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Jacob C. Cassel 915 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pa Manufacturer

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aquatic %Alt 8

Vol. IV.

Q 8

An

August, 1919

1

Wm.

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Importer

\

No. 12

Paullin

L.

j

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international monthly magazine devoted to the study, care and breeding of fishes and other animals and plants in the home aquarium and terrarium.

W. A. POYSER JOSEPH E. BAUSMAN

EDITOR PUBLISHER

548 East Girard Avenue

Philadelphia

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matter, September 2d, 1915, at the Post Office, Philadelphia, Pa., under

Entered as

second-class

Act of March 3d, 18T9. Popular and scientific articles and notes on subjects pertaining to the aquarium and terrarium. and to the habits of fishes in general, are always wanted for "Aquatic Life." Readers are invited to join in making it a medium of mutual help by contributing to it the results of their studies. The pages are always open to anyone having information of interest to the aquarist and student of

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— 1!

Observations on the Chelonians of DR.

R.

North America. IV. W. 5HUFELDT,

C.

M.

Z.

5.

«b

Melanemys guttatus

Spotted Turtle

Jh

Most

writers on our turtles and ter-

rapins include

m

genus Chelopus

this

group

— four

that

species,

is,

the

namely,

specimen of this species a female which I have recently photographed, and a reproduction of which illustrates the

the Spotted Turtle (Chelopus guttatus),

present

Muhlenberg's Turtle (C. muhlenbergii),

of the aquariums in

the Western

Pond Turtle

and the

tus),

sculptus).

Wood

(C.

marmora-

Terrapin

Living specimens of

(C. all

in-

these

forms have been studied by me, together with their structure and habits, many times during the past half -century.

1866

I

of our

had some forty

common way from

In

living specimens

Spotted Turtle, ranging

those just out of the egg advanced age. Even at the present time I have a very beautiful all

the

to ones of very

article.

It

has been kept in one

my

study,

and upon

the 10th of July, 1919, she laid an egg; a second one on the 24th of the

same

month, and a third two days afterward. This

is

now

have been

three weeks ago, and none

I photographed and they are shown Again, above these here, natural size. eggs, there is a reproduction of an egg

these

of

three

the

laid

since.

eggs,

common Musk

Turtle (Aromo-

chelys odoratus), and this

graphed, natural

size,

I

also photo-

the specimen hav-


Aquatic

156

me by Mr. Edward

ing been presented to

S. Schmid, of Washington, who had a number of this species of turtle in a

These figures

tank at his establishment.

show very well the slight difference in the form of the eggs of the two genera. pure

are

All

and

white

ellipsoidal

in

liitz

far

Jersey and

Pennsylvania

Island being the centre of

Coming cies

had

have

I

months

Wood

to the

at a time,

confinement

in

eration a species that

which may

carapace of seven inches.

with

salmon

may

color,

be

for

consida land

a length of It is

fond of

damp woods, and takes to the water only as it rambles around through them. The

yellow

round,

scattered,

plastron

the

strictly

is

attain

Our common Spotted Turtle is so well known that it requires no special deThe upper shell is always scription. ;

abundance.

we have under

form.

spots

its

York,

— Staten

Terrapin, a spe-

tortoise,

black,

New

has been found only in

it

New

yellow

or

with a central figure of

black, the latter subject to great varia-

The head

tion.

with yellow

black

is

markings, particularly with a deep yellow spot over the auricular opening.

This familiar pond turtle is almost enaquatic by habit, being found in

tirely

ponds,

streams,

them,

etc.

It

with water

ditches

in

feeds under water, and will

eat of the leaves of certain plants, such

and the like. The male has a long tail and the female a very short one. It occurs from Northern Maine to North Carolina, westward to the Mississippi as lettuce

Valley.

It

rarely exceeds four inches in

length of shell or carapace.

The Western Pond

Turtle, with habits

quite similar to the last, species, yellow spots

is

also a blackish

and dashes marking

each shield of the carapace, the dashes

species

running from the shield's centre to

and wonderfully

margin

in

its

The brown

every instance.

limbs are spotted with yellow or black, as

is

This

also the head.

is

a Pacific

of an affectionate disposition

is

This

nian.

intelligent for a chelo-

an entirely different reptile

is

from any of the foregoing

Coast species, and the only species of

shield of

pond

concentric grooves,

turtle of that entire region.

Muhlenberg's Turtle

is

also

a

black

on its plasand a very distinctive bright orange spot on either side of the head, not far

species,

its

carapace having a conspicuous keel, each

which

sculptured

is

deeply marked with giving the

appearance

while

a

though done This shell is of

as

species with yellow blotches

with some tool or other.

tron,

a pale earth-brown, with radiating yel-

i

rom

the

auricular

opening.

It

runs

about four inches for the length of shell,

and

is

aquatic in

its

habits.

its

Thus

low

lines

shield.

mon

and

Limbs color,

brighter red.

various

spots

on

each

and top of head dull sal-

or

in

some

specimens

a


:

Aquatic Hilt

157

Doubtless there are a number of ana-

Marine Aquaria

tomical points that are quite different in the

Wood

the

corresponding ones

Terrapin, as compared with

any of

in

the

three

Pond Turtles described

to

external characters, they are each

its

above.

