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Jacob C. Cassel 915 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pa Manufadurey- of

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Send

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On

the Inbreeding of Fishes JOHM LEE BENNINGTON

Owaed

Blue Calico Telescope Goldfish.

Everywhere

in

nature are evidences

of a pronounced antipathy to self-fertiUzation

and inbreeding.

While

it

is

true

that desirable characteristics can be de-

veloped and perpetuated by inbreeding, it is always at the expense of vigor, and degeneration, and even sterility sult.

in contrast,

of

may

re-

Cross-breeding within the species,

with the resulting infusion into any strain, be it fish,

new blood

bird or beast, strength,

growth.

means

vigor,

the preservation of

fertility

The mere

and

rate

of

intercrossing of dif-

(unrelated indiwithout considering other involved points, will not necessarily work good. The desired result will be depend-

by A. A.

Phillips, Jr

stamina.

The means

plants

have

insure

to

developed cross

various

fertilization.

Many species bear the male and female flowers on separate individuals, or, when a species produces flowers of both sexes on the same plant, or bears hermaphrodite (combination) flowers, the male and female elements do not mature simultaneously thus fertilization by another ;

plant of the species

is

necessary.

The

(male element), is carried from flower to flower by the wind or by in-

pollen

ferent lines of species

sects.

viduals),

having the power move about from place to place, mingling with their kind, have not been provided with means Movement, reto prevent inbreeding.

ent

upon the

selection of individuals

em-

bodying the desired characteristics and

Animals

in nature,

of locomotion, and free to


;

^aquatic Uttc

124 stricted only

by the climatic and food

re-

quirements of the species, renders the possibility of consanguinity very slight.

When

brought into

these animals are

with

domestication, finement,

it

con-

incidental

its

becomes necessary to add

new blood from time

to time after the

second generation has attained maturity. Goldfish fanciers, working as they are with the very concentrated product of selective inbreeding, should make every characteristics they aim

species is not new to the collection, then each male and female should be mated to a home-bred fish. In thus proceeding, nothing will be lost, but much may be

gained in vigor,

Alfaro C.

With

methods of the average breeder, it is almost an impossibility not to inbreed, this because the young fish are assorted the

fertility

and

size,

other

conditions being favorable.

the

losing

stock with increased development.

in

breaking them and mating the male of one to the female of the other. If the

to retain in their

without

outbreed

to

effort

ready represented in your collection, to secure two pairs fron' difl'ercMt soiuxes,

Amazonum J.

HEEDE

This live-bearing tooth carp superresembles the young of our common shiner, though it attains but a

ficially

the rearing tanks according to size,

regard

without

parentage.

to

Every

fancier sooner or later, by fortunate se-

upon

lection of breeding fish, hits

bination

that

produces

a

young of excellent form. sire

these

speci-

reach maturity, he will be very apt

mens to

when

perfection,

for

com-

a

number of With his de-

mate brother and

sister together as

it

will not be possible to positively determine their relationship. Few breeders

have a

number of rearing tanks spawn distinct from hatching to that when the fu-

sufficient

to kee]) every lot of

the tmie of

ture

breeding

for this sible.

are

fish

The remedy

tion of a

segregated, and

reason line-breeding is

is

impos-

the yearly acquisi-

few good specimens from other

length of abovit two inches, the female

body is light bluish-green; upper part of head with some black punctation black line on side of body from middle to base ;

of caudal

This

subject of inbreeding

impor^-ant to the fishes.

is

equally

fancier of the exotic

Such species are usually purchas-

ed in pairs, and,

if

not imported wild

This

stock, are apt to be related. ticularly liable to pertain

if

is

par-

the fish be

a rare one or a species seldom bred. fancier

who

A

succeeds with a "shy breed-

fin

;

fins

very light yellow

fish is a rather

shy inhabitant of

or

disturbance

will

hide

raciousness,

young.

make

it

difficult to

a species not al-

save the

A

temperature of 70 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit, should be maintained. Alfaro is a South American fish from

Amazon

hence the name amazonum. based on a local name.

when buying

the

Its

the

wise plan,

among

remarkable ability to penetrate dense growths quickly, and its voplants.

brother and sister as a "pair."

a

co-

the aquarium, and at the slightest noise

er" has no other course but to dispose of It is

;

pulation organ of male golden yellow.

fanciers.

The

The

being slightly larger than the male.

river

and

its

tributaries

Alfaro

is


—

; ;

t-

-'f

THE GIANT DANIO WALTER LANNOY BRIND,

Z.

