Learn & Try
Architecture idea: Ljiljana Marinković author: Dragana Jokić design: Dušan Pavlić editor: Milena Trutin language editor: Violeta Babić prepress: Nebojša Mitić editor in chief: Dejan Begović publisher: KREATIVNI CENTAR, Gradištanska 8, Beograd phone: 011/ 38 20 483, 38 20 464, 244 06 59 www.kreativnicentar.rs • e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright©KREATIVNI CENTAR 2013
Should we build another floor?
They could have at least made a house that fits! That’ll be too much!
Architecture Illustrated by
Dušan Pavlić Thanks!
So, you say you’re professionals?
Here’s a window!
We use all kinds of materials to build houses!
C ontents 5 .... Outline of the city 6 .... Architecture and urban planning 8 .... Styles, works and architects 12 .... Get to work 12 .... Learn as much as you can from the investor 13 .... Stick to the project task 14 .... Shapes and shaping 14 .... Shapes of structural elements 16 .... Scale drawing 16 .... Two scale drawings 17 .... Plans 17 .... Learn how to draw the foundation plan 18 .... The facade 18 .... The house with four sides 18 .... A new facade
19 .... Bill of quantities 20 .... Building materials 21 .... What a house is made of 22 .... Team work 24 .... The construction site 25 .... Look around 26 .... Interior 27 .... Learn to use symbols 28 .... The bright side of work 28 .... The hard part of work 29 .... Education 29 .... Job 30 .... Glossary 31 .... Answers 32 .... Index
Outline of the city hen you’re coming back home from a trip, before you get to
Wyour street, you’ll notice the familiar outline of the place you
live in from the distance. The fact that you’ve been away for some time seems to be awakening your interest in shapes you see – you start to observe the buildings, parks, roads... Maybe you’ve been to Egypt and seen the pyramids. Maybe you’ve been to Greece and seen temples built many centuries ago to honour the gods by the beautiful sea. Maybe you’ve been to Rome and seen the Coliseum. All of the edifices which marked an epoch, just like all the buildings in your place of birth, were made by builders who followed the ideas of the experts – the architects. Architects deal with the science and art of the shaping of buildings – architecture.
In the ancient world, the Greeks proclaimed seven architectural works to be Wonders of the World. Today, only the complex of pyramids at Giza survives.
Are you new around here?
Architecture and urban planning
T The houses in the first settlements were built from unstable materials. That is why we have no evidence of their appearance. Some buildings, however, are a result of the experience and life in the wilderness, and they have kept the same form until today.
The Kula Nebojša (Fearless Tower) was the main defensive tower of the Belgrade port. During the Ottoman rule, it was turned into a dungeon where the Greek revolutionary Rigas Feraios was executed.
Who put a saucepan on the top of the tower?!
he first buildings built by man served for dwelling. They were shelters from the cold, heat and other dangers. Immediately after the houses they lived in, people started to construct buildings dedicated to the gods – temples, churches or mosques. All around the world, buildings were constructed to please the deities they were dedicated to with their magnificence and to attract the visits of believers with their beauty. These two types of buildings – those for habitation and those for deities – make a distinction in architecture, between the everyday architecture, the one for the common man, and the sacred architecture, the one of churches and religious buildings. In the past, everyday architecture encompassed also the architecture of fortresses. These were in fact medieval towns and fortifications where the rulers and the people sought shelter during enemy attacks. They were built on cliffs and inaccessible places, difficult to conquer. Such a fort exists at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers. This is the Fortress of Belgrade, which is located in the most beautiful and biggest park in Belgrade, called Kalemegdan. The everyday architecture of the modern age comprises also schools, cinemas, museums and similar buildings.
People have always adapted the space they lived in to their needs. They gathered in small, and then in bigger communities and built settlements. In the first towns, main squares were used for trading and for town festivities. You pass the place for the school, and then the place for the bus station, then for the shopping mall, then for the biiiig park, and continue for just a little bit longer... number 243... that’s where I am!
Lately, places for schools, hospitals, playgrounds and other public objects are also planned in cities. Streets are divided according to their importance, and within this network, blocks of buildings are built. This enables each building with the access to obtain supplies, or to get urgent interventions. The settlements need also to have free surfaces – squares, paths, parks – which make them more beautiful and more refined. The architect that invents and connects all the elements of a settlement is called an urban planner, and their science is urban planning. This term comes from the Latin word urbs which means town or settlement. Emilijan Joksimović (1823-1897) was the first Serbian urban planner and professor of architecture. After the Ottomans left Belgrade, he made a new street plan according to which the narrow and winding alleys disappeared, and instead of them, straight streets were made, which were broad enough for the cart traffic. Emilijan Joksimović BeLgradE thought that “broad streets are more beautiful; healthier due to the better flow of air, and also safer in the event of fire”. The most beautiful park in Belgrade, Kalemegdan, was made after his ideas.
Oh, no! This one is also taken!
Settlements were usually built near rivers or on fertile soil. All of the old cities are situated in exactly such places.
The urban planner Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann is credited for today’s appearance of Paris. The centre of Paris consisted of crumbling houses until the 19th century, so their owners were displaced, and their houses were levelled. In these places, flat streets and modern buildings were made. The city was divided in arrondissements (municipalities), which were spirally distributed from the centre to the outskirts, and the main points were large squares which were the points of juncture of the boulevards.