Structural Systems of the Million Program Era Erik Stenberg (ed.)
Above: Allan Skarne. Cover: Kv. Diset, Uppsala (March 1, 1966). Structural system: System Skarne 66. Courtesy of Filip Skarne.
ISBN 978-91-7501-618-4 KTH School of Architecture, 2013 Printed by Elanders All reasonable attempts have been made to contact the copyright holders of all images. You are invited to contact the editor if your image was used without identification or acknowledgment. Student Editors Sareh Sayidi, Sheng Sun Catalogue Editors Staffan Lundgren, Kristina Knauff
Structural Systems of the Million Program Era Erik Stenberg (ed.)
Västra Orminge (Nacka) 31
Axelsberg (Hägersten) 39
Brandbergen (Haninge) 99
Brogården (Alingsås) 103
Navestad (Norrköping) 67
Hovsjö (Södertälje) 1972-75
Students Fall 2011
Laura Alonso, Klara Bergdahl, Catherine Burr, Danny Crisp, Per Crona, Heloise de Broissia, Daniel Edenius, Hans Eidseflot, Dan Engberg, Clara González Fernández, Josefin Gustavsson, Johan Israelsson, Joseph Laster, Tomas Odelbo, Michela Pestoni, Patrizia Roos, Sareh Sayidi, Cesilia Silvasti, Patrick Stokes-Kelly, Gustav Svärdhagen, Marloes van der Pols, Matilda Weibull Lindborg, Mikael Westin, Ulrika Wetzel, Fredrik Vidigs, Sofia Wollert-Olsson, Gustav Vrang, Marta Vännman
Workshop reconstructing 1:20 scale physical models of six structural systems at KTH School of Architecture Fall 2012. 7
Preface One quarter of Sweden’s existing housing stock was built
affected everything from material handling to prospects
soon gray and spill water), promote behavioral change, and
during the post war and late modernist period of 1965-74.
of future growth; the areas were not built for and have not
exchange old appliances.
In many ways, this time period was the culmination of Swe-
been altered to handle the rapid changes in society that
den as a welfare state with an outspoken ambition to serve
Lastly, historical preservation issues are growing as a counter-force to the physical changes brought about by the
its citizens from cradle to grave. Over one million units of
The Million Program Era multifamily housing areas are
first three forces. Million Program Era areas which have
housing were built during this ten year span which predict-
now beset by a fourfold set of forces which call for change.
become representative of the post war period are gaining
ably became known as The Million Program Era. In order to
Firstly, housing is affected by the social transformation
recognition and are rapidly being classified to prevent loss
achieve this level of production the processes were policy
of Sweden from a welfare state with homogenous nuclear
driven, highly rationalized and predominantly industrial-
families to a globalized society with a multiplicity of de-
Each one of these forces is in itself not new; however, this
ized. Positivistic planning prevailed and prefabrication
mands and needs. The residents of the Million Program
is the first time they are all present at the same instance
came into the fore. Further, it was a period of an almost
Era areas are not who they were originally designed for.
and affect such a large portion of the housing stock. The
complete and utopian alignment of political interests, policy
This rapid demographic shift causes friction with the built
situation is further problematized by the fact that there are
making, production models, planning ideals, and imple-
environment and is usually centered on the issues of seg-
no new national initiatives or incentives for investment, no
mentation of architectural research and education. In con-
regation and integration. However, the social questions are
consensus on renovation techniques, a growing awareness
trast to these rapid and deterministic processes, it was also
much larger than any single housing area and also involve
of the need to involve tenants and their perspective, and a
a decade where experimentation excelled and the distance
the state and definition of Swedishness.
global recession causing fiscal woes for the owners.
of their unique historical qualities.
between research and the profession was extremely short.
Secondly, the technical systems of the multifamily hous-
The apartments designed during the Million Program Era
Ideas could be tested immediately and at a grand scale. One
ing are in need of long term routine maintenance. Roofing
have been lauded for their layouts melding the functionalist
example of this is that Igor Dergalin was concurrently both
materials, piping, ventilation, doors and windows, eleva-
ethos with the production processes of the day. They were
Professor of Urban Planning at KTH and head of planning
tors, and balconies need to be replaced or repaired in or-
larger, had better day lighting conditions, were cleaner, and
of several large scale housing suburbs such as Tensta and
der not to cause irreversible damage to the buildings. With
closer to nature than the average urban apartments of the
Skärholmen in the municipality of Stockholm.
estimates ranging from SEK 250 to 1000 million to renovate
mid 20th century. Half of the new apartments had three
up to five hundred thousand apartments many companies
rooms and a spatious kitchen while Sweden’s inner city
Of these one million units, approximately one third were
and contractors are mobilizing and getting involved. These
apartments had a single small room (sometimes two), was
single family dwellings, one third multifamily housing with
large scale technical issues are mainly the concern of the
dark, run down, and lacked basic modern amenities such
three stories or less, and one third were high rise multi-
owners and builders.
as central heating, shower, cooking, and washing facilities.
family housing with four stories or more. Most of the multi-
Thirdly, energy cost and consumption issues are forc-
Residents who moved into the post war housing areas were
family housing and a majority of the single family dwellings
ing stakeholders to rethink how the Million Program Era
grateful for the improved standard and heightened qual-
were planned and built in larger urban conglomerates on
apartments can contribute to a more sustainable built envi-
ity of living they received. Unfortunately, this positive post
virgin ground outside of, but dependent on, the city cent-
ronment. The vast majority of the multifamily houses were
war trend of raising the living standard for all citizens of the
ers. They were conceived as commuter suburbs with small
built to be dependent on an unlimited supply of cheap elec-
welfare state was replaced by an early 70’s critique of the
commercial centers to serve daily needs and the majority
tricity and were completed before the first global oil crisis
monotony and anonymous character of the housing areas.
work places were to be located elsewhere. These Million
of 1973-74 brought limited resources to our attention. An
Reporter Olle Bengtzon pointed out that the residents of
Program Era areas were autonomous and only tenuously
EU-directive to cut 20% of energy consumption by 2020 and
Tensta were victims of a deficient built environment. It is
connected to existing infrastructure, usually dependent on
50% by 2050 has become the strongest force on a national
still this image of a subpar built environment that prevails
a single highway or rail connector. There was also an un-
level to develop new green technologies, super-insulate ex-
today. Almost all efforts aimed at improving the large scale
derlying idea of completeness and low maintenance that
terior walls, install heat exchange units on exhaust air (and
Million Program Era areas have been targeting the image
of the area (i.e. monotony, drabness, concrete facades, poor
The original drawings, models and intentions are quickly
landscaping, etc) and very few have looked at improving the
fading into history for a number of reasons: the smaller
apartment layouts or size distribution in relation to chang-
contractors were bought up by larger conglomerates, the
people involved are retired or passed away, the negative reputation the Million Program Era has stigmatized the val-
Through a series of elective seminar courses at the KTH
ue of the material, and so on. As half of the students were
School of Architecture, we have been able to address these
Erasmus exchange students, we paired them with a Swed-
issues from a different perspective. We have been focusing
ish speaking student and assigned them a couple of areas
on the structural systems of multifamily housing from the
to investigate. This compilation of material on twenty five
Million Program Era in order to fill a knowledge gap regard-
of the Million Program Era areas is thus a first step in clos-
ing their potential for change. If and how they can be altered
ing the knowledge gap that exists. We have, since this first
to fit contemporary society rests on how well we can un-
inventory, continued the research by selecting twelve of the
derstand their original structural intentions and the chang-
areas for closer study and built both 1:20 scale physical and
ing needs of today’s residents. This inside-out method runs
digital models of six of these structural systems. These six
counter to many projects occurring around Sweden where
wooden models were then the basis for a series of propos-
problems are to be solved from the outside-in, rerely af-
als of how these specific buildings could be altered by work-
fecting the apartment. Our goal has been to understand
ing with knowledge of their structural systems. These stud-
some of the inherent differences in the buildings that make
ies will be presented in future publications and exhibits.
