A Complete & Green Street Experiment Final Report: Completed by the Kent State University Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative 2012
Acknowledgements This report produced by: ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
David Jurca, Senior Urban Designer Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative & Jeffrey Kruth, Urban Designer Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative
Support provided by:
THE GEORGE GUND FOUNDATION
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The Group Plan Commission
Old Stone Church Sustainable Transportation Action Team (STAT) 2019
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TABLE OF CONTENTS 4 Pop up Rockwell Final Report
TABLE OF CONTENTS OVERVIEW 8 Studio Project Description & Intentions 8 The History of Pop Up City 10 Group Plan Commission and Complete & Green Streets Ordinance History 13 PROJECT SCHEDULE 18 Process 18 BUILT INSTALLATIONS 22 Cycle Track & Crosswalks 22 BiFi Benches & Transit Waiting Environment 24 Public Art 26 Events & The Extravagant Fix 28 PUBLIC FEEDBACK & OBSERVATIONS 32 Engage & Assess 32 LESSONS LEARNED FOR TEMPORARY USE 37 Temporary Installation...Permanent Implication 37 FUTURE VISION 39 Proposed Plan 39 Next Steps & Phasing 42 APPENDIX 44 Budget for Project 44 Press 46 Temporary Use Resources 47
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Studio Project Description & Intentions
T SECTION OVERVIEW HEADER
his project was offered as a graduate urban design studio through the Kent State University Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative www.cudc.kent.edu. Students were charged with the task of researching, designing, constructing, installing, and assessing a temporary complete and green street on Rockwell Avenue in downtown Cleveland. Over the course of the five-week studio, students engaged with a series of local stakeholders in order to determine a set of desired amenities to test on the site. Labeled a "pop up" event, the intention of this
Example of a "Better Block" Project, in the Deep Ellum Neighborhood in Dallas Texas.
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project was to create a physical embodiment, for one week, of the aspirations conveyed in the City of Cleveland's Green and Complete Streets Ordinance and the Group Plan Commission's Report recommendations (See Group Plan Commission & Complete & Green Streets Ordinance History). The site selected for the temporary intervention aligns with the intentions of these two recent devleopments, which will surely have a significant impact on Cleveland's built environment. Through the engagement of multiple public, not-for-profit, and private entities, it was found
that a somewhat anomalous project such as this one opened up the opportunity to have discussions at several levels about public and private space, pedestrian and bicyclist rights, public transportation, ADA accessibility, and other important issues regarding Cleveland's premier civic space. It was found that entities who may not otherwise typically engage with one another were able to find common ground through the project, which opened up the level of engagement, discourse, and collaboration within and amongst these entities and institutions. Since the project was
understood by all to be temporary, many involved parties were more open to crossing long-standing boundaries. For example, collaboration amongst various city departments who may not have otherwise engaged with one another did so on this project, which, potentially, opens the possibility to alter traditional paradigms of how development plans may take place in the future.
Concept Rendering of Boston, MA Complete Street prepared by Utile, Inc.
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The History of Pop Up City
ince 2007, the KSU Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative has undertaken the Pop Up City initiative, which brings empty places to life through temporary installations and events to recognize underutilized spaces and buildings as potential assets, rather than simply liabilities. Temporary transformations via Pop Up City events allow potentially new programmatic uses, spatial exploratations, and design considerations in a real-world three dimensional environment, as an experiment. Additionally, various stakeholders, public and private entities, and the public-at-large can be engaged in order to envision alternative uses for a space or potential
Bazaar Bizarre. Pop Up Project, 2007.
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pitfalls in a project, before a more permanent development decision is made. Pop Up City is particularly relevant for a city such as Cleveland, which has experienced considerable population loss over the decades, resulting in a massive amount of unutilized and underutilized spaces. It was also conceived as a way to shift the discourse about shrinking cities from scarcity and depletion to regeneration. As an urban design tool, temporary uses allow for the circumvention of traditional real estate development models, or two
dimensional drawings, which are often obscure and incomprehensible to the general public. It also allows for the ability to experiment with new land use pattterns, study traffic conditions, understand local geographies and demographics, and better help reintegrate vacant or underutilized sites into the living fabric of a constantly changing city. The Pop Up City Initiative has three parts: • Capacity building: In an effort to generate interest and support for temporary use projects around the city, we are training a group of vacancy practitioners through workshops , collaborative
projects, and micro-grants to seed temporary interventions in city neighborhoods. • Temporary Events: We are staging an on-going series of events in high-profile locations to promote the idea of temporary use as a revitalization strategy. • Process: We share knowledge and resources with community partners and we are attempting to develop a clear and transparent mechanism for temporary use projects to make it easier for others to do this on their own.
The CUDC has partaken in a number of Pop Up Events, including Leap Night, Bridge Mix,
Bridge Mix. Pop Up Project, 2008. Photo: Stephen Piscura.
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Electric Roller Discotech, Hipp Deck and now Pop Up Rockwell. While no two events are ever quite alike in terms of scope or duration, the aim is similar, as a temporary transformation of space engaging students, various stakeholders, and the public at large in an effort to activate underused spaces in ways that do not inhibit (and can often facilitate) more long-term uses. Temporary use projects are a way to stabilize transitional neighborhooods, promote economic development, and enhance the quality of life in urban neighborhoods.
Hipp Deck. Pop Up Project, 2010. Photo, Matthew Fehrmann. 12 Pop up Rockwell Final Report
While the CUDC has focused on this method of transforming spaces for the past several years, it is also important to note other similar projects and movements. Advocates such as Mike Lydon promote temporary use as a method of "Tactical Urbanism" (See Appendix). Similarly, events such as "Parking Day," are typically an annual event, where curbside parking spaces are occupied and transformed through built projects by various groups of artists, urbanists, and other stakeholders, as part of an effort to 'reclaim' space typically reserved for cars.
