Page 1


Jacob C. Cassel 915 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pa Manufacturer of

AQUARIUMS Aquarium Ornaments Floral Terra Cotta, Etc. Fish Globes

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WATER BIOLOGY WHIPPLE WARD GEORGE and

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WITH THE COLLABORATION OF 25 DISTINGUISHED SPECIALISTS All interested in aquatic biology will find here answers to their queries on methods of study, conditions of existence, types of life, and inter-relations of the organisms that inhabit our fresh-water bodies, together with data on their life histories, habits and range. This work is the first complete and accurate record of North American aquatic life, especially the micro-organisms among both plants and animals excluding the vertebrates, higher plants and bacteria, every form is described that has been reported frorr a fresh-water body on this continent. comprehensive general discussion of each group precedes the description of individual forms, which are arranged under a key to permit of rapid and accurate determination of the genera and species. Nearly every form is illustrated, and its diagnostic features are pointed Biological data on its habits, frequence and distribution are also out. given. Fresh-Water Biology is a big book of 1111 pages, with 1547 illustrations. Price, $6.00, plus postage on four pounds. ;

A

AQUATIC

LIFE, 542 E. Girard Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

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DOOOC=3000CrZ5CXX)C

>c

Grovedale Goldfish Hatchery MANAGER

FRED SCHAEFER

HE LARGEST AND BEST in the

equipped conservatories United States devoted to the rearing of rare

and fancy Goldfish. All species of tropical Wholesale and and aquarium plants.

D

Street above

fishes retail

Wyoming Avenue

Philadelphia, Pa.

B rk 8 ( Fa r m )

30i


o ur

1

American Ln)e-Bearing Tooth-Carps DR.

E.

BADE

i The last few years have witnessed a tremendous growth of aquarium societies and an augmented interest in keeping and raising fishes in the balanced aquarium

The

home.

at

lefts

The eggs remain

among

After one

main factors contributing

the

They

and

this

in

are fertilized internally and

the ovary during incubation. fertilization the

female expells

are easy to keep

readily multiply in captivity.

The male

is,

as a rule, smaller than the

female, and has a

to

Other

manner.

carps of America have undoubtedly been the advancement.

and vice versa.

female,

tooth-carps cannot be classified in

live-bearing tooth-

little

a "right" male consorts only with a

;

"left"

anal fin modified into

its

long intromittent

terior part of

The

organ.

pos-

body has more verte-

its

bra; than the female.

Several of these

are modified to form a support for the

mass of muscles involved in the complicated movements of the anal fin during copulation,

the

muscles being attached

directly to the vertebral

column by tough

The shape

of the modified

ligaments.

anal fin varies in the different species, especially

the

clasp-like

tip,

which

is

probably used for holding or grasping the

small

talis) just

On

projection

urogeni-

(papilla

behind the anus of the female.

the underside of the bone-like ray

of the anal fin

Poecilia vivipara

a

number of broods, even though weeks months may intervene, for only

and

those eggs which are fully mature are fertilized.

oviduct.

on the intromittent organ moves forward with a motion not unlike that of a clasp-

in great

sperm.

When

fertilization is carried

knife being opened.

Through

the canal, which at

now

faces up.

first

This

is

lay

this

motion

downward,

characteristic of

Cnesterodon decemmaculatus and Glaridichthys januarius. In what respect some of the other species

may

differ

is

at pres-

receptaculum seminus for is

unsymmetrical folds

a small canal for the

is

A

storing the sperm

formed by numerous in the lining of the

Here

the spermatozoa are found numbers, even after the expul-

sion of a brood.

This

is

used to

fertilize

eggs subsequently matured as they come forward. The female constantly endeavors

escape

to

copulation

until

all

the

stored sperm has been used.

The period

of incubation lasts

four to six weeks, although longer

if

the water in the

ent unknown. Fitsroyia and Anableps have tube-like intromittent organs, and

cool.

the sexes are developed into rights and

ing considerably.

it

from

may

aquarium

is

be too

The young are expelled when fully number in a brood vary-

developed, the

Premature births are


Aquatic

30

these fishes, but the

unknown among

not

progeny invariably

die.

It

must not be

JLitt

species, but in the

may

summer months

Under some circumstances females

forgotten that the adults, in the aqua-

rium, are generally cannibalistc, though seldom perhaps in nature. Therefore,

parently about to expel a brood

for breeding in confinement, the older fish must be separated from their young or a densely planted aquarium provided

tion.

Among

for the operation.

of plants the young tively safe

and

dense masses

will find a

compara-

sheltered retreat.

Consci-

they

be kept out-of-doors without danger.

do

This

so.

The

is

ap-

fail to

a so-called mis-fertiliza-

female, after a few hours of

swimming, gradually becomes

agitated

slimmer, and on the surface of the water

appear a number of bright, round spots resembling the "eyes" on bouillon. These persist

on the water for several days,

though

microscope

not

entious aquarists place the female, just

and,

prior to an expected delivery, in small

solve the riddle,

boxes or glass tanks placed partly into

"eyes" are over-ripe and dissolved eggs.

They

the it

is

will

known

that these

consist of a gelatine-like substance

that does not subsequently develop. It is

very probable that

many

viviparous fishes, which are

of these

more or

less

closely related, interbred in their natural

habitat as well as in the aquarium.

The

majority of these hybrids are no doubt

Such an Xiphophorus

capable of developing progeny.

between

interbreeding

and Platypoecilus maculatus rubra was brought to a successful conclusion by rearing the sexes separately and later placing them together in an aquarium. The resulting hybrids in turn reproduced, helleri

Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus

the water of the aquarium.

These tanks

have holes or slits in the bottom just large enough to permit the young to drop through If

light,

penetrating the plants

out of reach of the parent.

The young

the

Segregation of the sexes

Their

are easy to raise.

present in

all

The

is

cross.

first

necessary to

advances of others.

tooth-carps are natives of South-

United States, Central and South

ern

dance, both in

alg?e.

in the small streams,

which they frequent.

to

in

abun-

species,

brooks and ditches,

;

few days Daphne and Cyclops may be given. During the winter months the tooth-carps should have a minimum temperature ranging between 60 and 70 after a

according

in great

numbers and

aquaria that have

been standing for a number of months

Fahrenheit,

will repel the

America, and are found

food consists of infusoria and

degrees,

of

induce cross-breeding, as females after

born seek the

is

characteristics

having lived with males of their species

aquarium near a window, massing the The young when

which

the

not followed, place the

is

plants toward the light.

first

second hybrid generation retaining

freely, the adult being retained.

plan

this

the

the

Advertising of character and dignity has

much

to

do with success.