• Sundsvall Nacksta 86
Grindtorp (Täby) Bogsätravägen (Skärholmen) Larsberg (Lidingö) Sätra Torg (Skärholmen) Västra Orminge (Nacka) Axelsberg (Hägersten) Henriksdalsberget (Nacka) Tensta (Spånga) Alby (Botkyrka) Jordbro (Haninge) Kungshamra (Solna) Näsbydal (Täby) Byälvsvägen (Bagarmossen) Hjulsta (Spånga) Fisksätra (Nacka) Brandbergen (Haninge)
up a quarter of Sweden’s housing stock. We have, for example, re-discovered that there were at least sixteen dif-
A special thanks to students Sareh Sayidi and Sheng Sun
ferent prefabricated structural systems in use in Sweden in
who helped compile the material for the publication and to
1968. Each one of these systems can be altered in an indi-
editors Staffan Lundgren and Kristina Knauff who in the end
vidual manner even though the apartments they contain are
made the publication possible together with a generous do-
remarkably similar. We have also found out that Tensta’s
nation from the Origo (formerly Höjer & Ljungqvist) Foun-
5600 apartments were built by twenty two different contrac-
dation. Thanks are also due to all helpful people involved
tors. Given this diversity of builders in just one of the many
in locating original material from the Million Program Era.
• Stockholm • Södertälje
Million Program Era areas and the numerous prefabricated
structural systems in use at the time, we aspire to uncover
differences between buildings, differences between areas
Teacher and Head of Department
within Sweden, and promote the rediscovery of the struc-
KTH School of Architecture
Brogården (Alingsås) 102
tural potential of the Million Program Era housing areas. A great many thanks are due to all the masters level stu-
• JÖnköping Råslätt 70
dents who have invested their time into this seminar course.
They have been busy contacting municipal and private housing companies, searching obscure archives, calling reMalmö•
tired builders, and following weak trails in search of draw-
ings and photographs of the areas that we have selected. 9
10 14 18 22 27 34 42 46 50 54 58 66 78 82 94 98
Täby Näsbydal Architect: VBB AB/ S Lindström, A Bydén Year: 1958-1962 Location: Täby municipality, Stockholm county Client: Contractor: Näsbydal was built between 1958 and 1961, a few years before the Million Program Era began in 1965. The area is included here because of its interesting structural system. The area is situated in Täby, north of Stockholm with connections to the city by local train and the motorway. The master plan for Näsbydal comprised a mixture of housing types, from low-rise row housing to the 16-story towers that we present here. In 1960 the area housed nearly 22,000 inhabitants, but by the completion of all the new housing in 1975, this figure had nearly doubled to 41,000. Each of the eight towers that make up this development has the same number of floors, with every floor within them having the same plan. This repetition allowed both design and construction hours to be kept to a minimum and helped to rationalize the building process. The key aspect to allowing this rationalization was the adoption of the ‘Skarne Lite’ system for the building elements. This system consisted of a set of prefabricated, internal loadbearing walls, standing on in-situ concrete floor slabs around an in-situ circulation core. The benefit of this was that the entire core could be cast first, and a crane could be mounted on top of it to move the floors into place. The Skarne Lite system also provided the facade panels which, like the internal walls, only needed to be lifted into position. The prefabrication also guaranteed better quality of finish. A drawback of this kind of linked-in system, whereby all partition walls are loadbearing, is that it more easily transmits noise between the apartments. 2. 1.
1. Situation plan 2. Axonometric drawing
3. BUIvLDING PLAN 3.
4. CONSTRUCTION 5. KITCHEN 6. BALCONY
7. LIVING ROOM
The Skarne Lite System The Skarne Lite system is a semi-industrialized production method where the wall panels are prefabricated in a temporary factory and the floor slabs are cast in situ. The inner walls are load bearing. Light duty trucks and cranes are used for the transportation and assembling of the wall panels.
8. ‘SKARNE LIGHT’ SYSTEM 9. WALL ELEMENT 10. WALL ELEMENT BEING CRANED FROM TRUCK 9.
11. DETAIL DRAWING
1. SITUATION PLAN. 2. AxONOMETRIC OVER PART OF HOUSE B IN THE VENUS BLOCK. 3. GRINDTORP UNDER CONSTRUCTION 1964.
Grindtorp Architects: Curt Strehlert, Ove Elgquist, HSB arkitektkontor City Plan: Sune Lindström, VBB arkitektkontor Year: 1961-66 Location: Täby municipality, Stockholm county Client: HSB Täby Contractor: John Mattson Byggnads AB (JM)
B. A. VENUS
Grindtorp is one of several visionary housing areas which
end faces. These were made by Shock concrete elements,
were included in the large plan for the new Täby Centrum
which was a Dutch precast system. The outer walls con-
by architect Sune Lindström at the VBB Company in 1960.
sist of light weight concrete blocks with plaster and prefab
Grindtorp is a fairly early project in the Million Program.
lightweight window elements.
The houses were built in two stages: the first half, “Venus” was built in 1961-63 and the second half, “Jupiter” in 196365. Each half consists of two half circle houses, one with eleven stories and one with four. The client was the housing company HSB and architects were HSB’s own architect office under supervision of Curt Strehlert and Ove Elgquist. The contractor was John Mattson Byggnads AB (JM). The structure is mainly built with in situ concrete but precast modules are used as stairs, balconies and short3.
4. PLANS OF GRINDTORP VENUS BLOCK TOP: PART OF HOUSE B BELOW: PART OF HOUSE A 5. GRINDTORP, VENUS BLOCK, UNDER CONSTRUCTION 5.
6. HOUSE A WITH INNER PARK 7. SECTION HOUSE B 8. DETAIL OF HOUSE A 9. TYPICAL FLOOR PLANS
Apartments in Grindtorp Grindtorp consists of 1548 apartments of condominium type divided into two parts, Jupiter and Venus. The lower fourstory houses contain three room apartments, in contrast to the higher eleven-story floor houses which have a variety of apartment sizes, ranging from one to six rooms. There are even a few two-story duplex apartments. All apartments have balconies. The balconies in the higher houses are extra deep and were described as â&#x20AC;&#x153;outdoor roomsâ&#x20AC;? in the initial selling 9.
LIVINGROOM KITCHEN WC KITCHEN
1. SITUATION PLAN 2. AxONOMETRIC DRAWING 3. AxONOMETRIC DRAWING
Bogsätravägen Architect: Tore Forsman and Ulf Snellman Architecture office. Year: 1963-64 Location: Sätra, Stockholm municipality Client: Contractor: Bogsätravägen was part of the building project in Sätra,
ings are supported by the core which stabilizes the frame
which was finished before the Million Programme start-
and takes up lateral forces. The core consists of a staircase
ed in 1965. The architecture firm Forsman and Snellman
and installations. From each staircase two apartments can
designed several buildings in the area, among them the
be accessed on each floor. Both of these apartments span
residential buildings at Bogsätravägen in 1963. The hous-
across the width of the building and therefore have a view in
es have features typical for the 1950’s architecture and
two directions. The walls along the width of the building are
unusual in the architecture of the Million Programme, e.g.
placed in a repetitive manner with equal distance. These
adaptation to the hilly terrain, openings in the end facade,
walls carry the floor slabs and the roof. The facade consists
rendered facades and oak-wood entrances. The buildings
of light weight concrete sandwich elements. The entrance
are placed on a hill and the cellar has only been excavated
floor is slightly different than the other floors, due to en-
and built to half of the length of the building. The five-story
trance zones and other facilities, e.g. stores. 1.
