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BIOLOGY WATER WHIPPLE GEORGE WARD and
WITH THE COLLABORATION OF 25 DISTINGUISHED SPECIALISTS All interested in aquatic biology will find here answers to their queries on methods of study, conditions of existence, types of life, and inter-relations of the organisms that inhabit our fresh-water bodies, together with data on their life histories, habits and range. This work is the first complete and accurate record of North American aquatic life, especially the micro-organisms among both plants and animals excluding the vertebrates, higher plants and bacteria, every form is described that has been reported frorr a fresh-water body on this continent. comprehensive general discussion of each group precedes the description of individual forms, which are arranged under a key to permit of rapid and accurate determination of the genera and species. Nearly every form is illustrated, and its diagnostic features are pointed Biological* data on its habits, frequence and distribution are also out. given. Fresh- Water Biology is a big book of 1111 pages, with 1547 illustrations. Price, $6.00, plus postage on four pounds. ;
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AQUARIUM HEATING CHARLES M. BREDER,
Cf\oss stencil OF
Tamk, fhewirt ttETHOQ OF HEATinfi.
eiio view or HEftTirni unit.
to cooler climes, past the limit
of their adaptability or possible acclimation,
becomes necessary to furnish the
views as to
winter grips us. tropical fishes
study and investigation countries,
a leading one,
introduced for into
the question of
them has been
types in gen-
can be briefly classified as
temperatures to which they were accus-
tomed in order to meet success in keepWith many of our ing them as pets. exotic fishes it is necessary to do this in most parts of the United States when
methods being held
greater or less extent. eral use
HEATING SYSTEMS oil
flame applied direct to
metal disc or pan affixed to bottom of the tank. 2.
Water from tank
pipes that pass over a flame which heats
the water and causes the circulation. 3.
standing or floating in the tank, and ex-
tending above waterline (Aquatic Life,
and September, 1917).
INDIRECT HEATING SYSTEMS System of hot water pipes passing
through or near the tank, but not connected with the water in it (Aquatic Life,
heated air to
which holds the
aquaria was boarded in with pine, onehalf inch thick, and on this rest the pipes.
device would be
lamp was placed
or coal stove.
was covered with sheet asbestos and
September, 1916). 2. Application of any system to the entire conservatory or room, such as the usual steam or hot air house heater, or a
with the required elbows.
serve the heat the piping exposed to the
efficient if the
under the rack, double bend,
lost in the
tanks by means of pipes running close to them, the heat furnished by any conve-
but the space in the present case
obvious that certain sources of more suited to one than to anare heat above methods, and the suitthe other of
form of heater used is modified by the purpose for which it is For a conservatory a device intended. of
that heats the entire
while in a room used for other purposes one of the individual tank heaters is prefIt is the latter which will be diserable. in this paper.
cussed It is
generally assumed that one of the
consists of a heating unit, with suitable
closed tray below the tanks, proper draft
for the flame being considered.
immediately below the aquaria, and the
how the lamp is supmade for reprovisions and the ported, refilling. and The moving it for cleaning hinge strip A is fastened to the floor by C. The strip is slipped from notch B and The
to the floor in the direction of
heater used in this particular sys-
other units could be used, if
they would be as economical in point
of cost of operation, a gallon of kerosene lasting
more than a week The chimney
during the coldest weather. of the lamp leads
close into the pipe that
Standard two-inch leader pipe was used.
the legs of the
rack E, disengaging the chimney from the lamp
be lifted from
The support or holder
of wood, separated by blocks the width of the legs suitable
and sliding on them. A was cut for the lamp-
water therein thus warmed.
average room temperature.
the pipe F.
heated, although general radi-
which cannot be said for
The rack extends upward and holds two more rows of aquaria, but only the bot-
the arrow, thus allowing the
tank space, four on each
forms gives a more natural condition. The form described herein allows the plants to attain a beautiful growth, indirect
pied by tubs which cannot be placed else-
short piece of pipe
Four making the
the horizontal part of a T-joint.
90-degree elbows are used
required turns to connect with the long pipes
running below the aquaria.
