Page 1

A RESILIENT DUPLEX FOR FORT SEVERN FIRST NATION

Two Row Architect and KPMB Architects NRCC Path to Healthy Homes Program 31 March, 2020

1



A RESILIENT DUPLEX FOR FORT SEVERN FIRST NATION Prepared by

TWO.ROW ARCHITECT and

In collaboration with Blackwell Structural Engineers JMV Consulting and RDH Building Science

for the National Research Council of Canada’s Path to Healthy Homes Program





TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.

CULTURE AND CONTEXT

2.

THE RESILIENT DUPLEX

1.1

Geography and Climate

1.1.1 Location 1.1.2 Political Geography 1.1.3 Ecosystem 1.1.4 Climate 1.1.5 Effects of Climate Change

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

Design Principles Supporting a Resilient Community Living in the Landscape Laying a Stable Foundation Acknowledging the Elements and the Seasons Achieving a High-Performance Envelope

3.

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT DRAWING SET

A 0.1 A 1.0 A 2.0 A 2.1 A 2.2 A 3.0 A 3.1 A 4.0 A 4.1 A 8.0

Overall Site Plan Three-Module Site Plan Floor Plans Roof Plan Framing Plans Elevations Elevations Cross Sections Longitudinal Section Assemblies and Typical Details

1.2

Town Planning and Physical Infrastructure

1.2.1 Transportation and Logistics 1.2.2 Town Planning 1.2.3 Mobility 1.2.4 Energy 1.2.5 Water 1.2.6 Waste 1.2.7 Communications

1.3

Social and Cultural Infrastructure

1.3.1 Demographics and Governance 1.3.2 Education 1.3.3 Healthcare 1.3.4 Economy 1.3.5 Food

1.4 Housing

1.4.1 Overview 1.4.2 Existing Conditions Case Studies 1.4.3 Renovations and New Construction 1.4.4 Needs Assessment 1.4.5 Opportunities


8

1. CULTURE AND CONTEXT


The interior of a community-built smoking tent in Fort Severn. The structures, which are widespread in the community, are used for smoking goose and caribou.

1


HUDSON BAY

FORT SEVERN 55°59’N 87°38’W SHAMATTAWA, MB winter access only

BIG TROUT LAKE

PICKLE LAKE northernmost point in the Ontario highway system

MOOSE FACTORY northernmost rail terminal in Ontario

SIOUX LOOKOUT

THUNDER BAY

2

TORONTO


1.1 GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE HUDSON BAY

FORT SEVERN 89 INDIAN RESERVE

PARTRIDGE ISLAND

FORT SEVERN

SEVERN RIVER

Map indicating the boundary of Fort Severn 89 Indian Reserve and its relationship to the Severn River and Hudson Bay. The small areas excluded from the reserve boundary are the former site of the town’s airstrip and a parcel formerly controlled by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry.

1.1.1 LOCATION Located at 55o59’N 87o38’W, Fort Severn is the northernmost settlement in Ontario. The community is situated on the north bank of the Severn River, approximately 12 kilometers south of the river’s outlet in Hudson Bay. Fort Severn is a remote isolated community—the nearest neighboring communities are Peawanuck, ON, 177 kilometers to the east-southeast, and Kaskattama, MB, 190 kilometers to the westnorthwest. 1.1.2 POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY Fort Severn First Nation is located on Treaty 9 land, and is a member of the Nishnawbe Aski Nation and The

Keewatinook Okimakanak (Norther Chiefs) Council. Fort Severn is a West Main (sometimes known as “Swampy”) Cree community. The community shares a cultural lineage with first nations ranging from Moose Factory (Moose Cree) and Alberta (Plains Cree). 1.1.3 ECOSYSTEM Fort Severn is located in the Hudson Bay Coast Ecoregion (Ecoregion 0E), which falls within the Hudson Bay Lowlands Ecozone. The ecoregion is characterized by low, flat plains pocked by small bodies of open water and carved by wide, slowmoving rivers that drain into Hudson Bay. The ecoregion is within the continuous permafrost zone. Wetlands and open water cover almost 80% of the 3


FORT SEVERN

The ecosystem framework of Ontario. (Source: Environment and Energy Ontario)

Figure 2: The ecozones, ecoregions, and ecodistricts of Ontario.

4

Fort Severn’s natural landscape context. 4

The Ecosystems of Ontario, Part 1: Ecozones and Ecoregions


Aerial view of the Hudson Bay Lowlands landscape, a vast peat bog with plant and animal species drawn from both the subarctic and boreal forest ecosystems. (Source: Google Earth)

ecoregion’s land area. The soil is primarily marine clay covered by a thick layer of organic matter, usually peat. Poor drainage means that the soil is often saturated, creating the ground condition known as muskeg. The area is a site of rapid postglacial uplift, which may help offset the impact of rising sea levels due to climate change. Fort Severn is located on a tidal estuary at the mouth of the Severn River; residents report that the river is tidal for approximately another kilometer upstream of the community. Residents report that the river freezes over around mid-November, and that the ice breaks up around mid-May. Ecoregion 0E is within the Boreal Forest Region, although Fort Severn itself is located close to the tree line. Most tree specimens in and around the community display stunted growth, and a few kilometers north of the settlement, the trees give way to an open tundra landscape. The region is distinctive in that it represents a transitional zone between the boreal and arctic ecosystems, with plant and animals species from both ecosystems represented. Characteristic sites in the ecoregion feature stands of black spruce (white spruce, balsam poplar, tamarack, paper birch, and trembling aspen are also represented), with an understory of shrub willows,

A mother polar bear with two cubs observed near the town landfill in September 2019.

sedges, blueberries, Labrador teas, lichen, and moss. Fort Severn residents report that since about 2003, the area’s coniferous trees—which typically were only able to reproduce rhizomatically—have been producing pine cones. This signals that the tree line is beginning to move north, likely as a result of warmer temperatures associated with climate change. Polar bears come off the ice in the summer and remain in the area through the autumn. The mouth of the Severn River is home to a small summer concentration of Beluga whales, which swim upstream from the bay 5


d9 7e f98 5 8 f9# d

d a 5 7

G;2:Qÿ,1ÿ/9:5ÿ:59-)ÿ?,-ÿ8,-/ÿ21?,-89)2,1A

g! h 6 i7!

Z7" 789 87

W5/ÿ>9-8ÿ6/96,1ÿ;96)6ÿ?,-ÿKALÿ8,1)564ÿ?-,8ÿY71/ÿLÿ),ÿ./3)/8J/-ÿH[4ÿ>2)5ÿ91ÿ90/-9@/ÿ<92;=ÿ52@5ÿ)/83/-9)7-/ÿ9J,0/ÿHHFGAÿW5/ÿ5,))/6)ÿ<9=ÿ,?ÿ)5/ÿ=/9-ÿ26ÿY7;=ÿDR4ÿ>2)5ÿ91ÿ90/-9@/ 52@5ÿ,?ÿHIFGÿ91<ÿ;,>ÿ,?ÿIFGA W5/ÿ:,;<ÿ6/96,1ÿ;96)6ÿ?,-ÿKADÿ8,1)564ÿ?-,8ÿ\/:/8J/-ÿLÿ),ÿ]9-:5ÿHK4ÿ>2)5ÿ91ÿ90/-9@/ÿ<92;=ÿ52@5ÿ)/83/-9)7-/ÿJ/;,>ÿCHHFGAÿW5/ÿ:,;</6)ÿ<9=ÿ,?ÿ)5/ÿ=/9-ÿ26ÿY9179-=ÿD[4ÿ>2)5ÿ91 90/-9@/ÿ;,>ÿ,?ÿCDEFGÿ91<ÿ52@5ÿ,?ÿCHIFGA

56789 7ÿm ÿ9 ÿn ÿZ7" 789 87

! a 98" ! a $3o '3o d aÿ2$ 23o d ÿ& 4ko 7 ÿ40 4 4 o 44o 43o ko $o 3o 2o f98ÿ4' i7!ÿ& 44o 43o d9 ÿ20 44o 4ko m 23o 4ko n 24o 012212340 '3o 2%o 56789 7ÿ 79 78ÿ9 ÿ 8 ÿ 7678 ÿ5 8 8 ÿ 9 9 9 ÿ 798ÿ ÿ ÿ 79 78ÿ 98 $ $ 33 3o d '&3d d9 7e f98 5 8 f9# d d a 5 7 g! h 6 c7i7 !ÿ'4 32d! 01221234' 033d W5/ÿ<92;=ÿ90/-9@/ÿ52@5ÿN-/<ÿ;21/Xÿ91<ÿ;,>ÿ 567NJ; 897/ ÿ7;2ÿ1/

7 78-ÿ99) 7ÿ ÿ 7 8 )ÿ,ÿ 5 89 1<ÿ ÿ 9 9 ),ÿ 9[ ÿq )75ÿ93/8ÿ- 2;/ ÿÿJ9 ÿ 7 7ÿ8)ÿ52 8 )/<ÿ;' Xÿ)/983/ /4ÿ8 >2 )5ÿD6L7)5ÿ p8 L )5ÿ Hq )5ÿ :/1) 1<69 AÿW 5/ 1ÿ9 <,) 21/6ÿ9-/ÿ)5/ 5671@89ÿ9 07/ÿd #ÿe-:7/" 89)/ 83/ 87 -9)7-/6A :,--/63,1<2 -9@ /8ÿY 3/ 20/7<ÿ 422&/ÿÿJ/35h d;,>ÿ 65,>6ÿ=,7ÿ9ÿ:,839:)ÿ:59-9:)/-2_9)2,1ÿ,?ÿ)5/ÿ/1)2-/ÿ=/9-ÿ,?ÿ5,7-;=ÿ90/-9@/ÿ)/83/-9)7-/6AÿW5/ÿ5,-2_,1)9;ÿ9`26ÿ26ÿ)5/ÿ<9=ÿ,?ÿ)5/ÿ=/9-4ÿ)5/ÿ0/-)2:9;ÿ9`26ÿ26ÿ)5/ÿ5,7-ÿ,? W5/ÿ^@7)5/ÿ<9=4ÿ91<ÿ)5/ÿ:,;,-ÿ26ÿ)5/ÿ90/-9@/ÿ)/83/-9)7-/ÿ?,-ÿ)59)ÿ5,7-ÿ91<ÿ<9=A 2l3ÿ3bh d 11 749& 7d 8 98 ! "1#14$%&'$156789 7 79 78 9 8 7678 5 8 8 9 9 9 798 4143 $ÿ3bh 433d ^ ÿ2$ 42&ÿ3bh &3d d lÿ35h d ^9 7_ `98 5 8 `9# ^ ^ ( 5 7 a! b 6 c7! $ÿ5h *+/ÿ6;/96</ÿ<92:,3<ÿ4/<9//ÿ468-ÿ6005D5761/4ÿ2;/9ÿ1+/ÿ0259-/ÿ2=ÿ1+/ÿ8/69>ÿ:,1+ÿIT1+ÿ12ÿYT1+ÿ634ÿSQ1+ÿ12ÿLQ1+ÿC/90/31,7/ÿA634-E (984ÿ) 78 # f9 7g h98 5 8 h9# f f Y 5 7 i! j 6 k7! 2ÿ5h *+,-ÿ-/01,23ÿ4,-05--/-ÿ1+/ÿ12167ÿ46,78ÿ,30,4/31ÿ-+291:6;/ÿ-2769ÿ/3/9<8ÿ9/60+,3<ÿ1+/ÿ-59=60/ÿ2=ÿ1+/ÿ<92534ÿ2;/9ÿ6ÿ:,4/ÿ69/6>ÿ16?,3<ÿ=577ÿ6002531ÿ2=ÿ-/6-2367ÿ;69,61,23-ÿ,3ÿ1+/ÿ7/3<1+ÿ2= /./Eÿ634ÿ R?>6>Am/29 -.C1,=23ÿ >?+A8 ÿSÿDH E 21S+/ DDH SDIR D?9,,)0*H ?I31-EÿBD, 4J> /-. 07E254-SÿDH 634ÿ 9ÿ61D2C+/ ÿ0>23-J) 1,15/ @+291:6 ;/Hÿ,9>6?4, 61,23ÿ,30754/-ÿ;,-,A7/ÿ7,<+1ÿ634ÿ57196;,27/1 1+/ÿ468>ÿ1+/ÿ/7/;61,23ÿ2=ÿ1+/ÿ@53ÿ6A2;/ÿ1+/ÿ+29,RB?23> @anW 8nW MnW 7QnW 7_nW ;:nW ;anW QPnW 964,61,23E )=6>9?ÿ/)temperatures .>ÿ9BD3? ÿ,>9,IO> DHD? Eÿ7/in XÿL/B> B)Severn Eÿ-D= ?Hÿ)1+/ +4ÿ/8-E/ ,>ÿ-/.B,ÿ)-Eÿ S/=/Hÿ,J/H/.B,Ximpact on daily their 1:6L;B> /ÿ-ÿ27 3/ <8ÿ/FH+C/ /30/?-)ÿ,/3? F1>90/ÿSD/ ÿ-/ÿS6DE> -236 ÿ-, ;6Dÿ 9,*) 61Fort ,-E4 23ÿ2; 9ÿ1ÿ4+/ ÿ0E> 259 /ÿ>2= /69SE)and *+/ÿ6;Average /96</ÿ46,78ÿ,30,4/31ÿ-+29 * ÿA9,<-. +1//09ÿ234 ÿC/94,/24ÿ ÿ76>-1?-)ÿ.=29 ÿGEG)ÿD231 2Dÿ HC9 IJÿ142ÿ ÿI>ÿ:,1+ÿ </ÿ46,>,7?84ÿ,ÿ30 ,4/ +29D? 1:6 ;/ÿ4//3/ 9ÿ6A2; ELÿL?3-. M+ED? ÿ*@+/ ÿA9 ()+/ )ÿOÿ5>62= 6ÿ71+/ 896ÿ:83ÿ 9/;66human 6;9<= >@ÿA> B>?@comfort. /+-@(>ÿ)=9*+ ,-) -.,/7@ÿ234 /)H5< @C>)5?@12D3-EF ÿ5693ÿ 0;67;7/ÿG9/6HDI> )J) +F31 KÿLÿ-3-. 0ÿ234 )ÿ596<+687ÿC/ ::9;ÿ-8K56 86<=9/>ÿ?D/ ).>1@/A> ),B>/?ÿ@J/-@ 234 4,/<)+1 @C>/)-1?ÿ@468 weatherspark.com) ÿ+:, /NO, 96<)/?ÿ02= PEQ4/ÿ)?,ÿM+E 2= ÿ*+ 1+/,-) ÿ8outdoor G/HDI> ,>1?+ÿ 4FKÿ)-Eÿ ÿ234 56+67::PQ96<=>?).>@A>),B>(Source: ?@/-@NO,)?@2344/)@C>)?@2D3-EF ÿ5907:7ÿG/HDI>,>?4Fÿ)?>ÿ,B>ÿR)?@)J)+ÿRD?>/.-ÿOH)S>4ÿJ/,Bÿ,>IO>?),3?>4ÿID4, 2D3-EF ÿ/5M6098ÿ,7-7ÿNÿ53/ >=>2= ?-ÿ </?ÿOD? DIO) /4D-ÿ+56S>DIO) >6+12A/ 67:99PÿSQT:ÿV12ÿ 78U9/:A9 956 ;V978:ÿS:P;>8ÿ:, 8V17+ÿ :6:3ÿ PQ69;6/WDIO) @,B> >?1):6 .>;@A> ),B> ,@T9ÿD? ,@U>9=/>ÿD/ ?-@1</ @()S*+ -./ÿ@*L+/ 3-. D?9@?/-1 4*/+/ I/ÿH46 )?ÿ9,?Dÿ /T9ÿD? C/,ÿ9U,24ÿ ÿ1+/ 8/6,9ÿ57=6/->1Jÿ -ÿ=S29 ÿJEQÿ?D231 ÿ=92Dÿ?R0 96</ÿ46?/,478D-@ ÿ,30DR ,4/ 31ÿ@-<= +29 /ÿ/3/ 9<?8@ÿ)C/ -K56 /9?ÿOD? A/7,2:ÿ ET,ÿ-) ?M+E ÿ46 )-E@ NO, )?ÿF8FX/69ÿ,-ÿV/0/DA/9ÿIQ>ÿ:,1+ÿ63ÿ6;/96</ÿ2=ÿQEJÿ?M+E 46 8ÿ2= ÿ1+/