buildings have eight apartments on each story. The build19
9. 7. 4. FLOORPLAN 3-5 5. FLOORPLAN 2; ENTRANCE 6. FLOORPLAN 1; CELLAR 7. FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION DRAWING 8. Facade with recessed balconies 9. SECTION AA
10. Section detail end facade
11. Section detai l long facade 12. Section detail load bearing wall & floor
facade120 element: concrete mm polystyrene mm concrete 60 120 mm
polystyreen 60 mm
light light weight concrete weight concrete 100 100 mm mm
bearingwall: wall: loadload bearing concrete 160160 mmmm concrete
floor slabs: floor 50 mm floor slabs: concrete 160 mm
floor 50 mm concrete 160 mm
Larsberg Architects: Ancker, Gate, Lindegren Year: 1963-1969 Location: LidingĂś municipality, Stockholm county Client: Contractor: John Mattson Byggnads AB The housing project of Larsberg consists of five long hous-
through 10 cm into the walls and load bearing brick walls
es following the coast and fourteen shorter houses. These
were very uncommon at this time. Probably the thickness
pages present only the short ones. What makes the project
of the bricks is mainly used for insulation. One of the advan-
special is the way it adapts to the site. The architects took
tages of brick is the low maintenance cost. The buildings
2. Axonometric drawing
advantage of the very beautiful but not easy topography by
are still in a very good state. The buildings have not been
3. Situation Plan
following the different ground levels and let the buildings
altered much during the last decades even though there are
face the water.
plans for a major renovation.
The structural system of the houses seems to be a combination of load bearing concrete walls and concrete columns of different sizes. The foundations in the basement are in reinforced concrete. In the long houses near the waterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s edge the concrete exterior walls of the foundations can even reach the third floor. The exterior wall is 25 cm thick full stone brick, with 7,5 cm of insulation between wooden beams and a plasterboard on the inside. Such a thick brick wall could be load bearing, however, the facade sections show that the floors only get
4 - 6. Apartment interiors 7. Apartment plan 8.
8. Details of floor Slabs
10. DIFFERENT KINDS OF COLUMNS CONCRETE: BTG II STD K250, 15.
ARMERING KS 40 BYGLARS ST 44 11. ExTERIOR WALL OF THE APARTMENT 12. DETAIL SLAB REINFORCEMENT 13. FOUNDATION DETAIL 14. DETAIL FACADE AND FLOOR SLAB 15. SECTION FACADE
BEDROOM BEDROOM WC BEDROOM
S채tra Torg Architect: Tore Forsman and Ulf Snellman Architecture office. Year: 1963-64 Location: S채tra, Stockholm, Stockholm municipality Contractor: Client: -
1. SITUATION PLAN 2. AxONOMETRIC DRAWING 2. APARTMENTS AxONOMETRIC DRAWING
S채tra torg was designed by the architecture firm Forsman
placed in a repetitive manner with equal distance. The floor
and Snellman and built in 1963-64, before the Million Pro-
plans are designed in such a way that an effective produc-
gram Era started in 1965. The development consists of three
tion and building process is ensured. This is reflected in the
buildings standing near the first indoor square in Sweden.
facade where you can see the repetitive high prefab ele-
The houses are about 60 meters long and 14 meters deep.
ments. The building was altered in the 1990s when the out-
They have eleven stories, with twelve apartments on each
side was painted in pastel colors.
story. Four apartments are fixed around one supporting core consisting of staircase and installations. Two of these apartments are oriented in two directions since they span over the entire width of the building. The other two face only one side. The building is supported by its core staircase that prevents tilting. The walls along the width of the building are
4. FLOORPLAN 1-8 5. CONSTRUCTION DRAWING OF CONCRETE FRAMEWORK 6. CONSTRUCTION DRAWING OF BEAMS OVER THE CELLAR 7. PLUMBING FIXTURe 8. SECTION
facade elements: facade elements: carpentry 20 mm carpentry 20 mm cork isolation 10 mm cork isolation 10 mm concrete 80 mm concrete 80 mm
load bearing wall: load bearing concrete 160 mm wall:
concrete 160 mm
floor slabs: floor 50mm concrete 250 mm lining plate 70 mm floor slabs: floor 50 mm concrete 250 mm lining plate 70 mm
9. axonometric drawing of facade and Floor slab 10. DETAIL FACADE ELEMENT 11. BALCONY DETAIL and photograph of the Balcony
THREE-STOREY TOWER BLOCK
PRECAST LOAD BEARING CONCRETE COLUMN
PRECAST WALL ELEMENT
PRECAST CONCRETE SLAB ELEMENT
GROUND LEVEL LINE
Västra Orminge Architect: Jöran Curman Architects, Ohlsson & Skarne construction firm Year: 1964-71 Location: Boo, Nacka municipality, Stockholm county Client: Boo municipality Contractor: HSB Stockholm, Ohlsson & Skarne
CRAWL SPACE WITH PLINTHS
1. Axonometric drawing 2. Situation plan
Orminge is part of Boo in Nacka Municipality located about
The buildings at West Orminge are constructed accord-
16 kilometers outside of central Stockholm. The area is
ing to the Swedish Skarne System 66 which was a fre-
dominated by the residential area of West Orminge which
quently used pre-fabricated concrete panel system based
has 2600 apartments built in 1964-71 on behalf of the Boo
on ready-to-install floor sections with a standard width of
municipality, which is today Nacka municipality. West Orm-
27 M (2700 mm). The load-bearing shell consists of the out-
inge was built together with HSB Stockholm, one of the
side walls and a row of columns. Installations are grouped
biggest residential organizations in Sweden. The area has
to a ‘wet wall’. The subdivisions of the apartments consist
typical residential zoning and is divided into three zones: an
of lightweight sections and can be re-arranged in a simple
inner green-zone, a middle-zone with housing and an out-
way. The buildings rest on in-situ concrete foundations. On
er traffic-zone with roads, parking areas with a commer-
these the foundation beams of sandwich construction and
cial center on the outer border. The area is characterized
pedestals are erected. These in turn support the floor slabs
by terrain-adapted building structures, consisting of low
of the ground floor. A heated crawl space is formed in this
houses. Most of the buildings are either two-story terrace-
way in which all piping is housed and is easily accessible.
buildings (‘lamellhus’) or three-story tower blocks.
The floors consist of precast concrete slabs which contain
The goal was to maintain the landscape’s original char-
acter, and create housing that could adapt to the existing villa developments in the surrounding areas.
3. GROUND FLOOR, THREE-STOREY TOWER BLOCK 4. ENTRANCE FACADE, THREE-STOREY TOWER BLOCK
5. TYPICAL SECTION, CRAWL SPACE WITH PLINTHS
All major earthworks and the installation of services are completed before any building construction is begun. Load bearing panels are manufactured at a factory set up close to the Orminge area. The elements were lifted into place using mobile cranes. 32
The floor slabs and load-bearing internal wall sections are
painted, glazed and provided with all fittings, are cast into
cast against steel formwork. Casting, storage and transport
the panels. The vertical load bearing elements are sup-
7. Facade with Balcony
is carried out vertically. The facade panels have a sandwich
ported by stays while being erected, but later on they are
8. FACADE SURFACE
construction consisting of two concrete layers with an inter-
held together mainly by the frictional force alone between
9. precast elements
mediate insulation. Windows and balcony doors, completely
the heavy sections.
