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M. B. M. ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE JAI NARAYAN VYAS UNIVERSITY, JODHPUR

DISSERTATION REPORT 2017-2018 MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

SUBMITTED TO:

SUBMITTED BY:

DR. PULKIT GUPTA

KRITI BAFNA B.ARCH IV YEAR

(COURSE COORDINATOR)B. ARCH IV YEAR

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE M. B. M. ENGINEERING COLLEGE JODHPUR


DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this written submission entitled“ MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE ”represents my ideas in my own words and has not been taken from the work of others (as from books, articles, essays, dissertations, other media and online); and where others’ ideas or words have been included, I have adequately cited and referenced the original sources. Direct quotations from books, journal articles, internet sources, other texts, or any other source what so ever are acknowledged and the source cited are identified in the dissertation references. No material other than that cited and listed has been used. I also declare that I have adhered to all principles of academic honesty and integrity and have not misrepresented or fabricated or falsified any idea/data/fact source in my submission. This work, or any part of it, has not been previously submitted by me or any other person for assessment on this or any other course of study.

KRITI BAFNA B. Arch IV Year Department Of Architecture M. B. M. Engineering College Jodhpur


Date: 20/05/2018

CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the Dissertation report made by student Ms. Kriti bafna her bonafide work. The report presented is made by her under my guidance and supervision.

AR. PRIYANKA METHA (GUIDE) Dissertation Coordinator and Guide Department Of Architecture M. B. M. Engineering College Jodhpur

AR. ANSHU AGRAWAL Head of Department Department Of Architecture M. B. M. Engineering College Jodhpur


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to express my heartfelt gratitude to the all the people who have played a crucial role in the research for this project, without their active cooperation the preparation of this project could not have been completed within the specified time limit. I am highly indebted to my Guide Ar. Priyanka Mehta for his guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project & also for their support in completing the project. I am grateful to the Head of Department of Architecture - Ar. Anshu Agarwal and dissertation Co-ordinator - Dr. Pulkit Gupta, whose constant words of encouragement have helped me to reach the present stage of this project. At last but not least I am grateful to all those sources, person who helped me directly or indirectly in achieving this stage of project.


ABSTRACT Before the industrial revolution deprivation of materials and technical flaws made traditional architecture simple. One of the best known architecture which emphasizes simplicity is Japanese Traditional architecture, after 1900s simplicity appeared again as a movement in Modernism style which is called Minimalism in the 1950s and continued through the Sixties and Seventies. Minimalism is a term to describe arts that thrive on simplicity in both content and form, and sign of personal expressivity. Simplicity can be seen in every field of art and design. The need or minimalistic architecture aroused due to the destruction of uncountable structure and the economic instability to redevelop the cities. The unstable economy forced the architects to pave their paths towards simpler and faster construction methods and design. This might be the possible reason that minimalism architecture become more synonyms with the current trends. The aim of Minimalism is to allow the viewer to experience the work more intensely. Minimalism includes simplification, purity and elegant organization in life. Minimalism conception in housing can be define as removing inessential elements to achieve clean and fine finishes, subtraction and purity with geometric forms, intense perception of the spaces and eliminating all superfluous elements and result in clear. Simplicity design using necessary component of architecture; light, colour, material, form and function to achieve simplicity, most important principle is removing minor elements to emphasize the major elements. The goal was to raise the awareness about minimalism in architecture and its elements, principles and techniques is a pre – requisite to designing the building and structure in present day scenario. The basic concepts and principles of minimalism in architecture can be mastered only when the principles of architects of the bygone ere are learned. Further study were carried out on case study of several works of famous minimalist architects to get a clear view.


CONTENTS DECLARATION CERTIFICATE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER1: INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...1-3 1.1: The study 1.2: Background 1.3: Aim & Objective 1.4: Methodology CHAPTER 2: MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE……………………………………………………………………………………….4-12 2.1: Minimalist design and architecture 2.2.1: Concepts and Design Elements 2.2: Minimalist Architecture and Space 2.3.1: The De stijl art movement 2.3.2: Architects like Mies van Der Rohe 2.3.3: Traditional Japanese design CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………………………………………………………………………..13-21 3.1: History of Minimalism 3.2: Western interpretation 3.2.1: Material and Effect 3.2.2: Super-Modernism


3.3.3: Phenomenological Architecture 3.3: Japanese interpretation 3.2.1: Japanese philosophy 3.2.2: Ma concept 3.3.3: Wabi Sabi CHAPTER 4: CONCEPT OF MINIMALISM…………………………………………………………………………………………….22-47 4.1: Principles of Minimalism 4.1.1: Grid Design 4.1.2: Divine Proportion 4.1.3: Balance 4.1.4: Timelessness 4.1.5: Interior Space 4.1.6: Indoor and Outdoor Relationship 4.1.7: Less is more 4.2: Characteristics of minimalism 4.2.1: Simplicity in form and function 4.2.2: Uncomplicated cladding & wall finishes 4.2.3: Multifunctional Spaces 4.2.4: Clean, open, light-filled spaces 4.2.5: Simple detailing devoid of decoration 4.2.6: Strategic use of materials for visual interest 4.3: Elements of minimalism 4.3.1: Form in Minimalism 4.3.2: Furniture in Minimalism 4.3.3: Windows 4.3.4: White spaces 4.3.5: Colour and Texture


CHAPTER 5: INFLUENTIAL MINIMALIST DESIGNERS….......................................................................................................48-62 5.1: Mies Van Der Rohe 5.1.1: Life and work 5.1.2: Principles and Philosophies 5.1.3: Furniture 5.1.4: Realized Work - Barcelona Pavilion 5.2: Tadao Ando 5.2.1: Career and Works 5.2.2: Principles and Philosophies 5.2.3: Realized Work - Koshino House CHAPTER 6: MINIMALISM BUILDING DESIGN……………………………………………………………………………………..63-101 6.1: Panorama House / Ajay Sonar 6.2: Brick House / A for Architecture 6.3: Centennial Tree House / Wallflower Architecture + Design 6.4: The Drawers House / MIA design studio 6.5: Residential Minimalist Concrete House / NEBRAU CHAPTER 7: INFERENCES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..102 BIBLIOGRAPHY


LIST OF FIGURE Figure: 1.1 Figure: 2.1 Figure: 2.2 Figure: 2.3 Figure: 2.4 Figure: 2.5 Figure: 2.6 Figure: 2.7 Figure: 2.8 Figure: 2.9 Figure: 2.10 Figure: 2.11 Figure: 2.12 Figure: 3.1 Figure: 3.2 Figure: 3.3 Figure: 3.4 Figure: 3.5 Figure: 3.6 Figure: 3.7 Figure: 3.8 Figure: 3.9 Figure: 3.10

Minimalistic House Design/ Widlund House by Claesson Koivisto Rune House W /01Arq Plan of the House W Interior view of house W Exterior view of house W Minimalist Bliss on the Fringes of Kishinev named as Piano House. Decorative Art Painting Schroder House Interior of the Schroder House Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe, Crown Hall, Chicago Traditional Japanese style rooms A home on the Japanese island of Okinawa designed by British Minimalist architect John Pawson. Bauhaus building in Dessau Sculpture done by Donald Judd, 1968 Sculpture done by Tony Smith,1965 Herzog and de Meuron, Auf Dem Wolf Signal Box, Basel,, Switzerland (1986 - 1987) Herzog and de Meuron. Ricola Storage Building, Laufen, Switzerland (1986) The Cathedral of Vilnius, Lithuania Art Museum in Bergenz Austria (Peter Zumthor, 1997) Church of light, Osaka (Tado Ando) New Museum of Contemporary Art,, New York Green roof of Noshina Hotel on Naoshima Island


Figure: 4.1 Figure: 4.2 Figure: 4.3 Figure: 4.4 Figure: 4.5 Figure: 4.6 Figure: 4.7 Figure: 4.8 Figure: 4.9 Figure: 4.10 Figure: 4.11 Figure: 4.12 Figure: 4.13 Figure: 4.14 Figure: 4.15 Figure: 4.16 Figure: 4.17 Figure: 4.18 Figure: 4.19 Figure: 4.20 Figure: 4.21 Figure: 4.22 Figure: 4.23 Figure: 4.24 Figure: 4.25

Courtyard House by Rethink Studio Interior of the Courtyard house Floor plan of the Courtyard House Diagram Represent the Mathematical concept of Divine proportion Represents the asymmetrical balance Represents the symmetrical balance Represents the horizontal and vertical balance Represents the Radical balance The sophistication of simplicity and timeless minimalism

Concrete house in Mexico Casa patio / INOSTUDIO Modern Villa T & D in Kaunas La Casa Patio / Formwerkz Architects Basement plan of La Casa Patio Ground floor plan of La Casa Patio Exterior view of the patio house First floor plan of La Casa Patio Sectional elevation A of the patio house Corridor view of La Casa Patio Pool side view of the patio house Sectional elevation B of La Casa Patio Planning of Strip house by GAAGA T Space by Steven Holl Architects House in Ujina by MAKER The Stripe House by Gaaga


Figure: 4.26 Figure: 4.27 Figure: 4.28 Figure: 4.29 Figure: 4.30 Figure: 4.31 Figure: 4.32 Figure: 4.33 Figure: 4.34 Figure: 4.35 Figure: 4.36 Figure: 4.37 Figure: 4.38 Figure: 4.39 Figure: 4.40 Figure: 4.41 Figure: 4.42 Figure: 4.43 Figure: 4.44 Figure: 5.1 Figure: 5.2 Figure: 5.3 Figure: 5.4 Figure: 5.5 Figure: 5.6

Plan of Villa G in Kaunas Belimbing Avenu / hyla architects The Stripe House by Gaaga Studio Architecture Y House by Tamizo Architects Berkshire House by Resolution: 4 Architecture JD House by BAK Architects. Photo by Gustavo Sosa Pinilla Paling Fence House by NASA MUR House / Apollo Architects & Associates House inside out / Takeshi Hosaka Courtyard House by INOSTUDIO Floor plan of the AJ Residence Furniture design in Buddha Apartments Balint House in Spain by Fran Silvestre Arquitectos Turner House by Freadman White in Architecture & Interior design Summerhill House is a minimal residence located in Toronto, Canada, designed by AKB Limestone apartment facade Gallery of V House / Abraham Cota Paredes Arquitectos Japanese White House in Kanazawa Sugamo Shinkin Bank, Tokiwadai Branch / Emmanuelle Moureaux Architecture + Design Mies Van Der Rohe White farm estate, Stuttgart Riehl House Potsdam Furniture designed by Mies Van De Rohe Tugendhat Chair Barcelona Chair


Figure: 4.26 Figure: 4.27 Figure: 4.28 Figure: 4.29 Figure: 4.30 Figure: 4.31 Figure: 4.32 Figure: 4.33 Figure: 4.34 Figure: 4.35 Figure: 4.36 Figure: 4.37 Figure: 4.38 Figure: 4.39 Figure: 4.40 Figure: 4.41 Figure: 4.42 Figure: 4.43 Figure: 4.44 Figure: 5.1 Figure: 5.2 Figure: 5.3 Figure: 5.4 Figure: 5.5 Figure: 5.6