Special aquaria were constructed for
method which added to its efficiency. Large two-inch angle iron was used for the bottom frame, which was embedded (Concluded on page
WALTER LAKfMOY BRIMD,
not the reader suppose that the fish
striking in appearance so far as color
form, not the color, that
measures about two and one-half inches, the male half an inch
to a pickerel. is
both sexes, varying
remember, but, of course, the remainder of the "invariable thirty" may have been devoured by adults before
kept these specimens in quite a large
of the latter being the largest. From her I secured a litter of eighteen as I now
about as plainly colored as any tropical
when business took me to Europe, bought a male and three females, one
shade, with a
The general shape is similar The striking characteristic
the short, broad upper jaw, with the
lower one narrow and pointed, and twice the length of the upper one.
understand the reason for formation, and alike, I
both jaws were not
but the problem was solved
and unable to descend into the water, were being adroitly taken by the fish with film
the aid of this broad, circular, or rather
which seemed lower,
contrary to the
usual rule. When the "fleas" were swimming below the surface the fish were able to catch them just as well. The half -beak is also interesting in that it
apparently the only live-bearing or
Far East has
contributed to the aquarium. It that
invariably gives at
which case none are delivered
breeding them as stated.
and This was
The tank was
in contradiction to the
opinion then held that a slight proportion of sea water ( 5 per cent. ) was necessary to
In nature the fish in-
Malacca and Singapore in fresh water, but always near the sea. This may have given rise to the suggeshabits Java,
tion of slightly brackish
water for their
The half-beak peaceful
of the time
near the surface of the water.
of the family
speaking generally, inhabit the seas and are widely distributed,
mostly along shore, though a few are pelagic or deep-water forms. The group
includes both viviparous and oviparous
Mr. Brind is probably right in asserting that H. fluviatilis is the sole viviparous fish thus far brought from the
Society of Philadelphia by the important
East for our tanks.
not related to
the viviparous killifishes. sub-family Poe-
studied and bred by the aquarist. these
were Mr. the Americas.
thought confined to
C. Tate Regan, of the British Museum, has described the remarkable Phalloste-
thus dunckeri, a type of a
from Johore, on the While in all the forms limited to the Americas, it is the anal fin which serves so-called
which have become modified into a large muscular appendage to function as the intromittent organ.
on viviparous fishes in general will appear in a subsequent number. Mention is made of
quite curious characteristics.
meetings of the Aquarium
grit or pebbles?"
divergence of opinion was expressed, but
experimentation led to an almost
since been adopted as the best practice.
but other plants
nwgeton, Moneywort and Water-poppy require soil to continue their growth and
under the changed conditions. it has been found, is to place a two to two and one-half inch layer of thoroughly washed bar or beach sand in the aquarium, into which shallow to survive
dishes or pots containing clean turf in
mentioned are arranged
those to be planted directly in the
sand are introduced, and the whole sur-
face covered with a one-inch layer of
Aquarium Heating (Concluded from page in
the concrete base, with
small beach pebbles
other parts of the frame were made of Before pouring the con34 -inch iron. crete into the mould for the base several inverted pie pans were placed on the bottom angle. Through these pans the heat is
transmitted to the water.
were, of course, waterproofed before being used. No vent was made in the tray to allow for draft, the cracks in the joints in the wood tray being found sufficient. If found necessary holes could be bored
through the ends.
those covered with
in black in
portions of the
sketches indisheet asbestos
few larger pebbles, or brookworn
jecting above to receive the glass.
be scattered over the surface to pro-
duce a natural Grit
permits to sift
to serve as
through to the sand layer
nourishment for the
presents a neat and tidy appearance, and a firm layer
from which to syphon the Aquarium Notes
and Nezvs. -#-
for the fish usually called Haplochi-
rubrostigma by the aquarist.
synonym, but the name of another and distinct species with which "our fish" was confused when first imlatter is not a
Mollienisia Latipinna G.
In habits and actions in the aquarium,
though not resembles
in color, Mollienisia latipinna
of Xiphophorus and more stoutly
While both sexes are attractive, the male is more beautiful, the unusually well-developed dorsal making it a disThe tinctive member of any collection. body is grayish olive, crossed from head built.
must not he taken
mean that they deThe reference
stroy the higher forms. is
fish when first imported from the South, unless previously acclimated to the conditions of the aquarium, is rather
rough treatment in shipping, temperature and transfers
by a series of red or orange dots, which appear as stripes or lines vertical The stripes mark the abdominal region. to tail
covers have blue markings, which are
on the dorsal and caudal
of the male, the latter
with a stout peduncle.