10. SKARNE SYSTEM 66
Orrholmen Architect: John Wästlunds Arkitektbyrå Year: 1964-1970 Location: Karlstad municipality, Värmlands county Client: Karlstads Bostads AB Contractor: AB Huse & Co, AB Skånska Cementgjuteriet
The Orrholmen area is situated on a peninsula south of the
houses and slab blocks have facades of calcareous sand-
1. SITUATION PLAN
city center of Karlstad and comprises ca. 900 apartments.
stone, the higher houses have facades with light-colored
2. SITUATION PLAN
The main principle for the master plan was to create a car-
3. OLOV BYLOCK VD FöR KBAB,FRAMFöR VäSTRA RADEN
free development with only one street leading to the area
The houses in the block called ‘Seglet’(The Sail) are
which was lead into a garage under the buildings. A similar
grouped in circles with the higher buildings in the inner
På ORRHOLMEN, CA 1957
solution had been tested some years earlier in Fisksätra.
circle and the row houses and slab blocks in the outer cir-
4. AxONOMETRIC DRAWING
Surrounded by water and with an open view in all directions
cle. North of these circles there is the areas’ center with a
the houses were designed to have a gathered silhouette and
square, a school and a playground. The other slab blocks
reduced height. The main part of the apartments has a sea-
are grouped symmetrically around the central street.
view. Construction work started in April 1965 and already in December the first tenants could move in. For the exploitation of the area a couple of the leading local construction companies – Huse & Co, Anders Diös AB, Karlstads Byggnadsindustri och Vägförbättringar – worked together. The architect was John Wästlunds Arkitektkontor from Karlstad. The Orrholmen area consists of different building types: two-story row houses, slab blocks with two and three stories and higher buildings with seven stories. All the row 35
5. facades and floor plans 6. Sections 7. ceo OLOV BYLOCK discussing with an engineer, CA 1957
8. 9. 10. 8.
The houses were built with cranes on rails, using the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;allbetongâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; method, developed by the SG Company. The load bearing transverse inner walls were completed with roomwidth floor slabs. The formwork for the walls was built of wood with a plastic covered plywood covering. The facade elements were made in a field-factory in Karlstad and the entire construction process was fast and effectively organized. The stairs were covered with cement mortar and arrived at the building site as prefabricated elements. The non-load bearing inner walls are made of 7cm thick concrete slabs. The garage was built with walls and slabs of 20 cm concrete. Concrete pillars carried the floor structure. It is possible to reach the slab houses directly from the garage and it is not necessary to go outside. This huge garagewith
space for 684 cars under one roof got a lot of attention.
8. construction Details walls 9. concrete reinforcement 10. Rendering of daily life in orrholmen
Axelsberg / H채gerstens g책rd Architect: Ancker Gate Lindegren, AGL Year: 1965-1969 Location: H채gersten, Stockholm municipality, Stockholm county Client: Contractor -
1. AxONOMETRIC DRAWING 2. SITE PLAN
Axelsberg is an area in the district H채gersten, part of
On the ground floor there are eight student rooms with
Stockholm municipality. It is characterized by large build-
kitchenettes. The layouts of the first-eighth floor are the
ing blocks on either side of the subway. The area was de-
same. Here different apartment sizes can be found: a
veloped in the mid-1960s when the subway station opened
single-sided one-room apartment with kitchenette. Four
and the 17 rendered slab houses, designed by AGL, were
corner apartments with three rooms and kitchen and two
built. The houses stand parallel to each other, at an angle
five-room apartments. The three-room apartments have
to the street and are surrounded by green spaces. The slab
daylight lit bathrooms. In the basement there are two floors
houses were built by several private construction company
builders. HEBA, which was proprietor of one of the neighboring houses, now also owns this property and a couple more.
4. ONE CAN SEE THE ORIGINAL PLASTER (ÄDELPUTS) GLEAM ON THE SUNLIT MAIN FACADE. ON THE GABLE FACADE FOUR COLOR SAMPLES ARE VISIBLE, A FEW OF THE HOUSES HAVE NEW, SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT, SHADES (AND ONE HAS WHITE SASHES). THIS BUILDING (GUBBEN NOAK 6) HAS A DIFFERENT BALCONY SOLUTION COMPARED TO THE OTHERS THAT HAVE RECESSED BALCONIES WITHOUT GABLES.
7. 3. Facade 4. Apartment Interior 5. Interior Details 6. view over the area
THE EXTERIOR WALLS CONSIST OF 250 MM LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE, THE BUILDING’S CORNERS OF 150 MM LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE
• LOAD-BEARING WALLS
7. SECTION THROUGH ATTIC
• NON-LOAD-BEARING INNER WALLS
8. PLAN 3 ROOMS APARTMENT
THAT HAS BEEN CAST AGAINST WITH 150 MM OF CONCRETE. THE HOUSE HAS A SO-CALLED BOOKSHELF STRUCTURE WITH 150 MM LOAD-BEARING TRANSVERSE PARTITION WALLS. THIS APARTMENT DIVIDING WALL AND STAIRCASES STABILIZE THE BUILDING IN THE LONGITUDINAL DIRECTION. IN THE FIVE ROOMS APARTMENTS IN THE HOUSE’S NARROWER MIDDLE PART THERE ARE NO LOAD-BEARING LONGITUDINAL WALLS. HOLES IN SLAB FOR PLACEMENT OF CRANE 6.
DURING CONSTRUCTION WHICH ARE FILLED IN WHEN THE TOWER CRANE IS DISMANTLED AFTER CONSTRUCTION. PROTRUDING REINFORCEMENT IS THEN BENT DOWN INTO HORIZONTAL POSITION.
EXTERIOR WALL DETAILS
SECTION THROUGH EXPANSION JOINT BETWEEN THE GARAGE AND THE RESIDENTIAL PART
Foundation: bedrock and pilings Basement floor: concrete slab on drainage gravel and vinyl sheets
Basement ceiling: 16 cm concrete, 9 cm fill, 5cm concrete + linoleum General floor: 16 cm concrete, 2 layers sound insulating paper, sand + wood floor Top floor: 16 cm concrete + 2 layers of 7 cm mineral wool + 8 cm concrete Bathroom floor: 16 cm concrete + concrete leveling + water proofing + ceramic tiles Garage ceiling: 7 cm wood pulp insulation + 25 cm concrete + water proofing + asphalt Stairs: spiral stair with cement tiles Aparment separating walls: 15 cm concrete Other walls: 10 cm light weight concrete blocks Roofing material: asphalt paper Ventilation system: mechanical with exhaust fans Drainage: 2 rows of 3 inch ceramic pipe
Araby Architect: Växjöhem Year: 1966-1968 Location: Växjö municipality Client: Contractor The Araby area consists of three-story housing blocks. Prefabricated modules are used for the main structure of the buildings. The house has a so-called bookshelf structure with 150mm load bearing transverse partition walls. The exterior walls consist of 205mm concrete blocks and the buildings gables consist of 150mm concrete blocks facing on 150mm of in situ concrete taking up the horizontal wind loads. The entrance is situated on the center of the units, linked to the stairs and the elevator which give access to two apartments per floor. Araby housing apartments are also representative of the industrialization of the building process that characterized the Million Program Era. The process and product of architecture was carefully planned in a functional, rationalized, and standardized way. 1.
1. SITUATION PLAN 2. Axonometric drawing
3. PLAN 4. Facade with recessed Balconies 4.
5. courtyard with playground
6. SECTION 7. FACADE 8. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL 8.
Henriksdalsberget Architect: Erik & Tore Ahlsén Year: 1966-1969 Location: Nacka municipality, Stockholm county Client: AB Stockholmshem Contractor : AB Skånska cementgjuteriet
The residential buildings at Henriksdalsringen consist of two long buildings that lie on top of a hill, like a wall following the topographic line. The traffic is led round the area, at a lower level, at the edge of the plateau. On this level there are also parking facilities. The space between the buildings accommodates green areas, recreational areas and playgrounds, and service buildings such as day care centers, a canteen and a sports hall. The buildings can be entered both from the outer side and the courtyard side. The houses have five – eight stories and contain 770 apartments. 46% of these are three-room apartments, 35% one- and two-room, and 19% four- and five-room apartments. The kitchens face the park, the balconies the sunny directions. Storages are placed on the attics.