F.

S.

I

The

Danio

truly magnificent Giant

is

In point of size the largest

each.

I

have

a native of the Malabar coast of India

seen

measure four inches over

gorgeous coloration is sufficient to make one think of its home The ground the land of the Rajahs. color of the sides is superb metallic turshining emerald green in quoise blue

have

five of this size at the present writ-

one glance

at its

—

;

Along

certain lights.

the sides are three

horizontal golden stripes

extending from

above the ventral fins, becoming at this place vertical and zigzag bars, and broken blotches of .gold. These vertical zigzag markings are

the

tail to

a point

more numerous on centre of the

tail

the

female.

of the male

is

The dusky-

stripes blackish, with reddish golden above and below the dark central streak lest of tail and anal, reddish salmon:

ventrals

similar

pectorals

clear

in

color,

but

greyish-white

lighter ;

dorsal

dusky transparent grevish-white with an indistinct white upper edge divided oft' by a dusky streak. The female has the dusky central portion of the tail running upwards towards the tip of the upper lobe, and the golden stripes above and below it are not so pronounced. The warm salmon-red diffusion on the tail, other fins and belly of the male during breeding time is hardly apparent on the female, which is more of a pale greyish The females have a color on the fins. deeper abdomen and a higher back, and on this account the golden stripes seem more separated. The line of the back of the female from the head to the dorsal fin is curved, whereas that of the male is

almost straight.

hence tail

to

The sexes

of this

are rather hard to distinguish,

species I

have gone into considerable depoint out the characteristics

of

ing, all

all.

I

imported specimens.

Daiiio malabaricus has been bred by aquarists of my acquaintance, but I can-

not so far lay claim to that distinction.

The main requirements propagation

are

for

plentiful

successful

sunshine,

a large aquarium, high temperature (86 to i

f


—

—

Aquatic

126

fiitt

was now

of the eggs will have been devoured by

by.

the adults.

tunately, did not have long to wait ere

The youngsters, after the yolk-sac has been absorbed, must be furnished with abundant Infusoria water plenty of it. After a week or so, as they grow larger,

their origin

they can be given the finest powdered gradually with insect food, followed

Daphne and Cyclops.

tiny

screened

the

temperature

enough the seen to

little

jump

If

maintained high fellows can be almost is

in size.

I

quite interested and, for-

was explained. The

build-

were the beetles. I discovered them at work on a third spire in the position shown by my sketch. The male, head downward, was partly submerged, while immediately above him the female, also head down, was discharging a continuous and scarcely discernable stream. The fluid, w^hich seemed to be gelatinous in consistency, unerringly found its mark ers

The Giant Danio, Danio malabaricns, the largest of the genus known to the is undoubtedly the handsomest our tropical aquarium fishes.

aquarist,

of

all

A

Chapter in the

Life -History of a Beetle

ERNEST LEITHOLF Last summer, while collecting in the of Pittsburgh, I secured two

vicinity

small aquatic beetles, a male and a feof the family Hydrophilidae. I

male,

was unable

to

determine the

species.

The specimens were elliptical in shape, the back olivaceous brown, and measured about three-eighths of an inch long. While under water, and in the sunshine their

abdomens, covered with a thin film air, sparkled and glistened

at the

gealed.

as

summit of the structure and conIn an hour the spire was as tall

the others, then both beetles slipped

back into the water.

Unfortunately

my

observations come

The

nest

was

of adhering

to a close at this point.

like silver.

soon after, and one of the In examining the beetles disappeared. wreck I discovered that the spires were hollow hence probably served as shafts to supply air to the eggs in the cocoon below the water surface from which

I

placed

containing a

destroyed

the

pair

in

an

yellow-bellied

aquarium terrapin, a

Cumberland Painted Turtle and a com-

mon

newt,

knowing

new

Diemyctyliis

viridescens,

mixed company the no least work the beetles were kept busy

that in this

arrivals

could at

harm. At first dodging the charges of the older inmates, but these soon ceased. Shortly after I discovered a white needle-like spire which projected about an inch and a quarter above the water and had its origin in a pouch resting in a cluster of Salvinia roots. Twenty-four hours later another spire appeared close

;

they rose.

(The color of the

beetle as well as the

type of egg-sac would seem to place in the

The

genus Helophorns.

spire

it

is

for the purpose of admitting air to the

egg mass.

