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PROCEEDINGS OF THE ONE DAY WORKSHOP ON WILDLIFE CONSERVATION: VALUES AND INCENTIVES

07th OCTOBER 2010 OFFICE OF THE DIVISIONAL FOREST OFFICER SHERGAON FOREST DIVISION RUPA, ARUNACHAL PRADESH


Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Contents Acknowledgements

3

Introduction

4

Agenda

5

Introductory Talk Shri. Tenzing Norbu Thongdok, H’MLA Rupa- Kalaktang and Chairman, State Pollution Control Board

6

Wildlife in Western Arunachal Pradesh, value and threats PK Dutta, WWF

8

Incentives for Wildlife Conservation outside PA’s Ramana Athreya, Kaati Trust

11

Innovative Ecotourism models for West Kameng region Indi Glow, Bugun Welfare Society

14

Knowledge of the law - Awareness about WP Act 1972 KS.Jayachandran, DFO, Shergaon Forest Division

16

Community based Conservation – The Thembang experience PK Dutta, WWF - India

18

Future of hunting in a tribal society – brainstorming session Discussion and development of action points

21

Interactive

ANNEXURES: TERMS OF REFERENCE – BRAINSTORMING SESSION QUESTIONAIRE PRIZE WINNING SCHOOL PAINTINGS

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Acknowledgements Shergaon Forest Division would especially like to express our gratitude to our guest of honour, Shri. Tenzing Norbu Thongdok, Honorable Member of Legislative Assembly, Rupa - Kalaktang and Chairman, Arunachal Pradesh State Pollution Control Board for his eloquent speech that served to open the workshop. His energy and enthusiasm shaped the events that formed the main thread of the proceeding. Shergaon Forest Division would like to thank Shri. J.L. Singh, IFS, Principal Chief Conservator of Forests (Wildlife), Government of Arunachal Pradesh for providing financial sanction for this workshop. We are grateful to Shri. G.N Roy, IFS, Chief Conservator of Forest, Western Arunachal Circle for being the constant source of encouragement throughout the entire process. The role of Shri. P. Ringu, DCF is hereby duly acknowledged for sowing the initial idea of such a workshop. Special thanks are addressed to Dr. Ramana Athreya, Kaati Trust, Shri. Indi Glow, Bugun Welfare Society and Shri. PK Dutta, WWF – India for taking part in the workshop as resource persons. Their sincere role as central pillars of the entire proceeding was instrumental in ensuring evolution of tangible products out of the gathering. We thank the DFO, Bomdila Forest Division and the staff especially Shri. Dechen, Range Officer, Bomdila for helping us with logistical support. We also thank the participants and other well wishers and friends for their encouragement and inputs for the success of the programme.

Dr. KS Jayachandran, IFS Divisional Forest Officer Shergaon Forest Division

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Introduction Shergaon Forest Division is home to several endangered plants and animals. The geographical and climatic range of the region is variable extending from sub tropical plains in the south to the temperate mountains in the north. This gives rise to an amazing range of habitats for biological diversity. The division borders the largest legally protected area in western Arunachal and Assam region covering 3500 km2 of prime forests across 100m-3300m in altitude. The community lands surrounding the protected areas thus serve critical ecological support functions and are biologically significant lands containing high priority species and habitats. Both the landscapes are inter-dependent in terms of habitats: the rich biological diversity of the protected areas on the surrounding community lands and the communities on the rich ecological benefits of the protected areas. There is a need for all stakeholders including the local communities, government departments, NGOs and scientific communities to seek, evaluate, use and create information especially with regard to thorough biological inventories of the fringe lands, awareness, and livelihood issues of neighboring communities; so that wildlife conservation needs could be addressed in an ecological landscape context. The present workshop thus sought to involve, inform, and raise awareness about conservation of wildlife among responsible agencies like the public leaders, district officers, officials, Gaon Burahs, members of the public, Army and NGOs. The one day workshop titled “WILDLIFE CONSERVATION: VALUES AND INCENTIVES� was conducted by Shergaon Forest Division on the occasion of National Wildlife Week at the Conference hall, Office of the Divisional Forest Officer, Shergaon Forest division, Rupa on 07th October, 2010. The objectives of the workshop are as follows: 1. To understand the composition of wildlife in the region, their value and threats faced and to instill a sense of pride over the resources we support. 2. To stress the need to manage our wildlife resources and understand the opportunities for livelihood generation from these resources. 3. To evolve a participatory action plan for effective conservation of wildlife.

