Page 1

teuarp

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snam Jacob

gf|

C. Cassel

915 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pa Manufacturer

oj

AQUARIUMS Aquarium Ornaments Floral Terra Cotta, Etc.

and

Aquatic JLife

\ H

3C^3000000000

)C

Breeding

No. 6

February 1919

Vol. IV.

aquarium requisites. Send for Catalog.

all

OOOOOQOOO(

>^»CXXXXX30000CX3COOCr^C=3C^DCir3000C)C)OOOOOOOOOOe;

Fish Food

Fish Globes

Goldfish

Time

is

Here

j

international monthly magazine devoted to the study, care and breeding of fishes and other animals and plants in the home aquarium and

An X O Q

Start the proper

|

way

Spring and

this

j

terrarium.

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j

W. A. POYSER JOSEPH E. BAUSMAN

EDITOR ..PUBLISHER

1

542 East Giraxd Avenue

Philadelphia

M

j

get the right stock to do

The

fishes

offer

I

I

with.

have bred.

own aquarium. None

|

it

my

in

inbred,

none

|

"doctored up," consequently only the U Q 8 § S

Entered as second-class matter, September 2d, 1915 at the Post Office, Philadelphia, Pa., under Act of March 3d, 1879. Popular and "scientific artic'es and notes on subjects pertaining to the aquarium and terrarium. and to the habits of fishes in general, are always wanted for "Aquatic Life." Readers are invited join in making it a medium of mutual help by contributing to it the results of their studies. The pages are always open to anyone having information of interest to the aquarist and student of Manuscripts, books, for review aquatic biologv. and general correspondence should be addressed

§to >

Q 2 I

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to

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YEARLY SUBSCRIPTION FOREIGN SUBSCRIPTIONS * SINGLE COPY

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with its cold and discontent. is here, Don't merely mark time and wish for spring. Make plans now for your outdoor ponds and

Winter tanks.

THE BOOK OF WATER GARDENING help you create a picture that will nevermore be called (by your neighbors) "a dura old stagnant pool." The book contains 140 illustrations, more than enough to give you a comprehensive idea of the will

is

possibilities $2.65.

of

water

THE BOOK DEPARTMENT Philadelphia

the market.

Plants and Snails at reasonable prices.

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cts.

per box; $2.00 per pound.

HUGO

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NELLES

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( <

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Avenue

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vated; 77th Street, Lexington Ave-

nue Subway).

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Manufacturer of "Faultless Fish Food"

30QOOOOOOOC

decorative

selection.

cies of tropical fish

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Copyright 1919 by Joseph E. Bailsman

plants.

The

AQUATIC LIFE

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irmni

g


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

Pol^centropsis Abbreviata

WALTER LANNOT

Here indeed seen fies

ated

it

is

a rare fish,

a fish with tail.

It

many is

and

I

The name

alive but once.

spines

have signi-

and abbrevi-

F.

Z.

ture between 80

S.

and 85 degrees 75 degrees will be an agreeable temperature at ;

other times for older

fish.

The water should be

not a large species, a

mature specimen averaging between two and two and one-half inches long, but it

BRIMD,

well aerated

contain abundant microscopic port

the

growing

fry.

life to

Tiny

and sup-

daphne

must therefore be kept alone. The illustration shows this species with Nandus marmoratus below, a whim of the artist bringing the two forms together, though it would not be is

a voracious rascal, and

advisable to associate these species in an

aquarium. In color our subject

with dark mottlings. chestnut

;

mouth very

is

warm brown

The eye is reddish The caudal

large.

fin and the extremities of the soft dorsal and anal fins are transparent and nearly

invisible,

thus adding to the foreshort-

ened appearance of the

fish.

Sexual differences are

difficult

to de-

During breeding activities a short ovipositor protrudes from the vent of the female, the abdominal line being convex, due to the distended ovaries in the male the abdominal contour is quite termine.

;

straight.

The breeding habits The male constructs a

are

interesting.

nest of bubbles

under floating leaves. After close contact between the sexes the female assumes a position under the nest, backdownwards, thrusts her ovipositor into the nest, and therein deposits the eggs singly. In the aquarium, with this accomplished, she should be removed. The eggs number about one hundred, and hatch in five or six days. The tank should contain not more than three inches of water, and be maintained at a tempera-

should follow, and then the live foods usually provided for carnivorous fishes

mosquito

larvae, small mealworms, fry of live-bearing fishes and similar materials. The species is a native of tropical West

Africa, and

W.

J.

delta.

found

was

Ansorge,

first

discovered by Dr.

in the Niger described as rare, and when occurs in brooks, rivers and in

1900,

It is

ponds.

Polycentropsis and Nandus are bers of the group of fishes called

memNan-

which has representatives in Southeast Asia and South America as well as didse,

in Africa.


&quauc fUtf

72

Fishes to Habit-forming Drugs

The

reactions

of

habit-forming drugs article

in

goldfish is

Pharmaceutical

to

certain

the subject of an

the Journal of the

Association,

American by Prof,

Victor E. Shelford, of the University of The craving engendered by the Illinois. use of habit- forming drugs is not understood.

Most

The

lation.

Reactions of

opercles are lifted, the lower

jaw protruded, or the mouth moved

When

a fish enters a solution containing

morphine or any

ethyl-alcohol, cocaine,

one of there

is

substances tried,

other

several

no apparent rejection of the drug,

on the contrary, after a time the fish found to have a preference for the drug-containing end of the tank. With

but, is

of the pharmacologic stud-

cocaine the fishes, after a short exposure,

made on

refused to leave the drug solution, soon

ies in this

connection have been

mammals

(a few have been on frogs),

but almost none on the lower vertebrates. By chance Professor Shelford discovered that fishes are peculiarly affected by nu-

merous organic substances in aqueous solution when put under special experi-

became

and

intoxicated

ethyl-alcohol the fishes reacted

more

positively as the concentration in-

The experiment was discontinued because the subjects became semi-intoxicated. In 20 per creased up to 10 per cent.

cent, ethyl-alcohol the fishes

inches long, 5 inches deep and 6 inches wide, in which water containing a drug

With morphine no preference

flows into one end and out at both top

and bottom, at the middle, while water which contains none of the drug flows The into the other end at the same rate. two flows meet at the middle and with most substances there is a mixture of the two kinds of water which occupies the centre third of the tank. In this mixture a fish moving from the pure water end toward the drug-containing end encounThis region of change of concen-

tration

is

called the gradient.

