revegetate. The most severely eroding segments almost always correlate with excessive grades, so re-routes should avoid duplicating the original alignment’s problem and be built with shallower grades, such as a maximum of 5-6 percent. This will substantially increase trail segment length, but the reduced grade mitigates runoff velocity increases, preventing further significant erosion and also reduces the siltation impacts to streambeds below the trail. Such sustainable re-routes also greatly reduce future maintenance needs.

Other maintenance tasks may be necessary to address specific features. For instance, the existing jumps requires regular maintenance to maintain their desired shapes. Also, while none exist at present, technical trail features built of wood or other materials may be part of future development to increase technical challenge, and will require inspection intervals as previously listed.

19.7 Dangerous condition mitigations / trail closures When dangerous conditions occur, such as a washout that severely damages an existing trail to the point that continued use may constitute a hazard, the affected trail will need to be temporarily closed until repairs can be made. Such a closure needs to be signed clearly and emphatically, but also indicate the likely repair time table and suggested alternative routes. Permanent closures, such as the old alignment when a problematic trail has been re-routed, should be signed, as well as supported by physical barriers, followed by allowing the closed segment to revegetate. Closure signage has been shown to be most effective when they include the reason for closure and contact information to learn more about the cause. Some agencies also take this opportunity to solicit volunteer help for overall trail maintenance program. Closure signage needs to be placed at either end of the affected segment at the nearest intersections to prevent users from proceeding to the closed segment and having to backtrack or bypass it.

19.8 Parallel (redundant) trails In some cases, multiple trail alignments closely parallel with each other, sometimes repeatedly crossing each other, a problem known as “braiding.” This should be addressed by first determining why this trail braiding is occurring. Often, this is due to users attempting to avoid the ruts of eroded trail segments. In most cases, a single sustainable route can be created from segments of the redundant parallel routes, or the most badly eroding route can be closed and allowed to revegetate in lieu of keeping the more sustainable route. However, even the salvageable route will likely require some erosion control features to re-direct surface runoff in a sustainable manner.

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While excessively steep trail segments usually present persistent erosion problems, there are several exceptions within the existing Mountain Bike Trail Management Area network where segments were cut into steep sandstone that resists erosion. These steep segments are frequently included in race routing as significant challenges to climb or descend, yet remain in good condition. They should therefore be retained as is as signature features of the Temecula/Vail Lake KOA trail network.

19.10 Other maintenance tasks

19.11 Pro-active measures to control unwanted new trails through design and maintenance Unauthorized trail construction can be minimized through regular oversight. This can be done by partnering with local riders and rider organizations whose members regularly use the trail network. Keeping existing trails in ridable condition and maintaining a high quality trail network with varied experiences are the most effective ways to check unauthorized trail construction.

20. User Fee Structure Trail network access fees will continue to be charged for day use guests and visitors, and trail access will remain free for camping guests. Pedestrian access fees to use the trail network is included in the day use fees

Table 2: User Fee Structure Mountain Biking Customer Type Daily Rate Annual Pass General Public $5.00-$10.00 $150.00 RCWD Rate Payer $8.00 $120.00 School/Team $5.00 $100.00 Race Spectator $10 (Parking) N/A Hiking Customer Type Daily Rate Annual Pass General Public $8.00 $100.0 RCWD Rate Payer $5.00 $95.00 School/Scouts $2.50 N/A Equestrian Customer Type General Public RCWD Rate Payer Commercial Trail Ride

Daily Rate $20.00 /per horse $15.00/per horse $10/per horse

Annual Pass $150.00 $100.00 N/A

charged upon entry and mountain biking visitors will be charged a day use fee. The trail network will remain open for organized events and racing as well, for which fees will continue to be collected. These mountain biking fee proceeds will be used to defer the cost of trail maintenance and enhancement and for the construction of technical trail features where appropriate. Mountain bike rentals will be available from the Recreation Department (see Table 2). There is not parking fee for day use, however, special event spectators will need a $10 per day parking permit while special events are in progress.

20.1 Collection Method and Enforcement All guests using the trail system will be charged at the check-in gate/kiosk. Fees can be paid via cash or credit card. Day passes may be purchased for that specific day only. Annual passes may be purchased at any time and expire one year from the date of purchase. Annual passes are also available at the Village Store. Annual passes will be printed cards similar to a ski resort pass and will be required to be on the person at all times. Day passes will either be a printed ticket or sticker placed on or kept with the person. Wrist bands are also being considered in lieu of the printed passes. In all cases, the rider, hiker or equestrian user will be required to have a parking card on their dash board as well as a printed pass, card or wrist bracelet to show they have signed the release form and reviewed their responsibilities and rules of the trail. Daily patrols by Adventure Center and Park Staff will request each rider/ hiker to show their ticket or pass to verify their fees paid. Tickets/Passes will be checked for date accuracy and validity. Those not able to produce their ticket or pass will be accompanied to the entrance check-in kiosk and escorted out, or upon purchase, allowed back to the trail area.