As

At

the meeting of the South Austra-

Aquarium

lian

March, the by Mr. Edgar R. Waite, F. L. S., who demonstrated the principles and practices of the marine aquarium. After detailing some of the physical properties of sea presidential

Society,

in

was

address

delivered

when we come them with those of the Spotted Turtle, of the Western Pond, and

water,

its

density,

those of Muhlenberg's Turtle.

and so

on,

Mr. Waite remarked

and

entirely different

all

to contrast

The

distinctive external characters of

the three pond turtles on the one hand,

Wood

and the have,

Terrapin on the other, with their habits, been

together

sufficiently set forth above, obviating the

necessity for their tabulation here.

marked

known

differences

have

to herpetologists

with them. that the

Pond

Terrapin

different

a

an entirely

is

from any of

This being the case,

Turtles.

represents

it

are familiar

All this points to the fact

Wood

different species of reptile

the

been

long

who

The

genus among

chelonians, and this difference should be

recognized through drawing the necessary generic I

lines.

ture,

for

will then stand thus

:

Melanemys guttatus Melanemys muhlenbergii Melanemys marmoratus. The Wood Terrapin Chelopus insculptus, which

now

are liars

Hard work always of factors

Na-

of

mountain torwhich may have a fauna and flora quite its own, not even the conditions found in an ordinary stream. We rent,

rather attempt to copy the stagnant, often slimy pool, whose surface may be forbidding, but whose water beneath is

often clean and limpid. closed in glass walls

place in our cellent

Such a pool

in-

we can nowadays

rooms and preserve

condition with very

little

in ex-

atten-

Turning

to the

immediate subject of

we may ask where shall similar ocean pool? The an-

our discourse,

we

find a

swer must be a negative one, and evident,

therefore,

that

is

remain

the

name

and

We

billows.

its

The ocean

stands at the top of

is

ever

its

often enormous

cannot, therefore, attempt

yard of open ocean On rocky shores

pur drawing room.

often find pools left by the receding

tide,

full

of sparkling water and bright

green seaweeds,

in success.

is

waters are being con-

to translate a cubic to

who never even

it

conditions

rium must be different from those with which we are familiar as votaries of

tinually revivified by will

the

required for maintaining a marine aqua-

wealth of list

seek to trans-

little bit

which few people We do not, how-

bits of

freshwater aquaria.

tried to catch a fish.

the

a

ever, try to reproduce the

we

men

we

own homes

one of the

in motion,

bears in science.

Lots of

our

have any knowledge.

therefore here suggest that the three

which I propose the name of Melanemys, which refers to their general black color. These turtles

it

"In keeping aquaria late to

composition

tion.

above referred to Pond Turtles, now in the genus Chelopus, be removed from that group and made to form a genus by themselves,

salinity,

guide, but

it

among which

is

to

lurks

a

must be our be remembered that

This, then,

life.

Concluded on page 160


IGNATZ STEINHART Photo by Moulin, 1916


<The

STEINHART AQUARIUM SAN FRANCISCO expected that San Francisco will

It is

soon have the most comprehensive and best equipped

aquarium

in

America.

This has been made possible by the Ignatz Steinhart, who was one of San Francisco's most prominent business men and most honored citizens. Mr. Steinhart had long contemplated establishing a public aquarium in San Francisco, as had his brother, Sigmund Steinlate

hart, before him.

When Sigmund

Stein-

sum

hart died, in 1910, he left a certain

with his brother with which to establish be found feasible

an aquarium, should do so. Various and divers it

to

difficulties

and the idea was tically abandoned. But, in 1916, soon after Dr. Barton Warren Everman went from the Bureau San Fisheries, in Washington, to of prac-

arose, however,

Francisco to become the director of the

Museum

of the California

Everman

Academy

of

order to free

ciety, in

it

of politics, the

city continuing to furnish the

funds for maintenance but having nothing whatever to do with the management, Mr. Steinhart asked

emy was

the California

if

not similar to the

Acad-

New York

Zoological Society in being entirely free

from

When assured he decided then and there to give to the California Academy of Scithat

political influences.

it

ences

is,

funds

the

for

the

building and

equipment. It was his wish that the aquarium might be established and in operation in

his lifetime, but, to the

of the

Academy and

was not

to be; for

only a few days'

very great regret

all

California, this

Mr. Steinhart, after

illness,

died

May

15,

1917.

When learned

was made public it was Mr. Steinhart had be-

the will that

queathed to the California Academy of

discussed with

Sciences $250,000 for the erection and

Mr. Steinhart the value to the public that a great aquarium in San Francisco

completion of a public aquarium build-

Sciences,

would

Dr.

possess.

cussions,

As

Mr. Steinhart's

matter revived.

The one

interest in the difficulty

caused Mr. Steinhart to hesitate presented

He

felt

made

by the any

that

question

was

of

management

political control possible

which that

control.

which

should be

For that reason he would not When he place it under city control. was told that the New York aquarium, originally under the Board of Park Commissioners, was, upon the initiative of the Park Commissioners themselves, avoided.

transferred to the

ing upon the following conditions

a result of these dis-

New

Zoological So-

in

:

That the aquarium be located (1) Golden Gate Park adjoining, or adja-

cent

to,

Academy

the

of

Museum Sciences.

of the California

(2)

That the

management and superintendunder ence be the California Academy That the city of San of Sciences. (3) control,

Francisco supply to the California Acad-

emy

of Sciences the funds adequate for

(4) That the aquarium be known as the Steinhart Aqua-

maintenance, and, rium.