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

AGENDA 0930 hrs:

Inauguration

0945 hrs:

Welcome address: KS Jayachandran, DFO Shergaon Forest Division

1000 hrs:

Introductory talk: Shri. Tenzing Norbu Thongdok, H’MLA Rupa- Kalaktang, Chief Guest

1015 hrs:

Wildlife in Western Arunachal Pradesh, value and threats: PK Dutta, WWF

1100 hrs:

One land for all – a photo odyssey into the beautiful world of wildlife

1115 hrs:

Tea break Group Photograph with delegates Exhibition of paintings

1145 hrs:

Incentives for Wildlife Conservation outside PA’s: Ramana Athreya, Kaati Trust

1215 hrs:

Innovative Ecotourism models for West Kameng region: Indi Glow, Bugun Welfare Society

1245 hrs:

Future of hunting in a tribal society – Interactive brainstorming session

0200 hrs:

Lunch

0245 hrs:

Knowledge of the law - Awareness about WP Act 1972: KS Jayachandran, DFO Shergaon Forest Division

0300 hrs:

Community based Conservation – The Thembang experience: PK Dutta, WWF

0330 hrs:

Feedback session

0430 hrs:

Tea break

0445 hrs:

Action plan for West Kameng region

0515 hrs:

Close 5


Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Introductory talk Shri. Tenzing Norbu Thongdok, H’MLA Rupa- Kalaktang and Chairman, State Pollution Control Board, Chief Guest I am extremely pleased to be here today at this one day workshop on wildlife conservation conducted on the occasion of National Wildlife week celebrations. I expect that good suggestions and innovative ideas will flow in during the course of the day. I congratulate the DFO, Dr. KS Jayachandran for this move which will educate not only the officials but also the villagers about the various aspects of wildlife conservation. And the villagers will gain from their understanding of these matters to protect our forests and wildlife. The survival of humans without wildlife and forests is not possible. Arunachal Pradesh has 82% forests and the daily life of the people of Arunachal Pradesh is intricately linked with the forests. We cannot afford to be complacent with this plentiful resource and have to be cautious today so that tomorrow we do not face the calamitous ecological situation faced by some states and nations today. Let me recount some old memories; way back in 1976 in Oma village near Itanagar there was 1-2 km width of forest where I have myself seen huge herds of elephants, deer, fish and other wildlife. When I went to the same area after 11 years in 1987 the jungle was totally devoid of wildlife. This greatly shocked me and I returned with a heavy heart. Shri. Tenzing Norbu Thongdok, Chief Guest giving the introductory talk

Similarly I remember my childhood when tigers used to visit our homesteads and the rivers were teeming with fish. We felt at one with wildlife and hunting took place only with traditional weapons and not firearms. Today the scenario has changed a lot, sighting a tiger is next to impossible and the rivers do not yield fish like in the past. The natural balance in nature is lost. Arunachal Pradesh has many rare and endangered species which are disappearing due to human interference. Leave alone the unaware villagers but we educated people are also not concerned about this. It is we, the people, who have to think of solutions. The ideas given by researchers and think tanks must be propagated to every village to be implemented by the villagers and forest dwellers. We generally talk in terms of global issues while discussing environmental and conservation issues but we need to look into ourselves and think locally in order to make a difference. Moreover rules and law unless enforced properly will remain frozen in the statute books. My suggestion to 6


Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

the forest department is to take such awareness programs to the villages and educate the people on conservation issues, the laws supporting these issues and ecological and legal implications of destroying forests and wildlife. Village level institutions too need to assist the forest department in implementing these laws. Sherdukpens have traditionally been very skilled hunters and dependant on wildlife and forests for our daily needs. The traditional systems were sustainable and did not take a toll on the forest. However now with the increase in population and shrinking forests we need to rethink our traditions. Traditional ritualistic hunting can continue with a difference; tracking of the animals which is the exhilarating part of hunting can be done and the actual act of killing the animal can be avoided. In fact this can also be used to attract an innovative form of tourism: - “hunting tourism�; where the tourists track animals with the hunters and shoot them not with guns but with their cameras. The need of the hour is to prevent the depletion of natural resources by providing alternative livelihoods which depend on the conservation of natural resources. Eco-tourism is one such means of alternative income generating activity and holds great promise in this area. Recently the Arunachal Pradesh Government has taken a decision to stop the killing of birds. This is a step forward in the right direction. The sale of airguns should be stopped. Birds have virtually vanished from certain pockets in the state due to rampant hunting with air-guns and sling shots. Bhalukpong was full of hornbills now you can see them only if you are lucky. If we continue with this complacent attitude regarding forest and wildlife we will have to face dire ecological consequences. In the end I sincerely appeal to all present here to save forests and wildlife and thank Shergaon Forest Department for inviting me and giving me an opportunity to be part of this program.

