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Jacob C. Cassel

jHf

915 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pa Manufacturer of

AQUARIUMS Aquarium Ornaments Floral Terra Cotta, Etc. Fish Food

Fish Globes

Goldfish

and

aquarium requisites. Send for Catalog.

all

3QOO<

FRESH HENRY

By

B

r

)OOOC

"8

BIOLOGY WATER WHIPPLE GEORGE WARD and

C.

WITH THE COLLABORATION OF 25 DISTINGUISHED SPECIALISTS All interested in aquatic biology will find here answers to their queries on methods of study, conditions of existence, types of life, and inter-relations of the organisms that inhabit our fresh-water bodies, together with data on their life histories, habits and range. This work is the first complete and accurate record of North American aquatic life, especially the micro-organisms among both plants and animals excluding the vertebrates, higher plants and bacteria, every form is described that has been reported frorr a fresh-water body on this continent. comprehensive general discussion of each group precedes the description of individual forms, which are arranged under a key to permit of rapid and accurate determination of the genera and species. Nearly every form is illustrated, and its diagnostic features are pointed Biological* data on its habits, frequence and distribution are also out. given. Fresh- Water Biology is a big book of 1111 pages, with 1547 illustrations. Price, $6.00, plus postage on four pounds. ;

A

AQUATIC

LIFE, 542 E. Girard Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 3QOOC

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W. A.

SOCIETY

Activities The numbers

for the with special

coming school year

SCHENK

Add

.[ wiry

will

articles from practical be filled teachers dealing with actual works, methods and suggestions for school gardening, elementary agriculture and nature-study.

S. S.

M-im-ir

Eetiieto

OFFICIAL JOURNAL AMERICAN NATURE-STUDY

Mount Vernon, N. Y. -v-irw

Dao 8

Mature ^tuDp

$1.00 per year.

GEORGE

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Support The Government's War

— 30

>i

I

for

15c.

per copy.

Canadian Postage 10 cents.

Foreign Postage. 20 cents. With Aquatic Life, one year, $1.50.

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AQUARIUM HEATING CHARLES M. BREDER,

JR.

K=

t

Cf\oss stencil OF

Tamk, fhewirt ttETHOQ OF HEATinfi.

<k

eiio view or HEftTirni unit.

,

When

creatures of

removed

warm

countries are

to cooler climes, past the limit

of their adaptability or possible acclimation,

it

becomes necessary to furnish the

views as to

lows

winter grips us. tropical fishes

From

were

first

study and investigation countries,

by

temperate

warmth

a leading one,

discussed

when

introduced for into

the question of

them has been

much

the time

and

aquarists,

1.

The

a

to

types in gen-

can be briefly classified as

fol-

:

DIRECT

temperatures to which they were accus-

tomed in order to meet success in keepWith many of our ing them as pets. exotic fishes it is necessary to do this in most parts of the United States when

methods being held

greater or less extent. eral use

.^..^^

Gas or

HEATING SYSTEMS oil

flame applied direct to

metal disc or pan affixed to bottom of the tank. 2.

Water from tank

circulated through

pipes that pass over a flame which heats

the water and causes the circulation. 3.

Heat source

in

a

cylindrical

jar

for

standing or floating in the tank, and ex-

is still

tending above waterline (Aquatic Life,

varying

November,

1915,

and September, 1917).


aquatic

16

1.

INDIRECT HEATING SYSTEMS System of hot water pipes passing

through or near the tank, but not connected with the water in it (Aquatic Life,

ILitt

small

then taped.

The

3.

of

Application

the

heated air to

which holds the

stand

or

rack

aquaria was boarded in with pine, onehalf inch thick, and on this rest the pipes.

The

device would be

lamp was placed

or coal stove.

oil

help con-

was covered with sheet asbestos and

air

September, 1916). 2. Application of any system to the entire conservatory or room, such as the usual steam or hot air house heater, or a

To

with the required elbows.

serve the heat the piping exposed to the

as

much

heat

more

directly

efficient if the

under the rack, double bend,

lost in the

is

tanks by means of pipes running close to them, the heat furnished by any conve-

but the space in the present case

nient unit.

where.

obvious that certain sources of more suited to one than to anare heat above methods, and the suitthe other of

feet of

It

is

form of heater used is modified by the purpose for which it is For a conservatory a device intended. of

ability

the

that heats the entire

enclosure

best,

is

while in a room used for other purposes one of the individual tank heaters is prefIt is the latter which will be diserable. in this paper.

cussed It is

generally assumed that one of the

As

this

is

it

lamp heats

tom row

them

a

little

warmer than

consists of a heating unit, with suitable

conducts the

that

piping,

heat

to

the

closed tray below the tanks, proper draft

In this

for the flame being considered.

manner

heat

the

is

evenly

distributed

immediately below the aquaria, and the

how the lamp is supmade for reprovisions and the ported, refilling. and The moving it for cleaning hinge strip A is fastened to the floor by C. The strip is slipped from notch B and The

sketch shows

dropped

to the floor in the direction of

The tem

is

heater used in this particular sys-

common

a

incubator lamp.

other units could be used, if

it

is

While

doubtful

they would be as economical in point

of cost of operation, a gallon of kerosene lasting

for

slightly

more than a week The chimney

during the coldest weather. of the lamp leads

to

fits

the

close into the pipe that

length

under the

tanks.

Standard two-inch leader pipe was used.

D

holder

down

to slide

lamp and

its

the legs of the

rack E, disengaging the chimney from the lamp

When

may

in the

lower position

be lifted from

The support or holder

D

its

support.

two pieces

is

of wood, separated by blocks the width of the legs suitable

E

recess

and sliding on them. A was cut for the lamp-

base.