The shape

of the tube

in the different genera.

hopes to and complete Editor) historv. Leitholf

beetle

.

difli'ers

This year Mr.

again

collect

this

his study of its Hfe-


;

• •

•••V • •• .#•

••

••••

Motes on the Salamanclers ANMA K. BEWLEY ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

The salamanders,

The

frogs and toads rep-

animals

vertebrate

resent the class of

holding a position between

the

fishes

and the reptiles. Formerly we called them amphibians, which implies that they may be found on land and in water, but now it is customary to refer to them

Red

Triton,

Spelerpes

ruber,

which may sometimes be confused with the red phase of the common newt, is not so abundant in the vicinity of the

as batrachians.

Twenty

more

or

species of salaman-

ders are found in Pennsylvania, being

by their differing

distinguished

struc-

and mode of living. They are much more numerous than the lizcolor

ture,

ards, since but five species of these rep-

are known to occur in the State. The Common Newt, Diemyctilus

tiles

id esc ens,

and

is

is

For

often sold in the pet shops.

such an inconspicuous creature astonishing

vir-

probably the most abundant,

number

has the

it

of eighteen

common

names, among them Red Eft, Spotted Triton, Water Newt and Mountain Lizard. Briefly described, this salamander is olive green or reddish above lemon ;

yellow below

;

a

row of

scarlet dots sur-

rounded by black rings along each side belly with small black spots, skin rough,

length inches.

of It

adult,

seems

and

three to

one-half

prefer an aquatic

existence, but should the

pond become

temporary shelter under stones or amongst decaying plant re-

dry

it

will seek

Here it awaits the filling of the pond by autumn rains. During its sojourn on land it may become red in mains.

color.

The eggs

are deposited

in

the

water and attached by the gelatinous envelope to submerged plants. is

provided with external

retained until inches.

it

The

larva

which are reaches a length of two gills,

The

Spotted Salamander

Photograph from

writer's

damp

home.

It

may

W.

Shufeldt

be looked for in

under the bark of falbeneath stones, or in springs.

The most frequent the

Amblystoma punctatum)

situations,

len trees,

is

(

by Dr. R.

life

species in this locality

Gray or Red-backed Salamander,

Plethodon einereus.

It

can be found at


!

128

^aquatic JLitt

almost any time of the year, under logs and stones in damp places in the woods. The eggs are deposited among moss or under the bark of fallen trees. While this

is

a strictly terrestrial species, the

young are provided with external though

they

have

no

use

for

gills,

them.

as the salamander has spots This creature was also thought to be

doctors

fire. Aristotle menmyth on hearsay, but Pliny ac-

withstand

able to

tions this

experiment and put a salfire. He remarks with

tually tried the

amander

into a

evident surprise that

powder

few days, and the young are then ex-

country the salamander

actly like the parents.

onous bv the

CKaracteristic Attitudes of the

Photograph from

life

their relatives, the frogs and and the fishes and reptiles, the salamanders hibernate during the winter. In Europe during medieval times the salamanders bore an undeserved sinister reputation. Many strange powers were

Like

One

little

in

by Dr. R.

W.

less to

our

own

thought pois-

is

illiterate.

to a

enlightened

It

seems need-

cinereus

Shufeidt

add that

all

our eastern species

are entirely harmless.

any attempt

Only one makes

at self defense.

Salamander, says Cope,

The Purple

snaps

but harmlessly and throws

its

fiercely

body into

contortions in terror.

animals.

of the old writers advises anyone

by a salamander to betake himself to the "coffin and winding-sheet," and adds that the victim needs as manv bitten

Even

Gray Salamander, PletKodon

toads,

ascribed to the inoft'ensive

!

was burnt

it

These, however, are absorbed within a

We gor

are not prepared to credit the Ban-

man who

says that fishes talk, but

we are willing to believe tunes when they laugh at

that there are

aquarists.


—

My

Witn Cameronensis

Experience CHARLES

cameronensis.

Haplochilus big

name

for sucli a

amusing

really

me

to

a

It

is

show my beauname

to

They never

for their benefit.

try to re-

Friend Wife, however,

after me.

it

now my

has invented a nickname, and

known Daddy Happy,

pets are

"Happy" family

as the

Mamma Happy

and the

Happies, and so long as this name

little

distinguishes this family it

What

fish.

friends and pronounce the

ties to

peat

little

H.

serves

purpose

its

ROHRBACH West Africa, in the Kamerun (Cameroon) hence the specific name cameronensis, meaning of Cameroon. The spe-

cies is a native of

French Kongo

and

;

cies will

breed in the aquarium during the

late spring

and summer, when the water

may

be maintained at a uniform temperature of about 75 degrees Fahrenheit.