The

char-

acter of the gradient in these tanks has

been fully determined by taking samples,

by measuring and by the use of colored water. If a fish encounters no change water,

it

moves

freely back

and forth

without showing preference for either end of the tank. If it encounters water containing an excess of carbon dioxide, it backs away and starts again, often re-

g.

1

per

shown by one

is

per

shown was

preference

individuals

avoided

in

the

With

strongest solutions of morphine.

naphthalene

In

litre.

individual, but not by an-

Some

other.

and

half : saturated

sat-

urated solutions, the fishes reacted pos-

although they died after a time.

tively,

Some

species of

minnows were

tive to ethyl-alcohol

The It

goldfish

is

less sensi-

than goldfish.

becoming a great

has multiplied in the River

pest.

Murray

an extent that a frayed rope-end into the water will in a few days be a mass of goldfish spawn. These wild goldfish grow up to two or three pounds to such

let

down

weight, many of the largest being â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Herbert M. Hale, Australia.

in

red.

We recently heard of a house that found a tenant solely because it happened to have a glass-enclosed sleeping porch. To

ward.

ers, a hint

gives other evidence of stimu-

positive

litre

avoided the

reacted positively.

still

in concentrations of 0.15 g.

peating the operation before going forIt

but

full strength,

ters a gradual rise in concentration of the

drug.

With more and

died.

The conditions are mental conditions. established in a tank approximately 48

in

in a

yawning, coughing or gulping motion.

aquarists, nuf sed

;

to property

own-

of a desirable improvement.


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

:

â&#x20AC;˘b i

Chologaster cornutus

niie FisK of the Dismal Sxtfamp W. W. WELSH,

The

United States Bureau of Fisheries

recorded description of this

first

curious and little-known fish was published by the elder Agassiz in the American Journal of Science and Arts, in 1854. The fish then described was taken in ditches in the rice fields of South CaroIn 1853, on his return from a tour lina. through the Southern and Western States, Professor Agassiz gave a sum-

mary

of

some of

his ichthyological dis-

coveries in a letter to Professor

J.

B.

In this letter are the following

Dana.

of Southern and South Central States. In

family the body

this

com-

elongate,

is

pressed posteriorly, the head long and flat,

with projecting under jaw.

ficially ther'

is

the Poeciliidse, or

mouth

is

Super-

a strong resemblance to

Top Minnows, but

smaller,

the

scales

finer,

the the

ventral fins are absent or rudimentary,

and the vent

is

the four or five

Chologaster

is

placed far forward.

known

the only one that has func-

and a pigmented

tional eyes

Of

genera, the genus

skin, all the

remarks

others having skin-covered eyes and col-

would mention foremost a new genus which I shall call Chologaster,

orless body.

"I

very similar

general appearance to the

in

blind fish of the

Mammoth

provided with eyes

under the throat, but of ventral fins

;

has, like

it

;

aperture

anal

the

opsis,

Cave, though

Ambly-

I

scarcely three inches long,

fish,

living in the ditches of the rice fields in

South

Carolina.

name from

derive

I

snout, which has

its

specific

form of the

singular

the

two horn-like projec-

tions above."

Agassiz,

shades.

two

Chologaster have

other

been

species

of

described, both

caves.

dorsal

fin is

white with dark

The

or bar; remainder of caudal dusky.

length does not exceed two and one-half

Cholgaster

which

to

is

so-called

blind-fishes,

Chologaster

assigned, together with the

composed of

is

the

Amblyop-

small, ovoviviparous

fishes living in caves,

swamps and

ditches

cornutus

is

found

from

Virginia to Georgia, in swamps, ditches,

and backwater of small

rivers.

pears to be solitary in habit, but

abundant. family

cornutus

sidse,

The

There is a black blotch at the base of the tail, beyond which is a white area

inches.

being found in subterranean streams and

The

placed for-

spots.

Since the discovery of this species by Prof.

is

The body and

fins.

trunk are flushed with red of various

but one species, Ch. cornutus Ag. a small

pectoral

It is

and unex-

pected combination of characters.

ward of the

cornutus the ventral

and the vent

know

entirely deprived

is

a very strange

Chologaster

fins are absent,

head are dark brown above, white below, with three narrow longitudinal black stripes on the sides, the middle one extending through the eye and snout. In some examples the belly and sides of the

advanced

far

In

It is

ap-

locally

In April, 1916, the writer ob-

tained six examples in the Little Peedee River,

all

dead leaves in

being captured in

drifts

at the foot of sand-bars,

of

and

shallow indentations of the river bank.

Associated with them in such places were


:

&quauc

74

numerous

salamanders,

larval

and the

JLitt

The

pieces of timber

D

marked C,

and

resemblance of the two in shape, color

E

Four movement, was striking. at secured were females two and males

bottom and end boards.

this time, the latter containing large yel-

out accurately with a square, and that

and

low eggs,

to Ij4

i

mm.

portant to see that

lived in a small

several months.

aquarium for

Although supplied with it was never ob-

a variety of live food,

served to feed in the daytime. Considering the apparent hardiness of this

and the character of the inhabits, it would appear to be

species,

waters

it

well suited for observation in the aqua-

rium, which might throw some light on its

habits

and

life-history.

A Wood C. G.

At

Aquarium

PILKINGTON

the present time, in Australia,

difficult to

much

secure all-glass aquaria.

as not

all

it

is

Inas-

aquarists are sufficiently

adept with tools to

make

tanks of metal,

with reinforced concrete base, the following specifications for a tank with ends

and bottom of wood, one of which I have had in use for fifteen years, may make an appeal All

wood

one-inch red pine, dressed

(cypress or first-grade white pine

be substituted

in

where shown

in

may

America). Screws (60) sketch

nailed, including top plates,

most im-

marked

nailing together; also square everything

ner plates.

If the

clamps are beveled

off

to hiding place in short,

survived a trying journey to Washington, it

It is

parts are

before nailing on the top and bottom cor-

wriggling dashes of astonishing rapidity. One example, taken in the Peedee River,

where

all

bottom and end boards are square before

in diameter.

This species appears to be nocturnal in habit, invariably attempting to hide in the daytime, and when disturbed moving

from hiding place

are nailed through the sheet iron to the

;

all

other parts

and bottom corner

which are cut out of thin sheet

iron.