most intense during the breeding season, at other times, and in young examples, rather less distinct, though the stripes are always present. This species in the
be readily propagated a temperature of 75
80 degrees Fahrenheit,
able to disturb
Preparations should be similar to those
used for other live-bearing or viviparous
fishes a well-planted aquarium and prompt removal of the female after the young have been delivered. A consider-
able quantity of loose Anacharis can be
grouped on the window or
this species in the
light side of
The best foods are Daphne, Cyclops, raw scraped beef, clams, etc., but they will
It is advis-
In writing of the abundance of this in a past number of Aquatic
Major Shufeldt says "Many years saw thousands of specimens of :
very shallow pools connecting with the bayous south of New Orleans, La.
they were mating, and, as
the gorgeously colored males chased the
pools, a scene
and do not need as much animal foods as carnivorous species such as Gambusia holbrooki. That they are plant-eating
they adapt themselves to confine-
on prepared foods. vegetarian,
in the clear
water of the
that I have
the best of
would say that some of the old males exhibited markings of a bright lection
azure blue in addition to the orange ones but I may be mistaken about this. My
notes are not at hand at
them had drawings of both the male and febut
this elegant little butterfly of a
male of fish."
Another fish of the genus, M. formosa, from Mexico, is a nice aquarium specimen, but is inferior in color. The body is greenish gray, with yellow cross-stripes abdominal region, metallic blue; dorsal
yellow with dark
In contrast to
the males are smaller than the females.
Breeding habits, temperature and food requirements the same.
Nobody Works But Father Nobody works but
The eggs ficially
From 3000 after
driven away, never to re-
her progeny. Father bass takes a position immediately over the nest, constantly fanning it
turn or to
and ever watchful for vigil
continues for ten days
two weeks, while the eggs are develop-
ing and hatching, and for a few days thereafter while the young are getting
ready to try their
enemy which appears too The faithful paternal nest!
sucker or other
near to the
guardian darts fiercely after it and tempts to rip it open with his dorsal
means, unless he
waters, the basses do not leave their
nests before July
the male bass his
in late seasons
be seen hovering over
well past the middle of
Let us, therefore, give father bass a
chance to do his
by working for an extension of the close season until July 1, and let us refrain from fishing over the spawning beds whenever we find him guarding his nest. even if it be during the open season.. New York State Conservation Commission in American Field.
manipulated, and for
such fishes the Conservation Commission must accordingly depend upon the vigilance of father bass. The spawning time of all fishes is governed by water temIn normal seasons, in New perature.
He's on guard all day Fins in constant motion, Keeping foes away.
In the black bass family the male selects a nesting place and then seeks and
of the basses cannot be arti-
have just read the
on the red
the August number.
I newt in have had them for years, but they nevei bred. One pair I have kept with para dise fish, and sometimes with goldfish the latter being nipped and abused should they become inactive or ill. The middle third of my bay window has been ce mented and converted into a swamp, with plants, mosses, frogs, turtles and newts Some time since the ordinary newts crawled out and kept themselves under flower pots or damp moss. A few days ago the red-bellied newts deserted the water almost at once for the more congenial "swamp." It seems therefore that they will stay in a tank only when no
surrounding meets their
William Lcland Stozvell,
overwhelming numbers of carp or caught by the angler, the father bass is able to hatch his brood and care for them until
nary plate for
they scatter for food.
better than ordi-
THE BLUE-TAILED SKINK RICHARD DECKERT NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL GARDEM
BLUE-TAILED PHASES OF PLESTIODON FASCIATUS Painted from
The lizard known under name belongs in the family lizards having
scales, a cylindrical
of moderate length
name of many years
life bj) trie
emerges from the egg
shiny black with five pale yellow longitudinal lines on the back and sides, the tail
being brilliant blue.
Both sexes are
alike in this coloring until a length of five
Congress of Paris, has been changed
when the male shows reddish tints on the head, which also widens perceptibly at the temporal region in this sex. While the males still
retain the brilliant coloring, the females
adherence to the
rules of priority adopted
by the Zoologi-
distinct color phases, with inter-
grading forms, are met with.
inches has been attained,
"fade out," that
and the blue of the at
dark ones paler
tail less brilliant, until,
inches, they are of a light brownish-olive
blue of the
pale olive-brown with a
captivity that especially the
larger ones will take grasshoppers and
inches in the
as the females, until the en-
same manner lizard
"fade out" at about
and reddish head.
with darker sides
require a fairly large terrarium exercise
sunny days, and the males often indulge
eggs and young varies
in fights. They rush at one another with mouth wide open, endeavoring to secure
with the size and age of the female. I have collected females in Florida that
are strong and the grip powerful, so that
brilliant vermillion head.