Group Plan Commission and Complete & Green Streets Ordinance History Cleveland has a rich history of public and civic space. Originally designed by Daniel Burnham, John Carreerre, and Arnold Brunner, the Group Plan Commission of 1903's purpose was to serve as Cleveland's grand public allĂŠe, connecting civic spaces, and providing relief from the incessant burgeoning of industrial growth in the city. The plan became a prime example in American architecture and planning as a City Beautiful project. Unfortunately, what has now become known as the Burnham plan, was only ever partially realized. What became Tower City, located in Public Square, built in 1919, was intended to be built at the North end of the
Burnham Mall. As a result, the Northern end of the plan never served as an entry anchor point for transportation into, around, and outside of the city. Thus, the Burnham Mall has never been an entirely active public space as it was intended. The Group Plan Commission of today has redesigned the two northern sections of the Burnham Mall, in an attempt to connect development north of the mall, such as Cleveland Browns Stadium, the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, and the Great Lakes Science Center, and new development within the plan, such as the Convention Center, Medical
Original Group Plan by Burnham, 1903. Pop up Rockwell Final Report
Mart, and into new development in and around Public Square. In an attempt to bolster activity in the space, and to encourage multi-modal forms of transportation through the site in order to connect east and west bound traffic flows, the Group Plan Commission recommended that Rockwell Avenue be "showcased as Healthy Streets...Rockwell Avenue in particular can be Cleveland's Green Street showpiece, a visually striking spine that connects Public Square to the Mall. The goal is to enhance the pedestrian and bicyclist's experience in downtown (The Group Plan, 2011)." As an attempt to showcase and further develop the ideas and intended effects
of the group plan, the CUDC and six graduate students partook in this design-build studio as a Pop Up project. In 2011, the Cleveland City Council passed an ordinance requiring 20% of finances spent on road projects be utilized for green and complete streets, meaning: amenities for bicyclists, pedestrians, persons with disabilities, sustainable measures such as porous pavement, energy efficient lighting, as well as, considerations for energy efficiency and stormwater management. The financing is contingent upon the total cost of the proposed roadway improvement, where
Important locations and Redevelopment around Public Square & the Mall. 14 Pop up Rockwell Final Report
the green enhancements cost cannot be larger than the sum of the total cost of what would otherwise be a traditional street enhancement. There is also a restriction of $1 million dollars for a project, and cannot cause undue burden to a project's budget. This "Green and Complete Streets" ordinance follows a growing trend in municipalities across the country to design streets for various modes of transportation, beyond basic automobile traffic flow. Cleveland's local biycycling community and environmental advocates are eager to see these ideas come to fruition, as outlined in the ordinance. A physical, albeit non-permanent example of a
green and complete street may aid in spreading public awareness of the new ordinance and garner political support for permanent implementation.
Group Plan Commission recommendation for Rockwell Avenue (Top) & Redesigned Mall (Bottom). LMN Architects Pop up Rockwell Final Report
O PROJECT SCHEDULE
ver the course of five weeks, six graduate students from the CUDC were asked to reconceive Rockwell Avenue as a complete and green street, given the framework of the aforementioned stakeholders, plans, and ordinances. Far from being a strictly linear design and implementation process, the project taught students the importance of design and construction project management, from engaging the public, through to full build out at an urban scale, and then analysis of those findings.
Through coordination with fellow students in their team, as well as the cohort as a whole, students displayed a high level of engagement and willingness to learn from instructors, city officials, stakeholders, and each other. Through the process of this course students learned how design in the studio directly affects the daily experience of pedestrians, bicyclists, transit riders and car drivers in an urban environment. The design/build format of the studio strengthened a real world understanding of core urban design principals, including human scale design and context decisions.
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Project Schedule Pop up Rockwell Final Report
Project Schedule (continued). 20 Pop up Rockwell Final Report
Student site assessment, construction, and installation. Pop up Rockwell Final Report
Cycle Track & Crosswalks
B BUILT INSTALLLATIONS
roken into teams, students chose to approach various issues deemed relevant to the site. Given its historical context, site accesss issues, questions of sustainability, general inactivity of the site, connections between Public Square and the Mall, the scalar relationship of the street to the buildings, and of the street to the mall, and connections to anchor points such as the Eastman Reading Garden (Cleveland Public Library), student's solutions varied in approach and idea. The issue of transforming the street into an East-West connector route for alternative
transportation, led to the creation and experimention of a two-way cycle track, located on the Southern edge of Rockwell running from East 9th St. through Public Square, terminating across from Old Stone Church. Developed by students Gabriel Fey and Tom Nester, the students collaborated with the city engineering department, Bike Cleveland, and other organizations to provide a safe and workable cycle track--the first of its kind in Cleveland. The Southern side of Rockwell Avenue was chosen (which is somewhat anomalous for bicycle lanes), for a variety of
As-Built Cycle Track with temporary paint, striping, planters, and turf. 22 Pop up Rockwell Final Report
• The H.M. Metzenbaum courthouse located between E. 3rd St. and E. Roadway on the South side of Rockwell Ave. has a desire for an additional buffer zone between the road and its facilities, for fear of a terrorist threat which may be caused by an explosive device in a parked car directly adjacent to the site. Providing a bicycle track allowed for this additional buffer. • As one rides through public square, an already existing lane which is already closed to traffic exists,which was especially useful for this temporary exhibit. • Automobile traffic is already one-way on Rockwell, which alleviates some of the difficulties which may be associated with locating the lanes on the North side of the road. Additionally, Laketran and RTA buses queue on the North side, which would cause additional burden in planning for bus pickups and drop off in providing curb space.