Mr. Jesse

W.

Lillienthal, Jr., execu-

tor of the Steinhart estate, has recently


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Aquatic Etfc

160

informed Dr. Everman that he expects

Academy

to pay over to the

within a

few weeks the entire quarter of a million dollars and that it is his desire that the aquarium be in operation as soon as posIt is

sible.

therefore quite probable that

by native labor

Apart from large and expensive apsuch as

aquaria,

our endeavors

gratulated on having had as honored and Sigmund and citizens, public-spirited Ignatz Steinhart men of vision and

presented

large sympathies, who, having prospered in this world, decided to do this splendid

more

thing for the people

among whom

they

maintain

to

The tanks must be

a

quite shal-

low, so that a large aerating surface ;

amount of sive

is

minimum

light in order to retard exces-

than in

active

warm weather

during ficial

they must admit a

vegetable growth,

aeration

aquarist

San Francisco and California are also upon having as one

public

in

installed

is

marine aquarium must be on a very modest scale.

lived.

luxury which cannot

paratus,

building operations will begin very soon. The city of San Francisco is to be con-

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a

be enjoyed in White Australia.

also

which

much

is

water,

fresh

and

provision for arti-

The

must be made. must be content

with

smaller and fewer animals than he would

The

to be congratulated

introduce into fresh water tanks.

of their great institutions the California Academy of Sciences, which is doing so

chances of success are greatly enhanced

in the

in the tank is kept in absolute darkness,

much

for science

and education

if

quite half the total quantity of water

but with free access to the lighted part

land.

The name

Steinhart will ever be

of

so that circulation of the water

is

pro-

honored and revered by the thousands who will daily visit the Steinhart Aqua-

moted."

through observaand entertainment receive tion and study, inand varied instruction regarding the which life teresting forms of aquatic

and blackboard drawings, and the president mentioned that he had maintained a marine aquarium for seven years, during which period the water was not changed, fresh water only being added to replace loss by evaporation. The correct density of the water was assured by testing with a salinometer, or by ob-

rium, where they

will,

will there be displayed.

Marine Aquaria Concluded from page 157 twice daily this

little

garden-like pool

is

thoroughly scoured by the tides, a condition we cannot hope to reproduce unless

we live quite close to the sea, and the work entailed in carrying sea water would soon dampen the ardor of the most enthusiastic.

I

recently

saw some

delightful exhibits of marine life main-

tained by this means.

man

settlers in

New

One

of the Ger-

Ireland took great

pleasure in keeping, in large glass basins,

specimens culled from the ocean his

illustrated with ap-

serving a pair of specific gravity bulbs,

one of which floated and the other reAny change in at the bottom.

mained

the relative position of the bulbs indicate that the

and required

salinity

was

would

incorrect

As an

to be adjusted.

indi-

cation of the success of the installation, it

was mentioned

that

pipe-fishes

and

sea-horses had bred in Mr. Waite's aqua-

rium.

Herbert

M.

Hale,

Honorary

Secretary.

close

bungalow, but the water was changed daily, and new life introduced

to

The address was paratus

A man

does not amount to

he can prove

it.

much

unless


LEBIAS SOPHIAE WALTER LAMNOT

With

the

World War

a matter of the

and with the ships dashing over the seas unmenaced by hostile submarines,

past,

it

is

not too

much

to believe that

Lebias

sophias will be one of the fishes sought

aquarium

by collectors of

doubt

if

brought to America, but

in

who

fishes

I

is

Z. S.

F.

by far the showiest of the

In breeding periods

pair.

becomes a mespots hence it it

beautiful deep blue, sprinkled with

green and silver might well be given the tallic

silver-spangled lebias.

it

vidual

1910

and anal

was ever it had been secured by the Germans, and was bred in the fishery on Lake Tegel, known penetrate Asia.

the case,

BRIMD,

in

is

;

common name

When

the indi-

prime condition the dorsal with rows of

fins are orange,

by the high-sounding name of "Vereinigten

Zierfischzuchtereien

hohe."

my

return to the United

States

from

missed the chance to add

Berlin,

so I species

this

Conrads-

in

This was but a short time after

the

to

number

large

I

brought with me,

many

of which are

prime

with

American aqua-

favorites

now

rists.

The genus Lebias belongs

to the "egg-

laying tooth-carp group" of the aquarist,

which comprises such forms as HaploRivulus, Fundulus and so on.

Lebias sophiae

chihts,

The breeding

habits of

Lebias sophias

are quite like those of our native (South-

ern) Fundulus chrysotus.

The eggs

are

two or three, on the leaves of Myriophyllum or such deposited in small

lots,

one,

other fine-leaved plant as vided.

Breeding

is

may

be pro-

said to be easy, but

from a standpoint of numbers, as but few eggs seem to be spawned at a time, and but a small percentage hatch to grow to maturity. This would seem to indicate that when we are fortunate enough to secure the fish, it not

will

profitable

be one to be placed

class, to

in

the costly

remain there.

The male

of the species, as

The female

black spots and black edges. is

quite

insignificant,

being of a dirty,

clayish, yellow-gray, with a

dark lateral

and some mottlings of dark brown at times showing on the sides. The length of the male is about two inches, a stripe

trifle

longer than the female.