The

water therein thus warmed.

the

average room temperature.

the pipe F.

It

side.

heated, although general radi-

is

ation keeps

which cannot be said for

devices.

eight

The rack extends upward and holds two more rows of aquaria, but only the bot-

the arrow, thus allowing the

all

occu-

tank space, four on each

forms gives a more natural condition. The form described herein allows the plants to attain a beautiful growth, indirect

is

pied by tubs which cannot be placed else-

short piece of pipe

F

is fitted

into

Four making the

the horizontal part of a T-joint.

90-degree elbows are used

in

required turns to connect with the long pipes

G

running below the aquaria.

Special aquaria were constructed for

use

in

connection

with

this

heating

method which added to its efficiency. Large two-inch angle iron was used for the bottom frame, which was embedded (Concluded on page

18.)


"T

HemirampKus

Fluviatilis

WALTER LAKfMOY BRIMD,

Z.

F.

S.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Regardless

of

Hemiramphus

name,

imposing

the

the

fluviatilis,

half -beak,

not the reader suppose that the fish

let

striking in appearance so far as color

is

Far from

concerned.

is

'Tis

it.

form, not the color, that

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; an

the

interesting,

is

adult

female

measures about two and one-half inches, the male half an inch

to three

for

the

fellow

little

less

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

fish

color

belly.

to a pickerel. is

uniform

is

both sexes, varying

white

remember, but, of course, the remainder of the "invariable thirty" may have been devoured by adults before

discovered

I

them. I

kept these specimens in quite a large

aquarium,

all-glass

and

succeeded

in

ever saw.

I

The in

of the latter being the largest. From her I secured a litter of eighteen as I now

is

about as plainly colored as any tropical

when business took me to Europe, bought a male and three females, one

1910, I

light olive

brown

shade, with a

in

The general shape is similar The striking characteristic

the short, broad upper jaw, with the

lower one narrow and pointed, and twice the length of the upper one.

when

puzzled

I

first

understand the reason for formation, and alike, I

saw

why

was much

I

saw the

species, to

both jaws were not

but the problem was solved

Then

eating Daphne.

it

that the

Daphne caught

in

when

noticed

I

the surface

and unable to descend into the water, were being adroitly taken by the fish with film

the aid of this broad, circular, or rather

semi-oval

jaw,

more than

the

which seemed lower,

to

work

contrary to the

usual rule. When the "fleas" were swimming below the surface the fish were able to catch them just as well. The half -beak is also interesting in that it

is

apparently the only live-bearing or

viviparous

fish

that

the

Far East has

contributed to the aquarium. It that

it

young

invariably gives at

a

time,

unless

birth

is

claimed

to

thirty

immature,

which case none are delivered

Hemiramphus

peculiar

this

alive.

in

In

fluviatilis

breeding them as stated.

and This was

well-planted water.

The tank was

contained

clear

old

in contradiction to the

opinion then held that a slight proportion of sea water ( 5 per cent. ) was necessary to

their health.

In nature the fish in-

Malacca and Singapore in fresh water, but always near the sea. This may have given rise to the suggeshabits Java,

tion of slightly brackish

water for their

aquarium.

The half-beak peaceful

fish,

is

a

spending

quiet

and

much

of the time

fairly-

near the surface of the water.

(The phidae,

warm

fishes

of the family

Hemiram-

speaking generally, inhabit the seas and are widely distributed,

mostly along shore, though a few are pelagic or deep-water forms. The group


Aquatic

18

ILitt

includes both viviparous and oviparous

Considerable

discussion

been

has

Mr. Brind is probably right in asserting that H. fluviatilis is the sole viviparous fish thus far brought from the

Society of Philadelphia by the important

East for our tanks.

medium

species.

It is

not related to

the viviparous killifishes. sub-family Poe-

which includes

ciliinae,

such fishes

all

Until

studied and bred by the aquarist. these

recently

were Mr. the Americas.

live-bearing

thought confined to

fishes

C. Tate Regan, of the British Museum, has described the remarkable Phalloste-

thus dunckeri, a type of a

new

new

poeciliid

and the

This

sub-family.

fish is

Malay Peninsula.

from Johore, on the While in all the forms limited to the Americas, it is the anal fin which serves so-called

the

as this

new

intromittent organ,

species

it

ventral

the

is

in fins

which have become modified into a large muscular appendage to function as the intromittent organ.

An

interesting paper

on viviparous fishes in general will appear in a subsequent number. Mention is made of

some

quite curious characteristics.

evoked

"What

query: sand,

meetings of the Aquarium

at the

is

the

in

the

grit or pebbles?"

soil,

planting

best

freshwater

aquarium,

At

a

first

divergence of opinion was expressed, but

experimentation led to an almost

later

unanimous

concurrence

in

what

has

since been adopted as the best practice.

Some

desirable

Nitella

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

thrive

will

when

green leaves

sand

plants

and set

but other plants

;

Sagittaria,

Cabomba and

Anacharis,

Vallisneria,

exhibit directly

paler the

in

Ludtvigia, Poto-

nwgeton, Moneywort and Water-poppy require soil to continue their growth and

under the changed conditions. it has been found, is to place a two to two and one-half inch layer of thoroughly washed bar or beach sand in the aquarium, into which shallow to survive

The

best practice,

dishes or pots containing clean turf in

which the

Then

mentioned are arranged

last

those to be planted directly in the

sand are introduced, and the whole sur-

Editor.)

face covered with a one-inch layer of

Aquarium Heating (Concluded from page in

the concrete base, with

small beach pebbles

16.)