Additionally, the cycle track group constructed a median with astroturf (temporary) and unique planters, at a cost savings compared to store bought planters, to provide an additional buffer between cyclists and auto & bus traffic. The astroturf simulated the width of a proposed bioswale, which could be implemented. Three crosswalks were added, utilizing duct tape, for pedestrians at E. 3rd St., E. Roadway, and at the library, connecting the Eastman Reading Garden to the Mall.
Proposed Cycle Track with planters barrier. Pop up Rockwell Final Report
BiFi Benches & Transit Waiting Environment
W BUILT INSTALLLATIONS
hile public benches exist at the Southern end of the Mall (the Northern section of the Mall, considered Mall A & B, is currently under construction), there are no benches currently on Rockwell. Students Nti Awakessien, Tommy Chesnes, and Arthur Schmidt IVsought to address several issues with the site in relation to stormwater runoff, transit waiting environments, and public seating along the street. While last minute adjustments to the design of the transit waiting environment had to be made, due to arrangements with RTA and the placement of a potential bus shelter,
the incorporation of a covered shelter with the BiFi bench near the Laketran bus stop proved successful, and provided an alternative configuration for the benches. Existing RTA stops occur on E. 3rd St. (where there are existing shelters), and at the intersection of E. Roadway and Rockwell Avenue. Laketran buses queue across from E. 3rd St. on the North side of Rockwell Ave. The intention of the design of the transit waiting environment was to capture what would otherwise be stormwater runoff on the top with planters, while providing aesthetic visibility at the edges of the top of the shelter. Design considerations and tectonic connections considered the windy conditions of the site, as
Combination of BiFi bench & green roof Transit Waiting Environment (TWE) 24 Pop up Rockwell Final Report
well as the incorporation into the modularity system of the Bi-Fi benches. The Bi-Fi (a combination of biofiltration & Wi-Fi) benches reflect the desire to capture stormwater runoff while providing secure, comfortable environments on Rockwell Avenue. Working with local firm, Filtrexx, as well as entities such as the Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District (NEORSD) and the Ohio Chapter of ASLA, students sought to use the captured runoff and utilize it to water plantings within the bench. The bench structure extends one foot into the street to filter a certain amount of the runoff, which would otherwise be headed for the stormwater sewer. Through capillary action,
the intention is for the water to soak through the Filtrexx socks (which are filled with a soil mixture formulated for urban runoff) and up into planters located at the top of the bench. Through experimentation, it was found that water penetrated halfway up the the socks, and did not necessarily reach the plantings from below. Trees and shrubbery located in the bench also help to greenscape the street. Additionally, the intention of the design is to incorporate WiFi access into the bench. Collaboration with the Cleveland Public Library allowed for access to a Wi-Fi signal for this temporary use, while a more permanant intention would be to incorporate it into the bench itself.
Through capillary action, stormwater runoff along the curb is intended to be collected and filtered through Filtrexx socks up to the planters emedded in the bench.
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W BUILT INSTALLLATIONS
orking from the idea of responding to site forces, student Antonia Marinucci, sought to engage with the wind forces often present on the site. Through a series of pinwheels at various scales, Marinucci wanted to bring color and draw attention to the site from locations such as Public Square and E. 3rd St. Larger pinwheels in a cascading layout were placed to create a type of gateway into the site from E. 3rd St. The cascading pinwheels were placed at the Southern end of Rockwell on E. 3rd St. Pinwheels were also used at a miniature scale
As-built installation of Pinwheels. 26 Pop up Rockwell Final Report
as promotion for the event. Accompanied with literature about the project, the pinwheels created an association with the project aesthetic a priori. Intermediate sized pinwheels were utilized throughout the length of Rockwell Avenue, strapped to light poles at regular intervals, as well as being featured in each of the planter boxes. Constructed from an acrylic material, the student painted them in accordance with an agreed upon color pallette. Removing the backing of the acrylic from only one side
provided for a visual contrast between matte and glossy on the larger pinwheels, which could be conceived as the pinwheels spun. Using a simple lag bolt fitted with a plastic base allowed the wheels to spin freely, while giving the ability to attach to a variety of surfaces. Although the installation's intention was to transform the area's perceived liability of high winds into an assett through animated public art, the bracketed connection at the base of the largest pinwheels failed and they toppled over, through the course of the week (with exceptionally high winds) while many of the
acrylic pieces were torn off in unexpected gale force winds. Some of the intermediate sized pinwheels attached to the light poles did survive, however. It was the intention of the student, that if this were to become a permanent installation, that the scale of the pinwheels be increased to properly coincide with the monumental scale of the space and buildings, such as Key Tower and the Mall, and the construction and material would be suited for high intensity wind loads.
Construction detail (top), original placement proposal (left), and construction of pinwheels (above). Pop up Rockwell Final Report
Events & The Extravagant Fix
T BUILT INSTALLLATIONS
hroughout the week, two public events were held--one on a Saturday afternoon and early evening (April 21), and one on a Wednesday afternoon (April 25). The events were held for two primary reasons, one to highlight the week long Rockwell Avenue installation in order to garner more public participation and engagement, and the other to test and observe the conditions and use of the space at differing times of the week, i.e., during the middle of the work week, and on a weekend. Variables such as weather conditions--the Saturday event was unseasonably cold and gray, while the Wednesday event was warmer and sunny--meant
no empirical conclusions could be drawn in regards to what might be considered "typical usage. However, the draw of these events, which were anchored with musical performances at multiple locations along the street on Saturday, food trucks at both the Saturday and Wednesday events, balloon installations, adirondack chairs, water features, free bicycle rentals, and the closure of E. 3rd St allowed for the additional collection of surveys and input of individuals who may not have otherwise been at the site. The events drew bicycle advocates, city officials, various stakeholders, members of the press
Wednesday Afternoon installation with food trucks & adirondack chairs. 28 Pop up Rockwell Final Report
and the casual passsers-by. Positively received, the events allowed for the testing of Rockwell Ave., E 3rd St., Public Square, and the Mall as a cohesive, collective public space, as well as the testing and observation of the use of the student installations. Additionally, during the event times and prior to the installation, local artist Jimmy Kuenhle collaborated on the project, providing two installation pieces, made of inflated nylon fabric. Called an "extravagant fix" by Kuehnle, one of the pieces was conceived in order to draw attention to the site, and to collect information as an "input
gathering device," while the other, an inflatable crosswalk was operated by the artist during the events to draw attention to pedestrian safety due to the lack of crosswalks at certain locations along Rockwell. Designed on a larger scale and with vibrant colors, the pieces sought to draw attention to themselves, while the lightness of the materials allowed them to be moved easily from location to location between Rockwell, the Mall, and Public Square.