Plan of Villa G in Kaunas Belimbing Avenu / hyla architects The Stripe House by Gaaga Studio Architecture Y House by Tamizo Architects Berkshire House by Resolution: 4 Architecture JD House by BAK Architects. Photo by Gustavo Sosa Pinilla Paling Fence House by NASA MUR House / Apollo Architects & Associates House inside out / Takeshi Hosaka Courtyard House by INOSTUDIO Floor plan of the AJ Residence Furniture design in Buddha Apartments Balint House in Spain by Fran Silvestre Arquitectos Turner House by Freadman White in Architecture & Interior design Summerhill House is a minimal residence located in Toronto, Canada, designed by AKB Limestone apartment facade Gallery of V House / Abraham Cota Paredes Arquitectos Japanese White House in Kanazawa Sugamo Shinkin Bank, Tokiwadai Branch / Emmanuelle Moureaux Architecture + Design Mies Van Der Rohe White farm estate, Stuttgart Riehl House Potsdam Furniture designed by Mies Van De Rohe Tugendhat Chair Barcelona Chair


Figure: 5.7 Figure: 5.8 Figure: 5.9 Figure: 5.10 Figure: 5.11 Figure: 5.12 Figure: 5.13 Figure: 5.14 Figure: 5.15 Figure: 5.16 Figure: 5.17 Figure: 5.18 Figure: 5.19 Figure: 6.1 Figure: 6.2 Figure: 6.3 Figure: 6.4 Figure: 6.5 Figure: 6.6 Figure: 6.7 Figure: 6.8 Figure: 6.9 Figure: 6.10 Figure: 6.11 Figure: 6.12

Views of Barcelona Pavilion Floor plan of Barcelona Pavilion Views from different angles of Barcelona Pavilion Exterior views of Barcelona Pavilion Tadao Ando Azuma House in Osaka, Japan by Tadao Ando The Church of light, Osaka, Japan (1989) Access path between two block Koshino House by Tadao Ando Floor plan of Koshino house The back corridor leads to bedroom Front elevation of Koshino House Living room Koshino House Panorama house Site Plan Ground floor Plan of the panorama house First floor Plan of the panorama house Photographs of the exterior of the house captured from various angles Exterior view of the Panorama House Front elevation of the Panorama House Various stages of creating the model of the house Sectional elevation of Panorama House Exploded Axonometric View of the Panorama House Interior views of the Panorama House Brick House / A for Architecture


Figure: 6.13 Figure: 6.14 Figure: 6.15 Figure: 6.16 Figure: 6.17 Figure: 6.18 Figure: 6.19 Figure: 6.20 Figure: 6.21 Figure: 6.22 Figure: 6.23 Figure: 6.24 Figure: 6.25 Figure: 6.26 Figure: 6.27 Figure: 6.28 Figure: 6.29 Figure: 6.30

Living area of the Brick house Ground floor plan of the Brick house Water body view of the Brick House Interior view of the Brick House First floor plan of the Brick House View from different angle

Figure: 6.31 Figure: 6.32 Figure: 6.33 Figure: 6.34 Figure: 6.35 Figure: 6.36 Figure: 6.37

The Drawers House / MIA Design Studio Ground floor Plan of the Drawers House Axonometric view of the Drawers House Exterior view of the Drawers House

Sectional Elevation A of the Brick House Sectional Elevation B of the Brick House Sectional Elevation C of the Brick House Sectional Elevation D of the Brick House Axonometric view 1 of the Brick House Axonometric view 2 of the Brick House Axonometric view 3 & 4 of the Brick House Interior spaces view of the Brick House Centennial Tree House / Wallflower Architecture + Design Ground floor plan and views of the Centennial Tree House First floor plan and sectional elevation of the Centennial Tree House Exterior view of the Centennial Tree House

Sectional elevation of the Drawers House Interior view of the Drawers House Interior and Exterior view of the Drawers House


Figure: 6.38 Figure: 6.39 Figure: 6.40 Figure: 6.41 Figure: 6.42 Figure: 6.43 Figure: 6.44 Figure: 6.45 Figure: 6.46 Figure: 6.47

Residential Minimalist Concrete House / NEBRAU Exterior view of the Residential Minimalist Concrete House Site plan of the Residential Minimalist Concrete House Floor plan of the Residential Minimalist Concrete House Front elevation of the Residential Minimalist Concrete House Right side elevation of the Residential Minimalist Concrete House Back side elevation of the Residential Minimalist Concrete House Left side elevation of the Residential Minimalist Concrete House Sectional elevation of the Residential Minimalist Concrete House Interior views of the Residential Minimalist Concrete House


1.2

Background

Today, minimalist approach is considered a current style in architecture .Macarthur in his writing stated that,‖ minimalism is the current architectural fashion‖(Macarthur 2002). In the light of that, it is fair to say that minimalism is the humanized version of the modernist boxes where it simply reflects the current way of life. People claim that minimalism is the next era in architecture, styles that evolved from the modernism architecture. The term ‗minimalism‘ in architectural practice starts in the late 80s. From then onwards, many theorist came out with interpretive pattern regarding the minimalism. As a result, these patterns continue to be discussed, do not come from nowhere and have not been there always. Referring back to those text and study, it is found that there was difference of view towards minimalism in architecture. Among those interpretation, there is quite a significant different between western and Japanese point of view toward the minimalism. In the light of that, vice in his writing, claims that Japanese climate, tradition and lifestyle are acceptable for the minimalist formula. (Vice 1994) On Japanese explanation, architecture minimalist simplify the spaces to expose the inner beauty and quality of the building itself in order to promote people to lead a simple lifestyle which is line with Japanese tradition. The style is not completely without ornamentation, but all the details or carvings were reduced to the purer stage. The style that highly adapted from Japanese Zen philosophy was strongly holds to simplicity aspect .Influenced by traditional Japanese designs, the Bauhaus art school and De Stijl, Minimalist architecture, exemplified by the signature style of architect Mies van der Rohe, which he describes as "Less is more", refers to building designs that are reduced to the absolute bare minimum of elements.

1.3

Aim and objective

Nowadays effect of simplicity can be seen in every field of design as Minimalism. Conception of minimalism includes simplicity, plurality and elegant organization in life. Today‘s minimalism gets in evolution by combining with new facilities. The aim of this study is to have a deeper understanding regarding the minimalism in architecture by focusing on the characteristics, elements and principles of minimalism in architecture and ways by which architects like Mies van der Rohe and Tadao Ando followed to achieve the fine quality in the buildings.

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1.2

Background

Today, minimalist approach is considered a current style in architecture .Macarthur in his writing stated that,‖ minimalism is the current architectural fashion‖(Macarthur 2002). In the light of that, it is fair to say that minimalism is the humanized version of the modernist boxes where it simply reflects the current way of life. People claim that minimalism is the next era in architecture, styles that evolved from the modernism architecture. The term ‗minimalism‘ in architectural practice starts in the late 80s. From then onwards, many theorist came out with interpretive pattern regarding the minimalism. As a result, these patterns continue to be discussed, do not come from nowhere and have not been there always. Referring back to those text and study, it is found that there was difference of view towards minimalism in architecture. Among those interpretation, there is quite a significant different between western and Japanese point of view toward the minimalism. In the light of that, vice in his writing, claims that Japanese climate, tradition and lifestyle are acceptable for the minimalist formula. (Vice 1994) On Japanese explanation, architecture minimalist simplify the spaces to expose the inner beauty and quality of the building itself in order to promote people to lead a simple lifestyle which is line with Japanese tradition. The style is not completely without ornamentation, but all the details or carvings were reduced to the purer stage. The style that highly adapted from Japanese Zen philosophy was strongly holds to simplicity aspect .Influenced by traditional Japanese designs, the Bauhaus art school and De Stijl, Minimalist architecture, exemplified by the signature style of architect Mies van der Rohe, which he describes as "Less is more", refers to building designs that are reduced to the absolute bare minimum of elements.

1.3

Aim and objective

Nowadays effect of simplicity can be seen in every field of design as Minimalism. Conception of minimalism includes simplicity, plurality and elegant organization in life. Today‘s minimalism gets in evolution by combining with new facilities. The aim of this study is to have a deeper understanding regarding the minimalism in architecture by focusing on the characteristics, elements and principles of minimalism in architecture and ways by which architects like Mies van der Rohe and Tadao Ando followed to achieve the fine quality in the buildings.

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To achieve the aim several objectives were listed as below:  Study the basic concepts of Minimalism in architecture.  To find the interpretation between western and Japanese minimalism theories.  Focus on the characteristic of minimalism in architecture, its elements and the basic fundamentals behind designing the minimalist structure.  Study the principal and philosophy of the following architect who were involved in designing the minimalist buildings.  For understanding the minimalism in architecture deeply, the study is supported by the following case studies.

1.4

Methodology

Almost all of the study is conducted on the basis of desk study and case study. In the first phase, a very brief description of the study, to convey the idea of minimalism shall be made. The second chapter is a detailed study about the minimalism in architecture and the roots of minimalism. The third chapter is a brief description of history of minimalism and the interpretation in-between the western and Japanese minimalism supported by the literature case studies. The fourth chapter is a detailed study on minimal architecture with special consideration to characteristics, principles and elements which used to achieve the minimalism in building. ` And further we will study about the architects who were involved in minimalism of architecture. The study is also attached with the following case studies. Case study is also undertaken on the basis of previously accumulated data, either on internet or in the books. The case studies are critically reviewed and several inferences, like planning, materials, structure, etc.

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Figure 2.2: Plan of the House W MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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Text description provided by the architects: Located in Region IV, on the windy coastal town of HuentelauquĂŠn, W House develops a program that includes 3 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, living room and terraces. The site of 50mt by 100mt is next to a rocky area where the waves break from the sea, to the north is the neighbouring site and to the east is the driveway. The southern boundary has a cliff of 25 mt deep which allows on one hand the development of distant views and others access to a small beach. The program of these patios refers to the need to control the prevailing wind, the first developed as an intermediate space for expansion of the living room area and the second is designed to accommodate the tents of the children who can camp in safely. Between the two patios the access and the parking for two cars are located. The west facade is resolved through a series of double glazed vertical windows that run on different rails so they can be grouped one over another, these allows a complete opening of the living room and a visual connections from the interior patio to the sea. [2]

Figure 2.3: Interior view of House W.

Figure 2.4: Exterior view of House W. MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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2.2

Minimalist Architecture and space

Minimalist architecture became popular in the late 1980s in London and New York, where architects and fashion designers worked together in the boutiques to achieve simplicity, using white elements, cold lighting, large space with minimum objects and furniture.