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Wildlife in Western Arunachal Pradesh, value and threats PK Dutta, WWF Due to wide altitudinal range of Western Arunachal Pradesh / landscape (WAL) i.e., 200m to above 5000m, the vegetation varies from tropical to alpine vegetation. The vegetation types found along the altitudinal gradient are given below: TROPICAL VEGETATION TROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST Mesua, Terminalia, Michelia, Calamus, Musa, Dipterocarpus etc. TROPICAL SEMI EVERGREEN FOREST Anthocephalus, Bombax, Terminalia, Dioscorea, Gmelina, Ficus etc. SUB-TROPICAL VEGETATION SUBTROPICAL BROAD LEAVED FOREST (900-1200m) Magnolia, Berberis, Castanopsis, Clerodendrum, Oak etc. SUBTROPICAL PINE FOREST (1200-1800m) Rhododendron, Pine, Alnus, Betula, Oak, etc. TEMPERATE VEGETATION TEMPERATE BROAD LEAVED FOREST (1800-2800m) Alnus, Rhododendron, Castanopsis, Poplus, Prunus, Rubus, Illicium, Oak etc. TEMPERATE CONIFER FOREST (2800-3500m) Rhododendron, Betula, Ilex, Cupressus, Rosa, Mahonia, Potentila etc. SUB-ALPINE AND ALPINE VEGETATION Rhododendron, Abies, Cupressus, Juniperus, Larix, Gaultheria, Aconitum, Primula, Rheum, Gentiana, Meconopsis, Saussurea, Fragaria, Potentila etc. Some of the rare and threatened plants found in the region are: 1. Aconitum Spp. 2. Cirsium verutum 3. Picorhiza kurroa 4. Rheum nobile 5. Saussurea gossypiphora 6. Satyrium nepalense 7. Swertia chirata 8. Cordyceps spp. Rhododendrons: The State of Arunachal Pradesh has 61 species, 17 sub species and 12 varieties of Rhododendron, which contributes 84.7% of the country's total rhododendron species. Out of these, 9 species and 1 variety of rhododendrons are found to be endemic to the state. From Western Arunachal Pradesh so far

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

35 species, 5 sub species and 3 varieties of rhododendrons have been identified. Of these 10 species, 1 sub species and 1 variety have been found to be under rare and threatened category. Bird diversity: From WAL, five Important Bird Areas (IBA) have been identified IBA Site Name

Criteria

1. Sangte Valley

A1, A3

2. Mandla Phudung Area

A1, A2

3. Mago-Thingbu & Luguthang Area

A1, A2, A3

4. Zimitahng-Nelya-Sangeshwar Lake Area

A1, A2, A3

5. Thungri Changlang Poshingla, Maji, Basti

A1, A2

Pheasant diversity: Globally 50 species have been recorded. From Arunachal Pradesh 13 species have been recorded. In India Arunachal Pradesh has the maximum diversity of pheasants. Himalayan Monal, Blood pheasant, Satyr Tragopan, Kalij Pheasant and Blyth’s Tragopan are some of endangered pheasants in the region. Black Necked Crane and Brahminy Shelduck are other endangered birds. Rich Mammalian Diversity Thirty four mammals (12 listed as Endangered or Vulnerable in IUCN Red List) are reported from areas above 3000 m IUCN Status

Name of Animal

Vulnerable

Chinese goral, Clouded leopard, Marbled Cat, Red Goral, Serrow, Takin, Wild Dog

Endangered

Himalayan Black Bear, Otter, Red Panda, Snow Leopard, Tiger

High altitude wetlands: State of Arunachal has nearly 70% of total wetlands recorded from Indian Himalaya. In WAL nearly 300 lakes are acting as reservoir for major rivers like Nyamjangchu river, Tawangchu and Kameng. The catchment area supports ecologically important Primula, Rhododendron and other rare plants diversity. Area is habitat of Snow Leopard, Slow Loris, Musk Deer, Red Panda, Himalayan Black Bear etc.