The adhesive eggs

stick

to

the

plants

with which the tank should be abun-

from the others

well.

Among the exotic me pleasure

afforded

which have

fishes

to breed, this

Hap-

undoubtedly the most beautiThe brilliant colors, unusual shapes

lochilus ful.

is

make

of fins and supple body must

it

a

Without giving a lengthy description of colors and the formulae of fins and scales, the features favorite with anyone.

that attract attention are the lyre-shaped tail

with stripes of orange, purple, red

and blue

the

;

dark blue body spotted

with red; the orange-like pectorals, incessantly waving, and the blue eyes

always

alert

to

every

see

movement

Haplochilus cameronensis

within and without the aquarium. These brilliant colors

acteristics

of

and the the

lyre tail are char-

male.

The

female,

while of the same general shape, has a simple fan-shaped

and

tail

fins

of a very

ordinary greenish hue. In darts

still and merely waving the pectorals, or turning with head and body in a graceful curve,

ment, again stopping

like

habits of our

other favorite, the Paradise Fish, which,

however,

The

is

dantly supplied. ten

Period of incubation,

days to two weeks.

seem

They do not

to be difficult to propagate or

efforts

my

would not have culminated suc-

cessfully.

manner of swimming by quick with scarcely perceptible fin move-

its

cameronensis recalls

Photograph by Lee S. Crandall

much broader and

larger.

ichthyologist tells us that this spe-

My tanks, two of three gallons each, were well planted with Sagittaria subulata and Anacharis, and placed in a sunny situation so that algae formed quickly and gave the water a light green tinge, but not sufficient to render them From

unsightly. eight ing,

a

distance of

six or

have watched them courtfor they are shy in their love-makfeet

I


j^quatic JLitt

130

One would

ing.

of

that

when

timid are they

In courting, the male will

dart to and his mate,

direction

fro

and again head

in the

Nor Swimming

to tail.

unresponsive.

quietly than

same

her usual wont, she

is

my

about the snout of it

disappeared within

of the

my

little

—

prize until finally to help

now

beauties

make

one-

disporting in

tanks.

Enchytras

caressing the sides of

sometimes facing

lady

the

more

so

they find themselves under close

observation.

is

think they had partaken

apple,

first

Daphne less

is

probably the best food.

is,

of course, excellent, but un-

is

favorably situated to collect

one

the simple alternative of keeping a

it,

box of Euchytrae

is

The

preferable.

Happies will take dry foods composed of ground shrimp, flies. Daphne, etc., but really will not ihrive upon them.

On

page 123

is

shown

accurately

as

ors,

as

in natural colis

calico

telescope

goldfish

Mr. A. A.

lection of

specimen leaves

to

blue

from the

Phillips, Jr.

little

by

possible

mechano-photography, a splendid

col-

This

be desired in r/-/f^4

Haplochilus fasciolatus

seemed the

to enter into the very spirit of

This

play.

have observed with actual spawning it

I

The

great interest.

was not my privilege to see. During the late spring and summer changed

my

alternate

tanks,

pair

every

hoping

fortnight

by

this

I

to

pro-

cedure to save eggs that might be expelled unnoticed.

of August

I

During the

discovered fry

in

first

week

and as they were swimming freely they must have hatched several days before. From then on their growth was really quite rapid. During the following week a cup of "green water" was fed daily, then followed tiny Daphne, and by the first of September the little fellows were taking small Enchytrse worms. The eagerness and zest with which the babies enjoyed their meals was indeed tanks,

a pleasure to behold.

worm the

Haplochilus calliurus

one of the

Frequently a long would be taken by one end while

other vainly twisted and squirmed

development of body, color, eyes and fins. Mr. Phillips values the fish at one hundred dollars.

During the summer months "thin out" keep fewer fish in each aqurium. The water is warm and in con-

goldfish

—

sequence will not support as in

winter.

should

ice

Under

many

as

circumstances

be placed in the tank to reduce

the temperature, as

It is

no

the hard

is

jol:is

sometimes advised.

that

make

us.