The

other parts of the frame were made of Before pouring the con34 -inch iron. crete into the mould for the base several inverted pie pans were placed on the bottom angle. Through these pans the heat is

transmitted to the water.

The pans

were, of course, waterproofed before being used. No vent was made in the tray to allow for draft, the cracks in the joints in the wood tray being found sufficient. If found necessary holes could be bored

through the ends.

The

my

pipes

shown

cate

those covered with

and taped.

in black in

portions of the

sketches indisheet asbestos

may

A

as grit.

few larger pebbles, or brookworn

%-inch pro-

jecting above to receive the glass.

known

stones,

be scattered over the surface to pro-

duce a natural Grit

humus

effect.

permits to sift

to serve as

the

finer

particles

of

through to the sand layer

nourishment for the

plants,

presents a neat and tidy appearance, and a firm layer

from which to syphon the Aquarium Notes

excess accumulations.

and Nezvs. -#-

Haplochilus

name lus

lineatus

is

the

proper

for the fish usually called Haplochi-

rubrostigma by the aquarist.

The

synonym, but the name of another and distinct species with which "our fish" was confused when first imlatter is not a

ported.


Mollienisia Latipinna G.

J.

HEEDE I

4

Jh

In habits and actions in the aquarium,

though not resembles

in color, Mollienisia latipinna

female

the

but

helleri,

is

larger

of Xiphophorus and more stoutly

While both sexes are attractive, the male is more beautiful, the unusually well-developed dorsal making it a disThe tinctive member of any collection. body is grayish olive, crossed from head built.

must not he taken

to

mean that they deThe reference

stroy the higher forms. is

to Algae.

This

fish when first imported from the South, unless previously acclimated to the conditions of the aquarium, is rather

sensitive to

changes

rough treatment in shipping, temperature and transfers

in

by a series of red or orange dots, which appear as stripes or lines vertical The stripes mark the abdominal region. to tail

;

gill

covers have blue markings, which are

also present

on the dorsal and caudal

of the male, the latter

with red.

The caudal

also

fin

fin is

with a stout peduncle.

fins

marked

rather round,

The

colors are

most intense during the breeding season, at other times, and in young examples, rather less distinct, though the stripes are always present. This species in the

to

may

aquarium

if

Mollienisia latipinna

be readily propagated a temperature of 75

80 degrees Fahrenheit,

maintained.

is

from aquarium

to

able to disturb

them

Preparations should be similar to those

until

used for other live-bearing or viviparous

ment.

fishes a well-planted aquarium and prompt removal of the female after the young have been delivered. A consider-

species,

Life,

able quantity of loose Anacharis can be

ago

grouped on the window or

this species in the

;

light side of

the tank.

The best foods are Daphne, Cyclops, raw scraped beef, clams, etc., but they will

do

fairly

They are

well

largely

little

It is advis-

as possible

In writing of the abundance of this in a past number of Aquatic

Major Shufeldt says "Many years saw thousands of specimens of :

I

very shallow pools connecting with the bayous south of New Orleans, La.

;

they were mating, and, as

the gorgeously colored males chased the

females about

however,

pools, a scene

and do not need as much animal foods as carnivorous species such as Gambusia holbrooki. That they are plant-eating

as

they adapt themselves to confine-

on prepared foods. vegetarian,

aquarium.

in the clear

water of the

was presented

never forgotten.

To

that I have

the best of

my

recol-

would say that some of the old males exhibited markings of a bright lection

I


Aquatic

20

azure blue in addition to the orange ones but I may be mistaken about this. My

Louisiana

I

notes are not at hand at

field

them had drawings of both the male and febut

this writing;

I

remember

that in

this elegant little butterfly of a

male of fish."

Another fish of the genus, M. formosa, from Mexico, is a nice aquarium specimen, but is inferior in color. The body is greenish gray, with yellow cross-stripes abdominal region, metallic blue; dorsal

and caudal

fins

dull

yellow with dark

In contrast to

markings.

M.

latipinna,

the males are smaller than the females.

Breeding habits, temperature and food requirements the same.

Nobody Works But Father Nobody works but

father.

liitt

The eggs ficially

York

10,000

to

a

mate.

are

laid,

it

eggs

mother bass

From 3000 after

to

which the

driven away, never to re-

is

know

her progeny. Father bass takes a position immediately over the nest, constantly fanning it

turn or to

with his

fins

truders.

This

to

and ever watchful for vigil

in-

continues for ten days

two weeks, while the eggs are develop-

ing and hatching, and for a few days thereafter while the young are getting

ready to try their

fins.

Woe

unto the

enemy which appears too The faithful paternal nest!

sucker or other

near to the

guardian darts fiercely after it and tempts to rip it open with his dorsal

By

this

means, unless he

is

at-

its

supply of

waters, the basses do not leave their

nests before July

the male bass his

may

nest until

1,

and

in late seasons

be seen hovering over

well past the middle of

July.

Let us, therefore, give father bass a

chance to do his

bit in

food conservation

by working for an extension of the close season until July 1, and let us refrain from fishing over the spawning beds whenever we find him guarding his nest. even if it be during the open season.. New York State Conservation Commission in American Field.

I

escorts

manipulated, and for

such fishes the Conservation Commission must accordingly depend upon the vigilance of father bass. The spawning time of all fishes is governed by water temIn normal seasons, in New perature.

He's on guard all day Fins in constant motion, Keeping foes away.

In the black bass family the male selects a nesting place and then seeks and

of the basses cannot be arti-

have just read the

article

on the red

the August number.