Love-making is chronic with the male. Never wps there such an ardent lover, nor a more resentful bit of viciousness

when

his suit

is

rejected.

The female is much as per-

coy and shrinking, hiding as mitted plants.

amongst the thickets of bushy And plenty of plants must be

provided. is

so often

Coming

as

it

does from brackish wat-


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; &guatic

162 ers,

of Persia,

follows that a similar

it

degree of salinity should be simulated in

aquarium, in fact

the

it

absolutely

is

necessary, especially insofar as breeding

Further, inability to re-

concerned.

is

aquarium the precise conditions of its native environment may account for the small numbers the Germans were able to rear. A temperature of about 75 degrees seems best suited. produce

An

in the

the fish in the St.

Lawrence River

reau of Fisheries during the in July.

Og-

at

the Bu-

week

first

Fish Hatchery, had re-

ported that large numbers of fish were

dying in the ponds and also in the river. The epidemic was at its height during the

two weeks

first

in

June and then

At the

decreased rapidly in severity.

time of the investigation the disease had

from the ponds and fish were taken in few diseased only a entirely disappeared

the river.

None

of these appeared to

be seriously affected by the disease.

The

fish

taken in the river showed two

distinct types of lesions

bullheads

the

on the

disease

which are present

catfish

the

On

skin.

areas were very distinct, about

x

disease

is

2

The manufacture of pearl buttons from mussel shells began in 1891 and the rapid increase in the business soon

threatened the destruction of the mus-

The United

due to the complete destruction of the

Government

States

consequence entered upon a series of as

to

the

propagating mussels

practicability

This

artificially.

and suckers had a very different appearThey were irregular in shape and

by

unusual. velops

various

investigators

The

work.

theoretical

life

characteristic

around the

was a

scales,

The most marked

faint reddish

due

border

from the egg

a

to

form

larval

naked human

eye,

the water where dies,

is

it

whether

depending on

opportunity to attach

chance favors

it

it,

the stream, and enter the adult mussel.

it

has an

some fish. takes up the life enough developed

itself to

drop

to leave the fish,

discharged into

develops further or

it

bottom of upon the life of to the

The

task, therefore,

of artificially breeding mussels, involves

of

and

the young, almost microscopic, glochidia.

Investigations have

from one thousand these

seum

parasitic

shown

may

mod-

that a

successfully carry

to

guests.

two thousand of American Mu-

Journal.

to a slight extra-

vasation of blood into the epidermis.

A

is

called "Glochidium," barely visible to the

erate sized fish so indistinct as to attract attention only

in

history

After the young mussel de-

ance.

on close examination.

is

the mussel, which has been

history of

gained

the bringing together of suitable fish

diseased areas in the skin of bass

of

commercial problem, yet success depends upon a knowledge pi the life

dermis beneath.

The

in in-

a

to i-

epidermus, thus exposing the inflamed

bacteria

at present problematic.

of a parasite until far

inch in diameter and bright red in color,

to

in

infected

/

due

enormous numbers in the disintegrating epidermis. These bacteria are not present in the lesions on bass and suckers, and the cause of this

If

and

In the former the

apparently

is

vestigations

E. A. Cooper, superintendent of

New York

the bass and suckers.

sels.

made by

densburg, N. Y., was

the

among

investigation of an epidemic

JLitt

Patience

is

the ri^ht

bower of

floridae

has

success.

microscopic examination of sections

skin

from the infected areas

cates that the disease in bullheads catfish is probably distinct

indi-

and

from that

in

Jordanella

been

transported to Australia, where

bred

in the

safely it

has

ponds of H. E. Finckh, Esq.


THE SENSES OF FISHES C. Professor of

JUDSON HERRICK

Neurology

in the University

of Chicago

Our human world is a very limited The unaided senses of primitive man open a few doors of com-

thing in our

munication between the individual and

animals except in so far as their sensory

part of nature.

his surroundings, total of his

through which the sum

knowledge of things as they

are must be derived. ly

Science has great-

enlarged the efficiency of the natural

sense organs telescope vision,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the

and

microscope

the

have extended the range of

the periscope enables us to

see

around a corner, the spectroscope, photographic plate, X-ray machine, and innumerable other aids have enabled us to But no new see deeper into nature. senses have been developd and our and most furthest scientific advances recondite philosophical theories must be based in last analysis on such fragmentary knowledge of the cosmos as is revealed to us by our senses. Great realms of nature remain wholly unexplored, although

new

artificial aids

per-

mit constant advances into the hitherto

unknown

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Hertzian

waves and wireless

telegraphy, ions and the electrons

new

chemistry,

and the new physics.

do not represent our whole physiological equipment for this task. In fact, the human animal is endowed with about twenty distinct senses, including two

in

bodies,

equipment

is

and

it

is

quite

similar to our own.

the companionable dog,

Even who responds so

sympathetically and intelligently to our lives in a very different world.

moods,

Recent experiments have shown that his sense of vision is very imperfect, especially for details of

form, and everybody

knows

the inconceivable delicacy of the hound's sense of smell. With us vision the dominant sense and our mental imagery is largely in terms of things is

seen.

how

it

Even a blind man will say, "I see is," when he comprehends a dem-

onstration.

What whose does

it

world is it to a dog, experiences and chief in-

sort of a

finest

terests are in

terms of odors

feel to be a catfish,

?