Y

56789 7ÿc9 (#ÿe ! 7 ÿ 8 967ÿ (98ÿ) 78 #

<,ÿTD?,ÿU>=>?-ÿ</?OD?,0ÿ,B>ÿ)=>?).>ÿO>?S>-,).>ÿDRÿ,B>ÿ4G+ÿSD=>?>Eÿ*+ÿSHD3E4ÿ>ZO>?/>-S>4ÿ4/.-/[S)-,ÿ4>)4D-)Hÿ=)?/),/D-ÿD=>?ÿ,B>ÿSD3?4>ÿDRÿ,B>ÿ+>)?X LB>ÿSH>)?>?ÿO)?,ÿDRÿ,B>ÿ+>)?ÿ),ÿTD?,ÿU>=>?-ÿ</?OD?,ÿ*>./-4ÿ)?D3-Eÿ<O?/HÿPÿ)-EÿH)4,4ÿRD?ÿMX;ÿID-,B40ÿ>-E/-.ÿ)?D3-Eÿ\D=>I*>?ÿ7QXÿ]-ÿ<3.34,ÿ7;0ÿ,B>ÿSH>)?>4,ÿE)+ÿDRÿ,B>ÿ+>)?0ÿ,B>ÿ4G+ /4ÿSH>)?0ÿID4,H+ÿSH>)?0ÿD?ÿO)?,H+ÿSHD3E+ÿ:;^ÿDRÿ,B>ÿ,/I>0ÿ)-EÿD=>?S)4,ÿD?ÿID4,H+ÿSHD3E+ÿP_^ÿDRÿ,B>ÿ,/I>X LB>ÿSHD3E/>?ÿO)?,ÿDRÿ,B>ÿ+>)?ÿ*>./-4ÿ)?D3-Eÿ\D=>I*>?ÿ7Qÿ)-EÿH)4,4ÿRD?ÿ:X_ÿID-,B40ÿ>-E/-.ÿ)?D3-Eÿ<O?/HÿPXÿ]-ÿ̀)-3)?+ÿ780ÿ,B>ÿSHD3E/>4,ÿE)+ÿDRÿ,B>ÿ+>)?0ÿ,B>ÿ4G+ÿ/4ÿD=>?S)4,ÿD? ID4,H+ÿSHD3E+ÿa;^ÿDRÿ,B>ÿ,/I>0ÿ)-EÿSH>)?0ÿID4,H+ÿSH>)?0ÿD?ÿO)?,H+ÿSHD3E+ÿ_^ÿDRÿ,B>ÿ,/I>X

98

_8

98

0ÿ gÿ fÿ ^ Y ÿ gÿ 678ÿ 9 7 8 7 %3ÿ !Y79878 !Y 78 !Y 78 3o %4ÿ3 3o 5 8ÿ2$ 5 ÿ2 $0ÿ $0ÿ 3o 43o &ÿ0 3o 23o $ÿl p 3 o '3o ' ÿ

012212340 56789 7ÿ 79 78ÿ9 ÿ 8 ÿ 7678 ÿ5 8 8 ÿ 9 9 9 ÿ 798ÿ ÿ ÿ 79 78ÿ 98 7_ÿ4% a! ÿ4& 56789 7ÿd 8Y#ÿe7" 789 87 % 3 o $3o 2 ÿ

4&ÿ 4&ÿ 42ÿ5h 5 ÿ42 & 3 o &3o c7 ! ÿ 2 3 $2o 3$ÿ %3o l4ÿÿbh $ 3 o 6ÿ4' &8 `9# ^ ^ ( 5 7 a! j b _ `985 &8oÿ5 $3ÿÿbh '3o*+/ÿ6^;/996 </ÿ46,78 7 2&o6 c7! p3o ÿ-+291:6;/ÿ-2769ÿ/2 3/9<8ÿ9/60+,3<ÿ1+/ÿ<92534ÿC/9ÿ-K569/ÿD/1/9ÿ[2963</ÿ7,3/\>ÿ:,1+ÿIT1+ÿ12ÿYT1+ÿ634ÿSQ1+ÿ12ÿLQ1+ÿC/90/31,7/ÿA634-E 01221234023o 56789 7ÿ 79 78ÿ9 ÿ 8 ÿ 7678 ÿ5 8 8 ÿ 9 9 9 ÿ 798ÿ ÿ ÿ 79 78ÿ 98 l3o 42ÿbh f9 ÿ43 W 2 894ÿ 5Z o# lo 3 03 [o9 8 U29ÿ1+/ l4ÿC59 ÿ25h ÿC25Z/-ÿ2=ÿ1+,-ÿ9/C29 1>ÿ 1 +/ ÿ< /2<96C+,067ÿ02294,361/-ÿ2=ÿU291ÿ@/;/93ÿH,9C291ÿ69/ÿTPEQSLÿ4/<ÿ761,154/>ÿXOYEPYPÿ4/<ÿ723<,154/>ÿ634ÿSQÿDÿ/7/;61,23E Z

3 o 3ÿoSSÿD/1/9-E *+/ÿ12C2< 96C+8ÿ:,1+,3ÿGÿ?,72D/1/9-ÿ2=ÿU291ÿ@/;/93ÿH,9C291ÿ,-ÿ/--/31,6778ÿZ61>ÿ:,1+ÿ6ÿD6F,D5Dÿ/7/;61,23ÿ0+63</ÿ2=ÿSPÿD/1/9-ÿ634ÿ63ÿ6;/96</ÿ/7/;61,23ÿ6A2;/ÿ-/6ÿ7/4 ;/3 7ÿ2= 5 f -Y1ÿ;69,615 [SGJÿD/i! 4f36 , 3-$ ÿ237 4ÿ̀Z ÿ?ÿ̀Z ,72D/1/9-ÿf ,-ÿ9 /- -/31,677 7 8ÿZ6g 1ÿ[GJÿD/h9 1/9-\8 EÿM,1+,3ÿ OQÿ8 ?,72D/1h9 /9-ÿ6# 7-2ÿ0231 8ÿD24/ ,23-

ÿ,3ÿ/7/;6 7 1,23ÿ 1/9- \E j 6 k7! M,1+,3ÿ $4SÿP3ÿ5h >)A8 ?ÿ+/ID4 ÿSH>)ÿ;?/<O) ?1,, H23ÿ +ÿÿ S2 H[D3E+ ID4 D=1+, >?3ÿ S)S4P,ÿ?,72D/1/9-ÿA8ÿ+/9A60/25-ÿ;/</161,23ÿ[JS]\ÿ634ÿ19//*+/ÿ69/6_ :, 1+,3ÿGÿ?,72D/1/9-ÿ2=ÿU291ÿ@/;/93ÿH,9C291ÿ,-ÿ02;/9/SH4ÿ 9A6,0H/+25/X 16 T$ L]\ÿ634ÿ 19,/H+/ÿ-SÿH[D3E+ GP]\>ÿ:, ÿ̀Z :8^ 98^ _8^ 788^ [GY]\>ÿ634ÿ:,1+,3ÿOQÿ?,72D/1/9-ÿA8ÿ19//-ÿ[JQ]\ÿ634ÿ:61/98ÿ[^GP]\E;8^ ^7!ÿ4$ 42ÿ%5h ÿ̀Z f9 7 LB> S>h9 -,).>8 ÿDRÿ,/I>5 ÿ4O>8 -,ÿ/-ÿ>h9 )SBÿS# HD3EÿSD= ÿ,B>

ÿO>?S>-, ).> ÿDRÿ,B>ÿ4i! G+ÿSD= *+ÿSHD3E4 gÿO>?Z9 f> ?ÿ *)-E0ÿS),f>. D?Y/m>Eÿ*+5 7 >?>Eÿj 6 $X k7 ! 7 4&ÿ̀Z ÿ 4 3 11 79$ ÿ̀Z 78 98 ! "1#14$%&'$156 7898

7

7 9 7 8 9 8 7 6 7 8 5 8 8 9 9 9 7 9 8 0143 R?/./E R?>>m/-. =>?+ÿSDHE SDHE SDDH SDIRD?,)*H> J)?I BD, 4J>H,>?/-. 9 # ^ a@anW 8nW MnW 7QnW 7_nW ;:nW ;anW QPnW b87! 2 9ÿ̀Z 98 ÿ)HH=/I> >?),.>>?ÿ4BD3? +ÿ,>Eÿ IO> ),3? SDH=D? Eÿ Dÿ B>ÿSÿ4B) B)-S E>>Eÿ D= >?,Hÿ)E) +4+ÿ/4-E/ ,>,ÿÿ-/ -Eÿ /=/Hÿ,ÿJ/ <ÿJ>,ÿE)+ÿ/4ÿD->ÿJ/,Bÿ),ÿH>)4,ÿ7X8L8B> ÿI/ ÿDRÿH/Hc3/ D?ÿH/?c3/ E@>>0ÿc3/ )Hÿ>SDE> -,ÿO? >/S-, /O/ ,*) ),/-E4 D-XÿXLÿLB> ÿDR ÿJ> ÿ),SÿT)D? U>.=B, >ÿ?)-ÿ </?SOD? =)H?/./>B, 4ÿX,B?D3.BD3,ÿ,B>ÿ+>)?X [ ] 4/02ÿ234 ÿ̀Z ()*+,-)-. 4/)ÿ56+6789:9;6<=>?).>@A>),B>?@/-@()*+,-)-./@2344/)@C>)?@2D3-EFÿ590;77ÿG/HDI>,>?4ÿ)J)+FKÿL3-.D?0ÿ2344/)ÿ56+67::;886<=>^ a ?).>@A>),B>?@/-@L3-.D?@2344/)@C>)?@ 0893 7 7 F Kÿ"1 )-Eÿ NO, 0ÿ' 234 4/)7 ÿ568+96