2.2.1

Concepts and design elements

The concept of minimalist architecture is to strip everything down to its essential quality and achieve simplicity. The idea is not completely without ornamentation, but that all parts, details, and joinery are considered as reduced to a stage where no one can remove anything further to improve the design. The considerations for ‗essences‘ are light, form, detail of material, space, place, and human condition. Minimalist architects not only consider the physical qualities of the building. They consider the spiritual dimension and the invisible, by listening to the figure and paying attention to details, people, space, nature, and materials., believing this reveals the abstract quality of something that is invisible and aids the search for the essence of those invisible qualities—such as natural light, sky, earth, and air. In addition, they "open a dialogue" with the surrounding environment to decide the most essential materials for the construction and create relationships between buildings and sites. A city of stark, utilitarian, Soviet-style buildings constructed in a rush during the 1950s is probably the last place you would expect to find a striking example of modern, cutting-edge minimalist architecture. The Piano House. It's a sleek, single-story private house that comes close to epitomising minimalism at its finest. It's flanked on two sides with reinforced ferroconcrete walls, with a flat surface of wood and glass to the back - the three elements coming together to create not just an ideal shelter but also the perfect frame. Figure 2.5: Minimalist Bliss on the Fringes of Kishinev named as Piano MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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In minimalist architecture, design elements strive to convey the message of simplicity. The basic geometric forms, elements without decoration, simple materials and the repetitions of structures represent a sense of order and essential quality. The movement of natural light in buildings reveals simple and clean spaces. In the late 19th century as the arts and crafts movement became popular in Britain, people valued the attitude of ‗truth to materials‘ with respect to the profound and innate characteristics of materials. Minimalist architects humbly 'listen to figure,' seeking essence and simplicity by rediscovering the valuable qualities in simple and common materials. [1]

2.3

Roots of Minimalist Design

Like with anything in life, minimalist design was influenced by certain things that came before it. Specifically, what influenced minimalist design was:   

2.3.1

The De Stijl art movement Architects like Van Der Rohe Traditional Japanese design

De Stijl art Movement

De Stijl (Dutch for ‗The Style‘), also known as neoplasticism. Its leading figure was Theo van Doesburg who died in 1931, and this basically marked the end for the De Stijl movement. This movement existed only for a short time but laid the foundation of minimalism. De Stijl was an artistic movement in the Netherlands that started in 1917 and lasted till roughly the early 1930s. ―De Stijl‖ is Dutch for ―The Style‖. The movement included painters, sculptors, architects, and designers. Figure 2.6: Decorative Art Painting MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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In minimalist architecture, design elements strive to convey the message of simplicity. The basic geometric forms, elements without decoration, simple materials and the repetitions of structures represent a sense of order and essential quality. The movement of natural light in buildings reveals simple and clean spaces. In the late 19th century as the arts and crafts movement became popular in Britain, people valued the attitude of ‗truth to materials‘ with respect to the profound and innate characteristics of materials. Minimalist architects humbly 'listen to figure,' seeking essence and simplicity by rediscovering the valuable qualities in simple and common materials. [1]

2.3

Roots of Minimalist Design

Like with anything in life, minimalist design was influenced by certain things that came before it. Specifically, what influenced minimalist design was:   

2.3.1

The De Stijl art movement Architects like Van Der Rohe Traditional Japanese design

De Stijl art Movement

De Stijl (Dutch for ‗The Style‘), also known as neoplasticism. Its leading figure was Theo van Doesburg who died in 1931, and this basically marked the end for the De Stijl movement. This movement existed only for a short time but laid the foundation of minimalism. De Stijl was an artistic movement in the Netherlands that started in 1917 and lasted till roughly the early 1930s. ―De Stijl‖ is Dutch for ―The Style‖. The movement included painters, sculptors, architects, and designers. Figure 2.6: Decorative Art Painting MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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2.3.2

Architects like Van Der Rohe

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was a German architect who‘s considered a pioneer of modern architecture, and his architectural style during post-World War I laid the groundwork for minimalist design. He has designed many landmark buildings, including Chicago‘s Crown Hall and New York‘s Seagram Building. Ludwig Van der Rohe strived for simplicity and clarity in his architectural designs by:  Using modern materials like steel and plates of glass  Having a minimal structural framework  Including lots of open space He is the one who popularized the term ―less is more‖, which as mentioned earlier, is one of the unofficial mission statements for minimalist design. Like with De Stijl, the connection between Van Der Rohe and minimalist design is clear. [3]

Figure 2.9: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

Figure 2.10: Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe, Crown Hall, Chicago MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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2.3.3

Traditional Japanese design

Adding only what‘s needed and removing the rest has always been a focus in traditional Japanese design. If you look at old Japanese architecture and interior design, you‘ll see that there were very few flourishes, simple colour and design choices, and clean lines and forms. The idea of simplicity appears in many cultures, especially the Japanese traditional culture of Zen Philosophy. Japanese manipulate the Zen culture into aesthetic and design elements for their buildings. This idea of architecture has influenced Western Society, especially in America since the mid 18th century. Moreover, it inspired the minimalist architecture in the 19th century.

Figure 2.11: Traditional Japanese style rooms

Figure 2.12: A home on the Japanese island of Okinawa designed by British Minimalist architect John Pawson.

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Zen concepts of simplicity transmit the ideas of freedom and essence of living. Simplicity is not only aesthetic value, it has a moral perception that looks into the nature of truth and reveals the inner qualities and essence of materials and objects. For example, the sand garden in Ryoanji temple demonstrates the concepts of simplicity and the essentiality from the considered setting of a few stones and a huge empty space. The Japanese aesthetic principle of Ma refers to empty or open space. It removes all the unnecessary internal walls and opens up the space. The emptiness of spatial arrangement reduces everything down to the most essential quality. The Japanese aesthetic of Wabi-sabi values the quality of simple and plain objects. It appreciates the absence of unnecessary features, treasures a life in quietness and aims to reveal the innate character of materials. For example, the Japanese floral art, also known as Ikebana, has the central principle of letting the flower express itself. People cut off the branches, leaves and blossoms from the plants and only retain the essential part of the plant. This conveys the idea of essential quality and innate character in nature. However, far from being just a spatial concept, Ma is ever-present in all aspects of Japanese daily life, as it applies to time as well as to daily tasks There is a connection between Japanese design and Japanese culture. Japanese culture is infused with Zen and simplicity. Everything from how food is prepared, to how it‘s presented, to how it‘s ate, to things like tea ceremonies and stone gardens – all place a focus on simplicity and focus to the activity at hand. Anything that isn‘t essential to the activity is not included. Even traditional Japanese clothing like the kimono exude simplicity. There are practically no flourishes and decorations. Every element of the garment is designed with essential functionality in mind: freedom of movement, natural cooling, comfort, durability, and ease of putting on and off. [1, 3]

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CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW 3.1

Brief history of minimalism

Minimalist started in the early 20th century with architecture, roughly around the 1920s. Post-World War I architect Van der Rohe was one of the first prominent architects who used principles in his designs that came to exemplify minimalist design. The reason minimalist architecture started taking off was the availability of modern materials: glass, concrete, steel. Also, standardized ways of building were forming, which helped to more effectively design and build minimalist buildings. The trend continued through the mid-20th century, with notable designer and architect Buckminster Fuller designing domes using simple geometric shapes that still stand and look modern today. The focus on simplicity spilled over into painting, interior design, fashion, and music. Minimal art in particular especially grew in the 1960s in America. Similar to De Stijl, painters reacted against the abstract-expressionism art and used only the rudimentary geometric shapes in their works and didn‘t add decorations or any other elements. Bauhaus, on the other hand, was founded as an art school in Germany with the goals of promoting mass production and uniting arts and crafts with technology. Bauhaus had close ties to De Stijl and shared its principles in functionalism, cleanliness, purity, and reduction of form. In 1947, after the Bauhaus was relocated in the United States and known as the International Style, its famous architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe summarized its minimalist Figure 3.1: Bauhaus building in Dessau

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CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW 3.1

Brief history of minimalism

Minimalist started in the early 20th century with architecture, roughly around the 1920s. Post-World War I architect Van der Rohe was one of the first prominent architects who used principles in his designs that came to exemplify minimalist design. The reason minimalist architecture started taking off was the availability of modern materials: glass, concrete, steel. Also, standardized ways of building were forming, which helped to more effectively design and build minimalist buildings. The trend continued through the mid-20th century, with notable designer and architect Buckminster Fuller designing domes using simple geometric shapes that still stand and look modern today. The focus on simplicity spilled over into painting, interior design, fashion, and music. Minimal art in particular especially grew in the 1960s in America. Similar to De Stijl, painters reacted against the abstract-expressionism art and used only the rudimentary geometric shapes in their works and didn‘t add decorations or any other elements. Bauhaus, on the other hand, was founded as an art school in Germany with the goals of promoting mass production and uniting arts and crafts with technology. Bauhaus had close ties to De Stijl and shared its principles in functionalism, cleanliness, purity, and reduction of form. In 1947, after the Bauhaus was relocated in the United States and known as the International Style, its famous architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe summarized its minimalist Figure 3.1: Bauhaus building in Dessau

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Among noticeable minimalist artist during that period are Donald Judd and Tony Smith where both of them tried to manifest the minimal ideology through sculpture that committed to abstraction and radical reduction of form. Hence, we can see that Western society tends to describe minimalism on the technical and visual aspect. Along with that, many theorists came up with a long historical line in architectural history and try to relate it with the root of minimalism. Thus, we shall go through several chapters and overviewing some works to understand the western interpretation respecting this issue. [4, 5]

3.2.1

Material and Effect

The first subtopic, called material and effect is a discussion on how architects bring their intention more toward detailing and exploration of the finishes. Goodman emphasizes in his book in 2011, that minimalism is a significant simplification of form, a shift of attention from form to surface and detailing, and from programmatic innovation to architecture of neutral container .He added that, this style is also transformation from authorial intent to the way a work is experienced by the occupant. Thus beside simplification, Goodman also claims that minimalism focus more on how the building give effect to surrounding people. Respecting this point, two Swiss architects, Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron were among the prominent designer that applying this approach. Herzog quoted in 1997 that, their building strength is the immediate visceral response they have on a visitors. The result delight in both materiality and the sensory impact their buildings have on those who come in contact with them. Focus is given more on how selection of material can give such effects to the visitors rather than the form itself.

Figure 3.4: Herzog and de Meuron, Auf Dem Wolf Signal Box, Basel,, Switzerland (1986 1987) MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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Among noticeable minimalist artist during that period are Donald Judd and Tony Smith where both of them tried to manifest the minimal ideology through sculpture that committed to abstraction and radical reduction of form. Hence, we can see that Western society tends to describe minimalism on the technical and visual aspect. Along with that, many theorists came up with a long historical line in architectural history and try to relate it with the root of minimalism. Thus, we shall go through several chapters and overviewing some works to understand the western interpretation respecting this issue. [4, 5]

3.2.1

Material and Effect

The first subtopic, called material and effect is a discussion on how architects bring their intention more toward detailing and exploration of the finishes. Goodman emphasizes in his book in 2011, that minimalism is a significant simplification of form, a shift of attention from form to surface and detailing, and from programmatic innovation to architecture of neutral container .He added that, this style is also transformation from authorial intent to the way a work is experienced by the occupant. Thus beside simplification, Goodman also claims that minimalism focus more on how the building give effect to surrounding people. Respecting this point, two Swiss architects, Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron were among the prominent designer that applying this approach. Herzog quoted in 1997 that, their building strength is the immediate visceral response they have on a visitors. The result delight in both materiality and the sensory impact their buildings have on those who come in contact with them. Focus is given more on how selection of material can give such effects to the visitors rather than the form itself.