And how

provided not

only with large olfactory organs whose central nervous centers

make up almost

of the cerebral hemispheres of the

all

but also with innumerable taste

brain,

buds

Fortunately the traditional five senses

own

impossible for us to form any conception of what the world appears like to these

all

over the mucous lining of the

mouth and

gills

and freely distributed

over the entire outer skin from the barblets

the

("feelers")

tail fin ?

around the mouth

We cannot

to

conceive the epi-

curean delights which such an animal

may

such as muscle sense, hunger, thirst and

feel when he swims into the water surrounding a juicy piece of fresh meat, by whose odorous and savory juices he is

other visceral senses.

bathed.

the ear, at least

four in the skin, and

numerous Dthers

It is

lower

well

known

vertebrates

in

the

deep

that fishes

possess

tissues,

and other numerous

types of sense organs quite unlike any-

how

One wonders,

parenthetically,

far the fish himself

is

able to con-

ceive or even enjoy the pleasures of

With how much mind

life.

of any sort the


Aquatic

161

endowed

fish is

riddle

;

but

it

at present

is

certain

is

havior complex

is

an unsolved

that

be-

his

of very different pat-

JLitt

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

two quite different sense organs the organ of hearing and the organ of the

The

sense of equilibrium.

latter lies in

from ours and whatever mind he have would surely be as different may

the semi-circular canals, which in

as the pattern of his sense experience

human

tern

is

and function are similar body.

form

to those in the

Indeed, the semi-circular

canals probably play a larger part in the

different.

Let us pursue

line

this

further and review what

of

inquiry

known

is

the other senses of our catfish.

This

of fish

behavior of the

matter for a

fish

since maintaining

fish,

equilibrium

perfect

more

a

is

suspended

difficult

water of

in

cealed in dark corners during the day.

about the same specific gravity as the body than for a man walking on solid ground. But when the man essays to fly,

The

his

has small and poorly developed eyes and is

largely nocturnal in habit, lying con-

has

retina

remarkable powers of

adaptation to differences in illumination

and the

fish is

very sensitive to changes

But the eye

in intensity of light.

is

not

the only light-sensitive organ.

Experi-

show

that the

ments with blinded entire skin surface

fish is

sensitive to differ-

feature of aquatic animals.

uncommon The image-

forming power of the eye

is

ences of light intensity, a not

not very good.

Some

catfishes,

probably it is

true,

spoon hook, and probably a must always be in motion if it is The usual to be sensed by the eye. method of feeding is to trail the bottom with the barblets, which are very efficient organs of both touch and taste, and when contact is made with a worm

semi-circular

dominant place

again

canals

take

a

sensory equipment.

in his

In the practical testing of the fitness of

men who

are candidates

Service of the point

Army

determined

to be

Air

the

for

the most important is

whether the

semi-circular canals are functioning normally.

Whether

fishes

hear at

has been

That they are very

hotly controverted. sensitive

all

mechanical jars and vibra-

to

has been

will take a

tions all agree, but

bait

prove whether their responses to these vibrations are brought about through

difficult to

by refined cutaneous sensiingenious/ experiments of

their ears or bility.

it

The

or other suitable food to turn sharply

Parker have shown that both of these organs serve and that, in fact, fishes do hear true sound waves of rather low

and snap

pitch with their ears.

it

up.

Just as the eyes are supplemented in their

functions by the skin, which has

a very

feeble sensitiveness to light,

so

the highly refined chemical sense organs

and taste buds are also supplemented by a chemical sense in the general skin. In some other fishes which have been carefully tested the general skin surface is found to be very sensitive to chemicals in solution, to some sub-

more

sensitive, in fact,

than are

the taste buds themselves.

In fishes, as in men, the ear contains

tones of high

have no power of tone analysis, that they can hear a noise but cannot

tell

is,

one

tone from another.

The

in the nose

stances

To

pitch they are deaf and probably they

fishes

can boast no superiority

over ourselves in being able to respond

low tones by both the ear and Lhe We can do the same, as can readily be shown by lightly touching the sounding board of a piano or organ when

to

skin.

a low tone

is

struck.

The same

tone

heard by the ear can be readily felt by But for perceiving still the finger tips.


Aquatic Hitt slower vibratory movements we, with

our boasted brain power, ourselves

inferior to

all

must

admit

the fishes.

They

possess an elaborate system of cutaneous

and subcutaneous sense organs of which we have not a vestige. These so-called lateral line organs in the catfish comprise a complex system of fine tubes under the skin, the lateral line canals, and

two kinds of sense organs

The

organs.

the pit

in the

sk'n,

canals ramify

in

various directions in the head and

trie

main

the

canal extends

lateral

along

side of the body back to the tail. They were formerly supposed to be for the secretion of mucus and are still often called the mucous canals. But they are

now known

numerous small

contain

to

sense organs which respond to slow vi-

The

bratory movements of the water.

organs are scattered over the skin,

pit

the smaller ones each in a flask-shaped

with a narrow mouth and the less numerous larger ones exposed on the pit

The

lateral

line

supplied by a

sense organs are

single

all

system of nerves

and quite from those for the general tactile and chemical senses of the skin and cutaneous taste buds. That the lateral related to the nerves of the ear, distinct

organs .respond to slow

line

movements has been

clearly

vibratory

shown by

Parker, but the distinctive features of the pit

organs are

unknown

and, in fact, our

knowledge of the functions of the system as a whole is still very incomplete. It

clear

is

that cutaneous

touch, lateral line organs,

organs of

and the organs

of equilibrium and hearing in the internal ear

form a graded

series,

and

all

have

probably been derived in evolution from a primitive type of tactile organ.