size of the
measured but four inches which, after a few days of captivity, deposited from three to eight eggs, each measuring 5-16 The baby lizards of an inch in length. eggs were i /8 these from that hatched l
good hold on limb or
sometimes a limb and often part of the tail is
twisted off in these combats.
loss of limb
of course, permanent, but
regenerated, though never to
length and beauty.
largest female, seven
these seemingly frightful injuries do not
inches long, coiled about seven eggs, each measuring 11-16 inch, or double the
apparently incommode the victim very
length of the preceding, was taken from a hollow log partly filled with pulp and
much, except day or two.
him hiding for
consists of insects, their larvae,
small crustaceans, spiders, and, with the
taken home, put in a large vivarium in a sunny window, and after about two
big Red-heads, also mice and probably
weeks seven young slinks, i /2 inches long, were darting about among the ferns
bals, as I
large male ate a big spiny swift, Scelo-
in July, 19 12.
shanty near the edge of a bayou or cypress swamp, built on piles about four
feet off the ground.
family of "Blue-
tails" made their home underneath the flooring, and on days when I did not go
certainly are canni-
have seen them devour small
specimens of their
porus undulatus, fully six inches long. This male was the biggest of his kind ever
inches in diameter
at the thickest part.
about the floor playing tag and hunting When I looked up from my work, flies.
from water, usually along the edges of brooks, creeks and bayous, wherever deciduous trees and shrubs abound. Here among vine and creeper-clad stumps, ferns and mosses, he hunts during the
they would stop where they happened to
cooler hours of daylight, basks in the sun
three or four of them would emerge, shy at first, but soon becoming bolder, darting
would soon continue
shifting of legs
part sent the lot
scampering for cover.
After about a
month they became
of foot or
so bold as to run over
and climb up on my cot. At very shy and wild, they soon become
knothole, usually well up a big Live Oak,
or other such tree.
many specimens can
lected by stripping the bark into the pulpy interior of
species will be found in
and digging There the color phases,
A SPINY SWIFT
SCELOPORUS SPINOSUS From the "Guide
Photograph b$ to rJature"
beetle grubs, scorpions,
centipedes, snakes, all
and sometimes toads,
hibernating until the
awakens them to pursue their varied activities. Although of doubtful economic importance, these pretty lizards are harmless, and with their interesting habits, bright, active manners and beauof spring
tiful coloring, prove an attractive feature of our wild life, and merit our protection. occurs in the eastern and central It
and turnip tops the aquarium will smell, so I have taken them out and given them During the wina large tank outdoors. ter this tank will be placed in a green-
have found a scavensnails,
have been using the spotted newt, Diemyctylus viridescens, with
are clean and do not
they are the only
United States, and is most numerous in Virginia, North and South Carolina,
Georgia and Florida. As terrarium inmates they make very interesting pets, soon becoming tame
There seems to be a perfect understanding between them and they never fight. D. Oscar Mead, M. D.
fish, in fact,
animals that can be kept with this species.
from one's hand.
are fairly hardy, provided plentiful and
varying food is sprayed on twigs or plants in their cage. One or two hours of sunshine each day is
in the collection of the writer
have lived thus for more than five years. (Aquatic Life is indebted to The Agassiz
Sound Beach, Connecticut,
for the loan
of the cut of the spiny swift, which appeared originally in "The Guide to Na-
The W. R. Major taken by was photograph Shuf eldt. ture," the organ of the association.
Concerning the erosion of the shells of He tells me it wrote Mr. This was a stunis due to lack of food ner to me, as I am always accused of snails, I
must have thought
said four-horned snails
lettuce or turnip tops
and fresh water
ger that beats the
probably correct as
a near relative of the
sea-horse, might with propriety be called a sea-kangaroo, as
of carrying fish,
has the distinction
slim body, is
waters, along our
Atlantic coast and elsewhere.
The male of the species has a pocket on the underside of its body extending nearly half its length, and is the only part which is unprotected. If a fish is taken from the water and its little ones are shaken out of the pouch into the water, they always seem either unable or disinIf the male is clined to swim away. placed in the water again, all the youngsters immediately swim back into the protecting pocket.
These curious creatures have a pretail, which they use to hold on to seaweed to prevent themselves being carried away by the tide. Exch.
that the snails do not molest them, but all
of snails will eat great
quantities of lettuce;
you supply the
snails with lettuce
your opportunities before they come to you.