1. situation plan 2. axonometric Drawing 3. Facade
5. APARTMENT INTERIOR 6. FACADE 7. APARTMENT PLANS 8. FLOOR PLAN 9. SECTION 7.
The buildings are built with in situ concrete with formwork built of reusable steel panels for the walls and â&#x20AC;&#x153;form-tablesâ&#x20AC;? for the floor slabs. Stairs and balconies are prefabricated. All carpentry was painted at a factory. The facades are non load bearing concrete blocks rendered with pink details. The facade color towards the courtyard is warm and light.
10. Detail stairs
The garage is a column and slab construction with an insu-
11. Section through Attic
lating wood-panel on the ceiling. The reinforcement in the
12. Detail of Prefab balcony
bottom of the slab is a welded bi-directional net and Bjerk-
ingbyglar (loops) in the top.
14. ground section
KĂ¤mpingebacken, Tensta Architect: Bengt WalldĂŠn, Svenska BostĂ¤ders Arkitektkontor Year: 1967-1969 Location: Stockholm municipality Contractor: Client: -
1. Axonometric drawing 2. situation plan 2.
The district of Tensta was planned to house 16,000 people
The vertical infrastructure (stairs and elevators) are
and constructed in 1967-1975. As in many other develop-
grouped at one end of the housing block and link to an ac-
ments of the Million Program, the construction process was
cess balcony to the housing units. This access balcony typi-
industrialized, new standardized building components, and
fies these apartments.
new materials were used in building Tensta. The result was the single largest housing development of the Million Program Era in Sweden. The building process followed the ideas of structuralism regardless of scale as there is an underlying structure in all the components of the construction. The basic material was con-crete, with interior load bearing walls creating a bookshelf structure. The underground parking has a different structure with pillars and standardized linking elements. 51
3. 3. ground plan 4. + 5. the area under construction 4.
6. Section 7. Facade 8. Construction detail
Alby Botkyrka Architect: Gustaf Lettström Year: 1968-1971 Location: Botkyrka municipality, Stockholm county Client: Contractor: Svenska Riksbyggen
Built between 1968 and 1971, Alby Botkyrka was designed to house about 11,500 people. The area is situated halfway between Stockholm and Södertälje, close to the E3 motorway. The masterplan comprised a mix of buildings types: two-story row houses, twelve-story towers, and the six to eight-story long slabs, which we present here. As a means of time saving in both design- and the building process, the same ground-plan was used for all buildings. The ground plan used here has a layout with two apartments accessed from a single stair core. The length and height of each block was defined by the number of apartments it was required to have. As was common for many long buildings of this kind built during the same period, the load bearing system was of a ‘bookshelf’ type. This meant that structural concrete walls took the vertical load, with the floors spanning between them, while the stair core provided lateral stability. Unlike other examples from the same period, however, the use of precast elements, both structural and otherwise, is limited. The foundations, the walls, floors and roof were concrete cast in situ, with the facades being lightweight concrete block infill, which was then rendered and painted. As the load bearing elements were structurally interdependent, each unit of two apartments was cast at the same time, with the next floor constructed after the previous one was finished. At a time when the idea of a rationalized building process was taking hold and many schemes of the Million Program Era were adopting the use of precast building elements, the use of in-situ concrete in Alby is, however, not unusual. Only 15% of multifamily houses were built with precast concrete elements. Compared to precast solutions, the amount of time needed to build the formwork and cast the concrete is higher, as was the amount of time needed to lay the individual blocks for the facade.
As is the case with many buildings constructed during the Million Program Era, the blocks at Alby have recently undergone some renovation to both rejuvenate them aesthetically and bring them into line with todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s current regulations regarding sustainability. The external walls, which were previously uninsulated, have been covered with 50mm cellular plastic insulation boards, which were then rendered and painted. The corrugated steel balconies were replaced with wire mesh ones and the existing windows were repainted. New rooftop apartments, cantilevering over the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s gable end were also added in some instances.
1. UNIT PLAN 2. BUILDING PLAN 2. 3.
3. BLOCKS BEFORE RENOVATION 4.
4. BLOCKS AFTER RENOVATION
A. Gable Wall Construction 50mm Render 200mm Lightweight Concrete Block 200mm In-situ Concrete Wall 20mm Plaster
B. Front Wall Construction: 50mm Render 200mm Lightweight Concrete Block 20mm Plaster
3. BALCONY DETAIL 4. APPLICATION OF NEW INSULATION PANELS 3.
Jordbro Architect: Alfreds and Larsen Arkitektkontor Year: 1968-1969 Location: Haninge municipality, Stockholm county Client: Stiftelsen Österhaninge Bostäder Contractor: The block “Skärgården”, as part of the Jordbro development, is located next to the railway leading into Stockholm whichseparates the main residential area from the industrial area. It consists of four long buildings with eight stories
each. Ove Schramm writes: “the company that made the master plan for Jordbro was Eglers stadsplanebyrå. The main idea was the ‘undulating city’. The building heights should vary and create the undulating character, instead of, as usual, placing the high buildings in the center and the lower around. Another central idea was to preserve a green area, throughout the area, Höglundsparken, as an oasis for the inhabitants.” The houses in the Jordbro development are built with the bookshelf structure, widely used by the builders of the Million Program Era. The frame is supported by two main partition walls which help to stabilize in the lengthwise direction. The floors are made with large prefabricated concrete elements erected on site. The foundation is made in situ.
1. axonometric drawing
The facade is built up with light weight concrete sandwich panels.
2. situation plan
3. bottom floor plan four room-apartments 4.plan floor 1-7: tworoom apartments 5. facade
6. section 7. THE BALCONIES STAND OUT THE FACADE IN SOME PLACES AND AND IN THE GABLES THEY ARE RECESSED. 8. SEVERAL DETAILS SHOWING THE MEETINGS OF HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL ELEMENTS IN THE CORNERS OF THE BUILDING 7.
Student housing, Kungshamra Architect: Bengt Larsson, ELLT Year: 1968 Location: Solna municipality, Stockholm county Client: SSSB Contractor : Ohlson & Skarne
1.AXONOMETRIC VIEW SHOWING STRUCTURE AND JOINT ELE-
MENTS 2. siteplan
The main idea for the Kungshamra student housing was to create a dense urban environment contrasting the surrounding nature. The buildings are organized in six blocks, each block consisting of seven houses around a courtyard. Houses and blocks are separated by pedestrian streets. The housing area consists of 260 apartments and 552 one-room apartments with a total building volume of 110,000 square meters. The area has room for 1084 people and 400 kids. Additional housing was built in the nineties. Each block contains both one-room apartments and family apartments. The one-room apartments are situated
houses serve as meeting places and playgrounds. The fam-
in four stories high buildings without elevators. On each
ily apartments are organized in a special way: a two-room
floor there are ten to twelve rooms which share a collec-
apartment with about 50 m2 can be changed into a three
tive dining and kitchen area. The houses with the family
room apartment to enable families with more children to
apartments are two stories high. Courtyards between the
3. student housing 4. family housing 5. site plan one block: student and family housing
4. Plan of housing group 1. Stairs, 4-stoery block 2. Corridor 3. Cloaks 4. Shower and toilet 5. Single room 6. Dining room 7. Shared kitchen 8. Stairs, 2 stey block 9. Cloaks 10. Bath 11. Kitchen 12. Kitchen; utility area 13. Bedroom
6. HORIZONTAL DETAIL SECTION
SHOWING OPENING IN FACADE
Stiftelsen Stockholms Studentbost채der SSSB is the own-
homogenous and rhythmic aesthetic.