Figure 3.4: Herzog and de Meuron, Auf Dem Wolf Signal Box, Basel,, Switzerland (1986 1987) MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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The shape usually is massive and seems to be made from single solid form. As a result, we often saw that their buildings have a fierce resistance to fragmentation and each project can only be one thing: one essential, closed and finished with homogenous facade treatment, rather than a collage of various elements It is fair to say that Herzog and de Meuron‘s carrer start to bloom after the completion of Ricola storage building in 1986. Concept of minimalism was highlighted by creating warehouse that has equally simple volume; a rectangular prism with a small loading deck attached on one side. The beauty of this eye-catching building is, the facade treatment where HND use panels of fibre cement attached to wooden framework, and seems to stack one another within the horizontal lines. Simplification and materialwise are two crucial minimalist element that delivered well Herzog and de Meuron. Additional to that, Atuf Dem Wolf Signal Box and Blue House were among other buildings that designed using similar strands. [4, 6]

3.2.2

Figure 3.5: Herzog and de Meuron. Ricola Storage Building, Laufen, Switzerland (1986)

Super – modernism

Several theorists try to level the term minimalism with other words such as high – modernism, soft modernism and retro modernism. Basically, all these term are referring to movement modified from modern architecture which then called neo modernism. This extension style of modernism described as architecture that focus on the most basic element of building and claimed to be more grounded to traditional disciplinary of architecture. Pawson in 1996 defines minimalism as the perfection that artefact achieves when it is no longer possible to improve it by subtraction. In line with that, Toy in 1994, stated that minimalism in early 90s was considered a revival of non – ornamentation, clear space and beauty of simple elegance. In this sense, Toy was suggesting that Minimalism is the next chapter in ever – developing architecture scene. Stevanovic in his interpretive writing, look like to agree with that when he mentioned, minimalism is a cycled MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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In the word, Phenomenological architecture basically makes no reference to the previous architectural language as its priority was given directly to sensitivity of the occupants. The beauty of the building were not only accessed from the exterior but also gained when they are inside. [4, 8]

3.3

Japanese Interpretation

If western context try to relate minimalism with certain historical influence, Japan was completely different story. According to Auer in 1998, Japanese minimalism is an ode to emptiness, moral encouragement and a call for humility and self – realization (Auer 198). Based on that, we can say that Japanese translation toward minimalism is more abstract and does not strike people directly. This can be seen in several buildings designed by prominent Japanese minimalist such as Tadao Ando and Kazuyo Sejima. Ympa in 1996, also seems to agree with that when he fond that minimalism is not a style, but a behaviour and a way of being( Ypma 1996).In fact, he also claims that Japanese minimalism is longing for essence of things, rather than their appearance. In regard to moral meditation emphasized by the Japanese, the most prominent ideology that related to that is their Zen philosophy. The word Zen itself was adapted from Chinese word that means ‗meditation . Japanese manipulate Zen concept into the architecture of their building by creating space that able to treat the inhabitant. The idea is to guide people to the state of enlighten or being awakened. In other word, people who experienced the space will have a moral boost and spiritual rejuvenation. The emphasization of such value in architecture should be a fundamental aspect especially when designing a home and other building within the same function. In fact, this idea was inferred by western societies, especially the American in the 18 th century before it inspired the broader scope in architecture in 19th century (Lancaster 1953). In the west they try to create the independent architecture, where buildings are isolated from the nature. But in case of Japanese architecture, it integrates with nature by having a space that cannot be distinguish weather it is outside or inside. Thus it can be said that Japanese architecture are very closely related to culture and religious aspect although the techniques and material are from the western. [4, 10]

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Figure 3.8: Church of light, Osaka (Tado Ando)

3.3.1

Figure 3.9: New Museum of Contemporary Art,, New York

Zen Philosophy

Zen concept tries to transmit idea of freedom and essence of living. Simplicity is not only concerned with the external, but the moral sincerity and real quality of a material. According to Japanese people, this detailing will, led the inhabitant to create imaginary worlds, promote a natural restoring of mind and spirit. Light, Shadow, materials, volumes, floors and corridors are among key element to create a natural, simple, delice, meditative atmosphere. [4]

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3.3.2

Ma Concept (Emptyness)

Pawson stated that Japanese aesthetic principle of Ma refers to the empty or open spaces (Pawson and Doze 1996). It removes all unnecessary interior walls and open space between the exterior and interior. This approach is more likely to be seen in Tadao Ando work for instance where he tries to blur the separation line between inside and outside. The result is, building that seems to dance well with the nature and do not stand on its own. Again this highlighted principle is another fundamental element in architecture practice that has been translated well by the Japanese people. The emptiness of spatial arrangement is another idea that reduces everything down to the most essential quality. There is common understanding that emptiness is closely related to rejection of ornamentation and decoration or, avoiding overload of object in that will block the experience of space and spatiality. [4, 7]

3.3.3

Wab – sabi (Voluntary Poverty)

The Japanese aesthetic of Wabi – sabi values the quality of simple and plain object. It appreciates the absence of unnecessary features to view life in quietness and reveals the most innate character of materials. Wabi can be be seen as philosophical term to describe a voluntary poverty and Sabi can be seen as the practical fulfilment of this principle. According to Verhetsel, Japanese interpret emptiness as a positive value, something that can give space to new thought, new creation (Verhetsel, Pombo et al. 2013). In architectural context, the first step is to remove all superfluous material objects, leaving only essential and functional in place. However, beautiful objects can be kept to admire and inspire.

Figure3.10: Green roof of Noshina Hotel on Naoshima Island

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3.3.2

Ma Concept (Emptyness)

Pawson stated that Japanese aesthetic principle of Ma refers to the empty or open spaces (Pawson and Doze 1996). It removes all unnecessary interior walls and open space between the exterior and interior. This approach is more likely to be seen in Tadao Ando work for instance where he tries to blur the separation line between inside and outside. The result is, building that seems to dance well with the nature and do not stand on its own. Again this highlighted principle is another fundamental element in architecture practice that has been translated well by the Japanese people. The emptiness of spatial arrangement is another idea that reduces everything down to the most essential quality. There is common understanding that emptiness is closely related to rejection of ornamentation and decoration or, avoiding overload of object in that will block the experience of space and spatiality. [4, 7]

3.3.3

Wab – sabi (Voluntary Poverty)

The Japanese aesthetic of Wabi – sabi values the quality of simple and plain object. It appreciates the absence of unnecessary features to view life in quietness and reveals the most innate character of materials. Wabi can be be seen as philosophical term to describe a voluntary poverty and Sabi can be seen as the practical fulfilment of this principle. According to Verhetsel, Japanese interpret emptiness as a positive value, something that can give space to new thought, new creation (Verhetsel, Pombo et al. 2013). In architectural context, the first step is to remove all superfluous material objects, leaving only essential and functional in place. However, beautiful objects can be kept to admire and inspire.

Figure3.10: Green roof of Noshina Hotel on Naoshima Island

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CHAPTER 4 CONCEPT OF MINIMALISM 4.1

Introduction

The basic concept of any minimalist design is to strip everything down to its essential qualities and achieve simplicity. The idea is not to leave the design with no ornamentation at all, but all those parts, joinery and details are considered to reduce to a stage where no one can remove anything further to improve the design. Minimalist architects not only look into the physical quantities of the building. They have a more elaborate approach. They look deeply into the spiritual dimension and the invisible by listening to the figure and paying attention to the details, the people, space, its nature and the materials used in that space. This reveals the abstract quality of anything in that space and one can feel the design by its simplicity and essence of the space. The design also opens up to the surrounding environment. The essence of that space, be it interior or exterior, is defined by the natural elements such as natural light, air and earth. These elements, when infused with the materials used create relationship between building and the environment in which it exists. The concepts of minimalism can be easily differentiated through:  Principles of minimalist design  Elements of minimalist design  Characteristics of minimalist design

4.1

Principles of minimalist design [12]

4.1.1

GRID PLANNING

Consistency is a very important design principle. Using grids for aligning elements is an easy and effective way to aid readability. Grid Design can give a clear presentation of content, because our eyes are really used to seeing repeated patterns. Also, Grids can be particularly helpful when creating Responsive Design. MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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Figure 4.1: Courtyard House by Rethink Studio

Figure 4.2: Interior of the Courtyard house

Text description provided by the architects. Located in a residential development in the northern part of the island near Grand Baie, the site is gently sloping with distant views of the mountains and the northern cane-covered agricultural hills. The climate can be both hot and humid in summer to windy with cool evenings during the winter months. Our original approach was to propose a courtyard space to act as both the lungs and light well of the building, centrally located at the back of a large multi-functional covered living space. The remaining program is split between the bedroom zone and a utility zone either side of it. The living space was designed to operate as the traditional verandah indoor/ outdoor living space but it can also have the ability to be completely shut down by large glazed sliding doors, during the cool and windy winter months. The rooms are all grouped closely together to allow for close proximity between the parents and the children, and the kitchen and utility areas are similarly located on opposite side, to be easily accessible from the entry parking. There is a pool and pool house with a gym further up and to the side of the garden for al fresco dining and BBQ evening entertainment during the hot summer months.

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LEGEND 1. ENTRANCE 2. LOBBY 3. GUEST TOILET 4. COURTYARD 5. BEDROOM 1 6. ENSUITE WC 7. ENSUITE WC 8. BEDROOM 2 9. STUDY 10. MASTER BEDROOM 11. ENSUITE 1 12. DRESSING 13. DINING 14. LIVING 15. KITCHEN DINING 16. KITCHEN 17. PANTRY 18. LAUNDRY 19. TV ROOM 20. POOL 21. PERGOLA 22. GYM AREA 1 23. GYM AREA 2 24. GARDEN STORE 25. WC

Figure 4.3: Floor plan of the Courtyard House MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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LEGEND 1. ENTRANCE 2. LOBBY 3. GUEST TOILET 4. COURTYARD 5. BEDROOM 1 6. ENSUITE WC 7. ENSUITE WC 8. BEDROOM 2 9. STUDY 10. MASTER BEDROOM 11. ENSUITE 1 12. DRESSING 13. DINING 14. LIVING 15. KITCHEN DINING 16. KITCHEN 17. PANTRY 18. LAUNDRY 19. TV ROOM 20. POOL 21. PERGOLA 22. GYM AREA 1 23. GYM AREA 2 24. GARDEN STORE 25. WC

Figure 4.3: Floor plan of the Courtyard House MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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Figure 4.6: Represents the symmetrical balance

Figure 4.8: Represents the Radical balance

Figure 4.7: Represents the horizontal and vertical balance MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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4.1.4

TIMELESSNESS

Minimalism is about doing the opposite of following trends, it is about timelessness. Good changes.

minimalism doesn‘t require

Figure 4.9: The sophistication of simplicity and timeless minimalism are the cornerstone of Kaliba's architectural influences. Less is more.

4.1.5

INTERIOR SPACE

Francis D.K. Ching defines interior space in his book Design Illustrated (2004): Upon entering a building, we sense shelter and enclosure. This perception is due to the bounding floor, walls and ceiling panels of Interior space. These are the architectural elements that define the physical limits of rooms. They enclose space, articulate its boundaries, and separate it from adjoining interior spaces and the outside. (pp.6) MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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4.1.4

TIMELESSNESS

Minimalism is about doing the opposite of following trends, it is about timelessness. Good changes.

minimalism doesn‘t require

Figure 4.9: The sophistication of simplicity and timeless minimalism are the cornerstone of Kaliba's architectural influences. Less is more.