therefore

we

When

both hear and feel a musical

tone of the piano

we

are reminded of the

long and dramatic history of the very intricate

and

first

at the

human

auditory organ, whose

last

may function own bodies.

stages both

same time

in

our

We

cannot here recount the details of the long series of very tedious scientific investigations required to replace the conjectures of amateur naturalists and fisherfolk by accurate knowledge of the

sensory

life

of fishes.

precise information

And we

even with

this

are far from a

true understanding of the fishes' minds. To learn the structure and behavior of

any

animal

requires

only

sufficient

and industry, but to understand the mind of an animal is the most scientific skill

baffling of all scientific questions.

Our own thoughts are purely personal Even with the aid of language, facial expression and gesture, we are able

matters.

communicate our ideas and feelings our intimate friends only imperfectly,

to to

and

this difficulty is multiplied

when we

many

try to understand even the

fold

most

The only rehow an animal behaves

intelligent of the brutes.

course

surface.

165

to see

is

given situation and then in the light what we know of human and animal bodily structure and function try to imagine how we would think in such a in a

of

situation, taking into account the animal's

limitations of nervous organization.

Oband uncertain method at best, and no wonder many psychologists have given up the problem in despair and decided that the only scientific procedure is to pay no attention to animals' minds and limit our inquiry viously this

is

poor

a

to their objective behavior.

Indeed, so

impressed are some of them by the futility of scientific study of even the human mind by introspection that they advocate throwing overboard the whole science of psychology. But this is too like

sinking the ship, cargo and

all,

to

get rid of the rats.

No,

if

we wish

to attain the heights of

a true understanding of the significance


:

&quatic

166 of

mind

we must keep

in evolution,

JLitt

"There was quite a crowd in the depeople going home from the circus,

to

the steep trail and not yield to the temp-

smoother paths leading to But we must shelters by the way.

pot

tation to take

mostly.

rest

in

watch our

By

steps.

we can

although

mind only

in

terms of our

that,

The

unconsciously

shown

it

is

prove

be

mechanisms

havior and intelligence alone are very

can

difficult

the

be-

moved from us

The popular dramatization

for

or

literary

of animal

pedagogic

purposes, the same as other fairy stories.

But

let

it

not be forgotten that this

fiction for children, not science

foundation for science

;

home

and there

long, long road to travel before

is

nor the

we

is

"Goldfish

tural

— By

what

in

bet

this

you pail,

she removed the

exclaimed the woman, tak-

"Did you buy them here? I thought you had some at home." "These are the ones I had at home. You see I wanted to go to the circus, and there was nobody at home to leave them with, so I brought them along." "I went outside to laugh, and I laughIt's a wonder she all the way home. Exchange. didn't bring the cow, too." ing a look.

(

Make

shall

a fish's

permission,

Museum. "I

!"

"I'll

a

mind is from NaHistory, Journal of the American outlines

really like.

And

show you.

I'll

be able to understand in any but the most

shadowy

you taking

are

something good to eat?"

"No," smiled the other, can't guess what I've got

re-

and imputation to them of human thoughts and feelings may have a certain

with the pail

"And what

said.

so

life

justification

she

cover.

the fishes.

look

"Well, did you have a good time?"

adequate.

in behavior type as are

woman

to the

things to

regard to animals so far

in

off,

in,

to

is

acts reflexly or

for

these

Every now and

and then put the cover on again. Then another woman came in and spoke

are inadequate to account

And

ered tin pail on her lap.

exper-

when

that the unconscious

dressed

own

only safe rule

except

all

then she would take the cover

not uncritically read

assume that an animal

woman

animal

our thoughts and feelings back into animals' minds.

noticed one

the

interpret

we must

ience, yet

mean

this I

I

her best, and carefully holding a cov-

a Note

Heretofore a volume of Aquatic L,iFE has consisted of the numbers from Sep-

tember

The

to

August of the year following.

present volume, IV, will be continued

end of the year, thus making it include 16 numbers. The purpose of tthis departure is to make Volume V, and sub-

to the

went over

to

Iona to do some shop-

ping," explained our neighbor, "and I've

been laughing ever since."

sequent volumes, coincide with the cal-

"There was an awful crowd on the streets, and it wasn't Saturday, so I didn't know what was the matter. But a clerk in a store told me that the circus was in town. To think I'd forgotten that and But it was too missed the parade, too

endar year.

The

The

fellow with the original thought

a lap

is

ahead of the other

the big pay.