7. VERTICAL DETAIL SECTION SHOW-
er. The contractor was Ohlson & Skarne, who used their
Each facade element consists of a thin concrete outside
prefabricated structural system for fast and rationalized
layer, insulation, a second, thicker load bearing concrete
ING JOINT SANDWICH ELEMENTS
construction. For the houses room sized prefabricated ele-
layer and plaster. Standard windows and doors are mount-
AND FLOOR SLAB.
ments by Ohlsson & Skarne heavy systems are uses. The
ed afterwards into the pre-made openings. Colored window
8 AERIAL PERSEPCTIVE
structure of the modules can be seen in the facade with vis-
frames and doors are the only elements that contrast the
9. PHOTO SHOWING DETAIL AND
ible joints and is consequently used to give the whole area a
grey concrete structure and define the identity of the area.
SCALE . 7.
IMAGE TEXT IN HERE.
Navestad - Silverringen & Guldringen Architect: Eric Ahlin Arkitektkontor Year: 1968-1972 Location: Norrköping municipality Client: Norrköpings Hyresbostäder AB Contractor: Skånska Cementgjuteriet Navestad, which consists of Silverringen, Guldringen and the low-buildings Atriumhusen, was the last development of a series of large projects commissioned by Norrköpings Hyresbostäder AB. Its director was Karl-Erik Anebäck who established a very early example of a public-private joint venture together with Skånska Cementgjuteriet, part of Norrköpings Elementfabrik AB which opened in 1965. The architect Eric Ahlin had been closely tied to Norrköpings Hyresbostäder since the 1940’s. Together with the engineer Arne Johnson he was commissioned to design a rational construction process. The result was a system called ‘Norrköpingsmetoden’, System Norrköping. It was used in
1. ARCHITECT’S RENDERING
several developments between 1965 and 1972, when the
2. AxONOMETRIC DRAWING
factory declared bankruptcy. Navestad was thus the last, and by all measures the largest, of the schemes carried
out. Navestad was never popular in Norrköping and from
About 250 tons were erected in a day. The construction is
the very beginning it carried a social stigma which meant
carried out from both sides of the building with the help of a
that large numbers of apartments stood without tenants,
crane. Containers are lifted into the building with material
for decades. In the 1990’s plans got under way of a massive
for the internal completion works while the frame is raised.
refurbishment which was eventually carried out in the first
The first image depicts one day’s construction. The second
years of the 21th century.
image shows the building after five days, the third after ten days when one unit is completed. 67
The architect, Eric Ahlin, made extensive studies of how to let as much light as possible into the apartments and as a result the height of the buildings varies between two and eight floors. The taller building is always places on the northern side of the street, thus bouncing down light. In total 1.754 apartments were built in Silverringen & Guldringen, of which 70 % were two-bedroom apartments of the type shown here. Smaller apartments are found on the ground floor. In the elevations we can see the most distinct motifs of the scheme: the balconies and the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;pilastersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. The latter become more pronounced only in the higher buildings when they reach a more suitable colossal scale. The foundation was piled and cast-in-place with some prefab elements. Exterior load bearing elements are room sized in multiples of 3M (300 mm) with exposed ballast as their exterior finish, and all exterior joints are left untreated. The elements were pre-fitted with windows in the construction process at the factory. The roofs are flat and made of wooden cassettes with insulation.
Two construction details that received particular interest from the engineer: The joint between floor slab and walls separating flats (above) and the sandwich facade element (left). The latter is supposed to be closed on three sides, but open in the bottom to let the insulation breathe. In the detail however it appears to be grouted. And if they truly were open it remained crucial that the exterior joint were not filled in. This raises
3. FLOOR PLAN
questions about what happened to the structure when the facades were rendered recently.
4. DETAIL PARTITION WALL 4.
Navestad underwent substantial refurbishments in the first
decade of the 21th century to become an ‘eco-village’, ren-
6. DETAIL FACADE / FLOOR SLAB
dering it much different from before. Several stories were
7. MODEL OF THE SCHEME
taken off some buildings (and re-used for student housing in neighboring Linköping), the facades became rendered and the balconies re-done in different fashion.
Råslätt Location: Jönköping, Jönköping county Year: 1968-1972 Architect: Lars Stalin Arkitektkontor AB Contractor: Byggnads AB Harry Sjögren Client: Stiftelsen Bostadshus
1. Axonometric drawing 2. Situation plan
The Råslätt development consists of 30 residential units.
chitect intended to create a cozy atmosphere. With its super
The six eight-story buildings contain 2,657 apartments. The
rational pre-fab system of wall and slab units lifted on place
development consists of a northern and a southern part
and left untouched on the exterior, Råslätt is one of the
with a center in the middle. The houses are placed around
most rational and simple structures to understand within
courtyards with playgrounds and green spaces. Pedestrian
the Swedish Million Program Era.
paths connect these smaller units with each other and all together they form a small urban space.
In the 1980’s several changes were carried out in the area. This included, among other things, painting of facades
Each unit has up to six staircases and around each stair-
and new entrances. Parts of the development were altered
case two three room apartments are gathered. Prefabri-
to house student housing, housing for the elderly, and other
cated concrete elements are used for the framework and
new service functions.
interior walls. The basements, which contain shelters, are built in situ. The outer walls consist of concrete sandwich elements with 130mm insulation. The windows are triple glazed to reduce energy loss. The floors are a double construction in order to reduce noise. In the apartment’s halls 2.
and entry spaces there are false ceilings with which the ar71
CAGE SHAFT B34t
3. Main types of structural units 4. Framework types 5. Apartment shafts 6. System of assembly for framework types 7. Cage type D1, street level 6.
8. Cage type D1, floor plan
9. Examples of apartment types 10. the area under construction with cranes on rails
Kv. Laboratorn, Ålidhem Architect: BPA-Riksbyggens projekteringskontor, Stockholm Year: 1969 Location: Umeå Client: Contractor: BPA Riksbyggen
1. Axonometric drawing 2. Site plan
are grouped around courtyards and contain condominiums, rented apartments and student housing. The buildings pre2.
sented here were designed by BPA-Riksbyggens office. The structural system is built up of transverse load bearing walls carrying floor plates. They have facades with a vertical pattern where brown brick and brown and beige sheet metal alternates. The houses do not have distinct bases. 75
public center with services. The buildings of different height
that were designed by HSB office are dominated by red
ment presents itself as a closed form. Inside, there is a
to create a common design. The parts of the development
at the outside of the area. From the outside the develop-
ings. Similar materials are used in the garages in purpose
ing and cycling paths; garages and parking lots are situated
which adds a small variation to the silhouette of the buildA1:1 A1:4
Umeå, near the University. The area is planned with walk-
The brick parts reach a little bit higher over the flat roof top
The Ålidhem development is situated in the outskirts of
1. ENTRANCE PLAN 2. PLAN 2 & 3 5. SECTION 6 ÅLIDHEM, EXTERIOR VIEW
7. GROUND DETAIL 8. ROOF DETAIL 9. WALL & FLOOR SLAB DETAIL 9.
10. ÅLIDHEM, EXTERIOR VIEW
Byälvsvägen, Bagarmossen Architect: Ernst Grönwall Year: 1969 Location: Skarpnäck, Stockholm municipality Client: AB Stockholmshem Contractor: Bagarmossen was built mostly during the 1950s, and remains a relatively well-preserved ‘50s suburb. The apartment buildings along Byälvsvägen were built in the early 1970s as a part of the million programme. New apartment
buildings were constructed near the metro station in the early 1990s, and in recent years, Bagarmossen has seen several new developments, mostly in the northwest. When the area was first built in the 1950s, it received some international recognition because of the consistent separation of pedestrian and road traffic - leading to plenty of walking paths. The houses were also built to fit with the natural conditions. The courtyards constructed along with the houses in the 1950s are well-designed with pines, spruce trees and lawns.