4.1.5

INTERIOR SPACE

Francis D.K. Ching defines interior space in his book Design Illustrated (2004): Upon entering a building, we sense shelter and enclosure. This perception is due to the bounding floor, walls and ceiling panels of Interior space. These are the architectural elements that define the physical limits of rooms. They enclose space, articulate its boundaries, and separate it from adjoining interior spaces and the outside. (pp.6) MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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4.1.6

INDOOR AND OUTDOOR RELATIONSHIP

According to Ching (2004): “A building's exterior walls constitute the interface between our interior and exterior environments in defining both interior and exterior space; they determine the character of each. They may be thick and heavy and express a dear distinction between a controlled interior environment and the exterior space from which it is isolate. They may be thin, or even transparent, and attempt to merge inside and outside‖. (pp.5-6) Connection between interior and natural environment became a factor of integration between interior and exterior space. Connection between nature and conception of integration between interior and exterior space are very important in Minimalism. Minimalism appears as a belief that achieves the maximum aesthetic in the physical environment with minimum usage of material, being without nature makes minimalism boring and overwhelming. This also means that the basis thing is the exposition form of ‗at least‘. In Minimalist spaces connection with nature and being a part of nature as much as possible is very important. In a sense, integrity of interior and exterior spaces and their permeability and fluidity has been observed. In minimalism interior and exterior spaces are taken as a whole, nothing is left to coincidence.

Figure 4.12: Modern Villa T & D in Kaunas MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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4.1.7

LESS IS MORE

Good design is as little design as possible. ―LESS IS MORE‖ or ―Less is Better‖ is probably the most well-known catch phrase of the Minimalist movement. Keep good readability and usability by ditching all excessiveness. Remember, minimalist design is about cutting the extra decorations and using fewest elements as possible.

Figure 4.13: The patio house / Formwerkz Architects Text description provided by the architects: The Patio House is located in a mixed residential district of 3 levels, in the eastern part of Singapore. Built for a multi-generational family that seeks a way of community life, but within a private space, hidden from the prying eyes of neighboring neighbors.

Figure 4.14: Basement plan of the patio house MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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The massification, which consists of two blocks facing northsouth, defines the place with a front garden, the central courtyard where all the rooms have views and a back garden. The public and the private overlap in a spatial procession from the street. The circulation inside the house surrounds the patio on all floors. The main spaces are organized around this central atrium, outdoors, where a training pool runs parallel to an edge. The ground floor is completely finished in travertine without drops to blur the boundaries between interior and exterior, unifying the entire ground floor in a singular and seamless, communal space. The perforated concrete wall allows the flow of air and certain glimpses of the back garden, but protects from the setting sun and its adjacent neighbors.

Figure 4.15: Ground floor plan of the patio house MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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Figure 4.16: Exterior view of the patio house

Figure 4.17: First floor plan of the patio house

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Figure 4.18: Sectional elevation A of the patio house

Figure 4.19: Corridor view of the patio house

Figure 4.20: Pool side view of the patio house MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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Figure 4.21: Sectional elevation B of the patio house

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4.2 Characteristics of minimalism [13] 4.2.1

Simplicity in form and function

Many minimalist houses have a simple, straightforward, efficient plan layout with stacked volumes of spaces. This creates clarity in plan, where spaces are predictable and uncomplicated. Simple forms, open floor plans, minimal interior walls, modest storage areas, and an emphasis on views and daylight are defining characteristics of many minimalist floor plans. Uncomplicated punched openings for doors and windows punctuate the facades. Overall, there is a simple design that avoids a lot of ins and outs, complex curves, or angles.

Figure 4.22: Planning of Strip house by GAAGA

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4.2.2

Uncomplicated cladding & wall finishes

Using a simple continuous exterior cladding material can easily provide visual appeal and articulation by expressing the physical characteristics of the materials and their texture. In the photo on the left below, the 2Ă—2 horizontal cedar slats provide relieve and interest to the facade. The siding on the right creates eye-catching appeal in its lap joints and blue colour that pops against the otherwise white interior in the photo on the right.

Figure 4.23: T Space by Steven Holl Architects

Figure 4.24: House in Ujina by MAKER.

Figure 4.25: A Strip house by GAAGA MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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4.2.3

Multifunctional Spaces

In Minimalist spaces, multi functionality and multipurpose space feature has been observed. The concept of multipurpose spaces, allow users to do more than one activity at the same time or different times in a single spaces, in a manner of speaking multipurpose spaces can be define as overlapping activities. Concept of multipurpose spaces is well defined multi functionality; furthermore it has to answer user needs in same time. According to Douglas Gordon (2010) the multipurpose space should be able to handle a wide range of functions furthermore multipurpose space should be able to satisfy the needs of its assigned functions. Multipurpose space organization has been highly influenced from Japanese traditional design and architecture.

Figure 4.26: Plan of Villa G in Kaunas

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4.2.4

Clean, open, light-filled spaces

Spacious rooms filled with light, wide sight lines and an uncluttered aesthetic are typical of many minimalist interiors. Only the necessary furniture and accessories are used so that objects have some breathing room. The abundance of natural light adds to the ambiance of the space, helping it feel warm and cozy rather than cold and sterile.

Figure 4.27: Belimbing Avenu / hyla architects

Figure 4.28: The Stripe House by Gaaga Studio Architecture MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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4.2.5

Simple detailing devoid of decoration

Many minimalist interiors are also characterized by clean cabinetry, stair, and trim details – paring down to only what is necessary. Detailing cabinetry with flat slab panels instead of raised or recessed panels and minimally exposed hardware eliminates the visual noise often seen with cabinetry. Clean, crisp window details and well-designed facades avoid the need for unnecessary trim work. A flush window frame aligning with the joints in the cladding material provides a clean minimalist solution to window articulations. Simple minimalistic details are also cost-effective. Flat stock trim is an inexpensive and easy way to trim out windows and doors and still maintain a minimalist look.

Figure 4.29: Y House by Tamizo Architects

Figure 4.30: Berkshire House by Resolution: 4 Architecture MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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4.2.6

Strategic use of materials for visual interest

The projects above show that good minimalist house design can be achieved through simplicity in forms, materials, and details. It isn‘t about sensory deprivation, purging all your possessions, or ruthlessly cleaning house; it has more to do with choosing order, clarity, calmness, and intention. By focusing on a handful of elements we are not living with less, but rather drawing attention to the shape, colour, and texture of the things and spaces we inhabit.

Figure 4.31: JD House by BAK Architects. Photo by Gustavo Sosa Pinilla

Figure 4.32: Paling Fence House by NASA MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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4.3 4.3.1

Elements of minimalism [14] Form in Minimalism

The form as a result of architecture process, become important in the perception and evaluation of person who looking outside of an architectural work. Evaluation criteria‘s of the outer surfaces of the building and with the emergence of these surfaces for shaping caused to the perception of form as a foundation, form have become important element for architecture in both theoretical sense and practice . In the minimalist spaces, from external and formal view; simple, plain, basic geometric forms of fictional and aesthetic norms have been seen. Basic geometric forms, smooth and clear, lines with angular forms and functional accessories are preferred to use. Complex and ornamental forms has been rejected. The Simplicity and the purity of the form, in a direct relationship functions of the form such as material and detail is also an important factor of elements in naturalness and simplicity. Basic geometrical forms like square, rectangle, circle, etc. are the basis of the planning of the space. This ensures the most simple design and maximum surface area.

Figure 4.33: MUR House / Apollo Architects & Associates

Figure 4.34: House inside out / Takeshi Hosaka MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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Figure 4.35: Courtyard House by INOSTUDIO MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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Figure 4.36: Floor plan of the AJ Residence

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4.3.2

Furniture in Minimalism

Furniture is the mass noun for the movable articles that are used to make a room or building suitable for living or working in, such as tables, chairs, or desks. The main goal is to answer human needs, according to increasing the value of the product due to usability of function; measurement must be in accordance with the size of the objects which the furniture of human and storagedisplay function. Simplification and Minimalist attitude refer to design furniture in simple geometric forms as the other elements. The request of Simplification of everything in simplicity and minimalist attitude on interior arrangement attracts attention to the refining and return to the basic objects. They are preferred accessories which highlight the functionality with simple and straight lines without ornamentation.

Figure 4.37: Furniture design in Buddha Apartments

Figure 4.38: Balint House in Spain by Fran Silvestre Arquitectos MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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4.3.3

Windows

Windows are a major design element in minimalist design. Large windows work best because they allow the space to virtually become one with its natural surroundings. Fussy blinds or curtains are usually not used. If you prefer to use blinds or curtains, choose natural wood or bamboo shades and sheer curtains. Keep windows clean to prevent buildup that may block an outdoor view.

Figure 4.39: Turner House by Fread man White in Architecture & Interior design

Figure 4.40: Summer hill House is a minimal residence located in Toronto, Canada, designed by AKB

Figure 4.41: Limestone apartment facade

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4.3.4

White spaces

White space is key to a great minimalist design because the absence of clutter helps viewers focus on the content. Good minimalist design means the perfect amount of white spaces, and without White Space is not really minimalist at all. Every design element needs certain amount of room to ―breath‖ and to balance out other elements as well.

Figure 4.42: Gallery of V House / Abraham Cota Paredes Arquitectos

Figure 4.43: Japanese White House in Kanazawa

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4.3.5

Colour and Texture

The colour and texture have an important role in the perception of space. In a space it is possible to change the psychological perception without changing the physical properties by different colours and textures. Colour and texture are inseparable; texture of surface is the factor that determined the colour. Lighting is another factor that has an important role on perception of colour and texture. Bright and light colours that appear on forms create effects such as; brightness, depth, closeness, distant feelings .Opening and lighting element has been researched particularly in next section. In minimalist spaces usually light and neutral colours preferred which are reflecting the colours of nature .White and grey colours provide the serenity and purity features of space. White colour effect on man's psychological perception of the cleanliness, purity, innocence emotions, and a grey reminiscent of silence, stability, reliability and simplicity emotions. Minimalist spaces refuse the usage of variety colour and texture which tire the eye. More color and texture diversity in space create spatial chaos and occur disturbing effects on man.

Figure 4.44: Sugamo Shinkin Bank, Tokiwadai Branch / Emmanuelle Moureaux Architecture + Design MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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CHAPTER 5 INFLUENTIAL MINIMALIST DESIGNERS 5.1

Mies Van Der Rohe [15,16]

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German-American architect. He is commonly referred to and was addressed as Mies, his surname. Along with Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius and Frank Lloyd Wright, he is widely regarded as one of the pioneers of modernist architecture. Mies sought to establish a new architectural style that could represent modern times just as Classical and Gothic did for their own eras. He created an influential twentiethcentury architectural style, stated with extreme clarity and simplicity. His mature buildings made use of modern materials such as industrial steel and plate glass to define interior spaces. He strove toward an Architecture with a minimal framework of structural order balanced against the implied freedom of unobstructed free-flowing open space. He called his buildings "skin and bones" architecture. He sought an objective approach that would guide the creative process of architectural design, but he was always concerned with expressing the spirit of the modern era. He is often associated with his quotation of the aphorisms, "less is more" and "God is in the details".