Fool friends are worse than wise enemies.


4

AQUARIUM NOTES

!

ERNEST LEITHOLF i

*

TTne Aquarium

The meaning

of the

Original in Oil

word aquarium

has, in the course of time, been subjected

In England, years ago, cellars

to change.

used

storing liquid medicines,

for

basins

conservatories

in

growing aquatic

plants,

aquariums.

Later,

construction

came

utilized

and for

were known as

when tanks

of varied

into use for the obser-

vation and study of aquatic

was some time before a permanent name was

adopted.

way

to

life,

it

The name vivarium soon gave

aqua-vivarium, this subsequently

being superceded by the word aquarium.

Of

the various types of aquaria, the

rectangular, with an iron frame,

is

un-

questionably the best.

In durability and

merit

any other form.

it

far surpasses

Some

bj>

tne

styles

i

Author

should never be used

large or active fishes

for

— the goldfish globe

and "miniature" aquaria.

Most

fishes,

with the possible exception of the smaller "labyrinth" and the tiny viviparous species,

when

confined in these "prison cells"

soon succumb, the water space and oxy-

gen being entirely inadequate

to sustain

them.

The fad an

flowers

an

of decorating the exterior of

aquarium with painted is

reprehensible.

ornamental

failure,

detriment, Inasmuch as

It

but it

scrolls is

a

and

not only

decided

prevents free

observation and, moreover, destroys any possible fishes.

internal effect with plants

and


Aquatic

32

Exact workmanship

an important

is

factor in the appearance of

all

aquaria.

frame should be neatly executed; the glass free from smears. A subdued shade of green is the most desirable color. It harmonizes with the plants and brings the bottom into good relief. Avoid "loud" and striking

The

the

of

painting-

from the contents

colors, as these detract

of the aquarium. practical fish breeder, the dis-

For the

and plants in his tanks to the requireconform most primarily bred, to facilibe ments of the species to tate the observation of spawn and fry, position of stones

iLiti

added interest dependent of

Of

some

all

amount of sand may

tanks to give the bottoms

By

slant.

inmates.

respective

their

course, a certain

be used in

aquaria in-

in the various

excrement

this, all

will

accumulate at one place, facilitating

its

removal.

A

very simple and effective composi-

by placing a large mass of stones and plants near one end, with a considerably smaller group near the opposite end, just large enough to tion can be evolved

give balance to the

This arrange-

first.

ment assures plenty of space for

active

fishes.

and when necessary, their removal to other vessels. However, in all exhibition

various plants can be used to a good

and room aquaria of principally orna-

effect.

mental character, an "Composition," imitate

moods.

They can

swamp is

or

we

mud

her various

in

in a general

gravel,

sand,

bottom

not practicable for

I

one aquarium

With

effects.

room

way be

stone

and

The

latter

aquaria, un-

less for a display of plants alone, with a

possible association of snails

and

insects.

number

a large

making

bottom arrangements

introduction of different fishes.

Fascinating interiors

may

become pale

However,

which

is

an

and the aquarium soon becomes unsanitary hence it had better be avoided for

river variety. in color

when

irritant to

some

;

effect,

void of interest.

while the latter will be I

have found

it

most

satisfactory to have a single effect in an

aquarium

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; sand

other, etc.

in

In this

one, a stone in an-

way one

numer-

inaccessi-

ble pockets for the accumulation of Tilth,

and a tendency to shyness develops. Avoid regularity in arranging an aquarium also indifferent scattering of stones and plants. The first will result in a mechanical

its

make

use

to

placed in a tank with a white sand bottom, furthermore strong light on it causes a reflection

be construct-

effects, the

While some aquarians prefer

fishes

each aqua-

will give

rium a distinct character and interest which will be further amplified by the

ous cracks and openings

Many

number

of tanks. These in association with varied

ed with tuffstone.

common

possible with

it

different plant effects in quite a

tinually stirred up.

majority use the

of aquaria

the variety of plants available to create

Fishes keep a bottom of this nature con-

white sand, favoring contrasty

to be set up,

is

prefer to use only one or two species

of plants in each,

should as near as

nature

possible

as

arrangement,

essential.

is

In creating these

classified

artistic

If but

creates an

;

permanent

display-

This also applies to

the use of sea shells.

The

plants

should

direct in the sand

be

placed

bottom or

either

in irregular

shaped vessels made of Portland cement If these are not available, small pots of

symmetrical

design

may

be

used,

should be completely concealed the stones. bellish ficial

It is

but

among

a mistake to try to

an aquarium by introducing

emarti-

objects such as stone statues, float-

ing swans,

etc.

These only depreciate

(Concluded on page 34.)


Notes on

Krefftius adspersus

ERWIN

Purple-striped

Krefftius adspersus

About

ten

months ago

conclusion that

continue

to

aquaria were to

the

interest

of that far-off corner of the globe had

I

introduced for a long time, except the hybrid.

I

wanted something

which hadn't been seen here before, a fish

which.

scientific

I

could study

my

in

way, discovering

peculiarities

Australia and

discovered that this was fertile territory

tically all

poeciliid

my thoughts turned to New Zealand, and I later

various reasons

me

for

I

had seen the collections of pracmy fellow-members of the Chicago Aquarium Society, and all contained the usual run of aquarium pets. To be sure, some of these collections are splendid, but, taken on broad lines, they are much the same. Nothing new has been parts.

Photograpk by H. E. Finckh

would have to secure would be unique in these

hold

fishes that

arrived at the

I

FREUKfD

Gudgeon

my

if

which they should,

some

O.

and breeding

if

pseudo-

possible

habits.

its

For

from

my

viewpoint, as none of the fishes

been brought to the United States. With this object in view I consulted the editor of

Aquatic Life;, whose advice and made the venture a success. It was first necessary to find a devotee

assistance

in

Australia to co-operate with me, and a

very capable and enthusiastic one was

found

in

Mr. H. E. Finckh, of the Royal Society. Mr. Finckh suc-

Zoological

ceeded

in

getting

to

me

a

number

native Australian species and,

of

glad

from me a number American warm water fishes. In

to add, has received

of our

Lam


Aquatic

34

addition

it

was necessary

services of a reliable

and

also an

man on board

San Francisco to Both were found. Mr.

aquarist in

receive them.