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Threats and pressure: 1. Fuel Wood Cutting 2. Agriculture Extension 3. Invasive Species 4. Unregulated Grazing 5. Tourism and Pilgrimage 6. Unplanned Infrastructure Development 7. Hunting 8. Forest Fire

Shri. PK Dutta, WWF speaking on values and threats to wildlife in West Kameng region

Values behind the need to protect wildlife in Western Arunachal Pradesh: 1. Aesthetic value 2. Religious value 3. Cultural values 4. Scientific rationale – ecological reasons 5. Non consumptive economic values – wildlife tourism

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Incentives for Wildlife Conservation outside PA’s Ramana Athreya, Kaati Trust Arunachal Pradesh is a global biodiversity hotspot because of exceptional species diversity and rare species. Arunachal Pradesh ranks first in India for the fraction of area with forest cover (FSI 2003). While all that appear green on satellite imagery are not necessarily “good” forests it would be safe to say that a quarter of the state is still covered by intact forests. Its steep topology with a wide altitudinal range, a gradient in precipitation extending to high rainfall, largely intact forests, and special location at the junction of the Palearctic and the IndoMalayan biogeographic realms makes Arunachal Pradesh the top biodiversity region in India. The protected areas of East and West Kameng and the adjacent areas of Assam comprise one of the largest contiguous tract of reasonably intact forest in Arunachal Pradesh. This Kameng protected area complex includes:

Shri. Ramana Athreya, Kaati Trust speaking about incentives for conservation

1. Pakke tiger reserve (Arunachal): 862 km2; alt. 100m – 2000m; lowland evergreen and semievergreen forests; subtropical forests; successional grassland and forests on the floodplains of the rivers. 2. Nameri tiger reserve (Assam): 349 km2; alt. 50 - 150m; “terai” forest including swamp forests, riverine woodland, and successional grassland and forests on the floodplains 3. Sonai rupai wildlife sanctuary (Assam): 175 km2; alt. 50 - 150m; with vegetation similar to Nameri 4. Sessa orchid sanctuary (Arunachal): 100 km2; alt. 1000 - 3100m; subtropical and temperate broad-leaved forests and bamboo. 5. Eaglenest wildlife sanctuary (Arunachal): 218 km2; alt. 500 - 3250m; lowland evergreen and semi-evergreen forests; subtropical forest; temperate broad-leaved and conifer forests; bamboo at all elevations. 6. Surrounding blocks of Reserved Forests of Papum, Doimara, Amortola and Shergaon forest division which total another 2000 km2 of forests of variable quality but which form an important buffer zone especially for the movements of elephants.

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

In all, this complex encompasses over 3500 km2 of diverse types of forests covering 3300m of elevation from lowlands to well into the temperate regions. This complex, the largest such in western Arunachal Pradesh, has by far the most critical role in the conservation of biodiversity in that area and should be the focus of conservation strategies there. Eaglenest wildlife sanctuary was legally notified in 1989 along with Sessa orchid sanctuary. The area has traditionally been claimed by the Sherdukpen tribe of Rupa though they have never had any settlement inside the boundaries of the sanctuary. Doimara (outside and below Eaglenest) used to be a thriving settlement during the days of commercial logging operations (up to 1998) but is now going to seed with less than a dozen farming families permanently stationed there. Access into Eaglenest from the north is through the community lands of the Bugun tribe which has its principal settlement at Singchung near Tenga. A good fraction of Sessa has traditionally been claimed by the Buguns as part of their territory. Eaglenest apparently derives its name from Eagle regiment of the Indian army which used to be posted in that area. The Eaglenest Biodiversity Project yielded several new taxa and globally rare taxa. At the same time, the surrounding regions outside the purview of these PA complex harbor potentially rich biodiversity. Conservation is equally crucial in the fringe regions because ecosystems do not understand legal boundaries. Protected Areas is compared against Community Forests with regard to Wildlife Conservation: Protected Area

Outside PA

Very small fraction of total area in rest of country

Even smaller fraction of total area

Small fraction of total area in Arunachal

Large fraction Arunachal

“Insurance policy” for wildlife … too many restrictions

Resource for both wildlife and people … only if utilised wisely

of

total

area

in

Incentives for Wildlife Conservation outside PA’s:  

Much larger area means more wildlife and plants Many new species have been discovered in Community Forests. Examples include Bugun Liocichla and Arunachal Macaque.