V Factors Controlling
^The Development of Tropical Aquarium FisKes REV. FREDERICK
Chicago Aquarium Society
— When we
see a fish small in size, poor
appearance and de-
and influence the
the factors that control
proper development of fishes in the aquarium ? We will try to mention a few of them, bearing in mind that we speak from the viewpoint of aquarists. A fish in an aquarium is under unnatural condiCertain rules, drawtions, even at best. backs and other unfavorable conditions must be kept in mind. With fishes bred in
the aquarium, the factors
with perfect coloring, and
our specimens. with conviction color in fishes
us that the bright
due to deposits of certain
light-reflecting spicules, or iridocytes,
cytes effecting the color.
Daphne, Cyclops and organisms are rich in the substances producing them. Dr. Francis
of the irido-
If the spicules
of experiments tried in neigh-
In certain ponds the
you can get them.
size of the parents
has more or less
do with good coloration and
size in the
offspring. Scrubs usually produce scrubs.
While the tendency
not inherited abso-
born of scrubby parents predisposed toward that condition. It lutely, a fish
therefore well to
reared in a small, poorly-
heated aquarium will be deficient in
these light-reflecting spicules are
formation will cause them to act as prisms, breaking the light rays falling on them, and producing iridescent colors.
have the colors due to pigThe rapid changes in color in some fishes are due to the contraction and expansion of the pigment cells. It is through this action that certain fishes, the flounders, for example, are enabled to assume a color arrangement simulating the bottom on which they
in the skin.
undersized, imperfect specimens.
are of one type, and present in the deep
layers of the skin, the color will be dull. also present on the scales, their peculiar
other ponds prepared foods In every case the "flea-fed"
were used. fishes were more Moral: Feed "fleas"
concerned are these Food Supply. No one will deny that the character of the food has much to do
countries have proven beyond doubt that fishes fed on living foods develop these
we know at once What then are
ficient in physical vigor,
color-cells of the tropical
not develop under sub-normal
the evolutionist, a fish should gradually
adapt himself to his environment, but this is disposed over eons of time, and
not merely through one generation or a dozen.
tures will do
know what low temperafor our fishes.
specimens have never yet been
become reconciled temperature
which they are subjected in their native haunts. If one would have fine, healthy.
26 beautifully colored
specimens, he must
keep up the temperature, and keep it as even as possible. Don't keep it so low that
Unnatural Tank Conditions.
native haunt of the tropical fish differs
from even the most favorable aquarium conditions, unrestricted movement being in contrast with confinement and monotony. Collectors have noted unwidely
usually brilliant colorations in
mens, which disappears suddenly, or becomes inferior, under tank conditions. The proverbial "large, roomy, wellplanted tank, maintained at an even temperture of 72 degrees Fahrenheit," should It is better to have three be provided.
good tanks than
thirty small ones.
Size of Aquarium. poecilus,
to take a
It is interesting
and put half of them
tank, the other half in a large one, conditions being similar,
and note the surNot only
prising difference in the result. is is
growth more improved by plenty of room.
rapid, but color likewise
depth alone, a tank cannot be too large
All water contains
The Shenango River, Pennsylvania, was called "Red Water"
such substances. in
by the Indians because of the substances in suspension, probably from the Pymatuning swamp. In many places the Beaver and Ohio Rivers are acid, and will turn litmus paper red. Northern Wisconsin rivers show strong traces of In other localities salts from the
from agricultural districts, are to be found in water. Steel mills, iron furnaces, smelter plants, saw mills and paper factories all add foreign substances to the water. Sewage from cities, decaying vegetation, surface drainage, and the character of the stream bed and drainage area play important parts. Water supor
often contains considerable proportions of chlorine and alum.
esting to procure a supply of litmus paper
a dealer in biological supplies,
the following experiments
two tanks, equal
equipped, with plants and
one use tap water and
in the other place
water from a clear spring or stream. Test
boasted of having pro-
occasionally by dipping a small piece of
duced "dwarf Helleri" had yet to learn that the ten-inch jars in which he reared
litmus paper in the water, noting whether
for the well-being of the fishes.
young were inadequate. Acidity and Alkalinity. actors are too
â€” These im-
If the gentle
turns the paper red, blue or neutral.
reader will evaporate a dozen pails of
water drawn from the tap, taking care to use the same pail and retain the sedi-
the effects on fishes, plants and
Parental forms, food supproper tank conditions, plant life,
ment, he will be astonished at the "thick
soup" which will
result. This can be on the back of a stove, or on a
â€” Much has been said about
But what, really, is selection ? It is the proper combining of desirable characters and the elimination of unfaselection.
remains to be done
Aquarium water evaprapidly under orates artificial heat, The average aquarist adds water from the The water continues to evaporate, tap.