Give all woodwork three coats of paint, and the piece of iron, which covers the bottom and two ends three coats of white bath enamel after it has been bent to fit.

End

24 c.

Front Sheet

I

1

View

of

Clam ps


;

Danio Malabaricus ERNEST LEITHOLF

In the Madras Journal of Literature

and Science, for 1849, Jerdon describes Pcrilampus malabaricus, canadensis and mysoricus; Bleeker,

in

1864,

male

more der and

slen-

describes

Danio micronema and lineolatus from Ceylon; Day, 1869, describes Paradanio All were merely variants aurolineatus.

we now know

of one species, the fish

fully developed the coloration of the is

as

is

In color

abdomen

length of the body

The back

silvery

sapphire-blue

the

;

bands, at

is

sides

the

dorsal contains from I j

15,

The

anal

15

4

with three central

one

long, sometimes very broken

and irregu-

and seemingly a continuation of a of irregular golden streaks and

dashes directly behind the

gills,

extends

partly through the centre of the central

The

and abdomen are tinged with reddish salmon. Extending through the caudal fin are three or four dusky rays. Some writers maintain these

ventrals, anal

rays,

in

the

female,

incline

toward the upper lobe, and that the irregular marks behind the gills are more numerous, but I have not found these devery convincing guides. The number

of irregular marks varies considerably,

may have more

than

the average, and a certain female

less.

a particular male

Before maturity

it

is

Danio malabaricus (Male)

Between these

are two luminous golden lines, with an-

tails

1

12 to

one-half to

height.

gray-green

other line about three-fourths of an inch

that

-

its

base gradually

its

tapers toward the caudal.

band.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;two and

three and one-half times

one of the most beautiful

it is

somewhat wider

number

graceful.

the fishes of India.

of the genus.

lar,

and the body more

In proportions the length of the head contained four or five times in the

Danio malabaricus, and as synonyms are handled by Day in his larger and later

work on

intense

practically impos-

sible to distinguish the sexes, but

when

to

19,

pectorals 8 and the ventrals

15

Lateral line with 35 to yj scales, transversely 7 to 8. Of the four barbels rays.

the

two lower ones are very minute and

rudimentary, often entirely absent

upper pair correspond

;

the

in length to one-

half the diameter of the eye,

and may

also be absent.

The breeding of this Danio in confinement has not met with any great degree of success, and as none have been imported since 1914, the species at this writing is nearly extinct in our collections.

We

secured our stock at the time men-

and since then the original pairs and later their offspring have frequently spawned in our tanks. Fortunately some tioned,

of the fry always survived to maturity, though each succeeding year marked a

decrease in

number

until,

in

1918, only

three were found, and these succumbed


— Aquatic

76

when about an inch long. Inability to new blood undoubtedly has been

:

filtt

W. H.

Mr.

Association of Maryland,

main factor in this decline. For breeding purposes a large tank should be used. The vegetation should

appeared

Baltimore Sun.

in the

know

anxious to

is

be arranged in one dense group at one side or in a corner, as this affords protec-

by

this

spawn, and gives ample swimming space for the fish; moreover facilitates locating and removing the it

solved in Baltimore.

the

for

which can be accomplished with

eggs,

In

a glass dip-tube or a rubber hose.

our tanks the species has never spawned more than three or four times during a

The operation takes place while their way through the

summer. the

force

fish

densely planted section of the aquarium. After incubation, which requires from

two to five days, the fry can be seen suspended from the plants, stones or sides of the aquarium.

They

will cling to the

same spot for hours, only changing positions

when

disturbed.

their

This inactiv-

broken only by an occasional effort to swim, continues from one to two days, the yolk-sac supplying nutrition during this time. When able to swim about, and supplied with an abundance of infusoria, and later daphne, small mosquito larvae, etc., their growth is remarkable, individity,

uals attaining a length of three-fourths

one inch in less than four weeks. This seems to be the most critical period. The majority, if an apparently healthy lot of fry, will m a few days' time be transformed into a sickly lot, with arched backs, shrunken abdomens and conThis has frequently haptracted fins. pened in tanks that were painstakingly maintained in the best of condition, and so far we have been unable to determine

Seems

Our

so the question

of

experiences lead us to conclude

numbers, an exceedingly large tank, tory,

or,

still a pond or basin in a conservamust be employed, with artificial

aeration

if

the

is

The

clipping spe-

The

were used,

referred to the treas-

Aquatic

Louis Hens.

fins.

problem should be

cifically states that hens' eggs

urer

W. H. hatched

Association,

Mr.

clipping

"The Chinese have a novel way of fish. The spawn is carefully collected from the surface of the water, and when a sufficient quantity has been obtained they take a number of hens' propagating

eggs, the contents of

which have been

carefully emptied through a small aperture,

The

and

refill

holes are

the

with spawn.

shells

sealed

up and the eggs

The hens

put under broody hens.

are

allowed to incubate the eggs for a certain

number

of days,

when

the eggs are again

broken and their contents put into water that has been previously sun.

warmed by

the

In a very short time the spawn

hatches, and the in pure, fresh

young

water

fry are then kept

until a sufficient size

to be put into the ponds.

At one time

considerable business was style of

done

in

a

this

spawn hatching."

The West

Philadelphia Goldfish Fan-

ciers' Association met on Thursday even-

January 2d, in their new quarters, Hamilton Hall, 5236 Market street. The competition was for blue ribbon winners. Awards were made as follows Scalelcss Telescopes Silver cup to Michael Moylan blue and yellow ribing,

;

that in order to raise this species in large better

fishes

if

method develop feathers or to us that the

to

the cause.

is

exercised over the following note, which

C.

tion

The Aquatic very much

of

Cassell,

infuse the

:

available.

Howard E. Demuth red ribbon, Scaled Telescope Blue E. Weinreich. ribbon, E. Weinreich. Lionhead Blue

bons,

;

— —

to Michael

Moylan.

Frank Merges. retary.

Scaled Jap

— Blue

to

Earle W. Roak, Sec-


Notes on Native FisKes LEON Field

For a number of years

I

Museum

L.

of

have main-

tained a small aquarium or two on the

back of a table

at

my

place of employ-

A

few seasons ago, in June, I netted some fishes from a body of water ment.

With the rubble from the bottom of

adjacent to the building.

brought by the net

in

Aquaria

PRAT Matural

History

After three

weeks they exhibited the form and markings of the species, though they were not more than a fourth of an inch long.