7:: 7 PQ969<= >?)8 .> @A>)8, B> ?@/-@NO, )?@8 234 4/) 9 @C>)?@ 2D3-EF 7:7 ÿG/H DI>,>?4Fÿ)?>ÿ,B>ÿR)?@)J) +ÿRD? ?),3?>4ÿID4, 2143 5M4 ] 6>ÿ/'.-ÿOH)S>4ÿJ/,Bÿ,>IO> ÿ,ÿÿ5Z 2D3-EF H) 1?1ÿÿ 7 7GU/>8HDI> => ?9-ÿ8, ></??!4OD? $%)S?&DIO) $156 9 7?9/ÿ4589D-@ 0 TD? ,ÿ5#=1 /4 >Jÿ ?/4D-ÿ 56S7DIO) ?> 6 +7 67:9 9P Q :V78 7 9:96;7V8 7 : :5 ;8 8V 78: :PQ9 69 WDIO) DR@, B>@<=>?).>@A>),B>?@),@TD?,@U>=>?-@</?OD?,@()*+,-)-. /@L3-. 4 / I/ ,Dÿ 8 D? @7 Xÿ )-E@NO,)?FF_ 0 2 2 ÿ 5Z 5Z X ÿ 4 _ ^7 ! ÿ 2 0 Y %ÿ5Z & 3'ÿ5Z <,ÿTD?,ÿU>=>?-ÿ</?OD?,0ÿ,B>ÿ)=>?).>ÿO>?S>-,).>ÿDRÿ,B>ÿ4G+ÿSD=>?>Eÿ*+ÿSHD3E4ÿ>ZO>?/>-S>4ÿ4/.-/[S)-,ÿ4>)4D-)Hÿ=)?/),/D-ÿD=>?ÿ,B>ÿSD3?4>ÿDRÿ,B>ÿ+>)?X $ÿ5Z LB>ÿSH>)?>?ÿO)?,ÿDRÿ,B>ÿ+>)?ÿ),ÿTD? , ÿU

> => ?-ÿ</?OD?,ÿ*>./-4ÿ)?D3-Eÿ<O?/HÿPÿ)-EÿH)4,4ÿRD?ÿMX;ÿID-,B40ÿ>-E/-.ÿ)?D3-Eÿ\D=>I*>?ÿ7QXÿ]-ÿ<3.34,ÿ7;0ÿ,B>ÿSH>)?>4,ÿE)+ÿDRÿ,B>ÿ+>)?0ÿ,B>ÿ4G+ [98 ÿSH>)?0ÿD?ÿO)?,H+ÿSHD3E+ÿ:;^ÿDRÿ,B>ÿ,/I>0ÿ)-EÿD=>?S)4,ÿD?ÿID4,H+ÿSHD3E+ÿP_^ÿDRÿ,B>ÿ,/I>X /4ÿSH>)?0ÿID4 2,Hÿ+5Z LB>ÿSHD3E/>?ÿO)?,ÿDRÿ,B>ÿ+>)?ÿ*>./-4ÿ)?D3-Eÿ\D=>I*>?ÿ7Qÿ)-EÿH)4,4ÿRD?ÿ:X_ÿID-,B40ÿ>-E/-.ÿ)?D3-Eÿ<O?/HÿPXÿ]-ÿ̀)-3)?+ÿ780ÿ,B>ÿSHD3E/>4,ÿE)+ÿDRÿ,B>ÿ+>)?0ÿ,B>ÿ4G+ÿ/4ÿD=>Z SH>)Y ?0ÿID4,Z9 H+ÿSH>8 )?0ÿD?ÿO)5 ?,H+8 ÿSHD3E+Z9 ÿ_^ÿDR ID4,H+ÿSHD3E+ÿa;^ÿDRÿ,B> Xÿ9,/I> 0ÿ)-Eÿ 7 #ÿ,B>ÿ,/I> X X X [ 5 7 \! ] 6 ^7! ?S)4 ,ÿ D? F0*ÿ.7:-9ÿ4-5ÿ7;*9ÿ/0*ÿ6719.*ÿ78ÿ/0*ÿ5*-9ÿSJObBÿG972ÿ,7//72ÿ/7ÿ/7>?ÿ/0*ÿ,:-6@ÿ:3<*.ÿ-9*ÿ/0*ÿ>9*;371.ÿ.7:-9ÿ234<3A0/?ÿ.1<93.*?ÿ.7:-9ÿ<77<?ÿ.1<.*/?ÿ-<4ÿ/0* -:N?6ÿ-7<4ÿ <3 A70/ <*P/ÿ.7:-9ÿ234<3A0/BÿF0*ÿ4-5?ÿ/=3:3A0/.ÿM63;3:?ÿ<-1/36-:?ÿ-<4ÿ-./97<723 Y ÿ6 8ÿ 9

ÿ-8 97* ÿ3<436-/*4ÿ,5ÿ/0*ÿ67:79ÿ,-<4.ÿ8972ÿ5*::7=ÿ/7ÿA9-5BÿF0*ÿ/9-<.3/37<.ÿ/7 -<4ÿ8972ÿ4-5:3A0/ÿ.-;3<Aÿ/32*ÿ-9*ÿ3<436-/*4ÿ,5ÿ/0*ÿcdHFcÿ:-,*:.B

!Y 78 !Y79878 !Y 78 3o 433o oÿ012343/5ÿ672879/ÿ:*;*:ÿ7<ÿ/0*ÿ4*=ÿ>73</?ÿ-.ÿ3/ÿ4*/*923<*.ÿ=0*/0*9ÿ>*9.>39-/37<ÿ=3::ÿ*;->79-/*ÿ8972ÿ/0*ÿ.@3<?ÿ/0*9*,5ÿ677:3<Aÿ/0*ÿ,745BÿC7=*9ÿ4*=ÿ>73 43</o.ÿ8**:ÿ493*9 )*ÿ,-.0 *ÿ3 /0* -<4ÿ03A0*9ÿ4*=ÿ>73</.ÿ8**:ÿ279*ÿ01234BÿD<:3@*ÿ/*2>*9-/19*?ÿ=0360ÿ/5>36-::5ÿ;-93*.ÿ.3A<3E6-</:5ÿ,*/=**<ÿ<3A0/ÿ-<4ÿ4-5?ÿ4*=ÿ>73</ÿ/*<4.ÿ/7ÿ60-<A*ÿ279*ÿ.:7=:5?ÿ.7ÿ=03:*ÿ/0* *ÿ2-5ÿ497>ÿ-/ÿ<3A0/?ÿ-ÿ21AA5ÿ4-5ÿ3.ÿ/5>36-::5ÿ87::7=*4ÿ,5ÿ-ÿ21AA5ÿ<3A0/B /*2>*9l -/3 19o 23o F0*ÿ>*96*3;*4ÿ012343/5ÿ:*;*:ÿ-/ÿG79/ÿH*;*9<ÿI39>79/?ÿ-.ÿ2*-.19*4ÿ,5ÿ/0*ÿ>*96*</-A*ÿ78ÿ/32*ÿ3<ÿ=0360ÿ/0*ÿ012343/5ÿ672879/ÿ:*;*:ÿ3.ÿ21AA5?ÿ7>>9*..3;*?ÿ79ÿ23.*9-,:*?ÿ47*.ÿ<7/ÿ;-95 3:5oÿ7;*9ÿ/0*ÿ6719.*ÿ78ÿ/0*ÿ5*-9?ÿ9*2-3<3<Aÿ-ÿ;39/1-::5ÿ67<./-</ÿJKÿ/0971A071/B '3o .3A<3E6-p </ %3o $3o ( " #ÿ "e 8 ÿf767[ 3g 5 ÿ42 o & 3o &433 $2o 03g $3_o3g %3o j 6 ÿ 4 ' 5 8 ÿ & '3ho3g p3o 2&o 2&o 23%o3gf9 ÿ43 l3o 43&o3g lo 03o 3$o3g f9 7g h98 5 8 h9# f f Y 5 7 i! j 6 k7! 433o '3g SH>)? ID4,H+ÿSH>)? O)?,H+ÿSHD3E+ ID4,H+ÿSHD3E+ D=>?S)4, 23g 8^ ;8^ :8^ 98^ _8^ 788^ *+[ÿ2ÿ,B>&ofÿO>?Sdaylight, Ldaily B>ÿO>?S>-,).>solar ÿDRÿ,/I>ÿ4O>-,radiation, ÿ/-ÿ>)SBÿSHD3EÿSD=>?ÿ*)-E0ÿShours ),>.D?/mX >Eÿ >-,).>ÿDRÿ,B>ÿ4G+ÿSD=>?>and Eÿ*+ ÿSHD3E4 Average cover ] 6ÿ4Xcloud 4 43g 4 g 3g b87! over 9 3 g the X9 course 7Y Z98of a5 8year. Z9#(Source: X X [weatherspark.com) 5 7 \! ] 6 ^7! ( " #

<ÿJ>,ÿE)+ÿ/4ÿD->ÿJ/,Bÿ),ÿH>)4,ÿ7X88ÿI/HH/I>,>?4ÿDRÿH/c3/EÿD?ÿH/c3/E@ H>-, ÿO? S/*O/,)0123 ,/D-X4ÿLB>21A ÿSB)A-S DRÿJ>*,.ÿE) ,ÿT.D? >=*>?-ÿ</?OD?,ÿ=)?/>4ÿ,B?D3.BD3,ÿ,B>ÿ+>)?X 49>5c3/=6)728 79 /->,: 5>ÿ7>>9 .3;+*4ÿ)23 *9,-ÿU,: Ojkl

OUkl

OQkl

SOkl

Smkl

F0*ÿ>*96*</-A*ÿ78ÿ/32*ÿ.>*</ÿ-/ÿ;-9371.ÿ012343/5ÿ672879/ÿ:*;*:.?ÿ6-/*A793i*4ÿ,5ÿ4*=ÿ>73</B

11 79 78 98 ! "1#14$%&'$156789 7 79 78 9 8 7678 5 8 8 9 9 9 798

2143

F03.ÿ.*6/37<ÿ43.61..*.ÿ/0*ÿ=34*L-9*-ÿ0719:5ÿ-;*9-A*ÿ=3<4ÿ;*6/79ÿM.>**4ÿ-<4ÿ439*6/37<Nÿ-/ÿOJÿ2*/*9.ÿ-,7;*ÿ/0*ÿA971<4BÿF0*ÿ=3<4ÿ*P>*93*<6*4ÿ-/ÿ-<5ÿA3;*<ÿ:76-/37<ÿ3.ÿ03A0:5 6</ÿ7<ÿ:76-:ÿ/7>7A9->05ÿ-<4ÿ7/0*9ÿ8-6/79.?ÿ-<4ÿ3<./-</-<*71.ÿ=3<4ÿ.>**4ÿ-<4ÿ439*6/37<ÿ;-95ÿ279*ÿ=34*:5ÿ/0-<ÿ0719:5ÿ-;*9-A*.B 4*>*<4* F0*ÿ-;*9-A*ÿ0719:5ÿ=3<4ÿ.>**4ÿ-/ÿG79/ÿH*;*9<ÿI39>79/ÿ*P>*93*<6*.ÿ.3A<3E6-</ÿ.*-.7<-:ÿ;-93-/37<ÿ7;*9ÿ/0*ÿ6719.*ÿ78ÿ/0*ÿ5*-9B F0*ÿ=3<43*9ÿ>-9/ÿ78ÿ/0*ÿ5*-9ÿ:-./.ÿ879ÿQBJÿ27</0.?ÿ8972ÿH*>/*2,*9ÿOOÿ/7ÿR-5ÿOS?ÿ=3/0ÿ-;*9-A*ÿ=3<4ÿ.>**4.ÿ78ÿ279*ÿ/0-<ÿTBUÿ2*/*9.ÿ>*9ÿ.*67<4BÿF0*ÿ=3<43*./ÿ4-5ÿ78ÿ/0*ÿ5*-9ÿ3. V7;*2,*9ÿOO?ÿ=3/0ÿ-<ÿ-;*9-A*ÿ0719:5ÿ=3<4ÿ.>**4ÿ78ÿUBWÿ2*/*9.ÿ>*9ÿ.*67<4B

11 79 78 98 ! "1#14$%&'$156789 7 79 78 9 8 7678 5 8 8 9 9 9 798

&143

to feed in the estuary. Community members report that two herds of caribou—numbering approximately 6,000 and 3,000 individuals, respectively—migrate through the immediate area. Arctic Fox and squirrels are also common. Bird life is widespread and diverse—many residents have installed homemade bird houses on the eaves or exterior walls of their houses. The area is near the northern terminus of both the Atlantic and Mississippi migratory bird flyways; the ecozone is the summer home of over 2.5 million snow geese and hundreds of thousands of Canada geese, whose spring and fall migration is an important cultural event in Fort Severn. Anecdotally, Fort Severn residents report that the community is perhaps the only area where you can see polar bears, black bears, caribou, moose, Canada geese, snow geese, and arctic fox all in one place. 1.1.4 CLIMATE Fort Severn is in the Low Subarctic Ecoclimate Region. On average, the temperature rises above 0o C. from only late April to the end of October. Even in the warmest months (late June through early September), hourly average temperatures reach a maximum range of only 13o to 18o C. In late January, the temperature rises only to a daily average of about -26o C. Because of its high latitude, the length of days varies dramatically throughout the year. Around the summer solstice, the sun rises around 5:00am and sets at around 10:30pm; around the winter solstice, the sun rises after 9:00am and sets at around 4:00pm. From early May to mid-August, the sky is never absolutely dark. The aurora borealis is visible in late summer and early fall. The weather is predominantly overcast or mostly cloudy. Prevailing winds are predominantly from the north and east in the summer, and from the west in the winter. Clearer skies are somewhat more common during the summer months, though winds from the north passing over ice in Hudson Bay can create extensive fog. Mean annual total precipitation is relatively low, roughly 500-600mm, including approximately 200-250mm of rain. These climate conditions result in a growing season— i.e. a continuous period without frost—of less than 65 days.