!

late to think

my

about circuses

shopping and got some

;

so I finished

ice

cream and

status of subscriptions

not affected.

is

man and

gets

*

Did you ever notice that the young fellow

who always

then went to the station to get the 5.30

nin' after

for home.

est

has a

lot

of girls run-

him always marries lookin' one of the bunch?

the plain-


T Became a Fancier (Proctor) (Shufeldt) Peculiar Planorbis (Breder) Association and Color Discrimination in Mudminnows and Sticklebacks (White) The Hay Infusion Microcosm (Woodruff) The Bladderworts, notes and news.

aquatic Life

;

;

A

1918â&#x20AC;&#x201D;1919

;

;

The Blood-fin September, 1918. Breeding Haplochilus cameronensis The Spotted Gourami (Kearns)

(Heede)

;

(Nelles)

;

;

Japanese

;

Aquarium

Water and Its Restoration (Dormeier) Aquarium Heater (Hale) Fish Foods (Heede) Happy Families, Breeding Habits of Mud-minnow, notes (Boyd)

Snail

;

;

;

;

and news.

Aquarium

October.

Hemiramphus

(Breder) Heating (Brind) Mollienisia Blue-tailed Skink (Deck;

fluviatilis

;

latipinna (Heede) er t) Factors Controlling the ;

Development of Snails (Webber)

;

Aquarium Fishes

Tropical

;

Habits of in Aquaria (Gale) Pipe-fish, notes, etc. ;

Black Bass,

The

on

Observations

June.

North America, Part

Chelonians of (Shufeldt) ; Gam-

the

III

(Brind) The Wheel Animal(Bade); Sonnet to a Goldfish (Burditt); A Study of the Diamond Bass (Trell) ; The Brook Stickleback (Barker); Goldfish in China, Red-colored Water, Crappie Spawn in Washington Aquarium, and Society News. busia episcopi

;

cules

July. A Big-headed Gurnard (Fowler) The Nesting Habits of Certain Sunfishes as Observed in a Park Lagoon in Chicago (Hubbs) Badis badis (Brind) The Paradise Fish (Balleisen) The Garden a Terrarium (Breder) Philadelphia Aquarium, A Fish Elevator, Akiyama Goldfish Farm, notes and news. ;

;

;

November. American Live-bearing Tooth(Bade) Aquarium Notes (Leitholf) The Notes on Krefftius adspersus (Freund) Anatomy of the Fish (Clark) Breeding Habits carps

;

;

;

;

;

;

of Burmese Eel (Finckh)

(Waite)

;

A

The Name "Water

;

Bloated Axolotl Flea," notes

News

Society

and

news.

The December.

Cynolebias recurva and Other

Tillaea

(Brind) (Finckh) Aquarist vs.

bellottii

;

Notes

Another Tank Heater (Kuhn) Aquarian (Mellen) Emotions ;

;

;

;

;

January,

1919. Limia caudofasciata Classification of Fishes (Stead)

;

Changes of the Chub-sucker (Hubbs) carpintis

Goldfish

Fanciers' Association meets on the

first

;

Thursday of each month (except July and August), in Hamilton Hall, 5236 Market street, at 8 P. M. Take any car to Market street, transfer to the elevated.

(Leit-

Color Neetro;

(Brind) A Simple Heated Aquarium (Finckh); Notes on the Breeding GoldHabits of the Pigmy Sunfish (Poyser) fish Farm of Kichigoro Akiyama, notes and news.

plus

Philadelphia

;

Fishes of (Gale) A Cigar Box Aquarium (Modesto) Florida Notes (Carlton) Photosynthesis, Miscellaneous notes, news, etc.

holf)

West

;

;

Don't

forget

show.

the

big

Horticultural

Philadelphia

Hall,

Fairmount

Park, October 4th, 5th and 6th. exhibition

is

unique

in that

This no prizes are

awarded. February. Polycentropsis abbreviata (.Brmd) Cho'ogaster cornutus, the Fish of the Dismal A Wood Aquarium (PilS vamp (Welsh) kington) Danio malabaricus (Leitholf) Managing Notes on Native Fishes (Pray) ;

The Pittsburgh Aquarium

;

;

;

hold

its

annual exhibit

in

Society will

Phipps

the

;

the

Aquarium (Lines)

;

Reactions of Fishes to

Habit-forming Drugs, The

Boston Show,

A

True Fish Story, notes and news.

Conservatory, North Side, from October 25th to

March. Breeding the Goldfish (Hanna) Observations on the Chelonians of North America, Part I (Shufeldt) Lucania ommata

November

10th.

;

HUGO

;

Apistogramma agassizi (Heede) Water-fleas (Tompkins) Viviparous

(Welsh)

;

;

Tl^e Fishes-in-general (Stead) Striped Gourami (Simpson)

The

April.

Surinam

;

Breeding the Notes and news.

;

;

Toad

(Deckert) ;

;

;

;

;

Nanostomus eques (Brind) The May. Water Horse-tail (Woblcr) Observations on ;

;

Chelonians

of

North

America,

Part

2,

S

TT.

J

C.

NELLES

f ir

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Our

It is edited fishes in the

of

Telescpoes from the Finest Stock in America

Don't paddle in the water with one hand and In other words, be blind with both eyes. "keep your eyes open" for all nature.

%bt

3000C=XX>OC

Wyoming Avenue

&

C. Street, Phila.,

Pa

Fancier and Breeder of Tropical Fishes Splendid healthy stock at reasonable Haplochilus cameronensis, Betta All kinds of live-bearing rubra, etc.

35c Extra for Shipping Can

prices.

Cash With Order

fishes.

NEW

YORK Street (Between 2d and 3d avenues)

235 East 11th

HENRY

CITY

Breeder & Fancier of Broadtail Telescopes Tropical Fishes, Plants and Snails. Telephone 461

241 Walker Street, Cliffside, N.

Cliffside

J.