plays a part here. But this, like MarkTwain's death, has been grossly evaggerated. Inbreeding will in time produce
while the substances
baneful results, but the proper combining
The question of inbreeding
Aquatic of the above-mentioned conditions will
reduce the evils of inbreding to a mini-
on the under surface of any submerged object and on the side walls of a glass
There are other factors which influence the development of our tropical friends. We have noted nothing new. Every fish-
know that may be summed up Use common sense fellow should
the resultant of in three
ALBERT GALE know which is the more
essential factor for the
longevity of both the vegetable and ani-
mal specimens of an aquarium.
can only be maintained when the sanitary conditions health
must be studied is
the water free
in all details.
the removal of deleterious ing matter
accomplished to keep
a nature-study as that of the plant
or of the other inmates of the aqua-
indication of life in the
a small black speck
some care be not
will not be suffered to
are tempting mor-
sides of the leaves be searched the
little jelly-like masses are easily seen, or by passing a blade of Vallisneria between the finger and thumb they can be felt. Take these jelly masses that are attached to the leaf and put both eggs and leaf in a bottle of water put the bottle and its contents in a suitable situation, and they will hatch out by the dozen. Their food will be the decaying leaves on which they were hatched. ;
Here are tle snail
be seen crawling along the
body suspended under-
neath; the only fulcrum
above the film, yet he moves as freely as though crawling on a leaf. ently, the air
Suddenly he will lower himself gradually bottom and after a time he will
order to keep her
condemned, an aquarium without submerged aqueous foliage or one having no pond snails. It is the combined action of these two accessories that gives health health
live to maturity.
thus deposited these
and the interesting transformation of the larva? can be seen with an ordinary hand
Snails in Aquaria
from disease germs.
sanitary scavengers are the too often dis-
They are very abun-
water holes and sluggishly
history of these
and their no less so
method of reproduction is They increase with great rapidity. A half-dozen placed in an aquarium wherein there are only herbivorous fishes will be
quickly stocked, though the latter often prey
masses of spawn
as slowly ascend.
no foothold. ders.
appears to have one of nature's wonthe explanation of the
Here is These pond snails possess by means of which they spin
a small cavity at
the upper end of the thread, almost in-
naked eye. These cavities and thus the snails are suspended and enabled to ascend and devisible to the
act as small boats,
snails in aquaria.
dition to their use as scavengers, there
be found deposited
28 People can stand a discomfort
only they are gifted with The other night a
Third avenue car was crowded to the had gills, as is usual at the rush hour, and
were standing on holding on to the gates.
the last arrivals
which the bottom
At the to add to
conductor decided his load, and a woman climbed
last stop the
aboard carrying a bowl of goldfish and a The bowl was half full of water, child. and a half-dozen fish were swimming about in it, and the woman held on to all this patiently, while she steered the child
and wedged manity.
into the seething
mass of hu-
wouldn't believe that she
govern the deportment of some of aquarium societies
Don't come to the meetings.
you do come, come
you do attend a meeting,
members. 5. Never accept an to criticise
and allowed the bank clerk to give up an inch and three-quareverybody moved over a bit and ters grinned, and pretty soon the woman had a clear space, around her, she and the goldfish and the child, and everybody was smiling and feeling pretty good about it, too. She hung on to the conductor's cash box with one hand, the goldfish with the other, and the child fed the fish all the way home. But, of course, nobody could expect
should have been done.
nothing more than
up their sleeves and willingly and unselfuse their ability to help matters
you are not appointed on a committee, but if you are, do not attend the committee meetings. 7. If asked by the presiding officer to give your opinion regarding some important matter mumble that you have nothing After the meeting tell everybody to say.
man laughed and squeezed over or two; a workman got off his
Nevertheless, get sore
ruffled miles in great calmness of spirit, without spilling either the fish or the
of the officers and
than to work.
fault with the
could keep the bowl of fish in that jam for two minutes, yet she rode three un-
the weather does not suit you,
don't think of coming.
like sardines in
Passengers were wedged a can, and in no very good
following set of rules which he thinks
a sense of humor.
Ben Fogel, sends
along, howl that the society
run by a
Hold back your dues
or don't pay at
as long as pos-
to furnish a goldfish party
nosed dace and some sunfishes, especially if
principally concern a full stomach. Fishes
during the autumn months.
breeding season has passed and
every rush hour to take the gloom out of the
"Let George do
the last be quite small, are worth a
your community aquarium.