;

Aquatic Hitt

The Aquarium Vacuum Cleaner

131

thorough

vacuum The Acton of

facturers

Company, manufamous tvmgsten lamp,

Electric

a

assured. light

in

its

work

cleaner

its

aquarium

as the

success

is

already

Aquarists should hail with de-

any device that makes labor

light.

has placed on the market an ingenious fill a long- felt want The euphonious name,

invention that will of the aquarist.

"Aquarium \^acuum Cleaner,"

in

itself

explains the purpose of the device, which retails

one

cents to

fifty

at

according to

dollar,

size.

members of

Several

the

themselves

firm,

practical aquarists,

came

conclusion

that

the

to

the

old

gree of intelligence in their actions.

fashioned

-

method

of syphoning

from the aquarium with a hose, or its tedious removal

pet

a single dip tube,

With

sumed

but a few

it

in

cleaning

bottom of

largest

is

merely

It

necessary

to

close

splendid

the

the

aquaria.

ians,

then

insert

the

the

Releasing the finger

rush of water, carrying the

will cause a

The operation

dirt

into the

may

be checked at any time by replacing

the finger.

reservoir.

To empty

only necessary to turn

We

have no hesitancy

this invention.

goldfish,

on

reptiles,

batrach-

native and exotic fishes,

The author evidently recognized the fact that even the most accurate drawing falls far short of a

photograph.

other in the aquarium with the orifice close to the bottom.

least interesting are the

chapters

and the care and management of the aquarium. Every illustration is from a

end of the tube with a finger,

to the highest.

—

Not the

galore.

con-

be

will

from the lowest

;

hence the vacuum cleanminutes

life,

Truly it is "everyman's" book. In it one finds the history, care and habits of the dogs, cats, monkeys, cavies, rabbits, rats and mice the birds pheasants, peafowl, pigeons, bantams, cranes, ducks, geese, swans, hawks, owls, parrots, canaries and other small cage birds

was an aggravation and could be improved er.

In

admirable volume the author conducts one through the whole gamut of this

sediment

wi'di

Pets: Their History and Care. By Lee S. Crandall. 372 pages, 138 illustrations from life. Every normal person has an innate love of wild things and a desire to have them about him. Few individuals have not at one time or another had a pet, and the term pet is an exceedingly broad expression, usually though not always given to forms of life evincing some de-

the cleaner it

it

is

upside down.

in

commending

Every reader should have

one.

in

nature.

to

fidelity

The

historical accounts of the various species

are of such interest that

many

readers,

whether they have pets or not, will read the book as a source of rare entertainment.

The work

is

at

once authoritative

and comprehensive, though the author has wisely omitted mention of such forms as are beyond possession by an individual.

The Acton Company informs tor that they have applied

photograph

the edi-

for patents

on an automatic syphon, and although it has not vet been examined, if it is as

and Care, on three pounds, and may be obtained from Aquatic Life Book Department. Pets:

Their History

costs $2.00, plus postage


AN

"

X*'

ALBINO FROG

Z

'

RICHARD DECKERT •••••••

•••••

••••

««««««««•«»••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Albinos, or animals lacking color pig-

ment in their structure, are not rare. Animals like the rabbit, guinea pig, rat and mouse have been deliberately bred to albinism for hundreds of years. Occasionally an albino horse, dog, raccoon

or

opossum

birds,

is

geese,

met with, and among

ducks,

pea-fowl,

guinea-

fowl, crows and sparrows there often are

of several species of frogs and toads in

which albinism occurs from time to time, is the first specimen recorded for America. The specimen referred to is a common pond frog (Rana clamitans), such as may be found in almost any brook, ditch, pool or freshwater swamp. Its color is a waxy yellow white on all upper

but this

true albinos.

Among

reptiles,

albino specimens of

the milk snake, garter snake and alligator have been exhibited in the Zoological

This year we are first time in the United States, an albino frog. This interesting rarity, for such it surely is, was captured by Henry Snyder, the son of

Park Reptile House.

able to exhibit, for the

our Head Keeper of Reptiles, at Scarsdale, Westchester County, New York, and by him was presented to the Zoological Park.