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Water • Forests regulate water flow • Reduce floods during rainy season • Prevent drought during dry season Agro diversity • New food and medicinal species • Varieties of known species with special characters like resistance to drought, humidity and temperature Tourism • Easy to get legal clearance to set up tourism facilities • More control for local communities • Bird tourists come to Eaglenest from all over the world, but spend more time outside PA’s in Lama Camp, Dirang, Sela and Khellong. Hence livelihood and income generation opportunities increase for locals. Forest Produce • More construction timber, fire wood and medicinal plants • “Forest Agriculture” could include tubers, mushroom, orchids etc. But the disadvantages are: • Carrying capacity / sustainability of resources • Regenerative capacity not taken care of • Common resource: everyone has a right but no one has a duty

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Innovative Ecotourism models for West Kameng region Indi Glow, Bugun Welfare Society Ecotourism in West Kameng region could include casual picnics and mountain hikes, animal watching, fishing, adventure sports like rafting or basic camping in beautiful places offering good views or river banks. Ecotourism does not require massive investment in infrastructure. It only requires basic camping facilities. Basic infrastructure includes the following: a. Running water – piped in from a nearby stream b. Toilets – simple shower stalls with wash-basin and a septic tank with 2-3 commodes. c. Kitchen – just a small pad for a couple of stoves and a water connection. For the toilet as well as the kitchen, portable tents can be used for the walls and roof, which can be folded and kept away when not in use. All other requirements can be ferried in by the tour party. Two principal components are important – hospitality (which includes boarding, lodging, transport etc.) and knowledge (guiding in the field and at the campsite). A tour could include other components such as cultural programmes, handicrafts etc. Training of Personnel: NGOs should organize training programmes for local personnel to handle visitors. Camp staff is to be sensitized to cultural sensitivities of a Shri. Indi Glow, Bugun Welfare Society diverse national and international clientele deliberating on ecotourism ventures (social interaction, food habits, personal privacy, etc), punctuality and hygiene. Marketing is the most crucial aspect. For initial stages, the tourists to Tawang and Bomdila could be targeted through good documentation of camp sites, web pages in the internet, liaising with tourist agencies in Guwahati / Kolkata There are two main negative consequences that one can expect from ecotourism; which is cutting of trees for fuel and construction material and the domination of few powerful people in the venture. Moreover, the youths engaged today in such ventures do not want to work hard and leave the job after a few months. Such ventures need time to grow and cannot give over night benefits

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

One can mitigate this with awareness creation to locals. One can ban the use of firewood as in Kangchendzonga and have all parties ferry in their own stoves and fuel (gas or kerosene). To avoid few prominent persons from the community corner much of the profits from tourism in common resources, highly coordinated efforts and initiatives from village councils, are required. Home stays are an inexpensive and easy way by which locals can give ecotourism facilities. We are planning to send our youths on an exposure visit to Kalimpong and Sikkim. The Government should focus on streamlining and simplifying the issue of tourist permits. Ecotourism should only be seen as one of the agencies of development – it will not make the entire community rich, or even anyone rich. Ecotourism can provide seed money for the community to explore other avenues of revenue generation – e.g. timber plantation (for fuel and construction), orchid cultivation, mushroom farming in forested areas – and these should be sincerely explored to spread the benefits across the community

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Knowledge of the law - Awareness about WP Act 1972 KS Jayachandran, DFO Shergaon Forest Division Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 is an act for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants. The knowledge of the flagship law is essential. Otherwise, several species could be stamped out. The hunting of herbivores will directly affect the carnivores that are dependent on them. Thus the prey depletion is one of the most serious threats to the carnivores. The population densities, survival rates and chance of persistence are all strongly tied to the densities of their prey base. Even if small populations exist in an area, they could be “ecologically extinct�, that is, they no longer fulfill their ecological role in the forest, which affects the forest population. Vast stretches of forests in Arunachal Pradesh are bereft of wildlife. Such forests cannot be considered ecologically alive. Bird hunting is a serious problem. Bird diversity is severely affected. Apart from habitat destruction, hunting also plays a pivotal role in extinction of several bird species. Butterflies and moths are placed in Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, which prohibits commerce in wildlife articles. Catching and killing frogs are done against the Wildlife Protection Act. Frogs play a vital role in the food chain of the eco-system, help prevent spread of diseases by consuming insects and are necessary to maintain the ecological balance. Crucial definitions in the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 like animal, wildlife, wild animal, vermin, hunting and trophy were discussed. Species under different schedules were drawn attention to. Section 9, which is the cornerstone of the Act, was discussed and several situations deliberated whether such Shri. KS Jayachandran, DFO Shergaon Forest situations under the tribal Division discussing the WP Act customs would be covered under the said section. Prohibition of picking and uprooting of specified plants especially Ladies slipper orchids and vandas was also elaborated. Provisions related to trade or commerce in wild animals, animal articles and trophies was also discussed.