Artist Jimmy Kuehnle with his "Extravagant Fix" Input Gathering Device (top, right), and inflatable crosswalk (bottom left). Pop up Rockwell Final Report
PUBLIC FEEDBACK & OBSERVATIONS
Engage & Assess
T PUBLIC FEEDBACK & OBSERVATIONS
he driving component of this studio project was to engage, assess, and observe the site, its current users, and potential future users, both before intstallation and also during the installation week. A total of eighty-seven surveys were collected, both digitally through the web, and in the field. Through preliminary site visits, and in collaboration with stakeholders and technnical experts, students were able to observe and assess pitfalls, both in the existing conditions in the street, and preliminary design phases. Through engagement with the general public and these
Student Arthur Schmidt IV engaging on E. 3rd St. 32 Pop up Rockwell Final Report
technical experts, students were able to deliver both a temporary streetscape, as well as a long term future recommendation for full scale development. Through the surveying process, it was found that many people found Rockwell to be beautiful, but not exciting, and also hidden. In terms of pedestrian friendliness, it was found to be on the middle to low end of the scale. There was a large variety in terms of the sample demographic collected, from teenagers to older users, and in variety of frequency to the space, ranging from several times a week to almost never. Through
this collection, students felt comfortable drawing conclusions that the space ought to inject a sense of playfulness, better connect from Public Square to the mall, and provide a sense of security for alternative means of transportation. Because Rockwell Avenue has a typical width of thirty-eight feet throughout the stretch of the observed area, and because of the "kink" in the plan in the street to the East of E. 9th St., Rockwell is primarily used as a quick cut through street to travel West to Public Square for much of the automobile traffic that does not wish to use the more arterial roads of Superior
Ave. or St. Clair Ave. More legitimate auto traffic uses are for those who work in the surrounding buildings, such as the courthouse and library whose parking access is via Rockwell. Therefore, students felt justified in reducing the width of the travel lanes to allow for both bus traffic, while also providing a small passing lane for auto traffic. Because of the reduced width, car traffic was observed to be slower throughout the project, and those who might otherwise speed down this stretch of Rockwell were forced to slow down. Despite best intentions and attention to planning
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PUBLIC FEEDBACK & OBSERVATIONS
details, some things could not be foreseen, which is precisely why these types of proejcts are done on a temporary basis. For example, some automobile traffic utilized the bicycle lane at the Eastern end of the site, in order to access the library book drop off, located on the Northern facade of the library. While a break in the cycle track was provided for cars at near the drop off, many turned left from E. 6th Street directly into the cycle track. Additional signage and bollards at the far Eastern edge of the cycle track may have prevented such instances. In terms of usage of the cycle track, the number of cyclists on Rockwell doubled during the experiment,
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although experienced riders, such as bike couriers, tended not to use the track. Despite this, young riders and families tended to enjoy its presence. Through conversation with the Cleveland Public Library, it was found that there was a slight inconvenience, caused by the removal of ten parking spaces, but found the building to be more attractive without cars blocking the view. A more permanent solution would take into consideration the loss of these parking spaces, and incorporate them with the current development around the Mall. It was also found
that truck deliveries, which back down a ramp on the Southern side of Rockwell Avenue were slightly inconvenienced by the installation, but deliveries were not interrupted. In terms of bus, auto, and cycle traffic flows, it was felt that the placement of the cycle track on the South side of Rockwell Ave. was a judicious decision, given that it would not interfere with bus queueing and loading on the Northern side of the street. Buses When buses were queued on the North side, other buses and autos were still able to pass, on the left due to the allotted width of the travel lane. The traffic that did pass, did
so more slowly due to the reduced width of the lane, and was an intended effect for the safety of pedestrians and others. The auto traffic flowed more slowly, but the interventions did not halt or back up traffic. Additional observations included the use of E. 3rd St. while it was closed. For this time of year, the void between the courthouse and library is mostly in shadow during the morning and early afternoon hours, which meant a cooler space. While this may be desirable in warmer months, it seemed to detract from the number of users during this installation. However, it was still felt
Preliminary Engagement with City Officials Marty Cader, Rob Mavec and Frank Williams. Pop up Rockwell Final Report
PUBLIC FEEDBACK & OBSERVATIONS
that E. 3rd St. was a natural gathering place, due to its smaller scale, sense of enclosure, and axial alignment with the Mall. The placement and aesthetic of the benches may have also led to less than optimal occupancy. Some commentary suggested that people were uncertain whether the benches were art pieces, and should therefore not be touched. Although the color pallette was bright, the colors seemed to fit in the space and feedback suggested that it introduced a vibrancy to the street. The scale of the pinwheel pieces also did not seem to provide the full impact that was intended, as they seemed to become visually "lost" along the stretch of Rockwell. This was partially due to the constraints of the material used, which had a maximum material dimension. There were, however, positive comments made about drawing people into the space due to the pinwheels' bright color and motion, and the association with the wind turbine at the Northern end of the Mall near the Great Lakes Science Center. Overall, the project was positively received by the public, contributed to traffic calming, increased bike usage, and a more visually cohesive streetscape, breaking up the monotonous wide expanse of asphalt through the use of planters and buffer zone lined with astroturf. Many wanted to see the street transformation continue further West and East, in order to connect adjacent downtown districts. It was difficult ro draw usage conclusions as the cycle track only extended four blocks.