R. Borden, of Oakland, voluntered to handle the fishes on arrival, and a very efficient party was found on one of the

This

ships.

transporting

man was birds,

experienced

reptiles

mammals, and soon learned

and

in

small

to care for

fish.

During the middle of May the first shipment arrived in San Francisco. Mr. Borden placed them in his tanks, where under his careful treatment they eventually recovered from the hardships of their three- weeks' ocean journey. It was not, however, until the end of July that Mr. Borden was successful in sending The lot was well worth any on to me. consisted of eleven and waiting for, specimens of Krefftius adspersus, from

two

to

two and one-half inches

long.

has been fully described in past numbers of Aquatic Life, but the descriptions are not glowing enough. It is

This

fish

a beautiful little fish, of exceptionally favorable appearance. While there is no real similarity, it reminds me of one of

our

own

trout in miniature.

On August

19th one of the females

and a male was That evening the pair were removed from the othThe following morning they ers. spawned, the eggs and nest appearing exactly as described by Mr. Gale in his article in the July number. The temperature of the water was 80 degrees FahrenThe male continually agitated the heit. appeared heavy with

roe,

in particularly bright dress.

eggs with his fins and, not satisfied with merely keeping fresh water circulating about them, he disturbed and shook them frequently. The eggs developed rapidly and became elongated. On the 22d, eyes

were plainly

visible

occasionally squirmed

and the embryos ;

When

to secure the ship,

on the 25th they

became detached from the egg-capsules and were free swimming.

JLitt

first

small, not

Paradise

liberated the fry are very

much

fish.

I

larger than those of the

have fed them freely on

infusoria and very green water, and they

The brood numbers doing well. about a hundred, and today (September 4th) averages about one-quarter inch long. The parents spawned again in another aquarium on August 26th, this time on a clump of algae instead of on the side of the aquarium. This spawning was in a very obscure place, and impossible to The eggs have since disapobserve. peared, but I have not noticed any fry. are

Aquarium Notes (Concluded from page 32.) its

quality and bring

of a cheap toy. that

we

if

it

We r

down

to the level

must bear

in

mind

desire to reproduce nature in

our tanks we must eliminate

all artificial

makeshifts.

While some aquarists are opposed to on the theory that it causes an excessive growth of algae, and this in turn green water, years of experience have taught me that a daily exposure of no more than two hours is positively beneficial, the plants and fishes I have had an displaying more vitality. aquarium in an eastern window for over eight years, and the water always remains direct sunlight for aquaria

clear.

Goldfish and those species of the temperate zones can be held in ordinary

room

temperatures, but those from the tropic require a temperature, varying with the species, heit.

from 68

To

install

to

80 degrees Fahren-

insure this

some

system

it

is

for

necessary to heating the

aquarium. The problem of artificial aeration enters generally with the keeping of some fishes, especially those frequenting shallow and rapidly moving streams, and for overstocked and unbalanced aquaria that

number of growing plants produce the needed oxygen for the

lack a sufficient to

inmates.


;

OTne Anatomy) of tKe FisK PERRY BRUCE CLARK (

-4

Yello-W PercK

•Tl-ie

i,

Dorsal

portion; nostril;

coeca;

5,

9,

-spinous

fin-

anal teeth;

fin

dorsal

portion; 2, portion;

— spinous

10,

intestine;

tongue;

11,

4,

gills;

fin

— soft

ventral fin; 12,

portion;

3,

anal

fin

— soft

mandible; 7, maxilla; 8, oesophagus; 13, stomach; 14, pyloric 6,

spleen; 17, gall bladder;

18, liver; 19, bile duct; 20, anal or swim-bladder; 22, auricle of heart; 23, ventricle of heart; 24. kidney; 25, ureter; 26, urinary bladder; 27, uro-genital orifice; 28, spinal column; 30, ribs 29, spinal cord 31, interspinals 32, cerebrum 33, optic lobe 34, cerebellum 15,

orifice;

21,

air

;

35,

;

olfactory nerve

40, skull

16,

;

or cranium.

36,

;

37,

lower animals in the

order of their complexity,

from

simplest beginning, that of the single

their cell,

and including our present subject, the fish. This review being somewhat

up

to

;

medulla oblongata

(Drawing by the author,

In the study of any one animal a knowledge of other animals is of great help, therefore it may be worth while to briefly review the

;

;

optic nerve

after Linville

evolutionary

added that all

38,

in

found.

39,

character,

of

we know very many links in

(many more than no

;

aorta

and Kelly.)

great numbers of

which

ovary

it

might be

in trying to follow the course

of evolution,

ing at

;

can,

or noth-

the chain, as

them are now

extinct

are living today)

geological

We

little

record

has

of

been

therefore, only guess


Aquatic

36

from the evidence at hand approximately what these links were. After the formation of the earth, when the crust

had cooled

sufficiently to allow

that the

forms of

life

vertebrates, or, in other words, do not

links existing today

other hand, require an organic source of It is reasonable then to food supply.

suppose that the plant kingdom was the forerunner of the animal kingdom. animal

life

forms

prevailed,

first

appeared the namely,

Protozoa or single-celled animals.

the

These

from the very simthe more organized

Infusoria and highest of

in

Protozoa,

During the subsequent

the Tentaculifera.

ages the forms of

all

life

gradually increased

complexity by very slow steps from

all

of the

animals which shows a ten-

first

dency toward vertebrate structure is the This is not a true vertebrate,

lancelet.

but forms one of the very few connecting

between vertebrates

and invertebrate. This fishlike animal, about two inches in length, lives almost completely imbedded in the sand on the Along its back passes a sea bottom. notocord or primitive backbone, and above cord

soft,

One fishes

of the most representative of the the perch, consequently a great,

is

deal of the following description relates to

it

many

consider

first

may

primarily, but

to a great

the

external

that strikes our eye as

first

animals to possess a digestive All animals so

far

were com-

posed of only two elementary layers of an outer layer or ectoderm and tissue an inner layer or endoderm. The next ;

is

side to side, is

divided

are

its

the

of this group

worm, which

is

is

the planarian

about one quarter to

three-eighths of an inch long, resembling

very leech

much

in outward appearance a small and generally found around decay-

of the

we

It

the

head,

first

things

look at a fish

These are generally

five in

;

the paired ones the fins.

present in some fishes another,

called

An example

parts,

ventral or pelvic and the pectoral

sess a third elementary layer of tissue, this

One

caudal and anal fins

is

being a middle layer or mesoderm.

from

both ends.