When

this

specimen

was seen

first

Albino Frog common

color phase to show the marked difference

with some normally colored green frogs, it was thought to be a diseased speci-

Photographed with

young collector wisely considered it worth while to take home the specimen and show it to his father. Mr. Snyder immediately realized the Out rarity and importance of the find.

eyes are brilliant red, with a narrow gold

men,

but

the

of the thousands of

frogs that during

surfaces,

and milky-white beneath; the

inches in length of head and body, and

therefore

not quite

was very

timid, darting

with nervous

no one who many handled has caught and otherwise

against the screen

reptile

collection,

number

of

thousands of frogs for quite a years ever previously has secured an The writer has realbino specimen. cently examined and has failed to

all

available

records,

any mention of an albino frog having been caught in the United States. Europe can show records find

is

female about two and three-quarter

the past fifteen years have been caught

for our

Our specimen

rim around the pupil. a

At around

adult.

agility,

bruising

first its its

it

cage

head

top and glass sides

whenever anyone came near it. After nearly three months of captivity, however, it has lost its nervous fear, and will come from its hiding place under the moss provided for it and hunt the roaches, mealworms and earthworms It will also sit which form its food. for hours on a

large

flat

stone in the


133

<aquattc JLitt centre of tent with

Of

cage, apparently quite con-

its

course, this frog

enjoying special

is

and we look forward

care,

moratus)

to keeping

it

for a reasonably long time.

(Reprinted by permission, with courfrom the Zoo-

tesy of use of illustration,

New

logical Society Bulletin,

York.)

in

our

collection, not to

more frequent albino

the

tion

surroundings.

its

men-

rabbits,

and mice, but for nearly half a we collected and handled large numbers of every known species of batrachians, we have never before seen an albino frog, nor have we read or heard that anyone else ever has rats

century during which

such a freak in frogdom. It may, however, be safely said that this albino frog is the first one on record. 7'he specimen enjoys good health in one of the smaller aquariums of the Institute, where it is admired by the students at their leisure moments. (The foregoing appears in the long noticed

An

Record

Earlier

At the end of September

a

young

stu-

dent of the Packer Institute, of this city,

which

told us of a curiously colored frog

or two before

had caught a day

she

near her country

When

Island.

home

Long was brought

at Orient,

the specimen

we

us afterwards for identification,

to

recognized

at once as

it

an albino leopard

frog {Rana halecma).

The upper

common

leopard frog

color,

in

part of the body of the

in

is

green or brown

both cases with a brilliant

bronze lustre

the two

;

folds along

its

back are bronze colored, standing well out

from

darker base

their

;

upon

its

back are dark, round spots arranged

two

lines,

in

while the upper parts of the

hind legs are ornamented with dark bars.

The specimen

in

question

is

a

fully

developed male, about three years 'he color of

from above,

all is

parts of

its

a brilliant

cream

the underside of the specimen

white

along

;

its

old.

body, seen ;

defunct

since

ium,

January, 1897, and was presumably written by the editor

and publisher, Hugo Mulertt. While it invalidates Mr. Deckert's assertion of priority, it in no way detracts from the value of the record, and America may now lay claim to albinism in two frogs, each the

first

be

confused

with

the

is

a larger

Mr. Mulertt's specimen is the Frog, which he calls

species.

common Leopard halecina,

pure

fallen

into

works

it

a

name

that

has since

and in more recent be found referred to as

disuse,

will

In his brief

legs the markings, characteristic to the

R. Virescens or R. pipiens.

appear indistinctly also in cream color, just a trifle deeper in shade they

description of the normal colors

can be made out by close inspection. The

the fact that the spots,

species,

;

eyes are of a beautiful pink.

Owing

to

the absence of dark colors in the skin.

the animal has a very delicate appear-

ance;

it

looks as

if

it

was carved of

ivory.

We

have seen albino deer, fox, squircats, raven, eel and years ago had an albino catfish (Amiurus marrels,

ferrets,

Rana

Bullfrog,

cateshiana, though the latter

Rana

back and on the hind

The

record for the species.

specimen described by Mr. Deckert is the Green Frog, Rana clamitans, which, by the uninitiated, is sometimes apt to

while

is

The Aquar-

magazine,

in the issue of

it

will

be noticed that he places emphasis on

two rows between They are and are round, always however, not. better described as "rounded" when considering a normal specimen, though variants occasionally exhibit round spots. However, it was evidently Mulertt's de-

the lateral

sire in this

that he

folds, are round.

connection to

make

it

clear

had not confused the specimen


134

Aquatic

:aquatic ILitt

jlite

yellow ribbons to Joseph E. Tyler Comets, blue, red and yellow ribbons to Charles Ehrmann. ;

An

international monthly magazine devoted to the study, care and breeding of native, exotic, gold and domesticated fishes, other animals and plants in the home aquarium and terrarium.

New Members: George Merkle and Addison T. McCarrick. The competition

POYSER JOSEPH E. BAUSMAN W.