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Student Antonia Marinucci tests her pinwheel idea (top) and project partners discuss future implementation (above).
LESSONS LEARNED FOR TEMPORARY USE
Temporary Installation... Permanent Implication
I LESSONS LEARNED FOR TEMPORARY USE
n addition to the observations and assessments made about the site and individual installation projects, there are likewise lessons that can be learned about the process of the temporary use model for urban design. While generally the studio can be said to be a success in terms of meeting its objectives, there are multiple things which must be considered when attempting a project at this scale and for this duration. First, it would be advised to have an installation of this type installed for more than one week. While there was valuable data collected during this week, and there was use of the elements,
it was felt that unexpected inclement weather for several of the days, led to less use of the installation than one might otherwise expect. One of the large questions that might be asked in regards to a temporary installation with a long term vision and recommendation plan is, "What is the balance between temporary and long term durability in design?" For example, while pallets are useful for short term installation in a project, they may not be suitable for long term use. And while pallets are suitable for mobility during a one week experimental project, where it may be wished for an installation to be
Photo from Key Tower of autos in the cycle track queuing for the library dropoff. Pop up Rockwell Final Report
PUBLIC FEEDBACK & OBSERVATIONS
moved, anchoring this street furniture is a more serious consideration. And, while planter boxes were custom fabricated for this project at a cost savings compared to tradtional planters, what would be the effective cost of the same planters, if labor and shipping costs were incorporated?
given to local urban gardens, and the wood pallets were generously donated. Additionally, the green paint used in the cycle track was experimental, in that it is permanant until washed off with a solution specially formulated to remove it, which worked very well.
It is also important to consider the life of the materials both before and after the installation. For example, dozens of plants were bought for the installation, which were donated to the local Rotary Club, several of the rolls of astroturf and planters are to be reused by another local group in a similar Pop Up project, Filtrexx socks were
Finally, expect the unknown. Through rigorous planning, this project's execution can be deemed successful, however knowing things such as necessary permits and litigious implications is always helpful. Finally, it is advised to have multiple contingency plans and heavily consider design factors such as weather.
Astroturf flipped from wind power, despite being nailed into the asphalt. Eventually all astroturf would be removed, due to extreme wind conditions. 38 Pop up Rockwell Final Report
T FUTURE VISION
he purpose of this project and this report is to serve as an intermediate step in the planning process, between drawings on a board to full build out. What was learned through this temporary installation, can be applied to a more permanant built solution. The solutions conceived by the students are not intended to be exhaustive nor complete, but rather are intended to serve as a framework for how a complete and green street may be understood in the context of urban Cleveland. This project also tested the specificity of this particular site, where unique conditions were
met, which may not be appropriate or applicable to other sites in the city. Certainly, the Mall and Public Square are unique, defining characteristics of the city, which should be dealt with in a particularly careful manner in order to properly respond to the context and history of the site. Given these parameters, a future vision seeks to stake Rockwell as an exemplary street for sustainable practices, as a vital East-West connection for alternative modes of transportation, such as cycling, and as a spine connecting two of the city's most impoartant civic spaces--Public Square and The Mall.
Proposed Site Plan with cycle track continuation, benches, stormwater elements, and public art locations. Pop up Rockwell Final Report
PUBLIC FEEDBACK & OBSERVATIONS
Obviously, certain elements endemic to the temporary nature would need to be carried out in a different manner if a full vision came to fruition. The astroturf and planter box median would likely be a concrete median with various hardy plantings, possibly with trees and other sustainable stormwater management systems. The benches which filter runoff may be incorporated into the construction of either the storm sewer or curb itself. The public art would be constructed at a larger scale, and with more durable materials to help identify Rockwell as a cohesive street.
East Third St. may also lend itself to being closed in the future. A significant factor in the future of this street would be bus traffic, as it relates to Rockwell Ave. itself, E. 3rd St., E. Roadway, and Euclid Avenue. Future plans should go so far as to investigate the possibility of closing Rockwell Ave. to thru automobile traffic, making the streetscape more of a shared street where curbs are reomoved, and the sidewalk blends with the roadway, and bollards may define boundaries. It may be ideal to keep automobile traffic below 10mph, which would mean changing the feel and scale of the street, which may be possible
Proposed Rendering at E. Roadway & Rockwell with Cycle Track, Benches, and Public Art Locations. 40 Pop up Rockwell Final Report
with through the use of chicanes and bulb outs. Additionally, pavers (or other surface treatment) may enhance the street character, speaking to its historic significance (in addition to the ability to be porous to reduce runoff) as opposed to asphalt. Other alternative visions for the street may include traffic tables, intended to slow traffic at certain intervals (such as the intersection of E. 3rd St. and Rockwell, or E. Roadway and Rockwell), which would make for a more friendly pedestrian experience. The long term development of the street could begin with relatively modest changes, such as the
introduction of ADA crosswalks and striping, curb cuts, bike lanes, and buffer area. Benches, planters, porous pavers, and other design development could occur in phases as part of a more cohesive strategy to better intregrate Rockwell Ave. and its surrounding spaces. This project should also serve as a template for Pop Up projects in the future, whether carried out by the CUDC, or other organizations. The Pop Up model can serve as an important tool in urban design practice where public visability is paramount and the public's interaction with a site is crucial.