5.1.1

Figure 5.1: Mies Van Der Rohe

Life and work

He developed a new language of architecture after he served in the World war 1 from 1915 – 1918. He continued to build within his establishment ideas, though, Mies increasingly concerned himself with theoretical questions on the nature of architecture. After the dissolution of his marriage with Ada Bruhn in 1921, he designed five projects in the course of four years, none of which were realized .They are recognized as the famous ―five projects‖. MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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After World War I, Mies began, while still designing traditional neoclassical homes, a parallel experimental effort. He joined his avant-garde peers in the long-running search for a new style that would be suitable for the modern industrial age. The weak points of traditional styles had been under attack by progressive theorists since the mid-nineteenth century, primarily for the contradictions of hiding modern construction technology with a facade of ornamented traditional styles.The mounting criticism of the historical styles gained substantial cultural credibility after World War I, a disaster widely seen as a failure of the old world order of imperial leadership of Europe. The aristocratic classical revival styles were particularly reviled by many as the architectural symbol of a now-discredited and outmoded social system. Progressive thinkers called for a completely new architectural design process guided by rational problem-solving and an exterior expression of modern materials and structure rather than, what they considered, the superficial application of classical facades. While continuing his traditional neoclassical design practice Mies began to develop visionary projects that, though mostly unbuilt, rocketed him to fame as an architect capable of giving form that was in harmony with the spirit of the emerging modern society. Boldly abandoning ornament altogether, Mies made a dramatic modernist debut with his stunning competition proposal for the faceted all-glass FriedrichstraĂ&#x;e skyscraper in 1921, followed by a taller curved version in 1922 named the Glass Skyscraper. He continued with a series of pioneering projects, culminating in his two European masterworks: the temporary German Pavilion for the Barcelona exposition (often called the Barcelona Pavilion) in 1929 (a 1986 reconstruction is now built on the original site) and the elegant Villa Tugendhat in Brno, Czech Republic, completed in 1930.

Figure 5.2: White farm estate, Stuttgart

He joined the German avant-garde, working with the progressive design magazine G which started in July 1923. He developed prominence as architectural director of the Werkbund, organizing the influential Weissenhof Estate prototype modernist housing exhibition. He was also one of the founders

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of the architectural association Der Ring. He joined the avant garde Bauhaus design school as their director of architecture, adopting and developing their functionalist application of simple geometric forms in the design of useful objects. He served as its last director. Like many other avant-garde architects of the day, Mies based his architectural mission and principles on his understanding and interpretation of ideas developed by theorists and critics who pondered the declining relevance of the traditional design styles. He selectively adopted theoretical ideas such as the aesthetic credos of Russian Constructivism with their ideology of "efficient" sculptural assembly of modern industrial materials. Mies found appeal in the use of simple rectilinear and planar forms, clean lines, pure use of colour, and the extension of space around and beyond interior walls expounded by the Dutch De Stijl group. In particular, the layering of functional sub-spaces within an overall space and the distinct articulation of parts as expressed by Gerrit Rietveld appealed to Mies.

5.1.2

Figure 5.3: Riehl House Potsdam

Principles and Philosophies

Mies began to develop this style through the 1920‘s, combining the functionalist industrial concerns of his modernist contemporaries and an aesthetics drive toward minimal intersecting planes – rejecting the traditional systems of enclosed rooms and relying heavily on glass to dissolve the boundary between the building‘s interior and exterior. The purity of Mies‘s architecture is almost surprising in light the diversity of his interests. An auto-didactic, Mies studied philosophy and science as well as design. He focused on building structures that reflected the modern contest and creating a space that is both flexible as well as functional. He included limited spaces which were enclosed within the confines of walls. Mies had developed the concept of ―less is more‖. The minimalist approach towards design and architecture during the 1930s helped him to realize what he wanted to work on. He was intrigued by the idea of having larger and multi-purpose spaces that would be devoid of the mess and clutter of small and closed spaces. This concept can be seen in his later projects like Barcelona MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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Pavilion, Farnsworth House, Seagram Building and many others. He created designs that had a seamless flow between the interiors and exteriors of the building. Which is achieved by integrating the elements and materials of indoors and outdoors. He believed that ―a man should be close to its surroundings and nature‖ and hence built structures that were perpetually transparent and the integrity with its surroundings was possible. The concept of fluid space is further embodied in the design of his Barcelona Pavilion, where movable glass and marble partitions allowed for space to be seen as flexible and independent of the structure itself. Here once again the glass provides enclosure, but does not detract from the architectural idea of a series of perpendicular planes beneath a flat roof. Mies‘s building were referred to be of the ―skin and bones‖ architecture due to extensive use of steel and glass for the construction of buildings. After he moved to the United States, almost all of his designs including steel structure and glass walls. Use of glass also ensured openness and integrity of the space. The idea of giving a space a specific expression rather than a specific function helped him to achieve the most minimal design possible. Mies believed that furniture layed a vital role in defining the spaces and so he used furniture to ―divide‖ the space for its function.

5.1.3

Furniture

As Mies believed that furniture played an important role in defining the space, he designed exclusive furniture for most of his projects. Comfort and exclusivity of the furniture pieces was what Mies gave stress on. The material used for furniture is always in context to the colour scheme and theme of the building it was made for. His furniture is known for fine craftsmanship, a mix of traditional luxurious fabrics like leather combined with modern chrome frames, and a distinct separation of the supporting surfaces, often employing cantilevers to enhance the feeling of lightness created by delicate structural frames. Almost all of the furniture that he designed was in Germany as in Germany he was more involved in commissions Figure 5.4: Furniture designed by Mies Van De Rohe MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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from private individuals for their residences. There were several pieces of furniture that Mies designed over the course of his architectural career. 1.

Tugendhat Chair

Seeking to make a comfortable lounge chair that maintained the restraint of his minimalist aesthetics, Mies arrived at the Tugendhat. Here, the cushions of the Barcelona meet the cantilever frame of the MR, arriving at an elegant solution to the overstuffed club chair. In appearance, the Tugendhat chair is somewhat of a hybrid of van der Rohe and Reich's 1929 Barcelona chair and 1929-1930 Brno chair. Like the Barcelona chair, the Tugendhat chair has a large padded leather seat and back, supported by leather straps mounted on a steel frame and legs. However, like one variant of the Brno chair, the frame is flat solid steel, formed under into a C-shape under the seat to create a cantilever. Versions exist with or without leather-padded steel arms. The metal was originally polished stainless steel; modern examples are often chromeplated.

Figure 5.5: Tugendhat Chair

2. Barcelona Chair Perhaps the most iconic work from Mies‘ oeuvre, the Barcelona Chair at once gives life to and is born from its materials. It is composed of steel and leather. The steel bar legs ease up and over to support the seat and back of the chair. The frame was initially designed to be bolted together, but was redesigned in 1950 using stainless steel, which allowed the frame to be formed by a seamless piece of metal, giving it a smoother appearance. Bovine leather replaced the ivory-colored pigskin which was used for the original pieces. Figure 5.6: Barcelona Chair MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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5.1.4

Realized Work - Barcelona Pavilion

As part of the1929 International Exposition in Barcelona Spain, the Barcelona Pavilion, designed by Mies van der Rohe, was the display of architecture's modern movement to the world. Originally named the German Pavilion, the pavilion was the face of Germany after WWI, emulating the nation‘s progressively modern culture that was still rooted in its classical history. Its elegant and sleek design combined with rich natural material presented Mies‘ Barcelona Pavilion as a bridge into his future career, as well as architectural modernism. After several architectural triumphs in Germany, Mies was commissioned to design the German Pavilion for the International Exposition in Barcelona, Spain. The pavilion was intended to be the face of the German section that would host King Alphonso XIII of Spain and German officials at the inauguration of the exposition. Unlike other pavilions at the exposition, Mies understood his pavilion simply as a building and nothing more, it would not house art or sculpture rather the pavilion would be a place of tranquility and escape from the exposition, in effect transforming the pavilion into an inhabitable sculpture.

Figure 5.7: Views of Barcelona Pavilion

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Situated at the foot of the National Art Museum of Catalonia and Montjuic, the Barcelona Pavilion resides on a narrow site in a quiet tucked away corner secluded from the bustling city streets of Barcelona. Raised on a plinth of travertine, the Barcelona Pavilion separates itself from it context create atmospheric and experiential effects that seem to occur in a vacuum that dissolves all consciousness of the surrounding city.

Figure 5.8: Floor plan of Barcelona Pavilion MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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The pavilion‘s design is based on a formulaic grid system developed by Mies that not only serves as the patterning of the travertine pavers, but it also serves as an underlying framework that the wall systems work within. By raising the pavilion on a plinth in conjunction with the narrow profile of the site, the Barcelona Pavilion has a low horizontal orientation that is accentuated by the low flat roof that appears to float over both the interior as well as the exterior.

Figure 5.9: Views from different angles of Barcelona Pavilion The low stature of the building narrows the visitor‘s line of vision forcing one to adjust to the views framed by Mies. When walking up onto the plinth, one is forced under the low roof plane that captures the adjacent outdoor court as well as the interior moments that induce circulation throughout the pavilion. The interior of the pavilion consists of offset wall places that work with the low roof plane to encourage movement, as well as activate Mies‘ architectural promenade where framed views would induce movement through the narrow passage that would open into a larger volume. This cyclical process of moving throughout the pavilion sets in motion a process of discovery and rediscovery during ones experience; always offering up new perspectives and details that were previously unseen.

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Every aspect of the Barcelona Pavilion has architectural significance that can be seen at the advent of modern architecture in the 20th Century; however, one of the most important aspects of the pavilion is the roof. The low profile of the roof appears in elevation as a floating plane above the interior volume. The appearance of floating gives the volume a sense of weightlessness that fluctuates between enclosure and canopy. The roof structure is supported by eight slender cruciform columns that allow the roof to as effortlessly floating above the volume while freeing up the interior to allow for an open plan. With the low roof projecting out over the exterior and the openness of the pavilion, there is a blurred spatial demarcation where ht interior becomes and exterior and exterior becomes interior.

Figure 5.10: Exterior views of Barcelona Pavilion

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The pavilion‘s design is based on a formulaic grid system developed by Mies that not only serves as the patterning of the travertine pavers, but it also serves as an underlying framework that the wall systems work within. By raising the pavilion on a plinth in conjunction with the narrow profile of the site, the Barcelona Pavilion has a low horizontal orientation that is accentuated by the low flat roof that appears to float over both the interior as well as the exterior.

Figure 5.9: Views from different angles of Barcelona Pavilion The low stature of the building narrows the visitor‘s line of vision forcing one to adjust to the views framed by Mies. When walking up onto the plinth, one is forced under the low roof plane that captures the adjacent outdoor court as well as the interior moments that induce circulation throughout the pavilion. The interior of the pavilion consists of offset wall places that work with the low roof plane to encourage movement, as well as activate Mies‘ architectural promenade where framed views would induce movement through the narrow passage that would open into a larger volume. This cyclical process of moving throughout the pavilion sets in motion a process of discovery and rediscovery during ones experience; always offering up new perspectives and details that were previously unseen.