Soon a rather surprising thing hapThe baby bass turned cannibals. The larger and stronger ones quickly

pened.

the pool were pieces of mussel shell and

swallowed the smaller, afterward going

pebbles, which

slowly about, rolling their eyes wisely,

lection at the

I

kept to add to the col-

bottom of

my

aquarium.

Large-mouth black bass were nestling along the shore of the pool, but suspect

days

I

later,

had taken eggs

when

I

I

until

didn't

several

noticed half a dozen

newly-hatched babies moving uncertainly

They were

about over the bottom. small to identify, but diately that they

were

I

too

suspected immebass.

Each con-

sisted principally of a pair of goggle eyes,

a stomach attached below

and a little to and a pointed, apparently finless tail. The tail was held curved around at one side, except when the owner wanted to get somewhere, when it was energetically flipped backward to produce forward motion. At this time there were countless minute, whitish creatures dodging about over the bottom and through the plants. To these the baby fish turned their attention, seeming to depend upon them for the rear,

food

at this stage of their career.

In a

few days the little fish, which at first were scarcely more than one-sixteenth of an inch in length, began to straighten their

oddly-curved

During the same time the yolk-sac was absorbed, their mouths became larger and the fins began to take shape and become visible. tails.

with the

tail-fins

of their brothers and

protruding from their mouths. In a few days but two remained. There sisters

was but I came

slight difference in size.

Carefully

When

one morning one was gone.

in I

watched the survivor and,

sure enough, there

was the bulging belly and the tell-tale caudal fin sticking out of his mouth. In outline he resembled a mature bass. He was paunchy and full-throated, just like

many an

cracker" that has fallen to

old "crab-

my

rod.

It

was laughable. little

There swam the lordly savage, sole proprietor and tenant

of the tank, ruthless destroyer of his kin


aquatic

78

gorged bass would

that he might live.

After

this I

caught a

swarm

of

minnow

fry and turned them in with the little bass Until his for company and for food. but them, ignored appetite prodded he unthem gave when the spirit moved he swerving attention. Then he would slide

up through the water toward the glinting drove, all of which were longer than himself, and aim his baleful eyes and bulldog nose

one he intended to

at the

Time

kill.

watched him make his selecThey were in limited space, and he

and again tion.

I

could be deliberate.

The minnow chosen

seemed to know that ill was brewing and would rush alone from the throng, wildly seeking an escape. A wire screen covering the tank prevented an aerial egress.

The

bass fed twice daily, as regu-

little

mid-forenoon and midmissed his first He afternoon. strike, usually catching his prey by the

lar as a clock, in

rarely

middle, then quickly and deftly shifting his hold to the head, and swallowing with a quick gulp

and a wriggle of

Nearly always the

fLitt

of the

tail

them.

lazily

160 minnows, including his

He grew

little

fellow

In that time he consumed

three months.

slightly

swim among

kept this interesting

I

own

relatives.

about an inch a month, and was

under three inches

in

length on

the first of September.

Among

the

many

other fascinating

lit-

native fishes which I have kept was young Warmouth or Mud bass. This fellow was even more bulldog-like in appearance than the black bass, but was fairly gentle and as proud as a peacock. He would change his colors and dark tle

a

mottling into several beautiful combinations in less time than

Once

it

takes to

tell

it.

put a piece of mirror behind his

I

Whether

tank.

censed him

I

this

delighted

could never

make

or

out.

in-

Be-

fore it he would bristle and strut with mouth agap, his colors blazing and gills expanded until they resembled a rosy blossom. With all fins spread, he would

wriggle about, rolling his fiery eyes at

his body.

his reflection.

minnow

at his antics.

A

dog would have laughed

him snatch a frantic minnow by the tail and try to swallow him that way. Usually the vibrating tail of the victim would

He would eat almost anything, and was altogether a very satisfactory aquarium pet. Goldfish shared his tank, and This he did in to them he made love. the most ardent and mirth-provoking

work out through his gills, when he would shake it free and then take head

would

protruded from his mouth for two or three hours after.

When

first.

A

few times

I

saw

scales flying in

became.

he missed he became angry and the speed of his next seemed doubled, if indeed greater speed be possible. There was no perceptible "open mouth effect"

If

when

striking; he

snout met the minnow, a shimmery shower. The other minnows

its

particular

alarm,

Last

summer

I

The minnow

usually

started

by sliding out from his weedy retreat with his head twisted sidewise,

hostilities

would soon be

playing and feeding again, not showing

any

the weeds.

snapped as his

in a slight

dart thrown with incredible speed from sling.

the goldfish in consternation

flee into

had a mud minnow and two young bluegill sunfish. The two species engaged in a feud which ended in disaster. Not a day passed but the three staged a battle or two, in which the mud minnow nearly always bested his two The longer they doughty antagonists. lived together the more savage the fights

he struck he sped

arc, so fast that he resembled a silvery

a

style, until

even

when

the

fins

spread and undulating with nervous

energy.

Slowly he approached the hid-


— aquatic

Then with

ing sunfish.

swing of a

like the

motion exactly

a

pugilist's

fist,

he would

one could see him only brown arc. Bing! When tough little "mug" hit a sunfish, and

strike so fast that

as a blurred, his

he never missed, that sunny went sailing

But the sunnies came back every time, game as bantam cocks. Then it would be bing! biff! bang! for a few seconds, until the combatants retired to the weeds to glare and bristle and accumulate energy and courage for the like a flat stone.

next round. It

came

mud minnow

I

floated

dead

at the surface

of the water, with his snout bruised and

gouged and half the It must stripped from his body.

swollen, his sides

have been some scrap!

With the end of the war the interest of members of the Essex County Aqua-

the

rium

reviving,

is

and

look

prospects

The following

bright

for the

officers

have been elected for the current

future.

year: President, Rev. B. Coltarti

;

vice-presi-

dent, F. Hoernig; treasurer, Dr. William

Bachmann Breder,

recording secretary, C.

;

Jr.

lis.

— C.

M.

BrtvDRr, Jr., Recording Sec-

retary.

One

reason

why consumers have

freely

that

is

an advertisement consti-

;

financial

secretary,

C.