21. Access Control / Permits / Monitoring The trail network within the Mountain Bike Trail Management Area will continue to be accessed from the two existing trailheads near the entrance kiosk and adjacent to Lower Merlot campground. The trail network will be open for use 365 days per year between 7:00 am and one hour after sunset. Night riding will be allowed until 9:30 pm provided riders’ bikes are equipped with appropriate lighting and safety equipment. The Temecula/Vail Lake KOA currently requires mountain bikers to sign a waiver of liability upon entry and this will continue to be the case. Waivers are electronic and will be made available on-line and via a tablet at the entrance kiosk. Waivers will be valid for the calendar year. Lessee staff will monitor the trail network for inappropriate use. RCWD will enforce special access requirements for Butterfield Canyon (between Vail Lake and Upper VDC Recharge Basins).


Trail Management Plan

22. Conclusions 22.1 Recommended Trail Use Primarily to address safety, trail use will need to be defined by user type and area. The following guidelines are recommended.  

 

          

Equestrian use will be allowed within the Equestrian Trail Management Area and on the proposed route(s) between Butterfield Canyon and the Equestrian Center as well as all multi-use paths designated at Vail Lake. Mountain biking will be allowed throughout the Mountain Bike Trail Management Area, as well as for travel within the campgrounds. However, sanctioned mountain bike events will not use the campground trails. Mountain biking will not be allowed within the Equestrian Trail Management Area. Hiking, walking, and running will be allowed in all areas, except for on the one-way trails within the Mountain Bike Trail Management Area. Golf carts will only be allowed on the Back-Country Roads (Lake Road, Dam Road, Morena Road as well as on other paved Camp Roads. Electric scooters will only be allowed on Camp Roads. Class 1 through 4 e-bikes will be allowed within the campground. However, only pedal-assisted Class 1 e-bikes will be allowed within the Mountain Bike Trail Management Area or on Back-Country Roads.

This Trail Management Plan is necessarily a “high level” assessment of the overall trail network in support of system management recommendations. While field work was performed during plan development, these trail management recommendations should be considered an initial assessment to support a subsequent trail master plan that more carefully analyzes the system segment-by-segment to make a final determination on which segments to remain, which to close and allow to revegetate, and where rehabilitated segments are needed. Knowledgeable users and race organizers should be consulted as part of this future detailed plan development. A master plan will be a living document reviewed annually to ensure that the are is being well maintained, cared for and to address new advances in bike technology that may require updates and modifications of the trail system to accommodate.

23. Repair and Upgrades Projects

The major capital improvement projects assumed under this effort will be the closure of specific problematic trails, the installation of trail regulations, trail closures with associated signs, signs for “trail open but not maintained / monitored-use at own risk”, trailhead kiosks and various trail repair activities.

24. Resources Bangle, Scott. 2009. Trail Development Standards – Draft. Riverside County Regional Parks and Open-Space District. Riverside, California. International Mountain Bicycling Association and Bureau of Land Management. 2017. Guidelines for a Quality Trail Experience – Mountain Bike Trail Guidelines. https://www.blm.gov/sites/blm.gov/files/Guidelines-for-a-Quality-Trail-Experience-2017.pdf. International Mountain Bicycling Association. 2007. Managing Mountain Biking: IMBA’s Guide to Providing Great Riding. Publication Printers Corporation, Denver, Colorado. International Mountain Bicycling Association. 2004. Trail Solutions: IMBA’s Guide to Building Sweet Single-track. Johnson Printing, Boulder, Colorado. U.S. Department of the Interior. 2007. Guide to Sustainable Mountain Trails: Assessment, Planning & Design. National Park Service. Denver Service Center. U.S. Department of the Interior. 1997. VERP: The Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP) Framework – A Handbook for Planners and Managers. National Park Service. Denver Service Center. Parker, Troy Scott. 2004. Natural Surface Trails by Design - Physical and Human Design Essentials of Sustainable, Enjoyable Trails. Naturescape LLC. Boulder, Colorado. U.S. Department of Agriculture - National Technology and Development Program. 2016. Trail Fundamentals and Trail Management Objectives. USDA Forest Service Recreation, Heritage and Volunteer Services, Washington, D.C.

Table 3: Mileage of Combined Trails Mountain Biking Trail Management Area Trail Type Miles Double Black (downhill only) 2.07 miles Black (downhill only) 5.31 miles Blue (two-way) 14.06 miles Green (two-way) .23 miles Trails Closed 6.02 miles Multi-use Trails 1.06 miles Back Country Roads 3.45 miles Equestrian Trail Management Area Trail Type Miles Equestrian / Hiking Trails 4.50 miles Recommended Closed Trails 2.94 miles Vail Lake Campground and Resort Trails Trail Type Miles Equestrian / Hiking Trail .69 miles Multi-use Trails 1.27 miles Camp Trails 3.69 miles Camp Roads 5.25 miles Other Vail Lake Trails not in Management Areas or Licensed Areas Trail Type Miles Back Country Roads 2.71 miles Unmanaged Trails 53.16 miles Recommended Closed Trails 8.71 miles

Based on construction definitions, no new facilities are proposed in this Trail Management Plan. Only upgrades, rehabilitations and renovations are proposed. The lessee will be committing to accomplishing a specified list of improvements and a time table for completion. The year’s trails-related achievements should be compiled in an annual report summarizing how they have helped to support the lessee’s goal of making the trail network “a world class destination for mountain biking, with trail systems that challenge experienced riders, while also introducing novice riders to the sport,” as well as the improvements accomplished in other trail use areas.

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