Goldfishes Blacks

::

Blues

None

::

scmof

AQUARIUM

THE

SUBJECTS

" Goldfish Varieties & Tropical Aquarium Fishes", byWm.T.Innes,

is

3000C=Z»00<#

"fcK>OOCr=>OOOC

>OOOC

THE BEST BOOK

KISSEL, JR.

Fishes, Plants, etc., Sold at Conservatory

3QOO<

former President of the Aquarium Society of Phila.; 250 pages, 195 Tells all about the illustrations. fancy varieties of the Goldfish and nearly 300 tropicals ; how to breed them, etc., etc. For the beginner or the advanced expert.

A

and Vari-kues

complete, practical, handsome book, sent postpaid anywhere for $3.00. & Enlarged edition now ready.

&

INNES

SONS

133 N. 12th

St.

Phila., Pa,

for sale at present!

Diatoms

GEORGE

A.

Wish

SCHEMK

and from

3O0O0O000OO0OC=>C=300O0OO0OOOOOC

>c

t*

'AQUARIA FISH"

Lincoln Park Pet Shop

work on care and breeding of fish the aquarium, greenhouse and outdoor ponds. Finely illustrated. Everyone interested in keeping fish should send Price $1.00. for a copy of this book. A

TTJZEE, Manager.

practical

in

TROPICAL FISHES OUR SPECIALTY

Tappan's Natural Fish Food.

BIRDS & SMALL PETS OF ALL KINDS Aquaria, Bird Cages and all Supplies. Displayed and Sold on Commission.

1509 North Clark

fossil deposits.

Editor, Aquatic Life

some—tooo^,

MADAM

diatomaceous material,

recent freshwater and marine gatherings

Mount Vernon, N. Y. £>OOOC=3000C

to secure

Street

CHICAGO rZ=30CJOOOOOCX3000C=Z5C=>OOOOOOC

"Does

paid,

Three boxes, post-

25c.

Guinea Pigs and Thoroughbred Collie Pups, beautifully marked. Write for prices.

F.L. Route 2,

TAPPAN Hopkins, Minn. zxx


tOOOOOO

>GOOOOOOOOOOOOOO<

HARRY

aquatic Htfe Vol. II

:

Vol. Ill

:

PETERS

P.

1210 N. Warnock

Street, Philadelphia,

BREEDER AND IMPORTER Rare and Fancy Fish

$2.25 each, postage paid

165 pages and as many illustrations. Substantial cloth binding, with title page and complete index. (Stock of Volume II is small.) One hundred copies of Volume I, loose or bound. Can use single issues. Address publisher.

Volumes average

Plants

every

of

of

all

kinds at

MANUFACTURER OF Green River Fish Food 15c Box

Green River Baby Fish Food

JAPANESE GOLDFISH By DR. HUGH M. SMITH

20c Box

A

A

guide to the methods of breeding fancy goldfish practiced in Japan. The result of the personal investigations Ten breeds are illusof the author. trated in color, with numerous text $2.00, plus

GOOD

most

FISH

FOOD

one of the

is

necessary to keep fish in good health. After the test of years Green River stands out as the best food on the market. It keeps the fish in good color by promoting a healthy, robust growth. It will not sour or cloud the water. Ask vour dealer or send for it today.

cuts; 112 pages.

postage on 2 pounds.

Address Aquatic Life

things

essential

3QOCX x-mrw-irv

OOQCX

5°=

HERMAN RABENAU,

Shipping Cans 50c

Welcome

Young Blues, Blacks and

Plants and Tropical Fish a Specialty

Young

New

Importations of

HARRY

regularly

1210

1163 Myrtle Avenue. Brooklyn, N. Y.

Calicos

P.

PHILADELPHIA 3QOOCZZ31

aooooooocrx

c

GOLDFISH, FOODS, PLANTS, DIP NETS Combination Natural Fish Food

Sample Box 10c

Japanese Shrimp Fish Food

Sample Can 15c

Nippon Goldfish Co

Mail Orders Promptly Attended to

GOLDFISH

Special Prices on Quantity Lota. Cash With Ordar.

Upon

lOOOC

Request.

::

New York

3000e=3000<

Proprietor.

PLANTS

SNAILS

Dried Shrimp, Birds, Cages and All Supplies

AQUARIUM STOCK CO 273 Greenwich Street

MURATA,

Importers and Dealers

15c, 25c 35c Each

Sent

>oooc

1919-21 Bush Street, San Francisco, Cal

Sample Box 15c

Catalogue

>OOOOOOOOOC

J.

Baby Fish Food

5.00 Dozen

PETERS

NORTH WARNOCK STREET

Near Broadway.

Glass Feeding Rings

$1.50 Dozen

Veiltails or Broadtails

Varieties received

-

v-mnr

Fine Assortment of Lionheads

to be appreciated

Visitors

nx

Large assortment of Splendid Telescopes and Jap Goldfish at Reasonable Prices

& Terraria

Aquatic Life must be seen

Breeders

Aquarist

PERMANENT DISPLAY OF

M H*

all

times.

oooocooooc

u 3QOO

and

Snails

variety,

Aquarium Supplies

WANTED:

s°°

Pa

NEW STOCKS ARE COMING!

City

XJOOC

xi

Price List Sent on Request


Aquatic life 8 1919