M. F.

Hermes. Membership, exhibition, entertainment and publicity committees have been appointed the machinery has been set in motion for a big and prosperous year. The members were glad to welcome back to the fold the Hoernig boys, who have been wandering in other fields for more than a year. They have plans for

upon

tutes a reliable record of the terms

which the

con-

and buy them

fidence in advertised wares

goods to the

seller offers his

buyer.

The personal salesman may

may

or

not

represent the quality of the

truthfully

product he urges upon his customer. If he misrepresents it, and afterwards repudiates his description of

an end one Sunday when

to

was not on hand to witness the final scrap. I wish I had seen it. On Monday morning the sunfish were swimming The around with an air of triumph.

scales

79

JLitt

ises in its behalf, there

An

for the purchaser. unsubstantial.

It

or his prom-

it,

no come-back

is

oral statement

not

is

a

is

matter of

record.

The magazine advertisement tection to the buyer.

It is

able for reference;

it

is

a pro-

is

always availevi-

first-class

dence.

Buyers and

sellers alike recognize the

advantage of the printed word as a promoter of square dealing and clear understanding. The aquarist who commits himself to print in the magazine adver-

tisement

fully

is

therefore a safe

accountable,

man

and

is

to deal with.

Blood circulation in the frog is readily observed by placing the web of a hind foot under a moderate-powered microscope.

A chanchito

with a shoal of fry

as busy as a cross-eyed

boy

is

about

at a three-

ring circus.

Some men

are like musical glasses

produce their

them wet.

Even

may

finest

—to

tone you must keep

Coleridge.

the things

we

get

for nothing

cost an effort.

a fine goldfish hatchery in the nearby country, so

New

Jersey

is

now

real fish establishment near her

to

have a

metropo-

Don't brag about your goldfish

them do the

talking.

;

let


— »^# i

MANAGING THE AQUARIUM I

WILLIAM

T.

IMMES

)

)

£

.,

I

\

Blue Calico Comet

Original

Water Color by Franklin Barrett \

\

-4

There

is

one question which the be-

ginner always asks of the experienced "How often should I change aquarist

The answer: Except under

the water?"

unusual circumstances, not at is

all.

This

sure to bring forth expressions of sur-

prise

and wonderment, and a demand

know how

to

is

that

the fish

exhale carbon dioxide,

which the plants need

up the combination, and returning the the water, to again be used by

the plants breaking

retaining the carbon

oxygen

to

a general way, then,

is

way one may avoid

plants to handle

the

breathing of the

fishes.

ill-smelling.

this

As

a matter of fact, a prop-

aquarium only needs water added to make up for evaporation, while a general house-cleaning and reerly

conditioned

planting

may

be desirable (but not neces-

sary) from one to three years apart.

The governing that

it

is

principles are so simple

surprising to find the general

public ignorant of them.

The

big fact

The answer,

the fishes in respiration.

having the water become stagnant and

in

food-making,

in

ment makes what

is

in

have enough

to

products

of

the

This arrange-

known

anced aquarium," which

is

as a "bal-

capable of

remaining undisturbed for years.

The

writer has an aquarium which has not

been drained for

The proper themselves

five years.

conditions naturally group

into

five

considerations

number of fishes, feeding and temperature. The general principle plants,

light,


aquatic regarding the benefits exchanged between

and

plants

been stated,

fishes has already

but the plants in order to do their part

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

work must have light not too litnor too much. They give off oxygen

of the tle

only under the influence of

aquarium plants

but most

light,

be "burned"

81

liitz

is

not counting the

That

tail.

aquarium

five-gallon

a

properly

maintain either one five-inch or inch or ten half -inch

To rium

to say,

is

will

one-

five

fish.

calculate the capacity of an aquain gallons, if

be rectangular, mul-

it

if

ex-

posed to too much direct sunlight.

A

water measurement in inches, and divide

strong north or other diffused light

is

the total by 231.

will

An hour

generally successful.

or two a

Avoid globes where

day of direct sunlight is beneficial, but more than this is not recommended, particularly as it is apt to turn the water green by promoting a rapid growth of

The

minute

this applies to

algae.

Some

plants

are

oxygenators

better

Three of the best are giant

than others.

Anacharis,

the

Vallisneria,

Italian

or

and Sagittaria. The latter two are probably the most satisfactory of all aquarium plants. The Washform,

diminutive

Cabomba

ington Grass,

caroliniana, fre-

quently sold by dealers,

mended.

not recom-

is

breaks up easily, and unless

It

the conditions are just right

it

as long as the fishes

The

soon looks

many

shabby. There cannot be too

have room

plants

swim.

to

surplus oxygen passes off into the

atmosphere.

For the bottom of the aquarium use

Do

not use fine ocean sand.

have to

roots, spread

them

two inches of sand

If the plants

From one

well.

will be

found

suffi-

The next important ber of fishes which

aquarium.

subject

may

is

the

be placed

numin the

In spite of advice to the con-

the

trary,

beginner

insists

on

over-

crowding, and only learns by repeated

As

failures.

a large fish

consumes more

oxygen than a small one, there can be no satisfactory rule as to the number of fish used,

but there

is a

very good rule

will

be well to remember

fish to

the gallon of water.

it

inch of

full.

are

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; one This

if

more than more air sur-

fill

This gives

when they

face than

the top.

filled to

greater the air surface the better, and

any aquarium.

a broad, flat shape

narrow one.

is

Therefore

better than a deep,

Fish undoubtedly do better

in rectangular

aquaria than in globes, and

they can be seen to

much

better advan-

tage.

An aquarium capacity

A

fish.

fishes

ten-gallon size

possible

is

it

Many

down

persons

They

sumed

a

of

good one the

to

tropical

use quite small

to

to quart jars.

kill

their fishes

overfeed

more than

not be fed

is

For many

aquaria, even

ness.

of less than five-gallons

not very satisfactory for gold-

is

with.

start

them.

by kindFish

in

aquarium should

will be entirely con-

few minutes. In moderate and warm weather they may be fed once in a

daily;

if

the water

is

F.) every other day

low

cient.

which

two-thirds

but

possible,

they must be used, do not

the confinement of an

washed, coarse sand, or sand and gravel.

and width of the

tiply the depth, length

cool (50 to 60 deg. is

If be-

sufficient.