;

There

is

three

at

will

number three unpaired and two paired ones. The unpaired ones are the dorsal,

the first to pos-

highest existing group

tail.

fins.

We

appearance.

elongated, compressed

and tapers into

trunk and

also be applied

other species.

and the sea-anemone, which are among cavity.

This brings

us to the fish proper.

The body

the

noto-

but sufficiently strong to act

which there were almost countless numbers of species, to the sponge group which is the link from the highest Protozoa to forms like the hydra

the single cells, of

The

this lies the spinal cord.

is

as a support for the body.

â&#x20AC;˘varied in complexity to

an

One

the higher animals belong.

appear as plants are able to live at higher temperatures and can subsist upon an entirely inorganic diet; animals, on the

Amoeba

is

having a spinal cord or great nerve lying above it. It is to this group that man

and

ple

vertebrate

it is supposed which appeared

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

simplest

A

possess a backbone.

were unicellular in character, that is, composed of single cells the lowest form in which life can exist. It has been assumed that of the two kingdoms, plant and animal, the former was the first to

When

to in-

animal with a backbone or spinal column,

so forming the oceans, first

Up

animals are

ing vegetable matter in ponds. this stage all the existing

upon

the vapors in the air to condense it,

JLitt

adipose

fin,

situated

on the

dorsal surface between the dorsal and

caudal

fins.

It

is

usually small.

The

and 2) and anal (3 and 5) fins are divided into two parts, the spinous (1 and 5) and the soft (2 and 3) portions. These two parts are supported dorsal

(i


aquatic by two kinds of tin-rays the spinous portions by hard, unsegmented and unbranched rays or spines the other by ;

;

segmented and branched rays. The other fins are of the branched form. The caudal fin or tail is the one generally soft,

A movement

used for propulsion.

of the

caudal to the right will bring the fish

forward and the

right

;

to the left, a

brings

left

movement

forward and

it

to

the

to

by means of two strokes in quick and one to

succession, one to the right

the

left,

and the

the side motion fish

The

line.

is

moves forward

counteracted in a straight

other fins are generally used

and in maintaining an equilibrium. Along the side of the body, generally half way between the dorsal and ventral surfaces, is what is called the in steering

lateral

are

Along

line.

line

this

the scales

somewhat modified, and beneath them

are situated sense organs that respond to

very low frequency vibrations, it being supposed that these organs stand between those of true hearing and those of touch. Protective coloration, which nearly fishes possess in greater or less degree,

fairly well

developed

dorsal surface

is

in the perch.

all is

The

of a rather dark shade

correspond with the dark bottom of

to

most lakes and streams when the fish is viewed from above. The ventral surface is

of a very light color to correspond with

the light of the surface

viewed from below. are

more or

the

fish

And

less mottled,

much

surroundings

when

less

is

lastly the sides

which makes

conspicuous in his vari-colored

of

plants and rocks.

the fish

The mouth

roots,

consists of

37

ILitt

in

that they are not connected with the

respiratory

The

apparatus.

the eye, on each side of the head,

is

ated an opercle or

opercles protect the delicate

necessary

may

It

has been said that there are only

two things worth while to a perch, and these are "To eat and not to be eaten." We have already seen how the perch avoids being eaten by his powers of loco-

motion and somewhat protective colora-

We

tion.

Most tive of

will

fish

now

have

see

how

teeth, the

which are small

eats.

papilla? or

rough

The two kinds most genfound, however, are more pro-

erally

nounced in form and are the moveable and the firm or fixed teeth. They may be situated on the lower jaw or mandible only or on both the mandible and maxilla or upper jaw, depending upon the species. The moveable teeth are merely imbedded in the skin of the mouth, and generally indicate that the fish possessing them subsists mainly on

teeth

The

a herbivorous diet.

larger and

and are firmly

ones,

fixed teeth are

stronger than the moveable

This form

neath the skin.

bone be-

set in the

generally

is

possessed by the carnivorous fishes, and

them

helps

in

holding fast their prey.

In some fish a few of the teeth in the front of the

mouth

are enlarged and are

called incisors, being used for cracking snail

and crab

shells.

In the sharks the

teeth are being continually

formed on the

varies

are peculiar in the

he

most primi-

elevated spots.

generally immoveable tongue

They

down with

surprising strength.

short distance above the mouth, are situ-

contrasted with other animals,

gills,

be clamped

ated two small projections, which are the (8).

situ-

These and if

covering.

gill

ventral surface of the

fishes, as

are

Behind

two portions; the lower moveable jaw or mandible (6) and the stationary upper jaw or maxilla (7). On the snout, a

nostrils

eyes

moveable, but have no eyelids.

inner margins of the jaw and the old

ones pushed out over the edge.

in

size

in

the

mouth

is (

On

10),

different

the

a fleshy,

which

genera.

Back of the tongue is the pharynx, with slits on both sides, which allow the

S;ill


aquatic

38

water to pass out over the gills (u), thus aeriating the blood passing through them. From the pharynx a short oesophagus

leads to the stomach (13), a blind tube with the intestine

(12)

which

is

(15) leading out from it a little below short distance from the the centre.

A

stomach, along the intestine are several pyloric coeca (14),

which correspond

to

higher

in the

some of the digestive glands These coeca empty digestive animals. Below the befluids into the intestines. ginning of the intestine

with

small

it.,

is

The

the spleen (16).

function of this organ is still a mystery, not proven, that it being supposed, but of blood. In production it assists in the

passing it might be mentioned that herbivorous species generally have a very

long intestine, which in some around the air bladder, while

fish is

nivorous fishes the intestine

coiled

in the car-

relatively

is

Finally the intestine ends at the orifice (20), which is situated a

short distance in front of the anal fin. The air bladder (21), or swim bladder, it

gives off

its

up a fresh supply of oxygen from the water passing over the gills. Extending into the pharynx from the gill arches are a

number

teeth

arranged

bones

of

comb

a

in

these

are

the

like

called

gill-

rakers and are supposed to act as strainers.