Proposed rendering of Rockwell Ave streetscape extension to E. 9th St, looking west. Pop up Rockwell Final Report
Next Steps & Phasing
T FUTURE VISION
he vision for this street extends beyond the confines of the Street itself, and should be seen as a component of a much larger system and vision of the surrounding area. Given this, careful attention should be paid to the implementation of a plan, such that it coincides with a larger vision for the street and city, to make this area a unique city destination.
of citizens, officials, businesses, and other stakeholders.
Likewise, it is essential to carry the momentum of this project forward in a timely manner. The results and lessons learned from this project coincide with current and future development of the area, requires a commitment and diligence
The phasing matrix provided here should serve as a framework for potential future work, and should be considered in part, as market conditions, funding opportunities, and will of the citizenry dictate.
Quincy Market. Boston, MA. 42 Pop up Rockwell Final Report
Proper phasing and implementation should be part of a comprehensive vision of the street, such that one development action does not interfere with other potential future uses, as conceived in a proper vision.
Establish Rockwell Ave. as an East-West Corridor for multimodal transportation & connection to lake via Burnhanm Mall. Establish Crosswalks at E. 3rd St. & Rockwell, E. Roadway & Rockwell, and @ Eastman Reading Garden & Rockwell.
ACTION Coordinate with Bike Cleveland, City Planning Commission, Downtown Cleveland Alliance, Historic Warehouse District, Group Plan Commission, and stakeholders along Rockwell Ave. to establish plan and potential funding sources. Coordinate with City Planning Commission and Engineer's Office to establish plan for these locations.
Create Wayfinding, Signage, and public art to enhance historic and important character
Investigate with the Group Plan Commission the Cleveland Restoration Society, and others what may be appropriate for the site, given the new redevelopment of the Mall, Medical Mart, and Convention Center.
Install benches and Transit Waiting Environments with sustainable components on Rockwell Ave.
Coordinate with RTA, Laketran, and Bureau of Sidewalks to establish locations and type of components to be installed.
Close Rockwell Avenue to thru auto traffic and make it a shared street experience.
Investigate with Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency (NOACA), RTA, Laketran, City Engineering Office, and stakeholders along Rockwell Ave. to determine feasibility and cost-benefits analysis.
Create porous pavement along the length of Rockwell between E. 6th St. & E. Roadway
Develop feasibility study and impact analysis with Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District, Green City Blue Lake, and Ohio Department of Transportation.
Investigate with Northeast Ohio Areawide Close E 3rd St. to thru Coordinating Agency (NOACA), RTA, Laketran, auto and possibly bus and City Engineering Office to determine traffic to make it a feasibility and cost-benefits analysis. shared street experience.
Pop up Rockwell Final Report
Budget for Project
POP UP ROCKWELL BUDGET ITEM PROMOTIONAL Postcards PopUpRockwell.com URL Video documentation Banners
4"x6" double-sided, Jakprints Cypress Collective DCA
PINWHEELS Chipboard, Duralar clear, dowel Ink jet Labels Clear duralar, pinwheels rainbow Clear duralar, pinwheels rainbow Red LEDs Pinwheel Picks Coin Lithium Batteries
Pat Catan's CVS Pat Catan's Pat Catan's Pololu Corporation ShinDigz Global Imports, Inc
BI-FI BENCHES Tweet Seat Filtrexx Socks Tree planters, hardware, brushes Wood, gloves, hardware 2x4s, spade bit, hardware Paint, MDF, Clamps, hardware Plants and trees
Landscape Forms Filtrexx Home Depot Home Depot Home Depot Home Depot Gale's Garden Center
CYCLE TRACK Temporary Green & White Paint Lake Traffic Solutions 44 Paint Pop up Rockwell Report reflec strips Home Depot thinner,Final rollers,
500 $ 130.00 $ 8.99 $ 2,330.00 8 $ 1,216.00
$ $ $ $ $ $ $
14.07 8.99 150.54 261.42 29.35 22.35 34.49
1 $ $ $ $ $ $ $
315.00 164.85 275.91 108.25 331.33 795.77
$ 1,645.50 $ 95.79
Filtrexx Socks Tree planters, hardware, brushes Wood, gloves, hardware 2x4s, spade bit, hardware Paint, MDF, Clamps, hardware Plants and trees
Filtrexx Home Depot Home Depot Home Depot Home Depot Gale's Garden Center
$ $ $ $ $ $
315.00 164.85 275.91 108.25 331.33 795.77