I newt in have had them for years, but they nevei bred. One pair I have kept with para dise fish, and sometimes with goldfish the latter being nipped and abused should they become inactive or ill. The middle third of my bay window has been ce mented and converted into a swamp, with plants, mosses, frogs, turtles and newts Some time since the ordinary newts crawled out and kept themselves under flower pots or damp moss. A few days ago the red-bellied newts deserted the water almost at once for the more congenial "swamp." It seems therefore that they will stay in a tank only when no

bellied

surrounding meets their

more

atractive

eye.

William Lcland Stozvell,

fin.

M. D.

attacked by

overwhelming numbers of carp or caught by the angler, the father bass is able to hatch his brood and care for them until

nary plate for

they scatter for food.

aquaria.

Wired

plate glass

the

is

better than ordi-

bottoms

of

small


THE BLUE-TAILED SKINK RICHARD DECKERT NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL GARDEM

RED-HEADED

AND

BLUE-TAILED PHASES OF PLESTIODON FASCIATUS Painted from

The lizard known under name belongs in the family lizards having

body,

tail

limbs.

smooth

the

above

of Skinks

scales, a cylindrical

of moderate length

and short

name of many years

the species

The

scientific

Bumeces

life bj) trie

autkor

young

lizard

emerges from the egg

it

is

shiny black with five pale yellow longitudinal lines on the back and sides, the tail

being brilliant blue.

Both sexes are

alike in this coloring until a length of five

cal

Congress of Paris, has been changed

when the male shows reddish tints on the head, which also widens perceptibly at the temporal region in this sex. While the males still

to

Plestiodon

retain the brilliant coloring, the females

has

been

for

quinque-lineatus, but

in

adherence to the

rules of priority adopted

pleistos

by the Zoologi-

fasciatus.

—many, odon—tooth

(Plestiodon: ;

fasciatus

striped.)

Two

seem

to

stripes

distinct color phases, with inter-

grading forms, are met with.

inches has been attained,

When

the

"fade out," that

become

dull, the

and the blue of the at

a

maximum

is,

the

pale

dark ones paler

tail less brilliant, until,

length

of

about seven


aquatic

22

inches, they are of a light brownish-olive

blue of the

tail

pale olive-brown with a

is

tame

so

captivity that especially the

in

larger ones will take grasshoppers and

from

beetle larvae

They

inches in the

six

as the females, until the en-

same manner lizard

The males

has vanished.

"fade out" at about

tire

The

and reddish head.

with darker sides

JLitt

they

as

one's fingers.

require a fairly large terrarium exercise

on

especially

freely,

sunny days, and the males often indulge

eggs and young varies

in fights. They rush at one another with mouth wide open, endeavoring to secure

with the size and age of the female. I have collected females in Florida that

are strong and the grip powerful, so that

brilliant vermillion head.

The

size of the

measured but four inches which, after a few days of captivity, deposited from three to eight eggs, each measuring 5-16 The baby lizards of an inch in length. eggs were i /8 these from that hatched l

good hold on limb or

a

Their jaws

tail.

sometimes a limb and often part of the tail is

twisted off in these combats.

loss of limb

The

of course, permanent, but

is,

regenerated, though never to

the

tail

is

its

full

length and beauty.

Otherwise

largest female, seven

these seemingly frightful injuries do not

inches long, coiled about seven eggs, each measuring 11-16 inch, or double the

apparently incommode the victim very

The

inches long.

length of the preceding, was taken from a hollow log partly filled with pulp and

much, except day or two.

The food

him hiding for

to send

a

consists of insects, their larvae,

was

small crustaceans, spiders, and, with the

taken home, put in a large vivarium in a sunny window, and after about two

big Red-heads, also mice and probably

weeks seven young slinks, i /2 inches long, were darting about among the ferns

bals, as I

and moss.

large male ate a big spiny swift, Scelo-

dead leaves,

The

in July, 19 12.

lot

l

My

collecting

was

station

a

small

shanty near the edge of a bayou or cypress swamp, built on piles about four

A

feet off the ground.

family of "Blue-

tails" made their home underneath the flooring, and on days when I did not go

young

birds.

They

certainly are canni-

have seen them devour small

specimens of their

own

and one

kind,

porus undulatus, fully six inches long. This male was the biggest of his kind ever

saw,

length, the

measuring

body

i$/\

io^4

inches

I

in

inches in diameter

at the thickest part.

The

Blue-tailed Skink

is

never found

about the floor playing tag and hunting When I looked up from my work, flies.

from water, usually along the edges of brooks, creeks and bayous, wherever deciduous trees and shrubs abound. Here among vine and creeper-clad stumps, ferns and mosses, he hunts during the

they would stop where they happened to

cooler hours of daylight, basks in the sun

collecting,

but

writing

sat

or

reading,

three or four of them would emerge, shy at first, but soon becoming bolder, darting

be,

instantly

mained

on the

quiet,

alert,

and

if

I

would soon continue

rein

their activities.

A

movement

shifting of legs

on

my

part sent the lot

scampering for cover.

After about a

month they became

my first

of foot or

so bold as to run over

and climb up on my cot. At very shy and wild, they soon become

feet

far

at

midday, and

retires at

dusk

to

some

knothole, usually well up a big Live Oak,

Sweet

Gum

In winter

or other such tree.

many specimens can

lected by stripping the bark into the pulpy interior of

timber

dead standing

near water-courses.

species will be found in

all

be col-

and digging There the color phases,


aquatic

A SPINY SWIFT

SCELOPORUS SPINOSUS From the "Guide

23

JLitt

Photograph b$ to rJature"

MAJOR

R.