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Penalties for various acts related to different species covered under the 6 schedules were deliberated upon. The new ‘amnesty’ provisions by the Central amendment to the Environment Protection Act, 1972, the Declaration Of Wildlife Stock Rules, 2003, permits persons with ‘prohibited’ wildlife items like captive animal or bird, an article or trophy derived from animals specified under the Wildlife Protection Act, to apply for a ‘possession certificate’. Keeping undeclared wildlife products or animals is punishable with a jail term of 3 to 7 years and a fine of over Rs. 10000. The huge scope in declaration of Community Reserves was specifically stressed on. The State Government may, where the community or an individual has volunteered to conserve wild life and its habitat, declare any private or community land as a community reserve, for protecting fauna, flora and traditional or cultural conservation values and practices. A Community Reserve management committee, consisting of five representatives nominated by the Village Panchayat and one representative of the State Forests shall be the authority responsible for conserving, maintaining and managing the community reserve. The committee shall be the competent authority to prepare and implement the management plan for the community reserve and to take steps to ensure the protection of wild life and its habitat in the reserve. The committee shall elect a Chairman who shall also be the Honorary Wild Life Warden on the community reserve. No change in the land use pattern shall be made within the community reserve, except in accordance with a resolution passed by the management, committee and approval of the same by the State Government. Many examples of successful community reserves in other parts of the country were focused on. Apprehensions on increased control of the government on the reserves were also addressed.

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Community based Conservation – The Thembang experience: PK Dutta, WWF Community based conservation was initiated as a project through constitution of Community Conserved Areas (CCA) in the West Kameng region. Demarcation of 2 CCAs: 1. Thembang Bapu CCA – 31,200 ha 2. Pangchen Lumpo Muchat CCA – 9,800 ha

Achievements: • Baseline Surveys and listed important, rare and threatened Flora and Fauna. • CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT FOR MANAGEMENT OF CCA • Two local boys working with WWF-India for training on management of CCAMC • Basic office infrastructures (Bikes and Computers) have been provided to CCAMC to do their day today activities • Appointed local boys who attended various training workshop organised by WWF-India and other organisations • Field Training for local villagers on biodiversity survey technique organised •

CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT ON LIVELIHOOD OPTION • After feasibility Studies, exposure visit and training for local villagers for promotion of Community Based Tourism in the villagers have been organised • Training workshop on preparation of Rhododendron squash has been organised SUPPORT FOR NEW LIVELIHOOD OPORTUNITY • Provided all the necessary Camping Materials to both the CCAMCs 18


Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

• •

Support to villagers to set up 9 Home Stays (5/4) and 4 Home Based Restaurants (2/2) through CCAMCs Construction of CCAMC Office cum Tourism Information Center with contribution from villagers

PROJECT IMPACT: 1. EARNING SCOPE FOR VILLAGERS > Home Stay Operators > Home Based Restaurant Operators > Pack Animal > Porter, Guide, Cook and Cook Helpers > Cultural Program > Local Handicraft 2. EARNING SCOPE FOR CCAMC (TO DEVELOP CORPUS) > CCA Entry Fee > Camera Fee > Camping Site Charge > Camping Material Charge > CCA Conservation Fee (15% and 10% of total service cost for International and domestic tourist) Income Source

Income (Rs)

No. of villagers benefited

1. Home Stay

42,814.00

3

2. Home Based Restaurant

8,048.00

2

3. Porter

29,750.00

13

4. Pack Animal

1,03,450.00

16

5. Cook and Guide

16,550.00

5

6. Cultural Troop

5,600.00

10

7. Fodder (2007)

15,524.00

21

TOTAL

2,21,736.00

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Income Source

Income by TBCCAMC (Rs.)