1. Site plan 2. Axonometric drawing
3. FLOOR PLAN 4. ENTRANCE
5. facade towards courtyard with playground 6. fACADES AND SECTION
1. SITUATION PLAN OVER HJULSTA (1965) . THE CENTRE IS SHARED WITH TENSTA CLOSE nEARBY.
Hjulsta Architect: Gunnar Andersson, Svenska Bostäder Arkitektkontor Location: Hjulsta, Stockholm municipality Year: 1969-1971 Client: Svenska Bostäder Contractor: ABV
2. TRAFFIC SEPARATION IN PRACTICE: PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE IN CONCRETE (1970). 3. AXONOMETRIC Drawing OVER TYPICAL 6-STOREY HOUSE IN THE KIPPINGE 1 BLOCK.
Hjulsta is an area located in the north of the suburb Tensta within the Stockholm municipality. The area was built by the municipal housing company Svenska Bostäder from 1969 to1971 and is characterized by systematic use of traffic separation which was high fashion then. The architects were the architect office of Svenska Bostäder under supervision of Gunnar Andersson. The construction is built up by the “A System” of prefabricated concrete wall modules according to the “bookshelf” model. The inner concrete walls are load-bearing while the facades are not load-bearing. The houses have four to six stories. They have long access balconies along one side and recessed balconies on the other. In 2008 the whole area was sold to the private real estate company Einar Mattsson AB.
Access balcony house in Hjulsta
4. TYPICAL PLAN . PART OF KIPPINGE 1
The access balcony houses contain apartments with two,
5. ACCESS BALCONY ON THE TOP FLOOR OF
three and four rooms with kitchen. The two- room apart-
A 4 STORIES HOUSE.
ment works as a basic apartment in all buildings. In order
6. TYPICAL APARTMENTS
to get larger apartments, one or two bedrooms are added to the basic apartment. All apartments have their own balcony which is recessed and accessible from the bedroom. Apartment sizes: 2 rooms and kitchen of 58m2, 3 rooms and kitchen of 75 m2 and 4 rooms and kitchen of 88m2.
7. SECTION , KIPPINGE 1 8. FLOOR HOUSE WITH ACCESS BALCONIES CLOSE TO HJULSTA TORG. FACADE WITH WHITE PLASTER AND BALCONIES WITH YELLOW STEEL pANELS 9. DETAILS OF FOUNDATION ELEMENTS KIPPINGE 1
Nacksta Architect: Sv Riksbyggen arkitektkontor, Lars Rimfors Year: 1969-1971 Location: Sundsvall municipality, V채sternorrland county Client: Riksbyggen Contractor: Riksbyggen
1.axonometric drrawing 2. SITUATION PLAN
Nacksta is a residential area built during the Million Pro-
The area has undergone a restoration during the last
gram Era by the builder and stakeholder Riksbyggen in
years. The roofs have been changed, partly because of the
Sundsvall. The arrangement of volumes characteristic for
character, partly to deal with snow. In particular, the out-
the area and distinguishes Nacksta from other, larger,
door environment in the area has been restructured to
and more industrialized residential developments. How-
more clearly distinguish private and public space.
ever, some parts of the buildings indicate an industrialized
The outdoor environment of Nacksta was originally poor-
construction, precast balcony railings, and window dress-
ly desigen, despite the well elaborated buildings. Shifted
ings. The construction is a so called book shelf structure.
volumes following the topography are significant for the
The placing of the buildings in the landscape suggests that
area, as well as large yards and parkinglots in two floors
larger crane tracks have not been used for construction, as
between the buildings.
was usual during the period.
3. foundation details 4. section 5. plan, basement 6. plan with measurements 7. photograph outdoor environment
8. Ancoring of roof truss with calculation, typical example from archive material for Nacksta. 9. SHIFTED VOLUMES INDEPENDENT OF NUMBER OF STOREYS 10.
10. wall numbering
Kryddgården Architect: Skånska Cementgjuteriet AB Year: 1969 Location: Malmö city, Skåne county Client: MKB, HSB & Sulcus Contractor: In the 1960’s the local politicians in Skåne dreamt about a giant city, called Örestad, along the west coast of Skåne. The idea was to connect Malmö, Helsingborg, Landskrona, Lund and Copenhagen to a big industrial center. The area of Rosengård should be one part of this project. The master plan for Kryddgården was established in 1967 and was adopted the following year. Groundwork was in place in 1968; the construction of the area starting in 1969 and
was completed in two years. A total of 1450 apartments in 14 buildings were built in Kryddgården, divided up between two big housing companies: MKB and HSB & Sulcus with ten and four residential buildings respectively. When the construction started machines were placed on the fields outside Malmö, they were placed on rails to maximize the construction in time. Pre-fabricated elements produced at Skånska Cementgjuteriets factories were stacked into eight- story high buildings which kept production costs to a minimum. The scale of the buildings is the most overwhelming aspects of the area: six, nine and sixteen story high buildings dominate the community and subordinate lower buildings. HSB’s and Sulcus buildings face the same direction perpendicular to Amiralsgatan. The three buildings closest to
Amiralsgatan are nine stories high, whilst the four houses
2. AXONOMETRIC VIEW SHOWING
by Thomsons väg are six stories high. The only sixteen story
STRUCTURE AND JOINT ELEMENTS.
high building in Rosengård is located in the eastern part of the block.
3. TYPICAL FLOORPLAN. 4. Site overview. 5.SECTION SHOWING STORIES AND CONNECTING LEVEL.
Optional text. Optional text. Optional text. Optional text.
Because of economic and time pressure, construction dur-
functional, repetitive, modular, and perpendicular system
scilis deliquia ditas eum resto to ditibus audio quist autem
ing the early years of building was often improvised. The
also reflects the aesthetics of the Million Program Era.
eum aut arum quae volressum quod
first houses in Rosengård are therefore experiments lack-
In 2002 HSB completed a glazing of the balconies in all
ing in construction quality. The in situ concrete work was se-
of the houses in Kryddgården. The balcony system of joists
verely compromised by time constraints.Sometimes there
was expanded by a meter and the corners in every balcony
was even not enough time to let the concrete dry before the
were chamfered. Other significant changes of the houses
next story was poured. The facade design in Kryddgården is
have been done without care of the existing qualities; some
defined by a consistent use of prefabricated concrete ele-
new windows, entrances with new colorful aluminum pro-
ments (concrete-insulation-concrete) and exposed ballast.
files, sheet metal cladding of staircases, and ventilation
Concrete facade elements characterize Kryddgården and
shafts have been added without much care.
give the area a grey scale which is unusual for Malmö. The buildings’ expression reflects the rational, production oriented, residential building construction and the
6. VERTICAL DETAILs 7. HORIZONTAL DETAIL OF FUGUE IN CONCRETE ELEMENTS. 8. DRAWING SHOWING ATTACHMENT POINTS FOR WINDOWS AND SKIRTINGS. 6.