W. SHUFELDT


Aquatic

24 in

beetle grubs, scorpions,

company with

centipedes, snakes, all

and sometimes toads,

warm

hibernating until the

sunshine

awakens them to pursue their varied activities. Although of doubtful economic importance, these pretty lizards are harmless, and with their interesting habits, bright, active manners and beauof spring

tiful coloring, prove an attractive feature of our wild life, and merit our protection. occurs in the eastern and central It

Hit

and turnip tops the aquarium will smell, so I have taken them out and given them During the wina large tank outdoors. ter this tank will be placed in a green-

house.

my

For

aquaria

ways

For

dirty.

have found a scavensnails,

the past

which are

al-

two years

I

have been using the spotted newt, Diemyctylus viridescens, with

The newts

fish.

my

paradise

are clean and do not

they are the only

United States, and is most numerous in Virginia, North and South Carolina,

bother the

Georgia and Florida. As terrarium inmates they make very interesting pets, soon becoming tame

There seems to be a perfect understanding between them and they never fight. D. Oscar Mead, M. D.

to feed

enough

fish, in fact,

animals that can be kept with this species.

They

from one's hand.

are fairly hardy, provided plentiful and

varying food is sprayed on twigs or plants in their cage. One or two hours of sunshine each day is

necessary

also

Specimens

their

for

well-being.

in the collection of the writer

have lived thus for more than five years. (Aquatic Life is indebted to The Agassiz

ArcAdiA,

Inc.,

Association,

Sound Beach, Connecticut,

for the loan

of the cut of the spiny swift, which appeared originally in "The Guide to Na-

The W. R. Major taken by was photograph Shuf eldt. ture," the organ of the association.

+-

Concerning the erosion of the shells of He tells me it wrote Mr. This was a stunis due to lack of food ner to me, as I am always accused of snails, I

.

!

He

over-feeding.

must have thought

said four-horned snails

lettuce or turnip tops

This

time.

my

is

Pipe Fish

and fresh water

offered,

.

I

ger that beats the

probably correct as

aquaria are

full

all

the

I find,

of plants,

The

pipe

fish,

a near relative of the

sea-horse, might with propriety be called a sea-kangaroo, as

of carrying fish,

has the distinction

it

young

in a

easily distinguishable

slim body, is

its

from which

common

in British

it

pouch.

This

for

its

long,

its

name,

derives

waters, along our

Atlantic coast and elsewhere.

The male of the species has a pocket on the underside of its body extending nearly half its length, and is the only part which is unprotected. If a fish is taken from the water and its little ones are shaken out of the pouch into the water, they always seem either unable or disinIf the male is clined to swim away. placed in the water again, all the youngsters immediately swim back into the protecting pocket.

These curious creatures have a pretail, which they use to hold on to seaweed to prevent themselves being carried away by the tide. Exch.

hensile

that the snails do not molest them, but all

the species

of snails will eat great

quantities of lettuce;

they

plied

But

if

are

if

this

insufficiently

you supply the

is

not sup-

nourished.

snails with lettuce

It's

all

forelock,

by

to

take

time

don't

take

advantage

right

but

the of

your opportunities before they come to you.


V Factors Controlling

\

^The Development of Tropical Aquarium FisKes REV. FREDERICK

R.

WEBBER

I

i

Chicago Aquarium Society

— When we

see a fish small in size, poor

scrubby

in color,

in

appearance and de-

is

exterior spicules.

and influence the

related

wrong.

the factors that control

proper development of fishes in the aquarium ? We will try to mention a few of them, bearing in mind that we speak from the viewpoint of aquarists. A fish in an aquarium is under unnatural condiCertain rules, drawtions, even at best. backs and other unfavorable conditions must be kept in mind. With fishes bred in

the aquarium, the factors

with perfect coloring, and

our specimens. with conviction color in fishes

is

size,

Authorities tell

too,

who

in

write

us that the bright

due to deposits of certain

light-reflecting spicules, or iridocytes,

the scales.

The character

cytes effecting the color.

Daphne, Cyclops and organisms are rich in the substances producing them. Dr. Francis

Ward

on

of the irido-

If the spicules

of experiments tried in neigh-

tells

boring

fish

fishes

were

Cyclops;

ponds.

In certain ponds the

to

brilliiantly

Forms.

colored.

you can get them.

if

— The

size of the parents

coloration

has more or less

do with good coloration and

size in the

offspring. Scrubs usually produce scrubs.

While the tendency

is

not inherited abso-

born of scrubby parents predisposed toward that condition. It lutely, a fish

therefore well to

weed out

all

Temperature.

A

factor.

This

an important

is

reared in a small, poorly-

fish

heated aquarium will be deficient in

and

if

these light-reflecting spicules are

formation will cause them to act as prisms, breaking the light rays falling on them, and producing iridescent colors.

Then we

have the colors due to pigThe rapid changes in color in some fishes are due to the contraction and expansion of the pigment cells. It is through this action that certain fishes, the flounders, for example, are enabled to assume a color arrangement simulating the bottom on which they

ment

may

also

in the skin.

be resting.

is

undersized, imperfect specimens.

are of one type, and present in the deep

But

is

the poor,

layers of the skin, the color will be dull. also present on the scales, their peculiar

and

other ponds prepared foods In every case the "flea-fed"

in

Parental and

Daphne

on

reared

were used. fishes were more Moral: Feed "fleas"

commonly

concerned are these Food Supply. No one will deny that the character of the food has much to do

European

in certain

countries have proven beyond doubt that fishes fed on living foods develop these

we know at once What then are

ficient in physical vigor,

that something

Experiments made

)

fish

The

color. will

size

color-cells of the tropical

not develop under sub-normal

temperature

conditions.

According

to

the evolutionist, a fish should gradually

adapt himself to his environment, but this is disposed over eons of time, and

theory

not merely through one generation or a dozen.