The white

once a week.

this,

rice

wafer, the food generally used by the inexperienced,

Nearly

is

dealers

all

the sell

desirable.

least

a better food in

granular form, composed of dried insects,

egg and farinaceous substances. The best temperature for goldfish

from 65

to

maintain

life

but under

70 degrees

F.

down

to the freezing point,

artificial

conditions necessarily

pertaining in an aquarium this avoided.

is

They can

is

Higher than 80 degrees

to be is

also


— aquatic

82

A

ten-gallon aquarium should be provided with about half a dozen snails such

They

sell.

keep down the

will

green growth on the glass and also consume particles of food which the fishes

For the

overlooked.

may have

latter

purpose some aquarists use tadpoles. The writer does not care for them, as they

up too and watched be should snails The much. mussel A removed. promptly dead ones helps to keep the water clear, and is a and sand

keep the water

stirred

desirable addition, but should not be used

unless one

whether

ILitt

a general splitting of the

dangerous.

as dealers

is

it

willing to frequently observe is

When

alive.

separate

fins,

Salt water should be

able to the taste.

changed

times this treatment

beneficial to fish

is

which are generally run down, but show no external signs of disease. It is believed that sea water, properly diluted,

common

effective than

cooking

table

On

dead their

some contain chemicals

as

salt,

injurious to

fish.

cloudy days, even in a properly

if

quickly placed in the

is

Hold

the closed end as far

they do this in clear weather,

sure sign that something

is

time can be taken,

water

settle

let

into the aquarium.

fine

This

is

the

drawn-

filter

the

be from too high a temperature, too plants, decomposition of snails,

sels

or

musunconsumed food, but in all cases it is from overcrowding. Whatever the cause, it must be found and quickly reme-

To

delay

better than

the same temperature as the old.

Violent changes

in

This

first

and

is

tempera-

ture produce contagious diseases as "white fungus"

I

deserves.

of

to invite disaster.

is

should like to express

preciation of

It

pleasure

my

great ap-

Aquatic Life, and wish has given

and

it

me many

instruction.

it

greatly

hours

— A.

E.

Atkins, England. Let our object be our country, our whole country, and nothing but our country.

muslin back

new water if the aquarium is right. If new water is used, see that it is of nearly important.

a It

in small fish

somewhat and

clear portion through

is

few

the very best of succes, which

If the

to

may

the surface of the water in the aquarium. Move the end of the tube about in the water just above accumulations of dirt, which will be rapidly sucked up. Care

off

it

wrong.

died.

must be taken not to draw and snails.

come

the surface of the water to breathe, but

as possible below the aquarium and into a suitable receptacle. The open then run out as long as the diswill water charging end of the tube is lower than

down

Do

not use advertised brands of non-caking

an aquarium becomes unsightly, siphon it off with a rubber tube of from onefourth to one-half inch in diameter and

aquarium.

more

is

salt.

conditioned aquarium, fishes will

while the other

Some-

Feed sparingly.

daily.

decomposition is rapid and very offensive. Once in a while, when the sediment in

about three to four feet long. Fill the tube with water, holding one end closed

it

from the others and place in salt water This may until improvement is distinct. take from one day to a week. The water should be salt enough to be just notice-

"tail rot."

sign of a whitish coating on a

known At the fish,

or

as

Let us then stand by the constitution it is, and by our country as it is, one,

united, and entire let it be a truth engraven on our hearts let it be borne on the flag under which we rally in every ;

;

exigency, that

one

we may have one

constitution,

Webster.

one

destiny.

Nature yields only

to

work.

country,

Daniel


aquatic

The Boston Show WALTER The

N.

annual

third

turned up the flame to see

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

CHUTE of

exhibition

Boston Aquarium Society was held Mechanics' 19th

Building,

inclusive,

in

January

the

in the

14th

to

conjunction with the

and Pet Stock Show. Five hundred fishes were shown in 73 tanks, 23 of which were "balanced." More than a hundred goldfish were Boston

Poultry

The End

of a Perfect

In

tropical section twenty-nine species

the

were

shown, together with two hundred native representing fourteen species.

tropical

were shown

in electrically

The

heated

cases, the heat being applied to the air

and not showed

to the

a

water

direct.

One member

community tank, lamp. This worked ad-

beautiful

heated by an

oil

and forgot

to

120 degrees, presenting

the

water,

and by

attendant present at

individual in the absence of the attendant.

its

unfortunate-

have

all all

means have an if you

times, even

Society Aquatic Life

to hire one.

The

greatest interest centered in the

Mr. F. S. Blodgett carried off the honors for the best fish shown with a big black. A younger black, entered by W. N. Chute, was awarded second, while F. A. Packard's blue was special awards.

third.

the

In the class for balanced aquaria

50-gallon

tank

gallon" class.

some curious

!

mentioned as a warning. If exhibition tanks must be heated, heat the air, not

dropped as low as

50, until

how it worked down again

is

75 degrees, while the hall temperature

maintaining a temperature of

it

owner with an entirely unexpected fish chowder the following morning. This

Hauthaway was The writer took

mirably,

turn

After that the aquarium was maintained at

Day- Members of The Chicago at the Daph Pond

entered in the sixteen classes.

fishes,

83

ILitt

ried off

far first

entered by C. Land away the best. in the "under five-

Mr. Hauthaway also carthe honors for the largest collec-


!

aquatic

84 tion of plants, the

number

of native

first

prize for

and and also received

fishes fishes,

the

most species of tropical

the largest

of classes entered, showing

number

fishes in

45 classes against 32 entered by

record was kept of the attendance,

but 900 copies of a

little

"The Daphnian" were

A

pamphlet called

in

distributed.

True Fish Story

the

and catch the horn from the sides of the cattle. Often we saw them leap as much as half their

leap out of the water

length out of the water to secure a

American Naturalist for He said that cattle in Ne-

March, 1909. were seriously infested by the Texas horn fly, Haematobia serrata, a pest that had been introduced from EuThese flies "literally swarmed rope. cattle, and since the majority the around

braska

was dehorned, the insects over the backs and sides all would settle of the animals, although they were in some cases observed to cluster around the of the stock

photograph of a chub ing a

from the

fly

photograph

where the collecting Running Water, several hundred cattle watered all summer. "The cattle would almost always enter

"At Harris'

fishes actually learned that

the dark spots on the sides of the cattle

made good food Just

how

they

there can be no doubt.

first

learned

The chubs had

know.

it

we may

not

further learned

coming of the cattle meant food would meet the catthe shallows and follow them to

that the

for them, hence they in

tle

deeper water." Dr.

Moodie proves

story with a

his

ford,

parties crossed

.