1.1.5 EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE According to Stewart and Lockhart (2005), The Hudson Bay Lowlands are likely to continue to experience significant changes in climate conditions due to global warming. Average temperatures will rise several degrees celsius, with winter warming more than summer. Summer precipitation will increase by 10-20 percent. The tree line and permafrost line will both move north. According to Climate Canada, if greenhouse gas emissions continue at current rates (RCP 8.5 projection), Fort Severn will shift to a boreal forest ecosystem with discontinuous permafrost. The number of days when the temperature dips below freezing will be reduced by over a month, and the number of very cold days will be reduced from an average of around 125 to around 30.

1

2

SOURCES: https://www.ontario.ca/page/ecosystems-ontario-part1-ecozones-and-ecoregions https://weatherspark.com/y/146534/AverageWeather-at-Fort-Severn-Airport-Canada-Year-Round Lockhart and Stewart (2005) https://climatedata.ca/explore/location/?loc=FESVT

https://www.ontariobeneathourfeet.com/sea-levelrise-james-hudson-bay

3

Right: These charts indicate projected climate conditions in Fort Severn based on three possible climate change scenarios. 1. Daily mean temperature 2. Total annual precipitation 3. Frost days (days with min. temperature below 0o C.) Source: Climate Canada (https://climatedata.ca/explore/location/?loc=FESVT) 7


TO BARGE LANDING

WINTER ROAD TO SHAMATTAWA, MB

AIRPORT

WASTE LAGOONS SOLAR FARM

TO HUDSON BAY

RESERVOIRS

LANDFILL

TOWN CENTER

21

0S2

AIL ET

D

SEVERN RIVER

8

PL

AN

ON

GE PA


1.2 TOWN PLANNING AND PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE 1.2.1 TRANSPORTATION AND LOGISTICS Fort Severn is primarily a fly-in community. Fort Severn Airport (YER) is served by one passenger flight per day, run by Wasaya Airways, a regional airline owned by a consortium of Northern Ontario First Nations, including Fort Severn First Nation. The cost of a regular return ticket to Sioux Lookout is approximately $1300, though there are special rates for community members. The daily Wasaya flight also frequently carries unaccompanied cargo and supplies for residents. In addition, the Northern Store in Fort Severn is restocked twice weekly via dedicated supply planes. For goods that are too large or heavy to ship by air, Fort Severn receives two to three barges of supplies from Moose Factory per year. One barge is dedicated entirely to diesel fuel. Supply ships were formerly able to navigate up-river to the town centre, but lower water levels and larger boats have necessitated that the barge now land at a point approximately 5km north of the community. Supplies are transferred from the barge to Fort Severn by truck, ATV and snowmobile.

View of Fort Severn from the second-floor balcony of the Niska Inn, looking toward the river.

Typical building fabric and landscape in Fort Severn.

There is a single winter road, extending past the airport, that connects Fort Severn to Peawanuck, ON to the southeast and Shamattawa, MB and Gillam, MB to the west. The community is currently working to convert the road to Shamattawa to year-round access, extending the road a little bit every year.

nursing station, the hotel, the mechanic’s shop, the youth centre, the hockey rink, the generators, and the water treatment plant. This community core is adjacent to the most recent site of the Hudson Bay Company’s Fort Severn supply post, as indicated in historical aerial photographs.

1.2.2 TOWN PLANNING

The primary residential areas of the community are arrayed along the riverbank on either side of the civic core. The area immediately to the northeast includes some of the oldest homes in the town—dating to the mid-1970s—including the former indian agent’s house, which is still standing. In the early 1990s, a major residential street running northeast from the town centre was established; it now is lined by houses on both sides. In the late 1990s and early 2000s,

The road running northwest-to-southeast between the Fort Severn airstrip and the river creates a spine along which the community is organized. As is approaches the town, the road follows the course of an old tributary stream, evidence of which is still visible in aerial photography. At the southeast end of the road is the community’s civic and infrastructural hub, which includes the band office, the school, the

9


Fort Severn’s municipal generators run on approximately 1 million litres of imported diesel fuel per year.

another node of development was established to the southwest of the civic core. Most recently, enabled by the digging of a long drainage ditch, another row of residential parcels has been created behind the early 1990s development. 1.2.3 MOBILITY Fort Severn’s roads are exclusively gravel, often engineered to include culverts in order to allow small streams to pass under them on their way to the river. Residents get around on foot, by car (the vast majority of vehicles in town are pickup trucks), and, seasonally, by ATV or snowmobile. The community operates a fleet of heavy machinery (bulldozers, front loaders, graders, etc.), apparently in large part to maintain the road network. 1.2.4 ENERGY Fort Severn residents report that most homes in the community received electric power in the early 1990s. (Starting in the mid-1980s, residents

connected extension cords from the school, which was electrified, to watch broadcast television in their homes.) The town’s electrical grid is powered by three diesel generators located on the western edge of the community. The community imports approximately one million litres of diesel fuel—an entire barge’s worth— per year in order to power the generators. Many buildings in the community—including newly built houses, the Youth Centre, and various equipment sheds, have rooftop solar arrays. In 2015, Fort Severn Chief Paul Burke began a $2.5 million project to establish a solar farm between the town and the airport, with the goal of cutting the community’s reliance on diesel fuel in half. Most of the panels have been constructed but the array is not yet functional due to disagreements with the companies the community had partnered with. Since solar energy is most available during times of year when it is least needed for heating, Chief Burke has also been exploring the potential of large-scale battery storage. Most homes in Fort Severn use electric heat, supplemented in most cases by wood stoves. Electricity costs $0.97/kWh (compared to peak Ontario Hydro rates of $0.134), and winter heating bills can reach $200/ month. Residents use a combination of locally harvested wood and imported firewood as fuel for wood stoves. 1.2.5 WATER

The town’s $2.5m solar farm is not yet on line. 10

Fort Severn maintains a network of buried water lines designed to supply civic buildings and most homes with potable water. The water is pumped up from the


river, stored in reservoirs at the northern edge of the town (first constructed in the late 1980s), treated at a facility that was upgraded in 2016, and distributed throughout the community. Despite the presence of this infrastructure, at the time of the team’s visit the community had been on a boil advisory since February 2019. Residents report that every winter, pipes freeze and burst, causing contamination. The visiting team was told that while most of the water lines are insulated, it is particularly difficult to insulate the pipe joints.

Fort Severn First Nation Water Treatment Plant (ext.)

1.2.6 WASTE Fort Severn’s health clinic and the newly built primary school are served by piped sewer infrastructure, but all other buildings in the community use septic tanks. Waste is trucked from septic tanks to lagoons constructed in the mid-1990s and expanded in 2004. 1.2.7 COMMUNICATIONS Homes in Fort Severn are connected to the internet via a cable network that was originally built in the early 1990s to carry the community cable television service. In 2000, internet service was upgraded to broadband via the C-Band data satellite network. Community members make extensive use of Facebook to communicate among themselves and post notices of community events. The internet provider is KNet, a First-Nations-owned company that serves communities in Northern Ontario. Rogers covers Fort Severn on its roaming network, and residents are able to purchase mobile phone service through KNet, which operates a dedicated network. Some residents who have regular business outside the community, e.g. the chief, carry two mobile phones—one for use inside the community and one for use elsewhere.

Fort Severn First Nation Water Treatment Plant (int.)

Drinking Water Reservoir

SOURCES: http://kochiefs.ca/fort_severn https://teachforcanada.ca/en/community/fort-severnfirst-nation/ https://www.thestar.com/news/queenspark/2018/05/11/ isolated-fort-severn-ont-tries-to-chart-its-own-course. html

Waste Lagoon

11


LANDFILL

TO AIRPORT

RESERVOIRS

GENERATORS PROPOSED SITE OF NEW DUPLEX DEVELOPMENT

WATER TREATMENT PLANT HOCKEY RINK

BASEBALL DIAMOND HOTEL NURSING STATION

MECHANIC’S SHOP PRIMARY SCHOOL

YOUTH CENTRE

TEACHERS’ HOUSING

BAND OFFICE OLD CHURCH HOUSING (1990s–2000s)

KIHS

CIVIC CORE

12

HOUSING (1970s–1980s)


TO WASTE LAGOONS

FORT SEVERN FIRST NATION

NEW DUPLEX HOUSING UNDER CONSTRUCTION DRAINAGE CHANNEL

CHURCH NORTHERN STORE

HOUSING (EARLY 1990s)

RECENTLY CONSTRUCTED SIX-PLEX OLD STORE

13


1950

Fort Severn as seen from the air in June 2019 and in an archival photograph. (Inset source: Archives Ontario)

1950

Fort Severn’s original church, now unused, as seen in June 2019 and in an archival photograph. (Inset source: Archives Ontario) 14


1.3 SOCIAL AND CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURE 1.3.1 DEMOGRAPHICS AND GOVERNANCE As of the 2016 Census, Fort Severn had a population of 361, up from 334 in 2011. This included 105 children (ages 0-14) and 35 individuals over the age of 65. Recent news reports now claim the Population is closer to 500. In 2016, 230 residents reported speaking some Cree, and 10 residents reported speaking no English. 75 residents reported speaking Cree most often in the home. Fort Severn is led by an elected chief and a fourmember council. The current chief, Paul Burke, was re-elected to a second term in 2019.

Fort Severn as seen in a 1955 archival photograph. (Source: Archives Ontario

1.3.2 EDUCATION Wasaho Cree Nation School is the largest (1765m2) and most recently constructed (2016) civic building in Fort Severn. It serves students in Kindergarden through Grade 8, and currently has a student population of 97. It includes a science lab, computer lab, gymnasium, and library. The school is staffed by a mix of local residents and Teach for Canada participants. Teachers live in dedicated accommodations across the road from the school. The school offers a popular hot breakfast program. After Grade 8, students typically continue their education outside the community in Sioux Lookout, Thunder Bay, or Dryden. These students typically return to the community only at Christmas, March break, and in the summer. In 1999 KNet launched the Keewatinook Internet High School, which has locations in northern communities across Ontario, including Fort Severn. KIHS offers Grades 9 through 12, and serves a mix of youth and mature students who want to earn their Ontario Secondary School Diploma without leaving their communities. Fort Severn operates a Junior Canadian Ranger program, co-administered with the Canadian Rangers,

The “eskigan,” a sod-covered tipi, was the traditional dwelling type of the West Main Cree communities living around Fort Severn before the imposition of Euro-Canadian forms of architecture. (Source: Archives Ontario)

which runs outdoor and land-based programs for youth aged 12-18. The program aims to teach skills including first aid, gun safety, drug and alcohol awareness, and traditional practices. After-school programs for younger children are run by the band out of the Youth Centre, which consists of one large, open, flexible room with a kitchen at one end.

15


Wasaho Cree Nation Primary School, completed in 2016, is the largest building in the community.

1.3.3 ECONOMY

The church.

The Niska Inn, an 8-room hotel run by the band.

The band office, school, nursing station, and the Northern Store are the town’s largest employers. Some residents make crafts including beading and tamarack sculptures. The pelts of locally trapped small animals are available for purchase at the Northern Store. The band operates an eight-room motel-style hotel with a shared kitchen, which is used primarily for short- and medium-term visitors, including nursing staff, Canadian Junior Rangers leadership, and a mechanic who operates and maintains the band’s heavy machinery. Fort Severn Chief Paul Burke told the visiting team that he is pursuing several economic development initiatives, including positioning Fort Severn as an alternative to Churchill, MB for polar bear tourism, developing an off-grid eco-hotel. Burke reports that he has been approached by mining companies regarding the possibility of resource speculation on the community’s lands. 1.3.4 HEALTHCARE

The nursing station.

16

Fort Severn is served by a local health clinic staffed by a rotating team of nurses. A doctor visits the community for one week every month. The clinic provides basic emergency and holistic healthcare, including the administration of some prescriptions. For any specialized care, including prenatal care, residents must travel by plane to hospitals in Sioux Lookout,


Thunder Bay, or Winnipeg. 1.3.5 FOOD Wild-caught game—including caribou, goose, and fish—is a major food source for the community. The spring goose hunt, when the geese arrive from their migration in early May, is a significant annual event. School closes for a week and many families spend the time living on the land at family hunting camps outside of town. The caribou hunt is in the fall. Community members fish year-round, using fixed gillnets in the tidal waters during the summer, and ice fishing in the winter. The annual ice fishing derby is another community event frequently cited as a favorite of residents; the prize for the largest catch is a pickup truck. Residents either freeze or smoke the game they hunt, and draw down on their supplies over the course of the year. Residents who hunt share their game with those who do not, including family members and elders. Many homes have contemporary versions of traditional smoking huts in the backyard. Made with lumber or slender log framing, plywood, and tarps, these structures feature a central fire pit, a smoke hole in the roof, cooking racks to roast Caribou and smoke goose, and prep areas around the perimeter. The Northern Store is the community’s primary source of purchased food, in addition to serving as the hardware store, outdoor outfitter, post office, and gas station. The Northern Store sells primarily frozen, packaged, and non-perishable food items, although there is a small section of fresh fruits and vegetables. Foods deemed healthy are subsidized through the Nutrition North Canada program, but fresh food prices are still significantly higher than in the south due to the cost of transportation. Based on informal observation, food security and nutrition is one of the community’s most significant challenges. Chief Burke reports that some community members have small gardens, and that the band has investigated the possibility of creating a community garden for food production, though the short growing season limits the potential output. Burke also reports that he has explored the possibility of partnering with other communities to develop a hydroponic grow operation in a nearby city, which would serve communities with limited access to fresh fruits and vegetables.

Top: Fort Severn resident Philip Mathew checks on fishing nets in an archival photograph from 1955. Above: Similar nets continue to be used in the community today.

Contemporary versions of traditional smoking tents, typically built from logs, lumber, plywood, and tarps, are widespread in the community.