CYCLE TRACK Temporary Green & White Paint Lake Traffic Solutions 20 gallons $ 1,645.50 Paint thinner, rollers, reflec strips Home Depot $ 95.79 Astroturf (40" wide rolls) Motz Group 700 feet $ 625.00 eniende ntotas et, sunt dolorum essus, natempos a autet que sin non poste adis unt- ma Astroturf (var. sizes) Free from CUDC 4 rolls $ magnis acestio rerciendia Green sitasitiae marking,natur striping paint Home Depot aut modionsedio blabo. Ut digenda $ erferum 11.57 vel inverum et res voloris iume ne deliae se cus dusandanis apicta ipsum quiduci endellab idebitat. Plywood, furring strips Home Depot $ 1,053.00 corunt enisquam, volupic totatecus. atur magnis acestio rerciendia vel inverum et res Plywood, Homenos Depot voloris iume ne deliae se cus corunt $ enisquam, 69.15 Pudantis hardware ius, temod quis destrum aperum DeWalt Battery Pkamus si odis aut autenecate Home Depot volupic totatecus. $ 99.00 quas estiore pellit PVC, boards, spraypaint, reium aligentbrushes, ectatis debitae ptatiss imodignit Pudantis ius, temod quis destrum aperum nos aborenihic to et laborrum, qui verferiHome onsequi Umbrella bases Depot quas estiore pellit amus si odis aut$autenecate 277.26 occum ut maior sus simos ario. Et qui dolore reium aligent ectatis debitae ptatiss imodignit Kneepads, string, nails Home Depot $ 49.52 nissi adipsam qui a ditatquiatur alit laudiatur aborenihic to et laborrum, qui verferi onsequi Shrubs, annuals Kmart 227 $ 464.73 sinis di cus sum qui doluptis pa quidusae. occum ut maior sus simos ario. Et qui dolore Duct Tape $ 478.56 Ernatem. Sam, quiandi tatureiciate velest, nissi adipsam qui a ditatquiatur alit laudiatur Stencils (Bike) City of Cleveland 1 $ quatecteniet moditatur? Optaqui ducidenis et sinis di cus sum qui doluptis pa quidusae. Wayfinding signs FastSigns 15 $ 387.00 od magnatecat estion etur minvendae ea porum Ernatem. Sam, quiandi tatureiciate velest, Wayfinding Sign (extra) Fast Signs 1 $ 30.00 Gas (travel to Cincinnatti) Pick up Astroturf $ 217.67 Screws Home Depot $ 21.97 Trailer Rental UHaul $ 29.95 Trailer Rental Uhaul $ 85.00 Trailer Rental Uhaul $ 40.89
BUS SHELTER 2x8 Plywood, 2x6, hardware Plexi, MDF, hardware Wire rope, 1/16" SWG SLV
Home Depot Home Depot Home Depot Home Depot
8 $ $ $ $
26.47 114.63 162.45 39.20
MISCELLANEOUS Musicians Colorful adirondack chairs
7 $ 9 $
E. 3rd STREET Balloons, tea lights, tank, string Colored duct tape Bike Share Signs
Pat Catan's Home Depot FastSigns
$ $ 2 $
67.15 17.85 118.00
Pop up Rockwell Final Report
op Up Rockwell received both local and national press attention throughout its duration. A testament to the succcess of the project and the public's interest in temporary use urban design, coverage and interest ranged from general interst to Pop Up and Tactical Urbanism communities around the country.
Breckenridge, Tom, "Pop Up Rockwell will rock what's possible for Cleveland's downtown streets," Cleveland.com, last modified April 20, 2012, Accessed May 31, 2012, http:// www.cleveland.com/metro/index.ssf/2012/04/post_7.html "Kent State University urban planners mount bike-friendly event in heart of downtown Cleveland," The Associated Press, last modified April 21, 2012, accessed through Dayton Daily News, May 31, 2012, http://www.daytondailynews.com/ news/ohio-news/kent-state-mounts-bike-friendly-event-incleveland-1363596.html Nguyen, Jason, "Cleveland street goes 'green' in urban experiement," WKYC-TV, last modified April 25, 2012, Accessed May 31, 2012, http://www.wkyc.com/news/story. aspx?storyid=242884
46 Pop up Rockwell Final Report
Temporary Use Resources
Tactical URBANISM Short-Term Action | | Long-Term Change
tac·ti·cal adj: \ t a k - t i - k ə l \
1. of or relating to small-scale actions serving a larger purpose 2. adroit in planning or maneuvering to accomplish a purpose
variety of resources were consulted by both the students and instructors throughout the course of the project, and the following are sources we find to be particularly valuable for undertaking a project of this size and scope.
Tactical Urbanism, Vol. II Street Plans Collaborative http://issuu.com/ streetplanscollaborative/docs/ tactical_urbanism_vol_2_final Developed by "Street Plans" and Mike Lydon, this text acts as a handbook, describing the background, impact, and examples of successful temporary use strategies . Pop up Rockwell Final Report
eniende ntotas et, sunt dolorum essus, sitasitiae natur magnis acestio rerciendia vel inverum et res voloris iume ne deliae se cus corunt enisquam, volupic totatecus. Pudantis ius, temod quis destrum aperum nos quas estiore pellit amus si odis aut autenecate reium aligent ectatis debitae ptatiss imodignit aborenihic to et laborrum, qui verferi onsequi occum ut maior sus simos ario. Et qui dolore nissi adipsam qui a ditatquiatur alit laudiatur sinis di cus sum qui doluptis pa quidusae. Ernatem. Sam, quiandi tatureiciate velest, quatecteniet moditatur? Optaqui ducidenis et od magnatecat estion etur minvendae ea porum
natempos a autet que sin non poste adis unt ma aut modionsedio blabo. Ut digenda erferum dusandanis apicta ipsum quiduci endellab idebitat. atur magnis acestio rerciendia vel inverum et res voloris iume ne deliae se cus corunt enisquam, volupic totatecus. Pudantis ius, temod quis destrum aperum nos quas estiore pellit amus si odis aut autenecate reium aligent ectatis debitae ptatiss imodignit aborenihic to et laborrum, qui verferi onsequi occum ut maior sus simos ario. Et qui dolore nissi adipsam qui a ditatquiatur alit laudiatur sinis di cus sum qui doluptis pa quidusae. Ernatem. Sam, quiandi tatureiciate velest,
Pop Up City (Urban Infill Series, Volume II) http://www.cudc.kent.edu/ pop_up_city/index.html This is a publication produced by the CUDC in 2009, looking at temporary use strategies across a broad spectrum of spaces and typologies. 48 Pop up Rockwell Final Report
Ready to try your own pop up?