We

all

tures will do

know what low temperafor our fishes.

specimens have never yet been

become reconciled temperature

less

Tropical

known

to

chilly

tanks,

than

the

average

to

the to

which they are subjected in their native haunts. If one would have fine, healthy.


Aquatic

26 beautifully colored

specimens, he must

keep up the temperature, and keep it as even as possible. Don't keep it so low that

you are

flirting

with disaster.

Unnatural Tank Conditions.

The

native haunt of the tropical fish differs

from even the most favorable aquarium conditions, unrestricted movement being in contrast with confinement and monotony. Collectors have noted unwidely

usually brilliant colorations in

wild speci-

mens, which disappears suddenly, or becomes inferior, under tank conditions. The proverbial "large, roomy, wellplanted tank, maintained at an even temperture of 72 degrees Fahrenheit," should It is better to have three be provided.

good tanks than

thirty small ones.

Size of Aquarium. poecilus,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

dozen young

to take a

It is interesting

fishes,

say Platy-

and put half of them

in a

small

tank, the other half in a large one, conditions being similar,

and note the surNot only

prising difference in the result. is is

growth more improved by plenty of room.

rapid, but color likewise

Save

in

depth alone, a tank cannot be too large

A

JLitt

suspension remain.

All water contains

The Shenango River, Pennsylvania, was called "Red Water"

such substances. in

by the Indians because of the substances in suspension, probably from the Pymatuning swamp. In many places the Beaver and Ohio Rivers are acid, and will turn litmus paper red. Northern Wisconsin rivers show strong traces of In other localities salts from the

ore.

soil,

from agricultural districts, are to be found in water. Steel mills, iron furnaces, smelter plants, saw mills and paper factories all add foreign substances to the water. Sewage from cities, decaying vegetation, surface drainage, and the character of the stream bed and drainage area play important parts. Water supor

nitrates

plied

through municipal

filtration plants

often contains considerable proportions of chlorine and alum.

It

would be

inter-

esting to procure a supply of litmus paper

from to

a dealer in biological supplies,

make

the following experiments

two tanks, equal

in

size,

equipped, with plants and

one use tap water and

and

:

and Fill

similarly

fishes.

For

in the other place

Wis-

water from a clear spring or stream. Test

boasted of having pro-

occasionally by dipping a small piece of

duced "dwarf Helleri" had yet to learn that the ten-inch jars in which he reared

litmus paper in the water, noting whether

for the well-being of the fishes.

consin friend

who

young were inadequate. Acidity and Alkalinity. actors are too

portant

f

among

us.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; These im-

little

If the gentle

it

turns the paper red, blue or neutral.

Compare

the

discussed

(or "savage")

reader will evaporate a dozen pails of

water drawn from the tap, taking care to use the same pail and retain the sedi-

the effects on fishes, plants and

snails.

.Selection.

vorable ones.

Parental forms, food supproper tank conditions, plant life,

ment, he will be astonished at the "thick

ply,

soup" which will

temperature,

tried

selection.

result. This can be on the back of a stove, or on a

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Much has been said about

But what, really, is selection ? It is the proper combining of desirable characters and the elimination of unfaselection.

etc.,

Much

all

contribute toward

remains to be done

in

Aquarium water evaprapidly under orates artificial heat, The average aquarist adds water from the The water continues to evaporate, tap.

plays a part here. But this, like MarkTwain's death, has been grossly evaggerated. Inbreeding will in time produce

while the substances

baneful results, but the proper combining

steam radiator.

in

solution

and

in

this respect.

The question of inbreeding


Aquatic of the above-mentioned conditions will

JLite

27

reduce the evils of inbreding to a mini-

on the under surface of any submerged object and on the side walls of a glass

mum.

aquarium.

There are other factors which influence the development of our tropical friends. We have noted nothing new. Every fish-

jelly-like

know that may be summed up Use common sense fellow should

it

the resultant of in three

all

words

I

ALBERT GALE know which is the more

do not

the

to

The

fishes.

the most

is

preservation

of

essential factor for the

longevity of both the vegetable and ani-

mal specimens of an aquarium.

Health

can only be maintained when the sanitary conditions health

are

perfect.

fairly

must be studied is

to be

the water free

much life

Aids to

in all details.

the removal of deleterious ing matter

How

and decompos-

accomplished to keep

from contamination

is

as

a nature-study as that of the plant

or of the other inmates of the aqua-

rium.

fairly

transparent,

is

indication of life in the

first

a small black speck

egg sac

the

when

;

young are

set free.

exercised,

many

for any

under

this

in

the centre

breaks the

some care be not

If

will not be suffered to

They

are tempting mor-

young or

fish,

If the

old.

sides of the leaves be searched the

little jelly-like masses are easily seen, or by passing a blade of Vallisneria between the finger and thumb they can be felt. Take these jelly masses that are attached to the leaf and put both eggs and leaf in a bottle of water put the bottle and its contents in a suitable situation, and they will hatch out by the dozen. Their food will be the decaying leaves on which they were hatched. ;

Here are tle snail

interesting

will

water-film,

phenomena

:

A

lit-

be seen crawling along the

its

body suspended under-

neath; the only fulcrum

it

has

is,

appar-

above the film, yet he moves as freely as though crawling on a leaf. ently, the air

Suddenly he will lower himself gradually bottom and after a time he will

to the

Nature

has

provided

order to keep her

and

ovum

sels

condemned, an aquarium without submerged aqueous foliage or one having no pond snails. It is the combined action of these two accessories that gives health health

The

lens.

live to maturity.

to be

thus deposited these

and the interesting transformation of the larva? can be seen with an ordinary hand

of

Snails in Aquaria

When

masses are

free

scavengers

many

in

children clean

from disease germs.