The Northern Store is the community’s only commercial operation. It serves as grocery store, hardware store, outdoor outfitter, post office, and gas station. It also sells furniture, appliances, and vehicles by catalog. 17


18


1.4 HOUSING 1.4.1 OVERVIEW In 2016, residents of Fort Severn lived in 80 dwellings, 75 of which were single-detached homes. There were 15 two-bedroom homes, 35 three-bedroom homes, and 30 homes with four or more bedrooms. The average household size was 4.6, almost double the national average. Only ten households reported owning their homes—the rest were renters or lived in band housing. Houses in Fort Severn are almost exclusively singlestory bungalows. (There is one duplex, whose upper floor is occupied by the elementary school principal.) The houses are simple rectangular volumes, with small windows, low pitched roofs, and enclosed entries. Depending on their age, the houses feature wood or vinyl siding, with asphalt shingle or corrugated metal roofing. Interior finishes are chipboard or drywall, with vinyl tile flooring. Many houses show evidence of incremental modification by the occupants, including the widespread addition of wall-mounted birdhouses. Houses are generally laid out in rows facing the street on small individual lots. They are typically serviced by a gravel driveway. Open space around the houses is used to store firewood, spare vehicle parts, and other material. Many homes have an outbuilding used to smoke goose and caribou meat. Overcrowding is a challenge in Fort Severn, though perhaps not as much as in some other similar communities. The visiting team received reports of a few houses with 14-18 occupants, mostly due to children growing up and having families of their own, but not being able to move out into their own home. Other major challenges include differential foundation settling in the muskeg soil, and water damage in winter from burst pipes. Mold contamination and public health effects were not widespread, although the team’s observations were limited.

A survey of typical existing exterior housing conditions in Fort Severn, showing evidence of foundation settling and occupant modifications such as bird houses.

19


5.2 EXISTING CONDITIONS CASE STUDIES During the team’s first visit, we were able to visit three occupied homes, built in three different decades, to assess existing conditions. The team was accompanied by Fort Severn’s housing manager. House 1 This house was built in 1973 by the current occupant’s father. It uses a 2x4 stud frame construction. Interior partition finishes are chipboard. The house has been condemned due to a decaying foundation beam. There was evident moisture damage in the bathroom. The house was clean and tidy, but storage space is at a premium – the closets are filled to capacity.

20


House 2 This three-bedroom house was built in 1985. The interior features the same chipboard wall finish, vinyl floor tiles, and an acoustical tile drop ceiling. As with House 1, storage space was at a premium and every available space was filled with belongings and supplies. One storage space was being used as a computer room. A large top-loading wood stove sits in the center of the house. There was water damage evident in the bathroom floor and ceiling, and the living room ceiling. The house is fitted with a heat recovery ventilator, but it was not operating at the time of the team’s visit. The house was noticeably humid.

21


House 3 This four-bedroom home was built in 1995. When the team visited, the current occupants were just moving back in after a renovation—a burst pipe had caused water damage that needed to be repaired. The finish between the walls and ceiling showed signs of differential foundation settling. Outside, there was indication of fire damage to the skirting around the crawlspace – the electrified coils meant to keep the water pipes from freezing had been installed too close to the house, causing it to scorch the skirting. (The housing director said that the occupants were fortunate that the house had not burned down.)

22


1.4.3 RENOVATIONS AND NEW CONSTRUCTION With funding from Indigenous Services Canada (ISC), Fort Severn has recently completed construction of a six-plex on the eastern side of town, and is currently building five new duplexes, each comprised of two four-bedroom units. In addition, ISC has allocated funding for the renovation of ten housing units in Fort Severn. This work is being completed by a small team of local residents, supplemented by some skilled labour from outside the community. Two electricians and two unlicensed plumbers live in the community. The new construction has been made possible by the digging of a new drainage channel that runs southwest-to-northeast behind the new parcels to the river (see map, pp. 20-21). In addition, in order to minimize foundation settling, the band’s housing team dug out the existing muskeg and filled the building sites with six-foot-deep gravel pads on which the foundations are built. The duplex designs are customized kits provided by Olympic Building Centre, a Winnipeg-based company that touts its close relationships with First Nations communities in northern Manitoba and Ontario. The kits, including prefabricated roof trusses, were

Fort Severn’s recently constructed six-plex.

An older home under renovation.

This newly constructed duplex is sitting empty until the band receives funding to connect it to the municipal power grid. 23


In order to create a stable platform for construction, the band excavates the muskeg landscape...

...builds six-foot-deep gravel pads...

...and assembles space-frame foundations after the gravel has settled over at least one winter.

24

shipped by flatbed truck over the winter roads. Two of the new duplexes use insulated slab-on-grade foundations, and three use (or will use) space frame foundations developed by Multipoint Foundations, a sister company of Triodetic. Made from a combination of steel and aluminum, these rigid-frame foundations distribute the load of the building over a largerthan-typical number of points, reducing the risk of differential settling. The foundation plates sit directly on the gravel pad, and each point can be adjusted with a wrench. Fort Severn Chief Paul Burke is enthusiastic about the performance of these foundations and anticipates using them more widely going forward. The duplexes use conventional 2x6 framing with OSB exterior sheathing, R-22 insulation in the wall cavities, and ½” drywall in the interior. The roof uses a metal cladding over pre-engineered trusses, with R-50 batt insulation. The houses are brand new and appear to be reasonably well constructed, but there is little indication that they will perform significantly better over time than other conventionally framed houses in the community.


1.4.4 NEEDS ASSESSMENT Team members visited Fort Severn twice, once in June 2019 and once in September 2019. In addition to conducting in-person assessment of existing housing conditions, team members conducted a series of meetings and interviews with Fort Severn leadership including the chief, members of council, the band’s housing director, local carpenters, band office staff, the principal of the elementary school, and staff at the nursing station. Team members were also given guided tours of the community and the surrounding lands, including two boat trips up into Hudson Bay. During the June visit, team members led a day of community workshops, culminating in a community feast of caribou stew and bannock cooked by elders. The workshop, which took place in the Youth Centre, was planned with an informal format in order to encourage participation. A series of large posters were hung on the walls of the space, each with a question meant to encourage responses and start converation. Workshop attendees were encouraged to write responses directly on the poster, or to give feedback to the team verbally. Questions included: — What do you like best about your house? — What difficulties do you have with your house? — If you could add one room to your house, what would it be and what would you use it for? — What type of housing does the community need most? — What stories have you heard from elders about traditional housing in Fort Severn? — What community events are your most favorite? — What times of the year are most difficult? The workshop was attended by approximately 20 community members, including children and elders. A few elders whose primary language is Cree attended, and had the questions and their responses translated for the team by family members.

Scenes from the community dinner and workshop in June 2019.

25


Based on a synthesis of findings from direct observation, meetings, and the community workshop, the team has developed the following needs assessment: — Community members love the landscape that surrounds them, but do not feel that their homes are connected to the land or the seasons. They connect to the land when they are out hunting and finishing, or living at their hunting cabins, but not necessarily at home. — The community would like to find a way to allow elders to continue to live independently or semiindependently in the community. — Young couples are another target demographic: they are often unable to move out of their parents’ houses, even when they begin to have children of their own. This is one of the major causes of overcrowding in the community.

1.4.5 OPPORTUNITIES Based on the needs assessment developed following the June visit, the team developed a list of potential opportunities that were discussed with band leadership in a series of meetings during the September visit. The opportunities include: — Multi-unit elders’ housing, potentiall with an integrated apartment for a healthcare worker. — A wider variety of unit sizes to accommodate families of different sizes in less crowded conditions. (Small units in particular could act as a release valve, giving young couples somwehere to live for a few years and creating some slack in the system to allow for renovations and construction of additional units.) — More attention to building orientation, to optimize relationships to sun and wind conditions.

— The high cost of electricity means that there is widespread appetite for higher-performance homes.

— A passive-first energy strategy using a superinsulated, airtight envelope, electric heat, and an energy-recovery ventilator.

— Unreliable water infrastructure is the source of widespread challenges including lack of safe drinking water and water damage caused by burst pipes.

— Cluster developments that could potentially share localized energy and water infrastructure.

26

— Foundation design that sllows for less invasive/ destructive site work and a closer relationship to the land.


27


2. THE RESILIENT DUPLEX

28


29


2.1 DESIGN PRINCIPLES CONNECT TO THE LAND — Conceive of the buildings and their landscape context as an integrated system. — Engage the productive, performative, and cultural potential of the local landscape. — Use local materials wherever possible, so that the houses are “of their place.” — Accommodate traditional practices and activities that may not “fit” within a conventional southern house. — Work in concert with daily and seasonal cycles of sun, wind, and water. SUPPORT RESILIENT MULTI-GENERATIONAL COMMUNITIES — Help reinforce neighbourly relationships and community bonds, especially between generations. — Design a system that combines a range of unit sizes and functional layouts, so that elders, families, and youth can live in close proximity and support each other. — Invite the community to customize, upgrade, expand, and reconfigure the houses according to its changing needs. MAKE EFFICIENT USE OF ENERGY AND RESOURCES — Prioritize passive strategies and good envelope design. — Generate and store renewable energy on-site. — Reduce the load on overburdened infrastructure systems. DESIGN FOR THE LONG TERM — Build on what is working: adopt and adapt current knowledge, skills, and practices to maintain familiarity and allow for incremental education of construction crews. — Employ simple, robust solutions that can be self-built, maintained, and renewed over multiple generations. — Design for the logistical challenges of material transportation and construction in the remote north. — Keep functional layouts simple and flexible to ensure long-term usefulness. — Help the community create a culture of care, maintenance, and pride in their homes.

30


A series of study models exploring unit configuration, building form, and roof lines. 31


2.2 SUPPORTING A RESILIENT COMMUNITY

OPEN LOFT — Storage — Playroom — Home office / enterprise — Community activities — Sleeping loft

The Resilient Duplex is an iteration of a housing system designed to be adaptable to a variety of contexts and needs. It takes as its premise the housing needs articulated by members of the Fort Severn community during the community engagement process. With elders and young families identified as the groups that are most in need of housing, the Resilient Duplex imagines a configuration that allows those two groups to live as neighbours and support each other. A singlestory accessible elder’s apartment (which could also accommodate a single person or a couple without children) is attached to a two-bedroom unit with a flexible loft space. The two units share an entry porch, encouraging interaction between neighbours, and the elder’s apartment has a private terrace off the bedroom. This design is flexible in two important ways. First, the larger unit features a flexible second-floor loft space. Left open, it can be used for storage, a playroom, or as a home office. It can also be partially enclosed to create a master bedroom with ensuite bath, or fully enclosed as a private apartment. Units could be configured differently from the start, or adapted incrementally..

MASTER BEDROOM SUITE —

Preserves open area for playroom or work space

PRIVATE APARTMENT —

32

Self-contained unit for multi-generational family or caregiver

Second, because it is possible to give every room in each unit a window using only the north and south facades, the buildings can be designed in a variety of configurations, from detached homes to large multiunit dwellings. This includes configurations in which a number of elders’ apartments are combined with one large unit, which provides communal space and a private apartment for a nurse.

Left: the second-story loft in the small family unit can be fit out according to the needs of the community, or can be expanded incrementally over time as needs change or funding becomes available.


ELDERS’ APARTMENT — 432 ft2 — 1BR + 1BA — Barrier-Free

+ SMALL FAMILY UNIT — — —

1080 ft2 2BR + 1BA Expandable to 3BR/2BA

The multi-generational duplex configuration pairs a small barrier-free apartment designed for an elder with a larger family unit that can be expanded from two bedrooms to three. The units share an entry porch, encouraging regular interaction between neighbours.

Elders’ Housing With Communal Space and Nurse’s Apartment +

+

+

+

Multi-Generational Complex +

+

+

Small Family Duplex +

Multi-Generational Duplex +

Small Family Unit

Singles/Elder Unit

Units can be combined in different configurations according to the needs of the community, with an emphasis on creating neighbourly relationships and resilient multi-generational social support networks.

OR

33


2.3 LIVING IN THE LANDSCAPE Rather than continuing to organize the community into rows of individual street-facing lots, the Resilient Duplex site plan arranges twelve units in two clusters, each connected by a network of raised walkways. Each cluster shares a driveway and an accessible ramp for residents with mobility challenges. The walkways could also serve as insulated utilidors for water and energy infrastructure, reducing the number of vulnerable pipe connections that need to be made from the street.

WORK/PARK

34

The clusters are organized back-to-back, resulting in an overall configuration that keeps parking and outdoor workspace at the edges of the site, while allowing the natural muskeg landscape to flow through a central communal courtyard that can host larger gatherings around a fire pit, or serve as a children’s play area. The goal is for every unit to have a view out onto this natural landscape, to connect residents more to the land and landscape while at home.

GATHER


R/PLAY

WORK/PARK WORK/PARK

GATHER/PLAY

WORK/PARK

35


2.4 LAYING A STABLE FOUNDATION Foundation design and engineering is one of the most difficult challenges in the sub-arctic north, given the unstable nature of the muskeg soil. The Resilient Duplex makes use of the same foundation system that is currently in use in the community today: a space-frame foundation on top of a compacted gravel pad that keeps the house rigid and allows for handadjustment of individual footings as the ground shifts.

1. GRAVEL PAD A deep gravel pad, compacted and left to settle over a winter, creates a relatively stable foundation on which to build.

2. MULTIPOINT FOUNDATION Using a six-foot square structural grid, the spaceframe foundation distributes the weight of the building over a large area and is easy to transport and assemble.