The

heart

fairly simple, possessing

is

only one auricle (22) and one ventricle in the higher animals there are (23) ;

two of

placed in a rather

the posterior or rear wall forming a thin

nected with

as

gills

carbon dioxide from the body and takes

organ

Another

along the alimentary canal, but not con-

anal

the fine capillaries in the

large cavity called the pericardial cavity,

intestines.

short.

The blood passing through

filaments.

gill

bladder (17) and a bile duct through which the bile flows into

its gall

(19) the

the liver (18)

is

JLitt

is

sometimes

called,

is

a compara-

each.

It

is

membrane between

the pericardial

and

body cavity. The blood coming from the body is received by the auricle, which is a large, thin-walled

the digestive or

chamber,

it

then enters the ventricle, a

smaller, thick, muscular-walled chamber,

which

it

pumped by

is

a

muscular

contraction through an artery called the aorta (39) to the gills, where ated. After aeriation the blood

is

it

is

aeri-

collect-

ed by an artery called the dorsal artery, through which it is distributed to the In the fine capillaries

various organs.

of the organs the blood gives up the supply of

oxygen

it

is

carrying and collects

with

carbon dioxide and other waste products.

and generally reaching the length of the body cavity. By means of muscular movement it is contracted or expanded

heart through the veins, thus completing

wishes to sink or

system, which acts in a supplementary

tively large

membranous

sac, filled

air,

accordingly

as the fish

This contraction or expansion

rise.

in-

creases or decreases the density of the fish,

thereby making

Some

than water.

it

heavier or lighter

fish that

spend their

on the bottom have little or no swim bladder, and are therefore unable to rise

lives

or sink without the use of the

The

gills

(11)

four on each

bony

arch,

side.

fins.

are eight in number,

Each

consists of a

which supports the

delicate

It

then flows back to the auricle of the

the

There

circle.

is

capacity to the blood. circulates in

milky

and

a

The

lymphatic

fluid

which

the lymphatic system

fluid called

distribute

also

is

a

lymph, which helps to

food throughout the system,

also, to a certain extent, to pick

up

waste matter.

The

principal organs of excretion are

the kidneys

(24).

These

in the

perch

are long, thin bodies, which extend along the

upper surface of the

air

bladder,


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; aquatic JLiu just

under the

There

spine.

a tube

is

39

made

tion or stone,

of calcium carbonate

from each kidney. The ureters join and then empty into the urinary bladder (26), which in

posed to be of service to the

turn empties into the uro-genital opening

taining an

(27), situated directly behind the anal

are also found in

called the ureter (25), leading

The kidneys

aperture.

matter

of

out

through them

;

blood

the this

filter

as

waste

all it

waste matter

passes elimi-

is

form of urine The skeleton is formed of bones composed largely of calcium phosphate. Extending from the head to the tail is the vertebral column or backbone (28). This separate is composed of a number of nated

in solution in the

being

each

bones,

a

called

vertebra.

and

called an otolith or ear-stone, besides

the capacity for hearing they are sup-

medusae.

The

The

developed.

though

ventral

fins

framework of bones called the shoulder and the hip girdle respectively.

girdle

The

brain

is

divided into four principal

parts; the cerebrum (^2), the

two

optic

(only one being shown), the

lobes (33)

(34) and the medulla oblongata (37), which is extended to form the spinal cord. The cord, as has already

cerebellum

been mentioned,

lies

in a

groove

in the

some

is

not greatly

fairly

clear,

The muscles

from

of the fish differ

those of the higher, warm-blooded ani-

mals

they are generally white in

in that

composed of large

color and are

The

largest of all the muscles

is

flakes.

the great

whole length of body on both sides and controlling its movements. There are also other smaller muscles which control the jaw, eyes, fins, In some fishes, such as the salmon etc. and herring, the muscles are orange or red, but this color is due to the presence of certain oils and not to blood, as in the lateral one, reaching the

higher animals.

and are each supported by a pectoral

vision

is

at short distances only.

of bones called the interspinals (31) sup-

The

of the lower ani-

sense of taste

the

fins.

otoliths

mals, such as the jelly-fishes and

Along the dorsal surface of this spinal column is a groove, in which rests the spinal cord (29). To the backbone the skull or cranium (40) is attached, and along its length a number of ribs (30) project and serve as a protection and support to the body cavity. A small row port the unpaired

some

main-

fish in

These

equilibrium.

The reproductive organs

consist of the

ovary (38) in the female and the spermaries or testes in the male. These extend

forward from the uro-genital opening and are connected with it by the oviduct in the female and the vas deferens in the male. It will not be necessary to go into details regarding reproduction, as

aquarist

is

every

familiar with both the ovi-

The

parous and viviparous forms. cess of fertilization of the egg

pro-

and the

vertebral column, and

development of the embryo

most

interesting study, but space will not per-

from this branch main nerves of the body except some of the sensory nerves. Extending forward from the cerebrum is the olfactory nerve (35) which connects the all

nostrils.

the

The organs

of hearing in the

perch are very peculiar, being simple in comparison with the ears of the higher animals.

They

consist of a closed cavity

on each side of the head. each of these cavities

is

Contained

in

a small concre-

mit

"I

its

is

a very

discussion at this time.

wonder

that he

if

the

penned up

is

little

goldfish

feels

?"

Take my own case. Theogo anywhere in the world. Practically I merely swim around in a circle like that fish." Kansas City "I doubt

retically

Journal.

I

it.

could


:

Aquatic

40

embryo

Breeding Habits of

The Burmese

Eel

On

the

become very

active

when

the

water.

The eggs hatch

eel

large tank.

eels

eggs are moistened by sprinkling with

(Amphipurus euchia), which China, is is brought at times to us from well known to many of us, and for eight years I have had three of them in a rather This

JLitt

;th of January

I

young remain

A

week.

in

twelve days, and the

the

in

for

nest

quite

a

couple of weeks after the eggs

were laid I found one of the adults at Perhaps it had the bottom of the tank. been trying to get at the young and had

noticed that some eggs had just been laid, giving me the opportunity of studying

paid

the behavior of the adult fish towards

The Australian

penalty.

the

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; H.