.

.

Scientific education

practical education,

standards of work

the stream at the shallow part of the ford

the standards of

and gradually wade up stream, drinking as they went, until they came to the deep place near the fence where the water The reached well up on their bellies. seemed atromaculatus, Semotilus chubs,

tion.

be unusually numerous at the ford,

and we often wondered bers of the

and the

published herewith.

is

"That the

in the act of catch-

side of a cow,

good photograph.

horn bases."

to

fly

which was high up on the animal's side. These observations were made on several consecutive days, and on the last day but one I was so fortunate as to secure a

Professor Roy L. Moodie, of the University of Kansas, related a good fish story

Often we saw as many more chubs following a single cow. As soon as the water came near the bellies of the animals the chubs would at the shallows.

as a dozen or

flies

his nearest competitor.

No

JLitt

little

fishes

at the great

num-

which we could

see in schools in the clear water.

presence was soon explained.

Their

As soon

You

is

necessary with

we raise the we must also raise for

if

knowledge

in

our na-

can gauge an aquarist by the con-

tents of his bookcase.

Are you preserv-

ing for reference every available scrap of literature

?

you think you have troubles, just watch a fat man trying to catch a swordwith a 3tail in a 75-gallon aquarium If

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

inch net

as the cattle entered the stream at the

shallow place in the ford the chubs would

come out from

their cool

and shady

re-

under the grasses along the sides of the bank and hasten to meet the cattle treats

Keep and

a note book near your aquaria

jot in

interest.

it

every

little

observation of

Don't trust to memory.

best of us err at times.

The


irrYVTryvY^nr^rYv-inonriririnrv ,nnr>nnr,r)mnnni

«p.

frOOOCraooCK

iff

)OOQ<

)C

The RYUKIN or

JAPANESE FRINGETAIL HAVE

E

an especially

fine lot

of large and very large fish of this variety suitable for use as

Breeders,

or

display

for

Write

pools or large aquaria. g

us for prices.

8

SUNDOWN

in

Retail or in quantity

8

Blacks

g 8

None

ft(

^

HENRY

By

B.

§

A.

SCHENK

Mount Vernon, N. Y.

«-mn<-

FRESH

for sale at present!

GEORGE

)Oooocoooocx)oooooc)OOOOC)oooooooooooociocrz3ij, ->nrm<

ana Vari-nues

::

8

Coachella, California

ij

Blues

::

g n g

HATCHERY

FISH

GoldfisKes §

fcnmt

inrv-M

—>nnn<

mnm

trm i

rw-i i-

"" i

rw-»

-ww i

.m-w^

^

nryi.

WATER BIOLOGY WARD GEORGE and

C.

WHIPPLE

WITH THE COLLABORATION OF 25 DISTINGUISHED SPECIALISTS All interested in aquatic biology will find here answers to their queries on methods of study, conditions of existence, types of life, and inter-relations of the organisms that inhabit our fresh-water bodies, together with data on their life histories, habits and range. This work is the first complete and accurate record of North American aquatic life, especially the micro-organisms among both plants and animals excluding the vertebrates, higher plants and bacteria, every form is described that has been reported from a fresh-water body on this continent. comprehensive general discussion of each group precedes the description of individual forms, which are arranged under a key to permit of rapid and accurate determination of the genera and species. Nearly every form is illustrated, and its diagnostic features are pointed out. Biological data on its habits, frequence and distribution are also given. Fresh-Water Biology is a big book of 1111 pages, with 1547 illustrations, Price, $6.00, plus postage on four pounds. ;

A

AQUATIC 8oc

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LIFE, 542 E. Girard Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa.

)OOOC

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rAQUATIC MICROSCOPY By DR. ALFRED A

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too

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cuts; 112 pages.

postage on 2 pounds.

postage on 2 pounds.

$2.00, plus

Address Aquatic Life —

>nm-innnonrin<-ioi

guide to the methods of breeding fancy goldfish practiced in Japan. The result of the personal investigations of the author. Ten breeds are illustrated in color, with numerous text

pages, with 198 illustrations. $2.25, plus

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JAPANESE GOLDFISH By DR. HUGH M. SMITH

STOKES

lower organisms for the

of the

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Address Aquatic Life »

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Japanese Medakas at $4 to $6 per dozen. Will exchange for red snails, broad-tail teeseopes. lion-heads or other fancy goldfish. Vallisneria, 5c.

PROSPECT PARK DELAWARE CO.. PA. Orders booked

Them Over

very Fancier Should Look

per plant.

to 20c.

ALBERT FUCHS

803 Sheridan Road

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for 1919 hatching of

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With

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as early as you wish Magic will raise your fish for you. If you have not tried Magic send for free booklet and see what leading breeders think of Yogi Fish Food and Magic. Ask your dealer or send for it direct. Magic 50c Postpaid; Yogi 15c box by mail 7c; Yogi 75c lb add postage.

Single copies, fifteen cents.

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Joseph E. Bausman, Publisher.

Schaeffer

J.

1818 Frankford Avenue

Fine

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PHILADELPHIA

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IS

and grow on Enchytraeids. the Generous box by mail, 50 little white worms. cents. Pull directions given for propagating Pishes

Correspondence Solicited

GEORGE WILT,

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Tropical Fishes, Plants and Snails. Rooking orders now tor spawn and fry. Telephone. 461 Cliffside. 241 Walker St.. Cliffside. N. J.

H.

J.

the coming school year will be filled with special articles from practical teachers dealing with actual works, methods and suggestions for school gardening, elementary agriculture and nature-study.

The numbers

MACKRELL

$1.00 per year.

Breeder of Fancy Broadtail Telescopes and Japs Add

Healthy stock at reasonable prices. Mack's Superior Pish Pood (best by test). 15 cents. Baby Wholesale to dealers. food, 'M cents. Plants, Breeder of Pomeranian and snails and aquaria. Appointments by mail. Pekingese dogs. 2Slfi

Jasper

Street.

Philadelphia.

for

for

15c.

per copy.

Canadian Postage 10 cents.

Foreign Postage. 20 cents. With Aquatic Life, one year, $1.50.

ITHACA, *>c

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EVERYTHING IS FISH THAT COMES TO THE NET OP A NATURALIST

Thousands

Veiltail

Telescopes from the Finest

Don't paddle in the water with' one hand and In other words, with both eyes. be blind "keep .your eyes open" for all nature.