36

If the community proceeds with this project, the design team would recommend investing in a geotechnical report and investigating the possibility of using deep helical pile foundations as an alternative to the space frame. The additional cost of the piles may be justified if it allows for the houses to be built without widespread destruction of the surrounding landscape.


3. PLATFORM FRAME Built-up beams made from standard 2x12 lumber comprise the first layer of the structural platform.

4. FLOOR JOISTS Running the joists on top of the beams, rather than in the same plane, avoids the need for joist hangers and creates an insulated plenum for services.

5. WALL AND ROOF FRAMING Wall and roof framing uses conventional stick frame construction, employing 2x6 stud walls and a combination of LVL and prefabricated wood truss roof structure.

37


2.5 ACKNOWLEDGING THE ELEMENTS AND SEASONS Solar orientation will also have a small effect on energy performance. In the summer, the south-facing eave will block solar gain in the living rooms, helping keep the houses cool. In the winter, the low sun will penetrate deep into the house, helping warm the interior.

The site plan for the proposed cluster development of Resilient Duplex units orients the buildings to the cardinal directions, plus or minus 10o, for reasons of both performance and experience. In a community that is so far north, daylight is a precious resource in the winter, and a nuisance in the summer. The functional layout of the Resilient Duplex positions living and eating space to the south, and sleeping space to the north. (Entries, washrooms and utility space are at the center of the building, along the party wall.) This allows spaces with daytime occupancy to receive maximum natural daylight even in winter. In summer, the bedrooms will likely need blackout shades to block out the rising and setting sun, which both come from the north.

The orientation of the houses is also designed to work with the prevailing seasonal wind patterns. In the winter, west winds will scour the long sides of the buildings, helping to prevent snow drifting at entryways. In the summer, warmer breezes will be channeled through the central communal landscape, helping to keep it comfortable and bug-free.

N

W

E

S WINTER WIND Winds from the west scour the long faces of the houses, reducing snow drifts around entrances.

38

N

W

E

S SUMMER WIND Warmer breezes from the northwest are channeled through the communal landscape.


N

JUNE 21 SUNSET: 10:40 PM EDST

JUNE 21 SUNRISE: 5:04 AM EDST

W

E

R

JUNE

DEC. 21 SUNSET: 4:17 PM EST

21 SU N

DEC. 2 1 SUN

PATH

DEC. 21 SUNRISE: 9:20 AM EST

PATH

S

58o

11o NORTH

SOUTH

SUMMER SUN High sun is shaded by the south-facing overhangs, keeping the interior from overheating. The roof angle is calibrated to optimize the performance of rooftop solar panels.

NORTH

SOUTH

WINTER SUN Low sun penetrates deep into the house, warming the interior through passive heat gain.

39


2.6 ACHIEVING A HIGHPERFORMANCE ENVELOPE The batt insulation in the wall cavities is redundant. It helps with thermal performance but the envelope will perform to a minimum standard relying on the exterior insulation alone. Positioning all membranes outside the structural layer reduces the risk of accidental penetration from the interior side (electrical installation, hanging art, etc.)

EXTERIOR

3/4

Airtight Self-A The envelope system is designed to accommodate a wide range of lightweight cladding options.

8” Comfort Board Rigi

1x3 Vertical Strapping / Drainag 1x3 Horizontal Strapping Locally Fabricated Larch Shingle Cladding

40


The Resilient Duplex’s exterior envelope is inspired by the principles of the Passive House movement. The envelope is airtight and superinsulated, with the goal of significantly reducing the amount of energy required to heat the interior. The air and vapour barrier and the bulk of the insulation is shifted outside the exterior sheathing, where it is less likely to be accidentally punctured in the course of construction or by the occupants later.

Instead of the typical vinyl siding, the Resilient Duplex uses locally fabricated tamarack shingles. Tamarack, also known as larch, is a common local tree that could be sustainably harvested and processed (using a portable sawmill) to create an attractive, durable cladding material that would connect the houses to their place. However, the design of the envelope can accomodate a wide range of lightweight cladding alternatives.

Positioning studs 24” O.C. instead of the typical 16” reduces material and shipping costs and improves thermal performance, without compromising the structure.

INTERIOR

A stand of Tamarack trees (and a curious harp seal) visible from the Severn River just outside Fort Severn.

Interior Finish (Drywall or Plywood) 2x6 Framing (24” O.C.) with Batt Insulation (R16)

4” Plywood Sheathing

Adhesive Sheathing Membrane

id Exterior Insulation (R32)

ge Cavity One of the oldest buildings still standing in Fort Severn is clad in shingles on its gable ends. The species of wood used here is unknown, but Tamarack shingles would weather to a similar silver.

41


3. DESIGN DEVELOPMENT DRAWING SET



R

R

R

R

O RD (S WASAH

1 A0.1

44

SITE PLAN SCALE 1"=1/16'

TREET


GENERAL NOTES: 1. Drawings are not to be scaled. Contractor will verify all existing conditions and dimensions required to perform the Work and will report any discrepancies with the Contract Documents to the Architect before commencing work. 2. The Architectural Drawings are to be read in conjunction with all other Contract Documents including the Project Manuals and the Structural, Mechanical and Electrical Drawings. In cases of difference between the Consultants' documents with respect to the quantity, sizes or scope of work, the greater shall apply. 3. Positions of exposed or finished Mechanical or Electrical devices, fittings and fixtures are indicated on the Architectural Drawings. Locations shown on the Architectural Drawings shall govern over Mechanical and Electrical Drawings. Mechanical and Electrical items not clearly located will be located as directed by the Architect. 4. Dimensions indicated are taken between the faces of finished surfaces unless otherwise noted. 5. The architect has not been retained for supervision of construction and assumes no responsibility for means, methods and techniques of construction. 6. These documents are not to be used for construction unless specifically noted for such purpose. R

MITEH TRAIL

R

(LAGO D) ON R

T D)

Copyright is that of the Architect. Any version of this drawing reproduced by any means from any media without prior written approval of the Architect is to be read for information only. The Architect is not liable for any loss or distortion of information resulting from subsequent reproduction of the original drawing.

Rev.

Date

Issued

1 2

2019-12-19 2020-03-31

INTERIM SUBMISSION FINAL SUBMISSION

Two Row Architect 1804 6th Line - Six Nations Ohsweken, Ontario N0A 1M0 519 445 2137

KPMB Architects 322 King St W, 3rd Fl Toronto, ON, Canada M5V 1J2 416 977 5104 Client Name

NRCC PATH TO HEALTHY HOMES FORT SEVERN

FORT SEVERN ONTARIO, POV 1W0

Project North

True North

SCALE PROJECT NO. ISSUE DATE

1" = 1/16' 1953 2020-03-31

SITE PLAN

A0.1

45


LINE OF

ROOF ABOVE

1 A2.0

LINE OF ROOF ABOVE

RUN: 10 1/2"

8R DOWN

RISE: 7.5"

R

RAMP DN

LINE OF ROOF ABOVE

RISE: 7.5" 1/2"

RUN: 10

1 A1.0

46

MAIN LEVEL SITE PLAN SCALE 1/8"=1'-0"

8R DOW

N


N

4. Copyright is that of the Architect. Any version of this drawing reproduced by any means from any media without prior written 5. approval of the Architect is to be read for information only. The Architect is not liable for any loss or distortion of information resulting from 6. subsequent reproduction of the original drawing. GENERAL NOTES: 1. Drawings are not to be scaled. Contractor will verify all existing conditions and dimensions required to perform the Work and will report any discrepancies with the Contract Documents to the Architect before commencing work. 2. The Architectural Drawings are to be read in conjunction with all other Contract Documents including the Project Manuals and the Structural, Mechanical and Electrical Drawings. In cases of difference between the Consultants' documents with respect to the quantity, sizes or scope of work, the greater shall apply. Positions of exposed or finished Mechanical or Electrical devices, fittings and fixtures are indicated on the Architectural Drawings. Locations shown on the Architectural Drawings shall govern over Mechanical and Electrical Drawings. Mechanical and Electrical items not clearly located will be located as directed by the Architect. Dimensions indicated are taken between the faces of finished surfaces unless otherwise noted. The architect has not been retained for supervision of construction and assumes no responsibility for means, methods and techniques of construction. These documents are not to be used for construction unless specifically noted for such purpose. R

LINE OF

ROOF ABOVE

8% RAMP- RISE: 2'-6" RUN: 30'-0"

RAMP DN

8% RAMP- RISE: 2'-6" RUN: 30'-0"

LINE OF

Rev.

Date

Issued

1 2

2019-12-19 2020-03-31

INTERIM SUBMISSION FINAL SUBMISSION

ABOVE ROOF

Two Row Architect 1804 6th Line - Six Nations Ohsweken, Ontario N0A 1M0 519 445 2137

R

KPMB Architects 322 King St W, 3rd Fl Toronto, ON, Canada M5V 1J2 416 977 5104 Client Name

LINE OF

ABOVE ROOF

NRCC PATH TO HEALTHY HOMES FORT SEVERN FIRST NATION FORT SEVERN ONTARIO, POV 1W0

Project North

True North

SCALE PROJECT NO. ISSUE DATE

1/8" = 1'-0" 1953 2020-03-31

THREE-MODULE SITE PLAN

A1.0

47


18'-0"

1'-1" 4'-6"

A

B

30"x6

FU

16'-1"

COVERED PORCH BELOW

W1

UNFINISHE ATTIC (78 SQ.FT. 32'-2"

ROUGH IN PLUMBING FOR FUTUR ENSUITE

16'-1"

E

COVERED ENTRY BEL

18'-0"

1'-1" 10'-11"

7'-1" 3'-0"

7'-11"

2'-0"

4'-0"

A

4'-6"

1'-1"

B

6'-0"

30"x30

W1

PRIVATE TERRACE

30"x30" OPER.

1'-1"

80 "x 36

"

OPEN SHELVING " 80 "x 32

CL

CL

6'-0"

LAM. FLR

Ø5'-0"

10'-0"

Ø5'-0"

TANKLESS WH HRV

CL

P2 4'-0"

R

1 BEDROOM ACCESSIBLE UNIT 432 SQ.FT.

E

SEAT

OPEN SHELVING

W2 LAM. FLR

FLOOR H

HRV

ROLL-IN SHOWER

P2

4'-0"

60"x60" FIXED

MECH. TANKLESS WH 32"x80"

32'-2"

W/D

P2

W1

24'-0"

STORAGE

VINYL FLR

CHEST FREEZER

VINYL FLR

32"x80"

6'-8"

14'-0"

P2

ALCOVE STORAGE

32"x80"

Ø5'-0"

LAM. FLR

P2

CL

W/D

Ø5'-0"

CL

ALCOVE STOR.

VINYL FLR

W1

3'-4"

CL

CL

Ø5

36"x80"

1'-1"

CL

BENCH

60"x60" FIXED

W1

COVERED ENTRY

A 5'-6" 12'-5" 1'-1"

48

B

6'-11"

1'-1" 5'-7"

18'-0"

2'-7" 5'-7"


Copyright is that of the Architect. Any version of this drawing reproduced by any means from any media without prior written approval of the Architect is to be read for information only. The Architect is not liable for any loss or distortion of information resulting from subsequent reproduction of the original drawing.

50'-2" 30'-0"

1'-1"

7'-6"

18'-0"

D

GENERAL NOTES: 1. Drawings are not to be scaled. Contractor will verify all existing conditions and dimensions required to perform the Work and will report any discrepancies with the Contract Documents to the Architect before commencing work. 2. The Architectural Drawings are to be read in conjunction with all other Contract Documents including the Project Manuals and the Structural, Mechanical and Electrical Drawings. In cases of difference between the Consultants' documents with respect to the quantity, sizes or scope of work, the greater shall apply. 3. Positions of exposed or finished Mechanical or Electrical devices, fittings and fixtures are indicated on the Architectural Drawings. Locations shown on the Architectural Drawings shall govern over Mechanical and Electrical Drawings. Mechanical and Electrical items not clearly located will be located as directed by the Architect. 4. Dimensions indicated are taken between the faces of finished surfaces unless otherwise noted. 5. The architect has not been retained for supervision of construction and assumes no responsibility for means, methods and techniques of construction. 6. These documents are not to be used for construction unless specifically noted for such purpose.

W1

C

1'-1"

60" OPER.

CL

10'-0"

7'-0"

FLEXIBLE LOFT SPACE

UTURE BEDROOM

3'-0"

60"x60" FIXED

CL

2 BEDROOM + LOFT UNIT 720 SF + 330 SQ.FT. TOTAL: 1080 SQ.FT.

RIDGE BEAM ABOVE

15R DN W1

26'-2"

ED

3'-0"

P1

32"x80"

LAM. FLR

RISE: 7" RUN: 10"

.) 32'-2"

N G RE E

11'-0"

OPEN TO BELOW

P2

6'-0"

W1

1'-1"

E

2

LOW

A2.0 C

SECOND LEVEL PLAN SCALE 1/4"=1'-0"

D

50'-2"

50'-2" 30'-0" 9'-6"

1'-1"

12'-0" 5'-0"

4'-0"

8'-6" 8'-0"

2'-6"

6'-0"

D W1

C

Issued

INTERIM SUBMISSION FINAL SUBMISSION

1'-1"

CL

CL

Date

2019-12-19 2020-03-31

30"x60" OPER.

30"x60" OPER.

0" OPER.

Rev.