A.

Editor Publisher

542 E. Girard Avenue, Philadelphia.

Entered as second-class matter, September 1915, at the Post Office, Philadelphia, Pa, under Act of March 3, 1879.

at the

next meeting,

June 20th, will be for novices. Any fish or any member having previously won a ribbon in any society will be barred. The Joseph E. Tyler Cup and ribbons will be awarded. Fred Richardson,

2,

Practical articles and notes on topics pertaining to the aquarium and terrarium are always wanted for Aquatic LiFE. Readers of the magazine are invited to join in making it a medium of mutual help, and to contribute to it any ideas that may occur to them. The pages are always open for anyone who has anything helpful and practical to say. Manuscripts, books for review and general correspondence should be addressed to the editor.

Aquatic Life has

the

largest

of

circulation

any magazine in the world devoted to this branch of nature-study. It presents to admarket that can be reached vertisers a through no other medium. Rates made known on application. Yearly Subscription Foreign Subscriptions

$1.00 1.35

Copy Payments may be made by money

Single

10

order, draft

registered letter. Foreign remittances should be by international money order. If local checks are sent, ten cents should be

or

added for

collection charges. Copyright 1917 by Joseph E. Bausman

Vol. II

June,

1917

Secretary.

Notes on Hybridization Crompton, of Duckabush, C. E. Wash., has reported interesting observaregarding the results of crossing

tions

the female

chum Scdmon Oncorhynchushumpback 0. gor-

keta with the male

huscha.

The

development was

normal with and the fry were very vigorou.i, smaller than chums, yet larger than huir.pbacks of the same In early development certain color age. changes were noted and the parr marks were retarded as compared with chum fry. An interesting fact was that two distinct color types became apparent at About onean age of about 25 days. small

percentage of

loss,

number strongly resembled humpbacks in their beautiful green coloring and absence of Parr marks, third of the

No. 10

the

Pickerel

while the remainder developed irregular

which has "scjuarish" spots on the back. That both specimens were collected in New York is

markings on the hack and parr marks on the sides, the general color deepening with age to a dusky green similar to that of the chums. Serious abnormalities occurred in later stages and many fish

with

the

somewhat

Frog, Rana

.paliistris,

interesting.

Editor.)

similar

good few hundred are retained

died, but the majority survived in

Philadelphia Goldfish Fanciers

The

regular meeting of the Philadel-

phia Goldfish Fanciers' Society was held

on

May

i6th, at

condition.

for

A

further

observation.

Fisheries

Service Bulletin.

8o2 West Girard avenue.

Annual competition for Shubunkins and Comets. Judges, George E. Wilt, George B. Smith and William Hartman.

Awards: Shubunkins.

blue,

red

and

At the annual meeting of The Aquarium Society of Washington, Commander D. W. Todd, U. S. N., was elected treas-


aquatic

Food Rings spreads over the surface of the water, sinks between the plants,

and may

To

cape immediate consumption.

come

gave these curtains a coat of "Muresco," with a very little pink tint.

later

aquarium food

In a thickly planted

135

JLitt

this difficulty aquarists use a

es-

over-

food

which may be had from dealers. Two forms made of bent glass tubing are usually to be had, and occasionally a deep round type of blown ring, several styles of

The

result

Courtesy Aquarium Stock

Glass Food Rings.

the

most desirable of

The

five

with the intense brought about by the curtains

line of direct light, yet

reflection

and retained the rich under ideal conditions. The Sagittaria was rich velvety green, which is seldom evident when strong light prevail:-.. This scheme may appeal to aquarium lovers who may have tanks so situated that abundant light is the plants thrived

natural

color usual

not possible.

glass,

was remarkable.

small aquaria wer-; entirely out of the

Henri Wagner.

J.

Company

all.

With

a ring the food can be confined to the

front of the tank, falls in one spot on

and

the bottom, fishes.

with

when

is

not apt to escape the

The surplus can be removed an Aquarium Vacuum Cleaner' it

seems advisable.