The

great

sanitary scavengers are the too often dis-

They are very abun-

carded pond

snails.

dant

water holes and sluggishly

in

all

flowing rivers.

molluscs

is

The

very

life

history of these

intricate,

and their no less so

method of reproduction is They increase with great rapidity. A half-dozen placed in an aquarium wherein there are only herbivorous fishes will be

quickly stocked, though the latter often prey

upon them.

masses of spawn

will

The

may

He

as slowly ascend.

no foothold. ders.

marvel. nerets,

appears to have one of nature's wonthe explanation of the

This

is

Here is These pond snails possess by means of which they spin

tinous threads

;

there

is

spin-

gela-

a small cavity at

the upper end of the thread, almost in-

naked eye. These cavities and thus the snails are suspended and enabled to ascend and devisible to the

act as small boats,

scend at

will.

Always keep

snails in aquaria.

In ad-

dition to their use as scavengers, there

jelly-like

many

be found deposited

them.

nature

studies

connected

with


ftquatic liitt

28 People can stand a discomfort

if

Our

hardship and

lot of

only they are gifted with The other night a

old friend,

seem

Third avenue car was crowded to the had gills, as is usual at the rush hour, and

members

arrived

at

condition

congested

in

were standing on holding on to the gates.

the last arrivals

which the bottom

step,

it,

humor about

either.

At the to add to

conductor decided his load, and a woman climbed

last stop the

aboard carrying a bowl of goldfish and a The bowl was half full of water, child. and a half-dozen fish were swimming about in it, and the woman held on to all this patiently, while she steered the child

and wedged manity.

into the seething

You

mass of hu-

wouldn't believe that she

govern the deportment of some of aquarium societies

to

i.

Don't come to the meetings.

2.

But

3.

If

you do come, come

if

you do attend a meeting,

If

4.

members. 5. Never accept an to criticise

an inch

8.

and allowed the bank clerk to give up an inch and three-quareverybody moved over a bit and ters grinned, and pretty soon the woman had a clear space, around her, she and the goldfish and the child, and everybody was smiling and feeling pretty good about it, too. She hung on to the conductor's cash box with one hand, the goldfish with the other, and the child fed the fish all the way home. But, of course, nobody could expect

if

should have been done.

it

Do

nothing more than

when

other

absolutely

is

members

roll

up their sleeves and willingly and unselfuse their ability to help matters

ishly

neighbor's

easier

it is

you are not appointed on a committee, but if you are, do not attend the committee meetings. 7. If asked by the presiding officer to give your opinion regarding some important matter mumble that you have nothing After the meeting tell everybody to say.

necessary, but

man laughed and squeezed over or two; a workman got off his

as

office,

Nevertheless, get sore

6.

ruffled miles in great calmness of spirit, without spilling either the fish or the

fat

find

of the officers and

than to work.

how

A

work

fault with the

could keep the bowl of fish in that jam for two minutes, yet she rode three un-

water.

late.

the weather does not suit you,

don't think of coming.

like sardines in

Passengers were wedged a can, and in no very good

the

following set of rules which he thinks

a sense of humor.

the

Ben Fogel, sends

along, howl that the society

is

run by a

clique. 8.

foot

Hold back your dues

sible,

or don't pay at

Don't

10.

bother

as long as pos-

all.

about

getting

new

;

the

company

to furnish a goldfish party

members.

The fishes

taken to

now

the

are

more

conditions

spring or

in

Seattle

Tbe

to

activities

summer

of

readily accustomed

confinement than

catches.

The

black-

nosed dace and some sunfishes, especially if

life.

wild

time

principally concern a full stomach. Fishes

Post-

straphanger's

collect

during the autumn months.

preferable

is

it."

breeding season has passed and

every rush hour to take the gloom out of the

"Let George do

the last be quite small, are worth a

trial

your community aquarium.

Intelligencer.

The

A

popular globe-trotter

goldfish.

;

tbe

common

"blue poecilia" of the aquarist

Limia caudofosciota. spade a spade

?

Why

not

call

is

a


CXDOC>DOC)CXDCXX5CXDOCXXDCXX3CXXDCXX30COCOOCOOi

Aquatic JUfe An

international

Young

monthly magazine devoted

to the study, care and breeding of native, exotic, gold and domesticated fishes, other

animals and plants

in

the

Pterophyllum Scalare

home aquarium

and terrarium.

1918

W. A. POYSER JOSEPH E. BAUSMAN

HATCHING

Editor Publisher

542 E. Girard Avenue, Philadelphia.

Entered as second-class matter, September 1915, at the Post Office, Philadelphia, Pa., under Act of March 3, 1879.

2,

Practical articles and notes on topics pertaining to the aquarium and terrarium are always wanted for Aquatic Life. Readers of the magazine are invited to join in making it a medium of mutual help, and to contribute to it any ideas that may occur to them. The pages are always open for anyone who has anything helpful and practical Manuscripts, books for review and to say.

Same

Size as the

Cut

$7.50 Each

Larger Size $12.50 Each

8

\

general correspondence should be addressed to the editor.

Aquatic LiPE has the largest circulation of any magazine in the world devoted to this branch of nature-study. It presents to advertisers a market that can be reached Rates made through no other medium. known on appl. cation. Yearly Subscription Foreign Subscriptions Single

WILLIAM

8

425 Wolf

OLX

10

Foreign remitregistered letter. be by international money If local checks are sent, ten cents order. should be added for collection charges.

draft or

should

Pa

1<

><

>

Japanese, Pearl or Angel Fish. Easy to keep and raise. A tank with Me-

n

dakas

U

always most admired. Clear gold, 50c to $1.00; brown and gold, 35c to

is

each

60c

(]/2

Vallisneria,

A.