Finckh,

E.

in

Naturalist.

the eggs.

Many

of you

know how

the Paradise

and have watched the construction of the nest and the method of depositing the eggs. The inhaling fish makes a nest of air-bells by

from the surface, holding it in the mouth for a short time, and then letting A mass of it escape mixed with saliva. inches in three to two air-bells, coherent and the formed, thus is circumference, air

eggs which have been laid are gathered by the male fish in his mouth and placed

amongst the

air

He

bubbles.

watches

over the eggs until hatched, and the young until old enough to take care of themselves.

The

comwhich are not

origin of "water-flea" as a

mon name

for Daphnia,

insects, is explained in the following ex-

from the chapter on the Cladocera by Birge, in Fresh Water Biology "When men began to study nature by cerpt

;

the aid of the microscope in the seventh

century the "insects" were first

In

Dutch physician, Swammerdam,

the

scribed

in

his

history

of

'pulex aquaticus arborescens'

with branching arms.

flea

of

among

objects to be examined.

the

insects

the

1669 de-

the

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the water-

This was one

still called Daphnia commonest species in shallow These creatures he described and

Cladocera,

pul ex, the

The Burmese

eel acts in a

Always

manner.

The Name "Water-flea"

breeds,

(Macropodus)

Fish

very similar

the one eel gathers the

eggs and places them in the air-bubble nest, watching them unremittingly until

pools.

figured, giving

an account of their struc-

and then put them

and habits and speaking of their sudden appearance in enormous numbers, and their equally sudden disappearance. For nearly a century little was added In 1755, to the knowledge of the group. the German, Schaeffer, gave the first really good account of their structure. In 1785, O. F. Mueller, the Danish nat-

pokes his head right

uralist, issued the first general systematic

through the nest and endeavors to place

work upon Entomostraca. This described

on top of the mass of bubbles. In about eight days the young are plainly visible, wriggling about in the

many

The eggs

hatched.

readily sink

are fairly heavy and

from the nest when the tank

tapped or the water disturbed fish replaces them immediately.

is

seen the eel gather as in his

mouth

at once,

back in the nest.

He

many

;

but the I

have

as eight eggs

the eggs

sgg.

and

The in

eggs, being on top of the nest,

some cases

quite

half

an inch

above water-level, are fairly dry, and the

ture

of the

species as

we now know

them, and gave a firm scientific basis for further knowledge of the Cladocera.

In

the rapid advance of science during the latter half of the nineteenth

systematic

work of

century the

the group

was sub-


;;

aquatic done,

stantially

Norwegian, G.

the

(

).

more than any This work showed that

41

ILitt

rounding one end of a 3-16-inch glass inserted the nozzle thus formed,

Sars, having contributed

tube,

other one man.

into the vent, catheter-wise, being careful

the Cladocera constitute the largest group

number

of fresh-water crustacea in species

;

of

the most diversified in size, in

and

structure,

I

not to damage tbe delicate membranes. As soon as I judged the tube had passed the cloaca, a stream of clear liquid, ap-

parently pure water, issued from the tube

in habits."

with considerable force, induced by the

A

tension of the distended body.

Bloated Axolotl

EDGAR It

is

WAITE,

R.

When

the

F. L. S.

within the experience

of most

breeders of these remarkable amphibians that, out of

may

larvae

every hatching, one or more be expected

of course, become

ally,

to,

unintention-

like the frog that

wished to be as big as an ox. In his article on these batracians (Aquatic Life, Vol. I, p. 130) Mr. W.

Brind

L.

ease"

is

states

"bloating dis-

that the

a result of too frequent feeding

a friend of mine in Sydney maintains that

it

is

the

however,

not,

sider

causes,

of

result

neither explanation

my

but

starvation,

satisfactory.

is

It is

present object to con-

but merely to

record

Upper and Lower Views of the

an

Bloated Axolotl

interesting experience.

Though

I

have seen quite small

larva?

body of the poor

liquid ceased to flow, the

with the disease,

creature was nothing but skin and back-

in

bone.

I am here writing of one which the malady did not become manifest until the larva was fully four

inches in length.

The

swelling took place

Next day it recommenced to feed, and soon became a respectable member of axolotl society.

I

regret to say,

somewhat rapidly, for within three months, when the creature had grown another inch, it was unable to descend, but remained at the surface, belly upwards it was still able and willing to feed if a

ever, that the operation

worm were

of

offered to

a strong light transparent, air,

its

and

held to

body was seen

to be

when

in the

its

suggested that

When

it.

weight, it

was distended, not

Having reached a stage when neither

useful

nor

doubtless a burden to

perform a

it

ornamental, itself, I

slight operation

again began to swell, and in a few weeks

regained I

:

was and

decided to

reducing and

its

former bloated condition.

noticed that

it

now

floated with part

head and chest out of water, and as it could scarcely be supposed to be enjoying its amphibious existence, I decided to put an end to it its death, however, its

;

occurred

with air but with water.

how-

pallia-

long the animal

before

for

only,

tive

proved a

in a

manner

I

had not

antici-

memento

of this

pated or intended.

Wishing peculiar

to preserve a

condition

I

took

two photo-

graps (here reproduced) by transmitted


— Aquatic

42

and was

light

in the act of returning the

animal to the water when of

my

hand and

fell to

it

fact

now became

re-

:

and the most noticeable

objects exposed as a result of the catastrophe were a pair of well-developed lungs.

I

also noticed that the gills

greatly diminished

;

the larva was,

Management, the Act of

1912,

24,

Aquatic

of

monthly at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, for October 1. 1918. State of Pennsylvania \ County of Philadelphia Before me, a notary public in and for the State and County aforesaid, personally appeared W. A. Poyser, who, having been duly sworn according to law, deposes and says that he is the editor of Aquatic Life, and that the following is, to the best of his knowledge and published

.

vealed the axolotl, being unable to keep breathing its head under water, had been air,

Required by

Etc.,

of August

Congress

!—

Ownership,

the

of

Circulation,

Life,

interesting

atmospheric

JLitt

Statement

slipped out

the floor, flop

and burst!