1 2

CL

W1

P2

LAM. FLR

P2

10'-0"

32"x80"

VINYL FLR

P2

E

VINYL FLR

Two Row Architect 1804 6th Line - Six Nations Ohsweken, Ontario N0A 1M0 519 445 2137

LAM. FLR

32"x80"

32"x80"

32"x80"

24"x80"

R

24'-0"

PANTRY

RISE: 7" RUN: 10"

3'-0"

15R UP

LAM. FLR

P1

P1

32"x80"

VINYL FLR

32'-2"

P2

Client Name

NRCC PATH TO HEALTHY HOMES FORT SEVERN FIRST NATION

7'-4"

P2

HATCH

11'-0"

2 BEDROOM + LOFT UNIT 720 SF + 330 SQ.FT. TOTAL: 1080 SQ.FT.

VINYL FLR

KPMB Architects 322 King St W, 3rd Fl Toronto, ON, Canada M5V 1J2 416 977 5104

E

LAM. FLR

CL

32"x80" CL

FORT SEVERN ONTARIO, POV 1W0

3'-8" 36"x80"

1'-1"

CL

CL

DW 30"x60" OPER.

60"x60" FIXED

6'-0" 3'-6"

SCALE PROJECT NO. ISSUE DATE

1 C 1'-11"

1'-11"

A2.0

D 8'-7 1/2"

8'-4 1/2"

5'-6"

24'-5" 30'-0"

True North

2'-6"

W1

Project North

5'-0"

1'-1"

MAIN LEVEL PLAN SCALE 1/4"=1'-0"

1/4" = 1'-0" 1953 2020-03-31

MAIN LEVEL AND SECOND LEVEL FLOOR PLANS

A2.0

50'-2"

49


50'-2" 18'-0"

A

C

B

SNAP LOCK STANDING-SEAM GALVALUME ROOFING

COVERED ENTRY BELOW

32'-2"

7:12 SLOPE

16'-1"

LINE OF WALL BELOW

RIDGE

AREA OF OPTIONAL SOLAR ARRAY (±228 SQ.FT.)

16'-1"

7:12 SLOPE

E

LINE OF WALL BELOW

COVERED ENTRY BELOW

C

1 A2.1

50

ROOF LEVEL PLAN SCALE 1/4"=1'-0"


Copyright is that of the Architect. Any version of this drawing reproduced by any means from any media without prior written approval of the Architect is to be read for information only. The Architect is not liable for any loss or distortion of information resulting from subsequent reproduction of the original drawing. GENERAL NOTES: 1. Drawings are not to be scaled. Contractor will verify all existing conditions and dimensions required to perform the Work and will report any discrepancies with the Contract Documents to the Architect before commencing work. 2. The Architectural Drawings are to be read in conjunction with all other Contract Documents including the Project Manuals and the Structural, Mechanical and Electrical Drawings. In cases of difference between the Consultants' documents with respect to the quantity, sizes or scope of work, the greater shall apply. 3. Positions of exposed or finished Mechanical or Electrical devices, fittings and fixtures are indicated on the Architectural Drawings. Locations shown on the Architectural Drawings shall govern over Mechanical and Electrical Drawings. Mechanical and Electrical items not clearly located will be located as directed by the Architect. 4. Dimensions indicated are taken between the faces of finished surfaces unless otherwise noted. 5. The architect has not been retained for supervision of construction and assumes no responsibility for means, methods and techniques of construction. 6. These documents are not to be used for construction unless specifically noted for such purpose.

32'-2"

D

7:12 SLOPE

32'-2"

7:12 SLOPE

11'-1"

SNAP LOCK STANDING-SEAM GALVALUME ROOFING

21'-1"

E

SNAP LOCK STANDING-SEAM GALVALUME ROOFING

Rev.

Date

Issued

1 2

2019-12-19 2020-03-31

INTERIM SUBMISSION FINAL SUBMISSION

Two Row Architect 1804 6th Line - Six Nations Ohsweken, Ontario N0A 1M0 519 445 2137

D KPMB Architects 322 King St W, 3rd Fl Toronto, ON, Canada M5V 1J2 416 977 5104 Client Name

NRCC PATH TO HEALTHY HOMES FORT SEVERN FIRST NATION FORT SEVERN ONTARIO, POV 1W0

Project North

True North

SCALE PROJECT NO. ISSUE DATE

1/4" = 1'-0" 1953 2020-03-31

ROOF LEVEL PLAN

A2.1

51


52

1'-1"

24'-0"

32'-2" 6'-0"

1'-1"

1'-1"

24'-0"

32'-2" 6'-0"

1'-1"


Copyright is that of the Architect. Any version of this drawing reproduced by any means from any media without prior written approval of the Architect is to be read for information only. The Architect is not liable for any loss or distortion of information resulting from subsequent reproduction of the original drawing.

50'-2" 16'-11"

30'-0"

1'-1"

1'-1"

GENERAL NOTES: 1. Drawings are not to be scaled. Contractor will verify all existing conditions and dimensions required to perform the Work and will report any discrepancies with the Contract Documents to the Architect before commencing work. 2. The Architectural Drawings are to be read in conjunction with all other Contract Documents including the Project Manuals and the Structural, Mechanical and Electrical Drawings. In cases of difference between the Consultants' documents with respect to the quantity, sizes or scope of work, the greater shall apply. 3. Positions of exposed or finished Mechanical or Electrical devices, fittings and fixtures are indicated on the Architectural Drawings. Locations shown on the Architectural Drawings shall govern over Mechanical and Electrical Drawings. Mechanical and Electrical items not clearly located will be located as directed by the Architect. 4. Dimensions indicated are taken between the faces of finished surfaces unless otherwise noted. 5. The architect has not been retained for supervision of construction and assumes no responsibility for means, methods and techniques of construction. 6. These documents are not to be used for construction unless specifically noted for such purpose.

10'-0"

1'-1"

1'-1"

32'-2"

14'-0" 6'-0"

PREFABRICATED TRUSS

1 3/4" x 11 7/8" LVL 24" O/C (TYP.)

(2) 1 3/4" x 24" LVL

3

ROOF FRAMING PLAN SCALE 1/8"=1'-0"

1'-1"

A2.2

50'-2" 19'-1"

30'-0"

1'-1"

15'-11"

8'-6"

10'-0"

13'-6"

3'-6"

CANTILEVER

32'-2"

2X8 FLOOR JOISTS 16" O/C (TYP.)

1'-1"

5'-7"

1'-1"

16'-6"

OPEN TO BELOW

2 A2.2

Rev.

Date

Issued

1 2

2019-12-19 2020-03-31

INTERIM SUBMISSION FINAL SUBMISSION

SECOND LEVEL FRAMING PLAN SCALE 1/8"=1'-0"

Two Row Architect 1804 6th Line - Six Nations Ohsweken, Ontario N0A 1M0 519 445 2137

50'-2" 1'-1" 6'-0"

18'-0" 6'-0"

30'-0" 6'-0"

6'-0"

6'-0"

6'-0"

1'-1" 6'-0"

KPMB Architects 322 King St W, 3rd Fl Toronto, ON, Canada M5V 1J2 416 977 5104

6'-0"

Client Name

NRCC PATH TO HEALTHY HOMES FORT SEVERN FIRST NATION

10'-0"

1'-1"

(3) 2X12 BUILT UP BEAM (TYP.)

6'-0"

(3) 2X12 BUILT UP BEAM (TYP.)

(3) 2X12 BUILT UP BEAM (TYP.)

24'-0" 32'-2"

FORT SEVERN ONTARIO, POV 1W0

Project North

1

18'-0"

30'-0"

1'-1"

1'-1"

A2.2 1'-1"

True North

(3) 2X12 BUILT UP BEAM (TYP.)

6'-0"

2X10 FLOOR JOISTS 16" O/C (TYP.)

6'-0"

6'-0"

(3) 2X12 BUILT UP BEAM (TYP.)

14'-0"

2X10 FLOOR JOISTS 16" O/C (TYP.)

6'-0"

(3) 2X12 BUILT UP BEAM (TYP.)

MAIN LEVEL FRAMING PLAN SCALE 1/8"=1'-0"

SCALE PROJECT NO. ISSUE DATE

1/8" = 1'-0" 1953 2020-03-31

FLOOR FRAMING PLANS

50'-2"

A2.2

53


2'-6"

4'-5"

2'-6"

18'-3" 1'-11"

24'-8"

5'-0" 1'-11"

6'-5"

5"

1

A3.0

2

54

NORTH ELEVATION

SCALE 1/4"=1'-0"

2'-6"

A3.0

SOUTH ELEVATION

SCALE 1/4"=1'-0"

2'-6" 2'-6"

1'-10"

5'-0"

12'-5"

24'-3"

3'-1"

9'-4"

6 1/4"


12'-3"

GENERAL NOTES: 1. Drawings are not to be scaled. Contractor will verify all existing conditions and dimensions required to perform the Work and will report any discrepancies with the Contract Documents to the Architect before commencing work. 2. The Architectural Drawings are to be read in conjunction with all other Contract Documents including the Project Manuals and the Structural, Mechanical and Electrical Drawings. In cases of difference between the Consultants' documents with respect to the quantity, sizes or scope of work, the greater shall apply. 3. Positions of exposed or finished Mechanical or Electrical devices, fittings and fixtures are indicated on the Architectural Drawings. Locations shown on the Architectural Drawings shall govern over Mechanical and Electrical Drawings. Mechanical and Electrical items not clearly located will be located as directed by the Architect. 4. Dimensions indicated are taken between the faces of finished surfaces unless otherwise noted. 5. The architect has not been retained for supervision of construction and assumes no responsibility for means, methods and techniques of construction. 6. These documents are not to be used for construction unless specifically noted for such purpose.

5'-0"

5'-0"

1'-11"

8'-0"

1'-1"

27'-2"

1'-11"

14'-2"

5"

Copyright is that of the Architect. Any version of this drawing reproduced by any means from any media without prior written approval of the Architect is to be read for information only. The Architect is not liable for any loss or distortion of information resulting from subsequent reproduction of the original drawing.

Date

Issued

1 2

2019-12-19 2020-03-31

INTERIM SUBMISSION FINAL SUBMISSION

9'-4"

6 1/4"

Rev.

Two Row Architect 1804 6th Line - Six Nations Ohsweken, Ontario N0A 1M0 519 445 2137

Client Name

NRCC PATH TO HEALTHY HOMES FORT SEVERN FIRST NATION

4'-5"

7'-9"

2'-6"

10"

24'-3"

2'-2"

KPMB Architects 322 King St W, 3rd Fl Toronto, ON, Canada M5V 1J2 416 977 5104

Project North

True North

2'-6"

5'-0"

2'-6"

FORT SEVERN ONTARIO, POV 1W0

SCALE PROJECT NO. ISSUE DATE

1/4" = 1'-0" 1953 2020-03-31

ELEVATIONS

A3.0

55


5'-0"

1'-11"

A3.0

2

56

WEST ELEVATION

SCALE 1/4"=1'-0"

10"

2'-2"

27'-2"

5'-10"

12'-3" 6'-5"

1

5'-0"

7'-9"

9'-11"

A3.0

EAST ELEVATION SCALE 1/4"=1'-0"

5'-0" 3'-6"

7'-9" 3'-5"

10"

2'-2"

12'-3"

14'-5"


GENERAL NOTES: 1. Drawings are not to be scaled. Contractor will verify all existing conditions and dimensions required to perform the Work and will report any discrepancies with the Contract Documents to the Architect before commencing work. 2. The Architectural Drawings are to be read in conjunction with all other Contract Documents including the Project Manuals and the Structural, Mechanical and Electrical Drawings. In cases of difference between the Consultants' documents with respect to the quantity, sizes or scope of work, the greater shall apply. 3. Positions of exposed or finished Mechanical or Electrical devices, fittings and fixtures are indicated on the Architectural Drawings. Locations shown on the Architectural Drawings shall govern over Mechanical and Electrical Drawings. Mechanical and Electrical items not clearly located will be located as directed by the Architect. 4. Dimensions indicated are taken between the faces of finished surfaces unless otherwise noted. 5. The architect has not been retained for supervision of construction and assumes no responsibility for means, methods and techniques of construction. 6. These documents are not to be used for construction unless specifically noted for such purpose.

2'-6"

6'-2"

11'-4"

3'-2"

18'-3"

2'-0"

26'-0''

5'-0"

1'-11"

6'-5"

Copyright is that of the Architect. Any version of this drawing reproduced by any means from any media without prior written approval of the Architect is to be read for information only. The Architect is not liable for any loss or distortion of information resulting from subsequent reproduction of the original drawing.

Date

Issued

1 2

2019-12-19 2020-03-31

INTERIM SUBMISSION FINAL SUBMISSION

9'-3"

2'-11"

Rev.