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Figure5.12: Azuma House in Osaka, Japan by Tadao Ando

5.2.2

Principles and Philosophies

Ando was raised in Japan where the religion and style of life strongly influenced his architecture and design. Ando's architectural style is said to create a "haiku" effect, emphasizing nothingness and empty space to represent the beauty of simplicity. He favours designing complex (yet beautifully simple) spatial circulation while maintaining the appearance of simplicity. A self-taught architect, he keeps his Japanese culture and language in mind while he travels around Europe for research. As an architect, he believes that architecture can change society, that "to change the dwelling is to change the city and to reform society‖ ―Reform

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society" could be a promotion of a place or a change of the identity of that place. Werner Blaser has said, "Good buildings by Tadao Ando create memorable identity and therefore publicity, which in turn attracts the public and promotes market penetration".The simplicity of his architecture emphasizes the concept of sensation and physical experiences, mainly influenced by Japanese culture. The religious term Zen, focuses on the concept of simplicity and concentrates on inner feeling rather than outward appearance. Zen influences vividly show in Ando‘s work and became its distinguishing mark. In order to practice the idea of simplicity, Ando's architecture is mostly constructed with concrete, providing a sense of cleanliness and weightlessness (even though concrete is a heavy material) at the same time. Due to the simplicity of the exterior, construction, and organization of the space are relatively potential in Figure 5.13: The Church of light, Osaka, Japan order to represent the aesthetic of sensation. (1989) Besides Japanese religious architecture, Ando has also designed Christian churches, such as the Church of the Light (1989) and the Church in Tarumi (1993). Although Japanese and Christian churches display distinct characteristics, Ando treats them in a similar way. He believes there should be no difference in designing religious architecture and houses. As he explains, We do not need to differentiate one from the other. Dwelling in a house is not only a functional issue, but also a spiritual one. The house is the locus of heart (kokoro), and the heart is the locus of god. Dwelling in a house is a search for the heart (kokoro) as the locus of god, just as one goes to church to search for god. An important role of the church is to enhance this sense of the spiritual. In a spiritual place, people find peace in their heart (kokoro), as in their homeland. Besides speaking of the spirit of architecture, Ando also emphasises the association between nature and architecture. He intends for people to easily experience the spirit and beauty of nature through architecture. He believes architecture is responsible for performing the attitude of the site and makes it visible. This not only represents his theory of the role of architecture in society but also shows why he spends so much time studying architecture from physical experience.

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5.2.3

Realized Work - Koshino House

Tadao Ando‘s design for the Koshino House features two parallel concrete rectangular confines. The forms are partially buried into the sloping ground of a national park and become a compositional addition to the landscape. Placed carefully as to not disrupt the pre-existing trees on the site, the structure responds to the adjacent ecosystem while the concrete forms address a more general nature through a playful manipulation of light. More about the Koshino House after the brea

Figure 5.14: Access path between two block

Figure 5.15: Koshino House by Tadao Ando

The northern volume consists of a two-storey height containing a double height living room, a kitchen and a dining room on the first floor with the master bedroom and a study on the second floor. The southern mass then consists of six linearly organized children‘s bedrooms, a bathroom and a lobby. Connecting the two spaces is a below grade tunnel that lies beneath the exterior stairs of the courtyard.

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Ando used the space within the two rectangular prisms as a way to express the fundamental nature of the site. This space reveals a courtyard that drapes over and contours to the natural topography.

Figure 5.17: The back corridor leads to bedroom Figure 5.16: Floor plan of Koshino house MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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Figure 5.18: Front elevation of Koshino House Narrow apertures have been punched through the faรงades adjacent to the exterior staircase and manipulate complex crossings of natural light and shadow into the interior spaces. The patterns provide the only amount of ornament to the simple rooms. Other slots are cut from various planes of the two modules to produce the same effect of complexity throughout the entire house. Four years after the original construction, Ando designed a new addition to the compound. Placed to the north of the existing structures, the new cave-like space rests within the upward sloping piece of land. The study features a bold curve in contradiction to the rectilinear organization, initiating a completely new rhythm. Figure 5.19: Living room Koshino House MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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CHAPTER 6 CASE STUDY 5.1

PANORAMA HOUSE / AJAY SONAR

The spatial effect of the architecture of a rectangular box – like concrete structures sets the character of a house located on the outskirts of Nashik. The vivid compositional and constructional elements create a distinct silhouette against the horizon; the tight vertical dimension amplifies the horizontal expanses of the landscape of the house as much as the landscape outside the house.

Figure 6.1: Panorama house

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Project Panorama House Location Gangapur Dam Backwaters, Nashik Architect A for ARCHITECTURE Design team Ajay Sonar, Monali Patil Site Area 1 acres Project Area 400 m2

Figure 6.2 : Site Plan

The house in the landscape is a powerful and oft – seen image in the annals of architecture. Ajay Sonar‘s Panorama House rakes up memories of the images of Craig Ellwood‘s houses. But here, industrial steel gives way to reinforced concrete – and slick metallic chic to the rugged hues of the terrain. Situated a half hour‘s drive from Nashik‘s city Centre, the Gangapur Dam lake as it is known has become a fashionable destination for those who can afford to live at a distance from the city, and with its bowl – like landscape it potentially will see the kind of transformation that the surroundings of Pavna Lake have witnessed.

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Figure 6.3: Ground floor Plan of the panorama house MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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Figure 5.18: Front elevation of Koshino House Narrow apertures have been punched through the faรงades adjacent to the exterior staircase and manipulate complex crossings of natural light and shadow into the interior spaces. The patterns provide the only amount of ornament to the simple rooms. Other slots are cut from various planes of the two modules to produce the same effect of complexity throughout the entire house. Four years after the original construction, Ando designed a new addition to the compound. Placed to the north of the existing structures, the new cave-like space rests within the upward sloping piece of land. The study features a bold curve in contradiction to the rectilinear organization, initiating a completely new rhythm. Figure 5.19: Living room Koshino House MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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Figure 6.5 : Photographs of the exterior of the house captured from various angles a different times of the day indicate the well – defined contours of the structure as well as the topography and rugged hues of the surrounding terrain. With such a context the intention couldn‘t have been more simpler than to create a space that simply frames the idyllic image and to behold the magnificent plays of weathers and seasons that animate that picture perfect view. The idea here is to work with the minimum in design, space making and also materials. Being a fluid space, it also blurs the lines between the interior, exterior and the nature beyond. This house designed by us incorporates only three materials in a vow to maintain the purity of space and also as a critical stand opposed to the current trends of using almost infinite number of false materials and artificial finishes whereas we have achieved all of this in a single R.C.C slab, right from the ceiling pattern at the bottom to polished concrete floor on top. The colour of the surrounding soil and mountains mingles with the structure to let us perceive it as a single unit.

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Figure 6.6: Exterior view of the Panorama House

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Figure 6.7: Front elevation of the Panorama House

Figure 6,8: Various stages of creating the model of the house MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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With this simple intention in mind, the house was conceived as a simple Pigmented concrete cuboid matching the soil colour of the surrounding, supported over an even grid of slender Miesien columns. A sort of a strange co-existence of heaviness and slenderness -more like, Corbusier marrying Mies to create a unique sub-tropical house type.

Figure 6.9: Sectional elevation of Panorama House

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Concrete here becomes an all encompassing material, forming not only the structure of the box but also the finished surfaces of the ceiling and the floor. This elegantly proportioned structural box is held up intermittently by a set of cross – shaped steel columns formed of angle sections – a homage to mies, no doubt; but here the columns display their visual lightness with their interstitial gaps, and thus the overall visual impression and experiential sensation of levitation is achieved. The glass walls slide away completely to be tucked along the two vertical cores that conceal the services and thus one has a house with a simple and a clear diagram of served and servant spaces, verandahs on both sides add to the box sense of depth – and the consciously designed low ceiling height of the concrete box creates a space of intimate domesticity wedded to the shear expanse of the landscape and the lake beyond. The colour of the surrounding soil and mountains mingles with the structure to let us perceive it as a single unit. Thus the tight vertical dimension amplifies the horizontal expanse of the landscape of the house as much as the landscape outside the house. The interior furnishings and thus emphasize the view of the landscape beyond – luxuries of living here are rarefied to allow for the richness of the outside world take centrestage.

Figure 6.10: Exploded Axonometric View of the Panorama House

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Figure 6.5 : Photographs of the exterior of the house captured from various angles a different times of the day indicate the well – defined contours of the structure as well as the topography and rugged hues of the surrounding terrain. With such a context the intention couldn‘t have been more simpler than to create a space that simply frames the idyllic image and to behold the magnificent plays of weathers and seasons that animate that picture perfect view. The idea here is to work with the minimum in design, space making and also materials. Being a fluid space, it also blurs the lines between the interior, exterior and the nature beyond. This house designed by us incorporates only three materials in a vow to maintain the purity of space and also as a critical stand opposed to the current trends of using almost infinite number of false materials and artificial finishes whereas we have achieved all of this in a single R.C.C slab, right from the ceiling pattern at the bottom to polished concrete floor on top. The colour of the surrounding soil and mountains mingles with the structure to let us perceive it as a single unit.

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5.2

Brick House / A for Architecture

Text description provided by the architects. The brick house occupies a land parcel of 800 sq. on the suburban edge of Pune - with a reserve forest on the rear and a dense urban housing on the access road to the front. So, the site creates an interesting opportunity to flip a typical suburban house condition and open up the major public areas to the backyard garden looking towards the forest beyond. Instead of the mundane suburban street the strategy here is to evoke a feeling of living in a hinterland.

Figure 6.12: Brick House / A for Architecture MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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The house is conceived as an introvert form with a solid mass of brick which stands still and bold from outside. The dynamic play of light and volumes is revealed only when one enters and walks through different spaces inside. The living with its large volume is designed as a public node surrounded by built spaces which opens up to the backyard verandah allowing a seamless view of the lawn and forest beyond. The east-west orientation of the living space welcomes the warm morning sun and some migrating birds and peacocks from the forest occasionally. The cooking, dining and sleeping areas are aligned to the south and west of the site to protect the living areas from direct heat.

Figure 6.13: Living area of the Brick house MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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Concrete here becomes an all encompassing material, forming not only the structure of the box but also the finished surfaces of the ceiling and the floor. This elegantly proportioned structural box is held up intermittently by a set of cross – shaped steel columns formed of angle sections – a homage to mies, no doubt; but here the columns display their visual lightness with their interstitial gaps, and thus the overall visual impression and experiential sensation of levitation is achieved. The glass walls slide away completely to be tucked along the two vertical cores that conceal the services and thus one has a house with a simple and a clear diagram of served and servant spaces, verandahs on both sides add to the box sense of depth – and the consciously designed low ceiling height of the concrete box creates a space of intimate domesticity wedded to the shear expanse of the landscape and the lake beyond. The colour of the surrounding soil and mountains mingles with the structure to let us perceive it as a single unit. Thus the tight vertical dimension amplifies the horizontal expanse of the landscape of the house as much as the landscape outside the house. The interior furnishings and thus emphasize the view of the landscape beyond – luxuries of living here are rarefied to allow for the richness of the outside world take centrestage.

Figure 6.10: Exploded Axonometric View of the Panorama House

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Figure 6.16: Interior view of the Brick House

This house is an attempt to create a level of privacy within the urban environment, where the users could interact with each other and nature as playfully as possible. Keeping all the formal layers of life aside and take a pause from the busy life of the city.

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Figure 6.17: First floor plan of the Brick House

Figure 6.18: View from different angle MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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Figure 6.19: Sectional Elevation A of the Brick House

Figure 6.20: Sectional Elevation B of the Brick House

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Figure 6.21: Sectional Elevation C of the Brick House

Figure 6.22: Sectional Elevation D of the Brick House MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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Figure 6.23: Axonometric view 1 of the Brick House

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Figure 6.24: Axonometric view 2 of the Brick House MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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Figure 6.25: Axonometric view 3 & 4 of the Brick House Each bedroom is designed considering the intuitive usage of space with inbuilt seating and furniture to go beyond the normative idea of formal living spaces. Each bedroom has got three different types of windows, one for seating -to enjoy interior courts, another small window for cross ventilation and the third is a balcony to go out and enjoy the distant landscapes.