An

:

:

had

in fact,

becoming a Amblystome, though surely (The Amblystome is an abnormal one. the animal lives wherein stage, adult the of lungs.) means by breathes and on land

I

statement

true

a

lief,

management (and lation),

ownership,

the

of the aforesaid publication

etc.,

shown

the date

of

a daily paper, the circu-

if

by the Act of August

1912,

24,

Laws and

Section 443, Postal

for

above caption, required

in the

embodied

in

Regulations, to

wit

That

The Hudson County Aquarium Society,

of Jersey City,

New

Jersey, held

annual exhibition in the Museum of the Jersey City Public Library on the afternoons and evenings of October 5th

lisher,

managers are Publisher

its first

and

names and addresses of the pubmanaging editor, and business

the

editor,

Girard

:

—Joseph

Avenue,

Bailsman,

E.

Philadelphia,

Editor— W. A. Poyser,

542

East

Pa.

207 South 37th Street,

Philadelphia, Pa.

6th.

Managing Editor None. Business Managers None. That the owners are: (Give names and ad-

display of goldfish attracted considerable attention, due to the large va-

The

riety

and perfection of the specimens. Here were the "old timers" in little groups, heads together and mumbling in

dresses of individual owners, or, if a corporation, give its name and the names and ad-

low tones, with their eyes focused on certain tanks. There were forty tanks, each

per

containing from four to twenty fish. The section for tropical fishes was well patronized, and justly, too, for here was displayed the largest collection, both as to species and number of specimens, that

has been brought together in this vicinity Some almost forfor quite some time. gotten fishes were in evidence. The exhibitors and those who otherwise contributed to the success of the exhibition were: Messrs. Wright, Fidell. Albietz, Amelung, Fanning, Kissel, Sidell,

dresses

of stockholders

cent

or

more of

stock.)

— Otvners—Joseph

542

Bailsman,

E.

East

Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa.; W. A. Poyser, 207 South 37th Street, Philadelphia, Pa. That the known bondholders, mortgagees

Girard

and other security holders owning or holding 1

per cent,

bonds,

or

more of the

mortgages,

or

W. Sworn

to

other

A.

total

amount of

securities

POYSER,

and subscribed before me

are

Editor. this 26th

day of September, 1918. Josephine V. Yeager. (Seal) (My commission expires at the end of the next session of the Senate.)

Smith, Renken, Koenig, Savage.

During the winter ascertain how warm not how cold you can keep your trop-

Heath, Shaw, Hedden, AbridgPyle, Krebs, Elliott and Warn.

ed from the report of G. C. Albietz, sec-

ical

retary of the society.

tarded growth.

(

owning or holding 1 total amount of

the

)bermiller, Smail,

fishes.

Cold

is

a big factor in re-


C>CX3CXXXXX5CXXDCOOCOOCOOCXX>CXX3CXX5000COOCZ300

aquatic Safe international monthly magazine devoted to the study, care and breeding of native, exotic, gold and domesticated fishes, other animals and plants in the home aquarium and terrarium.

POYSER JOSEPH E. BAUSMAN W.

1

V oung* I

An

r

Pteropkyllum Scalare 1918

HATCHING

ยง 8

Editor

A.

Publisher

542 E. Girard Avenue, Philadelphia.

.

Entered as second-class matter, September 1915, at the Post Office, Philadelphia, Pa., under Act of March 3, 1879.

2,

Practical articles and notes on topics pertaining to the aquarium and terrarium are

always wanted for Aquatic Life. Readers of the magazine are invited to join in making it a medium of mutual help, and to contribute to it any ideas that may occur to them. The pages are always open for anyone who has anything helpful and practical Manuscripts, books for review and to say. general correspondence should be addressed

Same

to the editor.

WILLIAM

Aquatic Life has the largest circulation of any magazine in the world devoted to this branch of nature-study. It presents to advertisers a market that can be reached through no other medium. Rates made known on application. Yearly Subscription Foreign Subscriptions Single

should

be

letter.

Foreign

$7.50 Each

PAULLIM

L.

Philadelphia,

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425 Wolf

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order.

Size as tke

Larger Size $12.50 Each

15 cents

WM. G. SARBACHER Wholesale tO Dealers

1318 N. Dover Street

Philadelphia

If

Finest Blue and Calico Broadtail

Copyright 1918 by Joseph E. Bausman

Telescopes in Philadelphia Correspondence Answered.

November, 1918

Vol. IV.

No. 3

C. J.

HANNIG, 1225

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YOGI FISH

1

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We

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FOOD

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ROBT.

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Robert

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HUGO

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NELLES

DEALER & BREEDER OF TROPICAL FISHES Are you

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Then

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'Phone Superior 4415.

Scrimshaw's

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The only

©=,

the

scription

vanced to

number

price

of

Chicago,

for January, 1919, the sub-

Aquatic Life

will

War

to the regulations of the

cannot be returned for credit by newsdealers and other wholesale agents. Readers who purchase copies from these sources are urged to

The pet shops throughout the country, which are agents for

DRIED SHRIMP— The lb.,

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CANADIAN BIRD STORE

This is perhaps the best way to insure against missing a number. Joseph E. Bausman,

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336

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PHILADELPHIA

mnm

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and forward sub-

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scriptions.

^

Utility Fishfood

coarse 75c. Ground fine, $1.00. St. George's Natural Fish Food, $1.50 per lb. Sample can, 15c. Aquarium Cement, 50c lb. Add postage to your zone.

Per

place a definite order in advance.

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tropical fish store in Chicago.

Single copies, fifteen cents.

$1.25.

To conform

Hatchery

Fish

1431 N. Clark Street

Important With

fishes,

—just

(Not a dealer)

Street, Cliffside, N.

=g)

Aquaria, completely stocked with

at reasonable prices.

Call or 'phone, Cliffside 461.

241 Walker

snails.

plants and gravel

KISSEL, JR.

have good healthy stock

,

saw, 25 cents each.

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(Between

S. S.

2nd

and

CITY

Avenues)

3rd

PHILIP KLESPIES

GEORGE

A.

551 18th Avenue

SCHENK

Mount Vernon, N.

Must Y*.

,c=x&

-

3d floor

-

Newark, N.

species of tropical fishes. Aquaria and Plants, on account of moving. At home evenings, Saturdays after 1 P. M., and all dav Sundavs. sell

17

J.


— -»

i

nrim

» «>

EVERYTHING IS FISH THAT COMES TO THE NET OF A NATURALIST

!