3'-2"

21'-9"

Two Row Architect 1804 6th Line - Six Nations Ohsweken, Ontario N0A 1M0 519 445 2137

KPMB Architects 322 King St W, 3rd Fl Toronto, ON, Canada M5V 1J2 416 977 5104

12'-6"

1'-11"

5'-0"

Client Name

NRCC PATH TO HEALTHY HOMES FORT SEVERN FIRST NATION

2'-6"

2'-6"

FORT SEVERN ONTARIO, POV 1W0

Project North

True North

SCALE PROJECT NO. ISSUE DATE

1/4" = 1'-0" 1953 2020-03-31

ELEVATIONS

A3.1

57


58 1'-10"

1'-1"

9'-3"

5

BATH

A4.0

2

SECTION B

SCALE 1/4"=1'-0"

LAUNDRY 2'-0"

A4.0

5'-0"

9'-3"

2'-6"

2'-6"

2'-6"

8"

5'-0"

8"

1'-10"

2'-6"

1'-10"

3'-6"

8'-0"

8'-0"

7'-9"

BEDROOM

1'-10"

2'-0"

2'-3"

(3) 2X12 BEAM

8"

8'-0"

4'-3"

3 A8.0

4'-3"

5 A8.0

2'-6"

1'-10"

3'-6"

2X8 FLOOR JOISTS 16" O/C

8"

2'-6"

8"

2'-1 1/2"

8"

5'-8"

3'-6"

5'-8"

LOFT

2'-6"

2'-6"

7'-10"

7'-10"

4 A8.0

1 A8.0

2X10 FLOOR JOISTS

SECTION D SCALE 1/4"=1'-0"

PREFABRICATED TRUSS

ENTRY


Copyright is that of the Architect. Any version of this drawing reproduced by any means from any media without prior written approval of the Architect is to be read for information only. The Architect is not liable for any loss or distortion of information resulting from subsequent reproduction of the original drawing. GENERAL NOTES: 1. Drawings are not to be scaled. Contractor will verify all existing conditions and dimensions required to perform the Work and will report any discrepancies with the Contract Documents to the Architect before commencing work. 2. The Architectural Drawings are to be read in conjunction with all other Contract Documents including the Project Manuals and the Structural, Mechanical and Electrical Drawings. In cases of difference between the Consultants' documents with respect to the quantity, sizes or scope of work, the greater shall apply. 3. Positions of exposed or finished Mechanical or Electrical devices, fittings and fixtures are indicated on the Architectural Drawings. Locations shown on the Architectural Drawings shall govern over Mechanical and Electrical Drawings. Mechanical and Electrical items not clearly located will be located as directed by the Architect. 4. Dimensions indicated are taken between the faces of finished surfaces unless otherwise noted. 5. The architect has not been retained for supervision of construction and assumes no responsibility for means, methods and techniques of construction. 6. These documents are not to be used for construction unless specifically noted for such purpose.

2'-1 1/2"

LOFT (FUTURE BEDROOM)

2'-6"

2'-6"

3'-6"

LIVING

4'-3"

BATH

4 A4.0

SECTION C SCALE 1/4"=1'-0"

Date

Issued

1 2

2019-12-19 2020-03-31

INTERIM SUBMISSION FINAL SUBMISSION

Two Row Architect 1804 6th Line - Six Nations Ohsweken, Ontario N0A 1M0 519 445 2137

2'-3"

PREFABRICATED TRUSS

4'-3"

Client Name

7'-9"

BEDROOM

KPMB Architects 322 King St W, 3rd Fl Toronto, ON, Canada M5V 1J2 416 977 5104

NRCC PATH TO HEALTHY HOMES FORT SEVERN

3'-6"

KITCHEN/ LIVING

Rev.

2'-6"

5'-0"

2'-6"

FORT SEVERN ONTARIO, POV 1W0

Project North

True North

SCALE PROJECT NO. ISSUE DATE

1/4" = 1'-0" 1953 2020-03-31

SECTIONS 1 A4.0

SECTION A SCALE 1/4"=1'-0"

A4.0

59


1 BEDROOM ACCESSIBLE UNIT 432 SQ.FT.

PREFABRICATED TRUSSES

12'-5"

5'-7" 18'-0"

1'-1"

1 A4.1

60

SECTION E SCALE 1/4"=1'-0"


Copyright is that of the Architect. Any version of this drawing reproduced by any means from any media without prior written approval of the Architect is to be read for information only. The Architect is not liable for any loss or distortion of information resulting from subsequent reproduction of the original drawing. GENERAL NOTES: 1. Drawings are not to be scaled. Contractor will verify all existing conditions and dimensions required to perform the Work and will report any discrepancies with the Contract Documents to the Architect before commencing work. 2. The Architectural Drawings are to be read in conjunction with all other Contract Documents including the Project Manuals and the Structural, Mechanical and Electrical Drawings. In cases of difference between the Consultants' documents with respect to the quantity, sizes or scope of work, the greater shall apply. 3. Positions of exposed or finished Mechanical or Electrical devices, fittings and fixtures are indicated on the Architectural Drawings. Locations shown on the Architectural Drawings shall govern over Mechanical and Electrical Drawings. Mechanical and Electrical items not clearly located will be located as directed by the Architect. 4. Dimensions indicated are taken between the faces of finished surfaces unless otherwise noted. 5. The architect has not been retained for supervision of construction and assumes no responsibility for means, methods and techniques of construction. 6. These documents are not to be used for construction unless specifically noted for such purpose.

2 BEDROOM + LOFT UNIT 720 SF + 330 SQ.FT. TOTAL: 1080 SQ.FT.

LVL ROOF FRAMING

OPEN TO LOFT BEYOND

8"

3'-6"

ATTIC (FUTURE ENSUITE)

2'-6"

2'-6"

8'-0"

OPEN TO CORRIDOR BEYOND

5'-7"

3'-11"

12'-0"

Rev.

Date

Issued

1 2

2019-12-19 2020-03-31

INTERIM SUBMISSION FINAL SUBMISSION

8'-6"

30'-0" 48'-0"

1'-1"

Two Row Architect 1804 6th Line - Six Nations Ohsweken, Ontario N0A 1M0 519 445 2137

KPMB Architects 322 King St W, 3rd Fl Toronto, ON, Canada M5V 1J2 416 977 5104 Client Name

NRCC PATH TO HEALTHY HOMES FORT SEVERN

FORT SEVERN ONTARIO, POV 1W0

Project North

True North

SCALE PROJECT NO. ISSUE DATE

1/4" = 1'-0" 1953 2020-03-31

SECTIONS

A4.1

61


W1 EXTERIOR WALL 2X6 24" EXTERIOR INSULATED (R48) TAMARACK SHINGLE SIDING 1X3 STRAPPING (HORIZONTAL) 1X3 STRAPPING/DRAINAGE CAVITY (VERTICAL) RIGID EXTERIOR INSULATION (8" COMFORT BOARD) R32 AIRTIGHT SELF-ADHESIVE SHEATHING MEMBRANE 3/4" PLYWOOD SHEATHING 2X6" 24"O/C FRAMING BATT INSULATION (R16) 1/2" INTERIOR FINISH (GWB OR PLY)

W2 ONE-HOUR FIRE SEPARATION 5/8" TYPE X GYPSUM BOARD TWO ROWS 2X4" WOOD STUD WITH 1" SPACE BETWEEN 3 1/2" MINERAL WOOL INSULATION

P1 INTERIOR PARTITION WALL 2X6 24" O/C 1/2" GWB OR PLYWOOD 2X6" 24"O/C FRAMING

P2 INTERIOR PARTITION WALL 2X4 24" O/C 1/2" GWB OR PLYWOOD 2X4" 24"O/C FRAMING

1 A7.0

62

WALL AND ROOF ASSEMBLIES SCALE 1'=1'-0"

ROOF - 7:12 SLOPE (MIN R48) PRE-FORMED SNAP LOCK STANDING SEAM GALVALUME CLADDING 1X3 STRAPPING (HORIZONTAL) 2X3 STRAPPING/DRAINAGE CAVITY (VERTICAL) RIGID EXTERIOR INSULATION (8" COMFORT BOARD) R32 AIRTIGHT SELF-ADHESIVE SHEATHING MEMBRANE 3/4" PLYWOOD SHEATHING STRUCTURE (1 3/4X11 7/8" LVL 24" O/C OR TRUSS 24" O/C) BATT INSULATION (MIN 5 1/2", R16) 1/2" INTERIOR FINISH (GWB OR PLY)


Copyright is that of the Architect. Any version of this drawing reproduced by any means from any media without prior written approval of the Architect is to be read for information only. The Architect is not liable for any loss or distortion of information resulting from subsequent reproduction of the original drawing. GENERAL NOTES: 1. Drawings are not to be scaled. Contractor will verify all existing conditions and dimensions required to perform the Work and will report any discrepancies with the Contract Documents to the Architect before commencing work. 2. The Architectural Drawings are to be read in conjunction with all other Contract Documents including the Project Manuals and the Structural, Mechanical and Electrical Drawings. In cases of difference between the Consultants' documents with respect to the quantity, sizes or scope of work, the greater shall apply. 3. Positions of exposed or finished Mechanical or Electrical devices, fittings and fixtures are indicated on the Architectural Drawings. Locations shown on the Architectural Drawings shall govern over Mechanical and Electrical Drawings. Mechanical and Electrical items not clearly located will be located as directed by the Architect. 4. Dimensions indicated are taken between the faces of finished surfaces unless otherwise noted. 5. The architect has not been retained for supervision of construction and assumes no responsibility for means, methods and techniques of construction. 6. These documents are not to be used for construction unless specifically noted for such purpose.

Rev.

Date

Issued

1 2

2019-12-19 2020-03-31

INTERIM SUBMISSION FINAL SUBMISSION

Two Row Architect 1804 6th Line - Six Nations Ohsweken, Ontario N0A 1M0 519 445 2137

KPMB Architects 322 King St W, 3rd Fl Toronto, ON, Canada M5V 1J2 416 977 5104 Client Name

NRCC PATH TO HEALTHY HOMES FORT SEVERN

FORT SEVERN ONTARIO, POV 1W0

Project North

True North

SCALE PROJECT NO. ISSUE DATE

AS INDICATED 1953 2020-03-31

WALL AND ROOF ASSEMBLIES

A7.0

63


2'-2 1/2"

1'-2 1/2" 4" 2" °

6"

88

7"

1 A8.0

BIRDHOUSE SHINGLE

BIRDHOUSE SHINGLE ELEVATION

2

SCALE 3'=1'-0"

SCALE 3'=1'-0"

A8.0

TYPICAL ROOF ASS STRUCTURE

PREFINISHED MET 3/4" PLYWOOD SHEATHING

TYPICAL EXTERIOR ASSEMBLY

2x10" FLOOR JOISTS

(3) 2x12" BUILT UP BEAMS

MIN. 5 1/2" BATT INSULATION 3/4" PLYWOOD SHEATHING 8" RIGID INSULATION 3/4" PLYWOOD SHEATHING FOUNDATION RAISED MIN. 2' FROM GRADE (TRIODETIC OR OTHER)

3 A8.0

64

DETAIL AT FOUNDATION SCALE 1'=1'-0"

4 A8.0

ROOF TO WALL DETAIL SCALE 1"=1'-0"


Copyright is that of the Architect. Any version of this drawing reproduced by any means from any media without prior written approval of the Architect is to be read for information only. The Architect is not liable for any loss or distortion of information resulting from subsequent reproduction of the original drawing.

TAPE SEAL AIRTIGHT SELF ADHESIVE MEMBRANE

2x8 FLOOR ASSMEBLY

WOOD SHINGLE SIDING VERTICAL STRAPPING (DRAINAGE CAVITY)

GENERAL NOTES: 1. Drawings are not to be scaled. Contractor will verify all existing conditions and dimensions required to perform the Work and will report any discrepancies with the Contract Documents to the Architect before commencing work. 2. The Architectural Drawings are to be read in conjunction with all other Contract Documents including the Project Manuals and the Structural, Mechanical and Electrical Drawings. In cases of difference between the Consultants' documents with respect to the quantity, sizes or scope of work, the greater shall apply. 3. Positions of exposed or finished Mechanical or Electrical devices, fittings and fixtures are indicated on the Architectural Drawings. Locations shown on the Architectural Drawings shall govern over Mechanical and Electrical Drawings. Mechanical and Electrical items not clearly located will be located as directed by the Architect. 4. Dimensions indicated are taken between the faces of finished surfaces unless otherwise noted. 5. The architect has not been retained for supervision of construction and assumes no responsibility for means, methods and techniques of construction. 6. These documents are not to be used for construction unless specifically noted for such purpose.

INTERMITTENT PRESSURE TREATED BLOCKING 1/2" DRYWALL RIGID INSULATION PREFINISHED METAL FLASHING BACKER ROD AND SEALANT

INTERIOR SEALANT CONTINUOUS SEALANT (AB) CONTINUOUS ANGLE

3 1/2"

11"

CONTINUOUS SEALANT WEATHER TREATED WOOD SILL (2-5% SLOPE) METAL FLASHING DRAINAGE MAT

SEMBLY ON LVL

AIRTIGHT SELF ADHESIVE MEMBRANE

Rev.

Date

Issued

1 2

2019-12-19 2020-03-31

INTERIM SUBMISSION FINAL SUBMISSION

VERTICAL STRAPPING (DRAINAGE CAVITY)

TAL FLASHING

R INSULATED WALL

WOOD SHINGLE SIDING

HORIZONTAL STRAPPING

Two Row Architect 1804 6th Line - Six Nations Ohsweken, Ontario N0A 1M0 519 445 2137

KPMB Architects 322 King St W, 3rd Fl Toronto, ON, Canada M5V 1J2 416 977 5104 Client Name

NRCC PATH TO HEALTHY HOMES FORT SEVERN

2x10 FLOOR JOISTS ON 2X12 BUILTUP BEAMS ON INSULATED FOUNDATION

FORT SEVERN ONTARIO, POV 1W0

Project North

True North

SCALE PROJECT NO. ISSUE DATE

AS INDICATED 1953 2020-03-31

DETAILS 5 A8.0

WINDOW DETAILS SCALE 3"=1'-0"

A8.0

65


66


Millions discover their favorite reads on issuu every month.

Give your content the digital home it deserves. Get it to any device in seconds.