Fisksätra Architect: Forsman Snellman Arkitektkontor Year: 1970-1977 Location: Nacka municipality, Stockholm county Client: FIFAB Contractor: -
1. AXONOMETRIC DRAWING 2. Site Plan
Fisksätra is a development in Nacka municipality with 2500
the street. The garages can be reached by foot both from
apartments. 1961 a competition for a new master plan for
the staircase and the basement.
the area was won by the architects Tore Forsman and Ulf
Fisksätra was among the first areas to adopt several new
Snellman. Their main idea, and the title of the project, was:
ideas and technical solution such as the use of complete
“Det går att gå” – it is possible to walk. The architects sug-
traffic separation and garages under all houses. Another
gested apartment blocks standing close together, forming
new idea was the transition from low and sparse buildings
an urban environment. Building started in 1970 and the last
to a dense, urban high rise development without cars close
apartments were finished in 1975. The slab blocks have five
to the natural environment.
to seven stories and flat roofs. They were built with concrete elements which were covered with dark brown bricks and metal sheets in different shapes and colors. Some balconies are recessed and they form irregular patterns in the facades. The houses are grouped around courtyards that create the special aura of the area. The courtyards are used both as recreational spaces and as connections between areas. Due to the topography some of the buildings have a basement level. Some buildings have additions on the two lowest floors which are built close the entrances. The entrances have roofs and walls made of concrete. Beneath all houses there are garages which are directly connected to 95
3. FACADES AND FLOOR PLAN 4. GABLE FACADE. THE GABLES ARE CLADD WITH PREFAB CONCRETE AND DO NOT HAVE WINDOWS. 5. DURING THE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS CRANES ON RAILS WERE USED. THE RAILS ARE VISIBLE IN THE BOTTOM OF THE PICTURE.
The houses are built with a so called â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;bookshelfâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;structure which means a concrete frame with transverse load bearing walls. The pattern from the frame determined the plans and facades of the building. The facades are non load bearing and were constructed as light weight infill walls. These infill walls were usually built up of a combination of a stud frame and window/door partitions.
6. Facade construction with wooden studs and plasterboard. The facade consists of concrete panels, clad with brick and metal sheets.
7. Floor slab connection in relation to reinforcement in the walls and balconies. 8. Steel reinforcement bars in concrete slab.
Brandbergen Architect: Lettströms Arkitektkontor and Günter Von Lienen Year: 1971-1974 Location: Haninge municipality, Stockholm county Client: Österhaninge municipality Contractor: -
1. Axonometric drawing 2. situation plan
Brandbergen was not built in connection to existing rail-
ground stories consist of different precast elements. The
ways and services, in contrast to many other suburbs in
main feature of this construction is a sober facade, easy to
Stockholm. It was instead placed in untouched nature sev-
install and cheap, thanks to serial production. It was made
eral kilometers from the nearest center. Plenty of effort
with large prefabricated concrete elements (some of them
was exerted to separate Brandbergen from the traffic but at
with spaces for doors and windows, but keeping the same
the same time the location made the population highly car-
measures). The section details show that these are sand-
dependent. Brandbergen was supposed to be self-sufficient
wich panels with insulation inside.
with services for all inhabitants of all ages. Therefore, it was named “Brandbergen Sevicestaden” in the masterplan. The area was planned as a “sovstad” (i.e. a “sleeping city”) separated from work places. The load bearing structure of the buildings in Brandber-
gen is mainly made of reinforced concrete. From basement up to ground level the buildings are cast in situ. The above99
3. Floor plan 4. facade facing west 5. photograph of fACADE FACING WEST
6. section 7.FACADE SERIAL PANELS 8. prefab elements 9. DETAILS SHOWING MEETINGS BETWEEN THE FLOOR AND THE FACADE PANELS
Brog책rden Architect: HSB Architects Year: 1971-1973 Location: Alings책s municipality Client: Contractor: -
1. Axonometric drawing 2.
The Brog책rden development was built 1971-1973 and consists of 16 houses with a total living space of 1056 m2. The houses are three-story slab blocks, built with an in situ concrete frame. All load bearing interior walls are cast in 150mm concrete. The facade is a non-load bearing stud frame with a brick and asbestos cement skin. Some buildings have basements and others do not. The most common type of apartment is a three-room apartment. All apartments have balconies. The roof is covered with roofing felt and wood. Brog책rden is the first development from the Million Program which has been renovated in 2011 to meet the passive house standard. 103
2. Situation plan
4. 3. Facade 4. Plan 5. Section
7. 6. Detail Roof 7. Detail floor Slab 8. Detail window 9. detail Floor Slab
10. Detail Balcony
IMAGE TEXT IN HERE.
Hovsjö Row Houses Architect: Platzer Bygg AB Year: 1972-1975 Location: Hovsjö, Södertälje municipality, Stockholm county Client: Södertälje municipality Contractor: Platzers Bygg AB
1. Situation plan 1.
Hovsjö is a suburb to the industry town of Södertälje, 30 km
The row houses which we have chosen to focus on do not
south of Stockholm. It was built between 1971 and 1975 by
contain concrete except in the ground slab. This has been
Platzers Bygg AB on command by the municipality in order
cast directly on the ground which makes the floors unpro-
to host a rapidly growing population.
tected from thermal cold. The load bearing walls are made
The area consists of three types of houses; eight-story
out of wood with 50+70 mm of insulation. Facade materi-
slab block houses, three-story slab block houses and the
als are brick on the short-sides as firewalls and stud fram-
row-houses treated here. It is surrounded by dense wood-
ing on the long sides. The brick walls have no openings at
land and was meant to be self-supporting with all neces-
all. The roof, which is large in proportion to the walls, has
sary civic functions. A couple of months into construction,
150mm of insulation, though the attic is cold.
an economic recession came over Södertälje and Sweden, but nonetheless the plans where carried through. This led to compromises of the building quality and when construction was complete, the apartments proved hard to let. 107
2. Axonometric drawing
Detail ground slab
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Arnstberg, Karl-Olov, Miljonprogrammet, Carlsson, Stock-
Adler, Peter, Bostadsbyggande: på väg mot öppen industri-
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alisering, Svensk byggtjänst, Solna, 1995. Adler, Peter, Bygga industrialiserat, Svensk byggtjänst, Stockholm, 2005.
Druot, Frédéric, Lacaton, Anna & Vassal, Jena-Philippe,
Bjerking, Sven-Erik, Ombyggnad: hur bostadshusen byg-
Plus: La vivienda colectiva ; territorio de excepción =
gdes 1940-1970, Statens råd för byggnadsforskning,
Large-scale housing developments ; an exceptional case,
Gustavo Gill, Barcelona, 2007.
Flerbostadshusens förnyelse: behov och förutsättningar, 2002/03, 1. uppl., Boverket, Karlskrona, 2003. Hall, Thomas (red.), Rekordåren: en epok i svenskt bostads-
byggande, 1. uppl., Boverket, Karlskrona, 1999. Hem för miljoner: förutsättningar för upprustning av mil-
Björk, Cecilia, Kallstenius, Per & Reppen, Laila, Så byggdes
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”Ålidhem och Tomtebo:
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and Stockholm, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Urban and regional research centre Utrecht, Utrecht, 2003. 110
Online Resources Riksantikvarieämbetet, Swedish Heritage Board, bebyggelseregister: http://www.bebyggelseregistret.raa.se Stockholm County Museum (collection of photographs): http://www.lansmuseum.a.se/faktabanken/bilder The Digital Museum (collection of photographs): http:// www.digitaltmuseum.se/
One quarter of Swedenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s existing housing stock was built
Through a series of elective seminar courses at the KTH
during the post war and late modernist period of 1965-74. In
School of Architecture, we have been able to address these
many ways, this time period was the culmination of Sweden
issues from a different perspective. We have been focusing
as a welfare state with an outspoken ambition to serve its
on the structural systems of multifamily housing from the
citizens from cradle to grave. Over one million units of hous-
Million Program Era in order to fill a knowledge gap regard-
ing were built during this ten year span which predictably be-
ing their potential for change. If and how they can be altered
came known as The Million Program Era. In order to achieve
to fit contemporary society rests on how well we can under-
this level of production the processes were policy driven,
stand their original structural intentions and the changing
highly rationalized and predominantly industrialized. Positiv-
needs of todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s residents.
istic planning prevailed and prefabrication came into the fore.