Thousands

all

nature.

Stock in America.

Our Magazine

fj); (Buioe to jRatutr

$2.50 per Dozen

You

Will Help

EDWARD

$ 15.00 per Hundred

F. BIGELOW. who edited by the heavens and earth, as well aa the waters under the earth. One year, $1.00. Four months' trial. 25c.

It is

Veiltail

Telescopes from the Finest

one hand In other

Don't paddle in the water with and be blind with both eyes. words, "keep your eyes open" for

Young

of

fishes in

In Mixed Colors,

THE AOASSIZ ASSOCIATION

Calicos,

ArcAdiA Sound Beach

Blacks

Blues, Etc.

Connecticut

Franklin Barrett THE TERMINAL PET SHOP

Wyoming Avenue

&

Pa

C. Street, Phila.,

PETS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION AND KIND

50c Extra for Shipping

Manufacturing and Maintenance of Aquariums a Specialty Ail

Kinds of Cat and Dog Foods and Medicines

Cash With Order

HUDSON TERMINAL BUILDING New York

Concourse,

ENCHYTRAE The

THE BEST BOOK

(White Worms)

ideal live fish food

which can be raised

year round. Portion, 50c. (cash or no checks), with instructions to breed them. F. O. B Secaucus, N. J.

indoors

all

money order

how

Can

CHARLES

JENNE

E.

1577 Paterson Plank Road, Secaucus, N.

J.

A AQUARIUM

&2B35 &

"Goldfish Varieties Tropical Aquarium Fishes", byWm.T.Innes, former President of the Aquarium Society of Phila.; 250 pages, 195

is

Tells all about the fancy varieties of the Goldfish and nearly 300 tropicals ; how to breed them, etc., etc. For the beginner or the advanced expert. illustrations.

When

they said, "Price sold out,"

They knew not what they

talked about. Price has the goods, same as of old, So please don't believe all you're told. For fine broadtails or tropical fishes, Price is here to fulfill your wishes.

A

complete, practical, handsome book, sent postpaid anywhere for $3.00. & Enlarged edition now ready.

None Shipped

2145 South Lee Street, Philadelphia

& SONS

INNES

Heitfcolf TBcot&er*

-

Phila.,

Pa

and Japs

Blacks, Blues and Parti-colors

Pittsburgh, Pa.

215

Putnam Avenue, Brooklyn,

N. Y.

"AQUARIA FISH"

Otto Walter A

work on care and breeding of the aauarium. greenhouse and outdoor ponds. Finely illustrated. Every one interested in keeping fish should send for a copy of this book. Price. $1.00.

Brooklyn, N. Y. N«ar Central Avenue L Station Street

St.

Broad-tail Telescopes

A Large Assortment of Many Species in Stock at A 11 Times

86 Sirpdam

133 N. 12th

Charles E. Visel

BREEDERS OF TROPICAL FISHES

281 Southern Avenue

-

practical

fish

::

Breeder and Importer of

in

TROPICAL & GOLDFISHES

Tappan's Natural Fish Food.

Telescopes

Guinea Pits and Thoroughbred Collie Puna. beautifully marked. "Write for prices.

Calicos

Japs

Fan-tails

Dealer in All Varieties of Aquatic Plants All Kinds of Fish Foods Fresh and Dried Daphnia

AQUARIA, UTENSILS

AND

postpaid.

C

SUPPLIES

F. L. Route 2,

[

C—JOO

Three boxes,

25c.

TAPPAN Hopkins, Minn.


Ifttrijaelsen ilros

HARRY 1210 N. Warnock

GOLDFISH BREEDERS

PETERS

P.

Street, Philadelphia,

Pa

BREEDER AND IMPORTER Rare and Fancy Fish Plants

FLORISTS

every

of

and

Snails

variety,

Aquarium Supplies of

kinds at

all

all

times.

MANUFACTURER OF

58th and Walnut Streets

110 South 52nd

Street

Green River Fish Food 15c Box

Green River Baby Fish Food

Philadelphia

20c Box

Aquarium Fishes

A GOOD FISH FOOD most

All Kinds of Aquatic Plants

&

Aquaria

Supplies

Wholesale and Retail

X3C3000O0O0O0C==XXX300O

OOOOOOOOCC=X)C

t

HERMAN RABENAU,

Aquarist

must be seen

& Terraria

Welcome

Plants and Tropical Fish a Specialty Importations of

New

'

Veiltails, All

Colors

of Blues, Blacks and Calico Telescopes and Japs at Reasonable Prices.

to be appreciated

Visitors

Young

)

$ 5.00 Dozen Up BREEDERS—Largest Assortment

PERMANENT DISPLAY OF Aquatic Life

one of the

is

necessary to keep fish in good health. After the test of years Green River stands out It as the best food on the market. keeps the fish in good color by promoting a healthy, robust growth. It will not sour ot cloud the water. Ask your dealer or send for it today. things

essential

Varieties received

Shipping Cans,

50c.

Fine Assortment of Lionheads

regularly

HARRY

1163 Myrtle Avenue. Brooklyn, N. Y.

1210 North

Near Broadway.

P.

PETERS,

Warnock

St.,

Pa.

Phila.,

fcc=30OOO0OO0OC===500OC=>^===DOCX300OO0CCZ300 >OOOOOOOOOOOOCZDOOOOOC OOOCSOQ

:>ooooooooo<

GOLDFISH, FOODS, PLANTS, DIP NETS Combination Natural Fish Food

-

Sample Box 10c

Imported Shrimp Fish Food

-

Sample Can 15c

Imported Wafer Fish Food

Large Sample Box 10c

"ART AQUARIUMS"

Special Prices on Quantity Lots. Cash With Ordsr.

Catalogue

Sent

::

New York

1919-21 Bush Street, San Francisco, Cal

City

3000C=3000Cr=>000C

:

and

:

Dealers

JAPANESE GOLDFISH Ground Shrimp,

Upon Bequest.

AQUARIUM STOCK CO 273 Greenwich Street

Nippon Goldfish Co Importers

Mail Orders Promptly Attended to

Agents for

i

Aquarium

Plants and

General Supplies a Specialty Price Lists Sent on Request

300000000CX

>ooooooooooory

iqoooooooo

'

*"


Aquatic life 11 1918  
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