Light by Reflection For several years trouble with ficient

tanks

light.

to

my

my I

I

had considerable

aquaria due to insuf-

decided to remove the

front basement,

where

— "Are these genuine that The Sales Person — "No'm, not The

I

could conduct experiments without fam-

Here the light was admitr window forty inches square. I had one fifty-gallon aquarium and six smaller ones, ranging from six The first year to thirty gallons capacity. only the large tank thrived and it was directly under the window. The next season I moved it back five feet, put a ily criticism.

ted

by a

single

concrete tank under the window, and arranged the other five behind the large iquarium seven feet from the light. I then covered the joists

thirty-gallon

of the ceiling for a distance of ten feet from the window and across the entire

basement with bleached muslin sheeting, hanging curtains of the same material where the ceiling covering stopped. I

Shopper

goldfish ?"

at

price.

These are only

rolled plate."

The Essex County Aquarium of

Newark,

New

Jersey, held

its

Society,

second

annual exhibition, lecture and auction,

on April 25th.

The attendance was

re-

markably large and gave every evidence of appreciation of the addresses by Prof. Lothair Smith, of Newark, and Mr. Harvery A. Van Cott, of Brooklyn. Beautiful specimens of exotic fishes were shown by Messrs. Breeder, Ball, Storsberg, Kniep, Thomas, Ludolfif and Hoernig Lionhead goldfish by William splendid Black and Calico Feldman Broadtail Telescooes bv Dr. Bachmann. ;

;


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

Aquatic HiCe

136

Dr. Coltorti, Messrs. Stief, Ludolff and

who never have

Springer.

males.

auction was exceptionally successand added considerably to the treas-

The ful

society contemplates holding

The

ury.

an exhibition during the latter part of September in the Newark Public Library Building to last a week. It will be open to

offered

and prizes

societies

sister

in

classes.

all

awards

knows how,"

the

worth while.

Max

G.

will

be

As "Newark will

be well

HammERSCHLAG,

The queen

wings, and occasionally

lays the eggs,

and the work-

tend them and care for the grubs

ers

These grubs

or larvae as they hatch.

are kept in groups or nurseries assorted

Other groups will be found composed of cocoons, and these

according to age. are

miscalled

the

"ants'

eggs."

From

these cocoons, with the assistance of the

workers, the perfect ants will emerge.

The time taken by

the grub before turnpupa or cocoon varies ac-

ing into the

President.

cording to the species.

Ants Eggs Not Ants Eggs For a long time the pupae of ants have been a favorite food for certain cage birds, and to a degree for aquarium The material may be crushed and fishes. fed to the fishes dry or mixed with other In the ingredients of a prepared food.

vernacular of the aquarist and bird fancier these objects are erroneously called ants'

eggs.

Before giving a brief outan ant, and to

line of the life-cycle of

understand tioned

that

clearly,

it

a

it

typical

may

be men-

insect

passes

through four distinct phases in its development from the egg to the nature form. The life-cycle begins with the

and then follows the larval stage (maggot, caterpillar, grub, etc., as vari-

egg,

ously applied to different classes).

When

the larva has reached full development

becomes quiescent, in some species forming a cocoon, during which period Not it transforms to the mature insect. the complete all insects pass through metamorphosis, and some, the dragonfly, for example, remain active during it

In

summer

great numbers of winged

males and females are hatched.

swarm nuptial

The

flight.

become queens and They either return

new

These

out of the nest and take a short

The proposed

females

to the nest or start a

The males soon

colony.

timore and

fertilized

strip off their wings.

die.

public aquaria for Bal-

Louis are still hanging fire. Chicago is forging ahead with its plans, and will be satisfied with nothing short of

St.

"the be^t

quarter-million

is

in

in

the

world."

A

sight for the build-

ing and equipment, while the maintenance has been assured. San Francisco has been saying little, but doing much. A public-spirited citizen has donated sufficient money for the building, which will be located in Golden A bill providing for the Gate Park. maintenance of the acquarium was approved at the last municipal election. Frisco has stolen a march.

Some

aquarists ride

journey of

life

horses' heads.

all

through the

with their backs to the They are always looking They are forever talking

the pupal state.

into the past.

There are numerous species of ants, each of which has some peculiar habit, but all are social insects and live in wellEach regulated communities or nests.

about the good old times, and how much better the goldfish were years ago. There

nest contains one or

more queens, nu-

merous workers or undeveloped females.

are no great goldfish now, and no real The very winters and sum-

breeders.

mers are nothing to what they used Do vou know this man? be.

to


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R

8 p

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it has become necessary to increase the price of these foods to 15 and 20 cents. When conditions again become normal the old prices will again prevail.

8

HARRY

o

1210 North

L

P.

PETERS,

Warnock

Street,

Philadelphia, Pa. OOOCXXaOOOl

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Aquatic life 6 1917