1. Fodder (2007)

4,669.00

2. Camping Material on rent

15,390.00

3. CCA Entry Fee

4,200.00

4. Camera Fee

1,800.00

5. Donation

1,000.00

6. CCA Conservation Fee

24,385.00

TOTAL

51,444.00

• •

INCOME FROM CBET – Rs.9,350.00 (Only two groups visited the village) INCOME FROM RHODODENDRON SQUASH MARKET – Rs.1100

3. ON CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF CCA • Ban on collection of Firewood for commercial purpose in both sites • Issue of joint declaration by villagers of 6 villages in around Lumpo and Muchat to ban hunting and fishing with provision of fine • Issue of letter by TBCCAMC to ban hunting and collection of medicinal plants by herders during summer grazing with provision of penalty • Foreign Tourist caught by TBCCAMC for collecting beetles and wild mushroom spores • Villagers surrendered traps and snares in their possession which they were using for hunting to TBCCAMC • TBCCAMC for the first time sent two villagers for patrolling inside CCA to see any illegal activities by herders who are now there for grazing

A participant making a point

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Future of hunting in a tribal society – Interactive brainstorming session Discussion and development of action points Reasons for reduction of forests: Firewood collection was cited to be the dominant reason causing a strain on forests followed by development projects and cultivation. Cutting for timber was an insignificant reason. Wildlife commonly encountered nowadays in this region: Monkeys were the most common wildlife encountered in this region. Wild boars and barking deer were the second most sighted wild animals. Wild cats were also commonly encountered. Bears and goral are the least sighted among the common animals. Wild life seen years ago and not seen nowadays in this region - disappeared wildlife: Musk Deer was the most vociferously voted animal seen aplenty 15 – 20 years ago and very rarely seen nowadays. Otters, wild dogs and red panda also figured in the discussions as one of the diminishing wild animals. Leopards were also sighted commonly by elders a decade ago. Reasons for decline in wildlife: Forest reduction and habitat destruction was unanimously declared as the most prominent reason behind disappearance of wildlife. Hunting and Forest fires also caught the attention of the audience as a major contributing factor. Some villagers argued that hunting by locals is done sustainably and can not be a reason for the decline. However, they opined that hunting by government officers is a major concern especially due to the uninhibited access and modern weapons. Their main victims include small game like squirrels, monkeys and birds. Road construction has affected migration of animals especially bears. Moreover, the road network has created islands of forests accessible from all around for the sake of hunting. Ideas to protect / conserve wildlife: Government support for community conservation should be more through incentives and appreciation to communities. Awareness campaigns for ARF/VRF should be organised to remove the mistrust and fear amongst communities. Resource persons felt that a dedicated Forest Protection Force in select areas can prevent wanton destruction of forests and biodiversity. NREGA funds can be used to generate local employment for conservation. Awareness regarding the species which are most endangered and are in most need of conservation should be created among villagers. Scientific discoveries and concepts have not reached the masses and this knowledge gap should be filled up by the department. Wildlife commonly hunted - the most treasured victims: Barking deer is hunted throughout the year, while wild boars and bears are hunted during winters.

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Who hunts the most: Government Officers were voted the dominant hunters. Their victims included mostly small game through modern arms and vehicles because they lacked the barefoot skills for hunting large game. Winters, festivals, weekends and holidays were the common periods of hunting. Town people figured as the next important group of people indulged in hunting mainly because of the modern arms. Students hunt birds, reptiles and frogs through catapults. Tourists and Army officers never indulged in hunting. Reasons for hunting: Government Officers hunt for fun & thrill, while villagers hunt for consumption. Community hunting happens due to cultural reasons as part of traditions. After settling community shares, remaining meat is sometimes sold in market. Ideas to reduce hunting: Air rifles / guns and ammunition should be banned; as already done in many parts of the state. Awareness should be spread through partnerships with schools and colleges about dangers of catapult hunting. The charm for hunting should be reduced through social disincentives in village councils. The local councils should be encouraged to pass local laws regulating hunting. Certain regions should be mapped and some species shall be identified with the help of Forest department and local bans should be enforced against hunting in select regions and select species. Stringent punishment should be meted out especially for government officers. Religious heads should be actively involved in creating mass awareness and moulding public opinion. Action plan for different stake-holders: People who hunt for subsistence (self consumption / market selling): Awareness campaigns by department especially about the endangered species. Religious heads should be actively involved in creating mass awareness and moulding public opinion. Alternatives like poultry and animal husbandry shall be encouraged through partnerships with Veterinary Department. People who hunt for fun: Local laws by councils to hand over stringent punishment especially for government officers. Forest Department should be more vigilant. How to create awareness? Awareness campaigns by department like travelling talkies to bastis to instill a sense of pride over the resources they support. Audio-visual aids would be most effective in rural areas. Posters of endangered species may be prepared for township areas especially schools and offices. Multi-departmental campaigns would have more impact.