"blue poecilia" of the aquarist
Limia caudofosciota. spade a spade
Aquatic JUfe An
monthly magazine devoted
to the study, care and breeding of native, exotic, gold and domesticated fishes, other
animals and plants
W. A. POYSER JOSEPH E. BAUSMAN
542 E. Girard Avenue, Philadelphia.
Entered as second-class matter, September 1915, at the Post Office, Philadelphia, Pa., under Act of March 3, 1879.
Practical articles and notes on topics pertaining to the aquarium and terrarium are always wanted for Aquatic Life. Readers of the magazine are invited to join in making it a medium of mutual help, and to contribute to it any ideas that may occur to them. The pages are always open for anyone who has anything helpful and practical Manuscripts, books for review and to say.
Size as the
Larger Size $12.50 Each
general correspondence should be addressed to the editor.
Aquatic LiPE has the largest circulation of any magazine in the world devoted to this branch of nature-study. It presents to advertisers a market that can be reached Rates made through no other medium. known on appl. cation. Yearly Subscription Foreign Subscriptions Single
Foreign remitregistered letter. be by international money If local checks are sent, ten cents order. should be added for collection charges.
Japanese, Pearl or Angel Fish. Easy to keep and raise. A tank with Me-
always most admired. Clear gold, 50c to $1.00; brown and gold, 35c to
Copyriuht 1918 by Joseph E. Bailsman
Payments may be made by money order, tances
803 Sheridan Road
5c to 25c a
Try a Box of from your nearest Dealer or Druggist. If he does not have it, send for it direct with his name and address. If you like it, you can have same by lb. 75c 15 boxes to Yogi 15c b^x. by lb. add postage. mail 17c, MAGIC 35c, by mail 38c
Fish Food That Is Fish Food Fit For Fish The leading Fish Food on the market today.
koriyama Japanese Fish Food For Gold and Tropical Fishes Price
1818 Frankford Avenue
DEALER & BREEDER OF TROPICAL FISHES Are
WM. G. SARBACHER Wholesale to Dealers
1318 N. Dover Street
Finest Blue and Calico Broadtail
Telescopes in Philadelphia
j)ou looking for first class stock at reasonable
1305 Third Avenue
(77th Street Station Lexington Avenue, Subway)
nave what you want
(76th Street Station, 3rd Avenue L)
New York City
N. Randolph Street PHILADELPHIA
MACK'S SUPERIOR FISH FOOD
This is indeed the best food ever produced for tropical fishes as well as ComIt has no equal. for goldfish. pare it with any food, and if it is not all we claim it to be, don't buy any more. We will refund your money if
Quality in Finnage
very Fancier Should Look ee
at C. C.
No. 2. Fine: For all small fish such as Guppies, Danio Rerio, etc.; also
Coarse: For and Goldfish.
Price 15c per box; add 3c postage. For sale at Mack's Bird Store, 2193 Broadway, New York City, and at H. Rabenau, 1163 Myrtle Avenue, Brook-
or Man's Place in Visible Creation
A book of joy and cheer emphasizing the
Ground fine, $1.00. coarse 75c. lb., George's Natural Fish Food, $1.50 per lb.
can, 15c. postage to
West Van Buren
15 19 N.
BREEDERS OF TROPIOAL FISHES A Large Assortment of Many Species in Stock at A 11 Times
281 Southern Avenue
SEPTEMBER. for good Baby Fantails and Teleand for wholesale price list of common and fancy goldfish, food, aquarium supplies and
have an extra fine stock of this Southern aquarium desirable fish, bred in small tanks, and thoroughly domesticated. While a "livebearer" it will stand a temperature of
32 degrees. ing winter
ship this species duronly.
$ 15 Hundred
of Gold Fish,
CRESCENT FISH FARM Mandeville Street.
$ 20 Hundred
Extra Large, $ 4 Dozen Medium, $ 3 Dozen
Buffalo, N. Y. iQOOOOOOOOl
GOLDFISH Acres of Ponds this Season. will start lowering the water and shipping
By Mail $1.10
REV. F. A. HOUCK, 1120 Horace
Beauties of Nature and leading up to Nature's God. 5th Edition, Illustrated
CANADIAN BIRD STORE 2139
DRIED SHRIMP— The
Street, Cliffside, N.
Manufactured Only By
KISSEL, JR. Breeder of Tropical Fishes Young Broadtail Telescopes
have good healthy stock at reasonable prices. Call or 'phone, Cliffside 461. (Not a dealer)
The Peptoast Company GRAND
cents a box.