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Figure 6.26: Interior spaces view of the Brick House

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5.3

Centennial Tree House / Wallflower Architecture + Design

Text description provided by the architects. The owner wanted external blank walls. Then talk continued to fixed screens. Centre courtyard for light and air. These summed up for them, the tangible facets of an ideal home, a protective enclosure of solitude.

Figure 6.27: Centennial Tree House / Wallflower Architecture + Design MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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Figure 6.28: Ground floor plan and views of the Centennial Tree House

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Figure 6.29: First floor plan and sectional elevation of the Centennial Tree House

That fortitude and strength is visually given expression by a hundred year old frangipani tree literally found within, centred in a large grassed courtyard surrounded with water. The tree was given a new lease of life having been rescued from a Holland Road site slated for new development. The central air and light well is key to the experience and enjoyment of the house through the day as the light shifts, different walls, passages, are literally seen in a different light, or shade or shadow. The centennial tree awakes, basks, and rests; and the surrounding spaces share that experience. The aesthetic encounter is intensified perhaps because there are no distractions from the world outside; Even the world outside is acquired as the sky above is framed by the court and forms part of the spatial composition. The elemental reduction of sky above, water surrounding an island of grass below, all axially centred by

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the stolid tree distils for the owners what life can and should be; a re-focus on the basics being pure, simple, and celebrated. True to the owners‘ requirements, the facade is entirely sealed off in most areas, and veiled by fixed timber screening in others. The purity of intention to internalise results in a purity of architectural elevation on three sides; there is no yard, opening, back of house, but a pebbled path between a rhythmic timber screen and a lush wall of polyalthias. Visually, the aesthetics exclude both physically and psychologically, but the timber screens along the periphery of the 1st storey allow breezes to comb through, refreshing the sheltered corridors and living spaces. The central court encourages this, acting as both a light and air well. Throughout the day as the environment changes, the breezes shift, the house breathes. The only area where the timber screens can be opened is between the second storey master bedroom and the court. Motors silently fold the screens away, linking the court to the bedroom.

Figure 6.30: Exterior view of the Centennial Tree House MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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Figure 6.28: Ground floor plan and views of the Centennial Tree House

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Figure 6.29: First floor plan and sectional elevation of the Centennial Tree House

That fortitude and strength is visually given expression by a hundred year old frangipani tree literally found within, centred in a large grassed courtyard surrounded with water. The tree was given a new lease of life having been rescued from a Holland Road site slated for new development. The central air and light well is key to the experience and enjoyment of the house through the day as the light shifts, different walls, passages, are literally seen in a different light, or shade or shadow. The centennial tree awakes, basks, and rests; and the surrounding spaces share that experience. The aesthetic encounter is intensified perhaps because there are no distractions from the world outside; Even the world outside is acquired as the sky above is framed by the court and forms part of the spatial composition. The elemental reduction of sky above, water surrounding an island of grass below, all axially centred by

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Figure 6.33: Axonometric view of the Drawers House

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Figure 6.34: Exterior view of the Drawers House

Figure 6.35: Sectional elevation of the Drawers House MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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As the partition finishes, the in between gardens creating privacy while act as transition to the next space. The sunlight passing through, cascading shadow onto the floor forming captivating views. The boundary between the interior and exterior is being diminished, letting man sense the fluctuations of nature. By opening up and closing down ―drawers‖, accommodate better ventilation, hence cooing down the entire living space. The entire house acts as a living body, with a mission to connect man with man and man with nature. The ideology behind the design of MIA DESIGN STUDIO is to maximizing the connection between functional spaces with natural light, wind and gardens while still preserve the privacy for each individual rooms. With the philosophy in mind, the concept for ―The Drawers House‖ of constructing blocks, harmonious space, using minimal but effective materials, produce a project carrying the breath of nature with suitable methods in order to bring out the best quality of life for users.

Figure 6.36: Interior view of the Drawers House MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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―The Drawer House‖ is a single – story located on a 470 square meters piece of land with a dedicated 60% of land usage for landscape. That 60% is creatively arranged through partitions so that nature is never out sight. With the remaining 180 square meters, the architects divided it into ―drawers‖ containing functional spaces, at the same time insert in between them ―drawers of landscape‖. These ―drawers‖ are aligned on the same direction, however by creating alternating partitions; dwellers have an impression of unevenly put rooms. Just as drawers being pulled in and out randomly, the architects hope the tenants and nature intermingle without any obvious intention. Clients when live inside the space will have different sensations at different rooms because of continuous altering of solidity – emptiness, brightness – darkness.

Figure 6.32: Ground floor Plan of the Drawers House

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Figure 6.34: Exterior view of the Drawers House

Figure 6.35: Sectional elevation of the Drawers House MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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The management and landscaping of this land plot was a delicate solution: the already growing trees were preserved, a lot of emphasis was put to the natural landscape – the existing blossoming meadows were maintained as well as new ones were projected, a lot of attention was paid to the terrain gradual growth in height which, in combination with the newly made mounds creates privacy for the land plot; natural and environment integrating covers were projected, such as wood chip covers, natural stone, various types and sizes granite covers. Two exterior terraces were projected with a close relationship between themselves as well as to the interior and yard environment of the house itself. The Function The building is convenient to use and functional. This was reached thanks to the division of the spaces into four functional zones: the living zone (kitchen, dining room, and guest room), resting-sleeping zone (the major sleeping room with the wardrobe and batch, two sleeping rooms for children with a WC and shower), SPA zone (Jacuzzi and leisure room, sauna, WC and shower), garage and utility rooms‘ zone. These zones are connected with a spacious corridor and open-type interior yard. The Architecture The building by its volume, proportions, and the selection of materials has a good integration into its surroundings. The solidlooking, sculptural concrete decoration of the building outlines the volume if the building on the first perspective, and shade lines emphasise the contrast between the volumes and materials. Clear horizontal facade lines can be seen from the side of the main street, the intersection of the SPA and living zones appears impressive. Facade decoration materials: concrete slabs, seamless clinker blocks. The Interior The interior was created as a warm, cosy atmosphere. Natural and reliable decoration materials shall be used such as concrete for the fireplace decoration and kitchen floor, natural wood for the floor of the greater part of the remaining areas, guest room, kitchen and SPA zones, as well as kitchen furniture‗ stone mass tiles for the corridor, SPA space, sanitation units.

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Figure 6.39: Exterior view of the Residential Minimalist Concrete House

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Figure 6.40: Site plan of the Residential Minimalist Concrete House

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Figure 6.41: Floor plan of the Residential Minimalist Concrete House MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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Figure 6.42: Front elevation of the Residential Minimalist Concrete House

Figure 6.43: Right side elevation of the Residential Minimalist Concrete House

Figure 6.44: Back side elevation of the Residential Minimalist Concrete House MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

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Figure 6.45: Left side elevation of the Residential Minimalist Concrete House

Figure 6.46: Sectional elevation of the Residential Minimalist Concrete House

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Figure 6.47: Interior views of the Residential Minimalist Concrete House

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CHAPTER 7 INFERENCES As a result of this research, in the essence of Minimalist conception, it seems that Minimalism is not a temporary approach. One of the biggest reasons is; function is the most emphasized feature of Minimalism. In Minimalist attitude everything is for human. Minimalism refers to remove elements which are used for unnecessary visual ornamentation and minimalism highlight function and functionality. Lighting stands out as one of the most important element of Minimalism, even natural or artificial usage of lighting and taking the natural light thorough interior spaces is most common point of Minimalism. Correct usage of openings is attached great importance to illumination and circulation between indoor and outdoor space thus permeability come into prominence. Accordingly in minimalist indoor spaces in each period feeling of spatial emptiness attract attention, spatial emptiness feeling is supported with white and pure colour choices in flawless details. Preference and usage of natural material with its own texture. Most common points of space organization are user oriented and functional plan solutions, wet areas and private spaces are generally defined individually from whole. One of the most particular features is multipurpose space; these spaces support the overlapping activities in single space. To sum up Minimalism refer to use these object and elements in a simple and geometric forms. Simplification with minimizing everything is another reason for existence of Minimalism. As a result of these features, it so happens that Minimalism is not a fashion or movement. Today‘s minimalist attitude rises to the occasion especially in Europe and Japan. According to dwellings which have been analysed and evaluated in this study, it is possible to say that Contemporary Minimalist attitude has become much more plain and effective in terms of simplification. As in the Modern Minimalist attitude Contemporary Minimalist attitude highlight the functionality, user and relationship between user and space. On the other hand being that much effective in terms of simplification sometimes caused to formation of meaningless spaces in this circumstance spatial emptiness feeling transformed to real emptiness. Although Minimalist spaces without indoor environment render itself as meaningless, these features attract attention with significant part of Minimalism.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minimalism 2. https://www.archdaily.com/264001/house-w-01arq 3. http://spyrestudios.com/minimalist-design-a-brief-history-and-practical-tips/ 4. Interpretation of minimalist architecture according to various cultureshttps://issuu.com/aminaizatdesign/docs/minimalist_architecture 5. Stevanovic, V. (2013). ―A Reading of Interpretative Models of Minimalism in Architecture. 6. Goodman., H. F. M. a. D. (2011).An introduction to architectural Theory: 1968 to the present. 7. Pawson, J. and P. Doze(1996). Minimum, Phaidon. 8. Pallasmaa, J. (1994). ―An architecture of the seven senses.‖ ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN TOKYO 9. Melhuish, C.(1994). ―On Minimalism in Architecture.‖ Architectural Design 10. Ypma, H.J (1996). London minimum, Stewart, Tabori & Chang 11. A Dissertation Report on Minimalism in Architecture https://issuu.com/sanchitmehta/docs/dissertation_2015__11640_ 12. http://carla-izumi-bamford.com/10-principles-of-minimalist-design/ 13. http://www.yr-architecture.com/5-characteristics-of-modern-minimalist-house-designs/ 14. i-rep.emu.edu.tr:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11129/1822/Sozmener.pdf?sequence 15. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludwig_Mies_van_der_Rohe 16. https://www.archdaily.com/109135/ad-classics-barcelona-pavilion-mies-van-der-rohe 17. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadao_Ando 18. https://www.archdaily.com/161522/ad-classics-koshino-house-tadao-ando

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19. DOMUS -Volume 06/ Issue 09 –August 2017 20. https://www.archdaily.com/772520/panorama-house-ajay-sonar 21. https://www.archdaily.com/800312/brick-house-a-for-architecture 22. https://www.archdaily.com/423625/centennial-tree-house-wallflower-architecture-design/ 23. https://www.archdaily.com/801290/the-drawers-house-mia-design-studio 24. https://www.archdaily.com/800724/residential-minimalist-concrete-house-nebrau

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Dissertation - Minimalism in Architecture  

This report has a deeper understanding regarding the minimalism in architecture by focusing on the characteristics, elements and principles...

Dissertation - Minimalism in Architecture  

This report has a deeper understanding regarding the minimalism in architecture by focusing on the characteristics, elements and principles...

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