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

ANNEXURE – I ONE DAY WORKSHOP ON WILDLIFE CONSERVATION: VALUES AND INCENTIVES 07TH OCTOBER 2010 TERMS OF REFERENCE – BRAINSTORMING SESSION

1. Reasons for reduction of forests: Development projects / Firewood / Timber / Cultivation / any other 2. What is the Wildlife commonly encountered nowadays in this region: common wildlife 3. Wild life seen years ago and not seen nowadays in this region: disappeared wildlife 4. Reasons for decline in wildlife: Forest reduction / Hunting / Forest fires / any other 5. Ideas to protect / conserve wildlife: 6. Wildlife commonly hunted: the most treasured victims 7. Who hunts the most: Villagers / Tourists / Students / Town people / Officers / any other 8. Reasons for hunting: Selling in market / less food for consumption / fun & thrill / any other 9. Ideas to reduce hunting: 10. Action plan for different stake-holders: a. People who hunt for subsistence (self consumption / market selling): b. People who hunt for fun: 11. How to create awareness? a. Target groups for awareness? b. Economic ideas: 12. Any other issue to be discussed WILDLIFE WEEK CELEBRATIONS, 02 – 08 OCTOBER 2010

Shergaon Forest Division, Rupa Defend the wild or disappoint a child

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

ANNEXURE – II

0NE DAY WORKSHOP ON WILDLIFE CONSERVATION: VALUES AND INCENTIVES 07TH OCTOBER 2010 QUESTIONAIRE Please write the answers / tick the appropriate option Wildlife includes monkeys, wild cats, tigers, elephants, bears, panda, deer, wild pigs, rodents, bats, gaur, wild buffalo, birds, reptiles, insects, amphibians, fish etc. My Name: ____________________________ What are the uses of wildlife: __________________________________________________________ Wildlife commonly encountered nowadays in this region: ____________________________________ Wild life seen years ago and not seen nowadays in this region: ________________________________ Areas rich in wildlife in this region today: _________________________________________________ Reasons for decline in wildlife: Forest reduction / Hunting / any other: _________________________________________________ Wildlife commonly hunted: ____________________________________________________________ Who hunts the most: Villagers / Tourists / Students / Town people / Officers / any other: _________________________ Reasons for hunting: Selling in market / less food for consumption / fun & thrill / any other: ________________________ Reasons for reduction of forests: Development projects / Firewood / Timber / Cultivation / any other: _________________________ Ideas to protect / conserve wildlife: ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ What did you like most about this workshop? ______________________________________________________ What did you like least about this workshop? ______________________________________________________ Any other comments? _________________________________________________________________________ WILDLIFE WEEK CELEBRATIONS, 02 – 08 OCTOBER 2010 Shergaon Forest Division, Rupa Defend the wild or disappoint a child

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

ANNEXURE – III PRIZE WINNIING PAINTINGS FROM SCHOOL CHILDREN

RAJAN SONAR / CLASS XII GHSS, RUPA

ABISHEK PAUL / CLASS VIII PINEWOOD SCHOOL, RUPA

TOMO RAGYOR / CLASS X GHSS, RUPA

TASHI TSERING GLOW /CLASS VII PINEWOOD SCHOOL, RUPA

AADARSH KUMAR / CLASS V PINEWOOD SCHOOL, RUPA

SONAM J SHONGMU / CLASS VII PINEWOOD SCHOOL, RUPA

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

ORGANISING TEAM OFFICE OF THE DIVISIONAL FOREST OFFICER SHERGAON FOREST DIVISION RUPA, ARUNACHAL PRADESH OCTOBER 2010

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WILDLIFE CONSERVATION: VALUES AND INCENTIVES