Your dealer can get it for you; lyn. also manufacif not, notify us. ture the only real turtle food at 15
5109 Catherine Street
n Color Cannot Be Beat
For all bearing or spawning
fry of live
ave Blues, Blacks and Calicos
you wish. No. 1. In powder form:
or Excellent Conformation
-im-io L1624 i
Orleans, La t
EVERYTHING IS FISH THAT COMES TO THE NET OF A NATURALIST paddle in the water with be blind with both eyes. words, "keep your eyes open" for •
Stock in America.
Telescopes from the Finest
one hand In other
(Buttie to Mature Will Help You
$2.50 per Dozen
$ 15.00 per Hundred
edited by F. BIGELOW, who the heavens and earth, as well as the waters under the earth.
THE AGASSIZ ASSOCIATION
ArcAdiA Sound Beach
THE TERMINAL PET SHOP
C. Street, Phila.,
PETS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION AND KIND
50c Extra for Shipping
Manufacturing and Maintenance of Aquariums a Specialty All
Kinds of Cat and Dog Foods and Medicines
HUDSON TERMINAL BUILDING
BLACKS CALICOS BLUES 4324 WYALUSING AVENUE, PHILADELPHIA Prices Reasonable
which can be raised year round. Portion 50c (cash or money order) with instruction how to breed them. ideal live fish food
CHARLES 1577 Paterson
104 Large Breeding
Aquarium Fishes", byWm.T.Innes, former President of the Aquarium Society of Phila.; 250 pages, 195 illustrations. Tells all about the fancy varieties of the Goldfish and nearly 300 tropicals ; how to breed them, etc., etc. For the beginner
complete, practical, handsome book, sent postpaid anywhere for $3.00. & Enlarged edition now ready.
133 N. 12th
Charles E. Visel
Blacks, Blues and Parti-colors
Plants, Fish Foods, etc.
Putnam Avenue, Brooklyn,
Otto Walter A
work on care and breeding of the aauarium. greenhouse and outFinely illustrated. door ponds. Every one interested in keeping fish should send for a copy of this book. Price. $1.00.
Brooklyn, N. Y. Near Central Avenue L Station Street
A AQUARIUM &£gg is
SHOUP & HECK Largest Dealers in Plain and Fancy Goldfish in the U.
Cash With Order irmrvnnn mnrx
THE BEST BOOK
WALTER BELL Breeder
Breeder and Importer of
TROPICAL & GOLDFISHES
Tappan's Natural Fish Food.
Guinea Pics and Thoroughbred Collie Pups, "Write for prices. beautifully marked.
Dealer in All Varieties of Aquatic Plants All Kinds of Fish Foods Fresh and Dried Daphnia
TAPPAN Hopkins, Minn.
1210 N. Warnock
BREEDER AND IMPORTER Rare and Fancy Fish Plants
variety. Snails and of all kinds at all
Aquarium Supplies times.
58th and Walnut Streets 110
Green River Fish Food
Green River Baby Fish Food
GOOD FISH FOOD
All Kinds of Aquatic Plants
Wholesale and Retail
PERMANENT DISPLAY OF Aquatic Life must be seen
Dozen Up. Assortment
Blues, Blacks and Calico Telescopes and Japs at Reasonable Prices.
Plants and Tropical Fish a Specialty Importations of
to be appreciated
„ Broad-tails, Fringetails and Telescopes and Japs. All
Colors, $1.C0 per
one of the
necessary to After the keep fish in good health. test of years Green River stands out It as the best food on the market. keeps the fish in good color by promoting a healthy, robust growth. It Ask will not sour ot cloud the water. vour dealer or send for it today. things
Fine Assortment of Lionheads
regularly 1163 Myrtle Avenue. Brooklyn, N. Y.
HARRY 1210 North
Combination Natural Fish Food
Sample Box 10c
Imported Shrimp Fish Food
Sample Can 15c
Imported Wafer Fish Food
Large Sample Box 10c
Mail Orders Promptly Attended for
Special Prices on Quantity Lots. Cash With Order.
Nippon Goldfish Co 1749 Buchanan Street, San Francisco, Cal
JAPANESE GOLDFISH DtRRCT From Breeders in Japan Awarded Gold and
AQUARIUM STOCK CO 273 Greenwich Street
GOLDFISH, FOODS, PLANTS, DIP NETS
Paciflc International ciseo, 1915.
ALL KINDS OF AQUARIA AND SUPPLIES g Price Lists Furnished Trade Only.