America.

Stock in

Magazine

Our

Young

of

$2.50 per Dozen

Ut>£ CBuiSie to jftaturc Will Help You

$ 15.00 per Hundred

EDWARD

edited by P. BIGELOW, who in the heavens and earth, as well as the waters under the earth. Four months' trial, 25e. One year, $1.00. It is fishes

Mixed

In

THE AGASSIZ ASSOCIATION ArcAdiA Sound Beach

Blacks

Blues,

Colors, Calicos,

Etc.

Connecticut

ooooc

3QOOC

S.

DOOOC

Franklin Barrett

DOOO

SILVER

&

Wyoming Avenue

Pa

C. Street, Phila.,

Fancier and Breeder of Tropical Fishes Splendid healthy stock at reasonable Haplochilus cameronensis, Betta All kinds of live-bearing rubra, etc.

50c Extra for Shipping

prices.

Can

Cash With Order

fishes.

235 East 11th

NEW YORK

Street

CITY

OOC3C

3QOO<

)OOOC

-"

IOOOC

Z3QOCX

«i"

(Between 2d and 3d avenues)

WHITE The the

WORMS— Enchytraeus

this

;

(Send cash or money order only Pull directions given for breeding

one pound. no checks).

is

worm.

Secaucus,

New

Jersey

they said, "Price sold out,"

They knew not what they talked about. Price has the goods, same as of old, So please don't believe all you're told. For fine broadtails or tropical fishes, Price

here to

is

"Goldfish Varieties

& Tropical

Aquarium Fishes", byWm.T.Innes,

CHARLES E. JENNE, 1577 Paterson Plank Road When

THE BEST BOOK & AQUARIUM &£gg

Can he raised indoors 50c. add postage on

ideal living fish food. year round. Portion,

fulfill

A

complete, practical, handsome book, sent postpaid anywhere for $3.00. & Enlarged edition now ready.

your wishes.

2145 South Lee Street, Philadelphia

former President of the Aquarium Society of Phila.; 250 pages, 195 Tells all about the illustrations. fancy varieties of the Goldfish and nearly 300 tropicals ; how to breed them, etc., etc. For the beginner or the advanced expert.

None Shipped

INNES

& SONS

133 N. 12th

St.

-

Phila., Pa.

Charles E. Visel

Wanted Pantodon buchholzi (Butterfly Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum.

Fish)

and

Broad-tail

Telescopes and Japs

Blacks, Blues and Parti-colors

Address Aquatic Life 215 *boooooo(

Putnam Avenue, Brooklyn,

soooooof

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"AQUARIA FISH"

Mollienisia latipinna We

have an extra fine stock of this most desirable Southern aquarium fish, bred in small tanks, and thoroughly domesticated. While a "live-bearer," it will stand a temperature of 32 degrees. We ship this species during winter months only. Extra Large, $ 4 Dozen

$ 20 Hundred

Medium,

$ 15 Hundred

lO Kinds

$ 3 Dozen

of

i

Street, >oooooo<

New

Orleans, La

practical

in

the aquarium,

work on care and breeding

of fish

greenhouse and outdoor ponds.

Tappan's Natural Fish Food, paid,

Three boxes, post-

25c.

Guinea Pigs and Thoroughbred Collie Pups, beautifully marked. Write for prices.

Aquarium Plants $1 Postpaid

1624 Mandeville

A

Finely illustrated. Everyone interested in keeping fish should send Price $1.00. for a copy of this book.

CRESCENT FISH FARM if»ooo jooeznaooo

N. Y.

TAPPAN

F. L. g

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Route 2, 3QQCX

Hopkins, Minn. oooooo

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HARRY

^lirfjaelsen i&ros

P.

1210 N. Warnock

GOLDFISH BREEDERS

PETERS

Street, Philadelphia,

Pa

BREEDER AND IMPORTER Rare and Fancy Fish Plants

FLORISTS

every variety,

of

Aquarium Supplies

of

Snails

and

kinds at

all

all

times.

Walnut

Streets

South 52nd

Street

58th and

110

MANUFACTURER OF Green River Fish Food 15c Box

Green River Baby Fish Food

Philadelphia

20c Box

Aquarium Fishes

A GOOD FISH FOOD most

All Kinds of Aquatic Plants

Aquaria

&

one of the

is

necessary to keep fish in good health. After the test of years Green River stands out as the best food on the market. It keeps the fish in good color by promoting a healthy, robust growth. It will not sour ot cloud the water. Ask your dealer or send for it today.

Supplies

Wholesale and Retail

things

essential

JOOOC^OQOO

^rsooooooooocraog

HERMAN RABENAU,

Young

Aquarist

& Terraria

Welcome

Shipping Cans,

Plants and Tropical Fish a Specialty Importations of

New

of

Blues, Blacks and Calico Telescopes and Japs at Reasonable Prices.

must be seen to be appreciated Visitors

All Colors

$5.00 Dozen Up BREEDERS— Largest Assortment

PERMANENT DISPLAY OF Aquatic Life

Veiltails,

50c.

Fine Assortment of Lionheads

Varieties received

regularly

HARRY

1163 Myrtle Avenue. Brooklyn, N. Y.

1210 North

Near Broadway.

P.

PETERS,

Warnock

Phila.,

St.,

Pa.

J000000000C=D000O0O000O00C=3O0000O

GOLDFISH, FOODS, PLANTS, DIP NETS Combination Natural Fish Food

-

Sample Box 10c

Imported Shrimp Fish Food

-

-

Sample Can 15c

Imported Wafer Fish Food

Large Sample Box 10c

Nippon Goldfish Co 1919-21 Bush Street, San Francisco, Cal

Importers

:

and

:

Dealers

Mail Orders Promptly Attended to

Agents for

Japanese Goldfish and Supplies

"ART AQUARIUMS"

Special Combination Offer: 12 Sagittaria

Special Prices on Quantity Lots. Cash With Order.

Catalogue

Sent

hatans,

Upon Request.

AQUARIUM STOCK CO New York

City

3C=OOOC=>OOOC

sneria,

§

2 1

Sagittaria

box

gigantica,

Ground Shrimp,

6 Valli1

box

Mikado Fishfood All for $1.00 Postpaid

OOC30000CX)OOOC=OOCX)OOOOOOOQO€=DOOOCXDOOOOC

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Aquatic life 2 1919  
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