Temporary occupancy permit: If you’re using
Here are some things you should know...
spEcial event approval: The City of Cleveland
There are two ways to approach a temporary event, by the book or on the fly. It’s best to have the property owners’ permission, all city permits, liability insurance, and private security, but getting all this can be time-consuming and expensive. Instead, you might do whatever you think you can get away with and deal with the consequences after the fact, as long as you don’t hurt anyone or break anything. There is also a third way, the almost legitimate approach. You do your best to follow all the rules and keep everything by the book, but you make compromises and take short-cuts when absolutely necessary. Whatever approach you choose, remember to be safe and responsible.
has a special events committee that has representatives from all the city departments you will ever need to talk to. You may be required to meet with this committee. If so, you need to submit your application well in advance of your event. The committee meets monthly. See below for contact information.
a vacant building for your event, you will need a temporary occupancy permit. To apply for a permit, you must have a floor plan and a site plan.
quatecteniet Ernatem. variety Sam, of moditatur? resources quiandi tatureiciate Optaqui were consulted ducidenis velest,by both et FIRE: quatecteniet od magnatecat the students moditatur? estion and etur instructors Optaqui minvendae ducidenis throughout ea porum et od magnatecat natempos the courseaofautet the estion project, que sin eturnon and minvendae the poste following adis eaunt porum are ma PERMITS and APPROVALS natempos aut sources modionsedio weafind autettoblabo. que be particularly sinUt non digenda poste valuable adis erferum untforma aut modionsedio dusandanis undertaking apicta a project blabo. ipsum ofWATER: Ut quiduci this digenda sizeendellab and erferum scope. idebitat. dusandanis apicta ipsum quiduci endellab idebitat. Tent permit: You can’t fight city hall, so make friends there instead. Specific approvals will vary depending on the event, but assume that you are going to need some kind of permit. It’s best to have a friend on the inside to help guide you through the approvals process. Start early. Very early. In Cleveland, some permits you may need include:
You’ll need a permit if your tent(s) are larger than 10-feet square. Stick with small tents and avoid the permit process.
Stage permit: A permit is required for stages or platforms that are more than 12 inches high. Go with a lower stage whenever possible.
In Cleveland, a bonfire requires an open burn permit. You need to get the permit form from the Health Department. Fill it out and take it to the Fire Department for their approval. Then back to the Health Department where they issue the actual permit. Only clean, dry wood can be burned--no wood with paint or varnish, or treated wood, or garbage, or any kind of plastic, rubber, etc. Limit your fire to no larger than five feet wide by five feet tall. Permits for larger fires are harder to get. Remember to have fire extinguishers on hand. Marshmallows are also important.
Fire hydrants are everywhere, but you need a permit from the Water Department to tap a hydrant. They will ask you to estimate the amount of water you plan to use and pay for it in advance. If you need to use a lot of water over an extended period of time, the Water Department may decide to meter your usage. But for most events, your estimate will suffice. To tap a fire hydrant, you need a big lug wrench. Righty-tighty, lefty loosey. If you plan to transport water some distance from the hydrant to your site, you will need a fire hose. A garden hose will not work. Many building contractors also have fire hoses, so see if someone will lend you one.
ELECTRICITY: If possible, get your power for sound equipment and lighting from nearby buildings. But don’t go crazy with extension cords, because this is dangerous. You can rent a generator, although they are noisy and will require an electrical permit from the Building Department. Only a registered electrician can pull an electrical permit. If you only need a little electricity, you can get a power inverter and use your car battery. FOOD and DRINK: Local restaurants make great event partners. Invite them to set up a stand and sell things at your event. Food vendors need a permit from the Health Department. Alcohol adds to the fun, but it makes everything more complicated. Selling alcohol requires a liquor permit. Even if you give drinks away, your liability insurance premium will be higher and you may need additional security.
SUPPLIES The world is full of free stuff. Check the tree lawns in your neighborhood for all kinds of things that can enhance your event. Befriend someone with a truck.
WEATHER You can’t control the weather so stop worrying about it. Everything will be alright. Really.
For small events, you can haul away the trash yourself. But if you’re expecting lots of people, you should have a trash dumpster on site. There are many private waste haulers, but the City of Cleveland’s waste service is the most affordable and efficient. The city will deliver and pick up a small dumpster for around $200.
RESTROOMS You can rent portable restrooms for about $100 per unit per day. Rent at least two, even if you’re expecting a small crowd, because you’ll want to have a back-up if one malfunctions. Or see if you can find a nearby restaurant with a friendly owner. Offer to buy food from the restaurant in exchange for use of their restrooms during the event.
ROOFTOPS are great locations for temporary events, but the logistics can be tricky. Make sure your roof has a parapet wall or a high railing around the perimeter. Open roof edges are dangerous and you will run into problems with the Building Department unless you can secure the edge in a code-conforming way. Your roof will need at least two means of egress (two ways to get up and down from the roof). Don’t forget about accessibility—people with limited mobility may want to attend your event. Plan early, not at the last minute.
SPONSORS Know your audience. If you have clear objectives and a pure heart, people will help you and support your event. Corporate sponsorships can be useful. Red Bull, Pabst Blue Ribbon, Glaceau Vitamin Water, and Starbucks seem especially willing to give their products away. Some sponsors will even give you cash if you ask nicely.
Pop Up City (Urban Infill Series, Volume II) http://www.cudc.kent.edu/ pop_up_city/index.html An accompanying handbook to the text by the CUDC, this insert offers useful suggestions, contacts, and resources for undertaking a Pop Up project.
Pop up Rockwell Final Report
The Temporary City Bishop Peter, & Willams, Lesley http://www.routledge.com/ books/details/9780415670562/ This book focuses on temporary use strategies from the view of architects and urban design professionals. 50 Pop up Rockwell Final Report
For more information, visit: www.popuprockwell.com www.cudc.kent.edu
Pop up Rockwell Final Report