1918

October,

Philadelphia,

n"ke Medaka

Copyriuht 1918 by Joseph E. Bailsman

Vol. IV.

PAULLIM

c^zic^rJcrraczrjocjoooocrrDc

1.35

Copy

L.

Street

>C)CX3CXX)CXX)CXX)CXX30CX3C)CXDOCOCXDOCXX5CXX!CXX)i

$1.00

Payments may be made by money order, tances

8

<

><

>

<

/2 l

inches).

8 Q

Plant.

U

803 Sheridan Road

Chicago, •>

l

5c to 25c a

FUCHS,

No. 2

to

|j

|

Illinois

>nnr>nnr,

<

»

,r

3<

K

—nS

»

YOGI

Try a Box of from your nearest Dealer or Druggist. If he does not have it, send for it direct with his name and address. If you like it, you can have same by lb. 75c 15 boxes to Yogi 15c b^x. by lb. add postage. mail 17c, MAGIC 35c, by mail 38c

Fish Food That Is Fish Food Fit For Fish The leading Fish Food on the market today.

Once

always used

tried,

koriyama Japanese Fish Food For Gold and Tropical Fishes Price

Robert

J.

Schaeffer

1818 Frankford Avenue

HUGO

C.

Phila.,

Pa

NELLES

DEALER & BREEDER OF TROPICAL FISHES Are

15 cents

WM. G. SARBACHER Wholesale to Dealers

1318 N. Dover Street

Philadelphia

Finest Blue and Calico Broadtail

Telescopes in Philadelphia

j)ou looking for first class stock at reasonable

prices?

Then

see me.

1305 Third Avenue

I

(77th Street Station Lexington Avenue, Subway)

No

Correspondence Answered.

nave what you want

(76th Street Station, 3rd Avenue L)

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C. J.

HANNIG, 1225

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MACK'S SUPERIOR FISH FOOD

H

This is indeed the best food ever produced for tropical fishes as well as ComIt has no equal. for goldfish. pare it with any food, and if it is not all we claim it to be, don't buy any more. We will refund your money if

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Utility Fishfood

Ground fine, $1.00. coarse 75c. lb., George's Natural Fish Food, $1.50 per lb.

Sample

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BREEDERS OF TROPIOAL FISHES A Large Assortment of Many Species in Stock at A 11 Times

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PHILADELPHIA

3000<

common

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in

SEPTEMBER. for good Baby Fantails and Teleand for wholesale price list of common and fancy goldfish, food, aquarium supplies and

Write

us

scopes,

globes.

Sole

manufacturer of

"Bug Food."

dealer for

it.

BERT

PUTNAM, 490

J.

Ask your

We

have an extra fine stock of this Southern aquarium desirable fish, bred in small tanks, and thoroughly domesticated. While a "livebearer" it will stand a temperature of

most

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We

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The Peptoast Company GRAND

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65

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large tropi-

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EVERYTHING IS FISH THAT COMES TO THE NET OF A NATURALIST paddle in the water with be blind with both eyes. words, "keep your eyes open" for •

all

nature.

Veiltail

Stock in America.

Our Magazine

W$i

Young

of

Telescopes from the Finest

one hand In other

Don't

and

Thousands

(Buttie to Mature Will Help You

$2.50 per Dozen

.

$ 15.00 per Hundred

EDWARD

edited by F. BIGELOW, who the heavens and earth, as well as the waters under the earth.

It is

fishes in

Pour months'

One

25c.

trial.

year,

Mixed

In

$1.00.

THE AGASSIZ ASSOCIATION

Blacks

Blues,

Calkos, Etc.

ArcAdiA Sound Beach

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3000C

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31

Franklin Barrett

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Wyoming Avenue

THE TERMINAL PET SHOP

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Manufacturing and Maintenance of Aquariums a Specialty All

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HUDSON TERMINAL BUILDING

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ENCHYTRAE The

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all

CHARLES 1577 Paterson

E.

JENNE

Plank Road,

>

\t

Secaucus, N.

104 Large Breeding

Fans,

Telescopes,

Commons, Aquatic

J.

-v-ifi

"Goldfish Varieties

& Tropical

Aquarium Fishes", byWm.T.Innes, former President of the Aquarium Society of Phila.; 250 pages, 195 illustrations. Tells all about the fancy varieties of the Goldfish and nearly 300 tropicals ; how to breed them, etc., etc. For the beginner

advanced expert.

or the

A

complete, practical, handsome book, sent postpaid anywhere for $3.00. & Enlarged edition now ready.

& SONS

INNES

-

133 N. 12th

St.

-

Phila.,

Pa

Charles E. Visel

Ponds Nymphs,

Broad-tail Telescopes

Comets,

and Japs

Blacks, Blues and Parti-colors

Plants, Fish Foods, etc.

Putnam Avenue, Brooklyn,

215 ou>

N. Y.

>c

"AQUARIA FISH"

Otto Walter A

work on care and breeding of the aauarium. greenhouse and outFinely illustrated. door ponds. Every one interested in keeping fish should send for a copy of this book. Price. $1.00.

Brooklyn, N. Y. Near Central Avenue L Station Street

u

i

S. A.

WALDRON, INDIANA

86 Suyaam

i

A AQUARIUM &£gg is

SHOUP & HECK Largest Dealers in Plain and Fancy Goldfish in the U.

Jap

Cash With Order irmrvnnn mnrx

nnru

THE BEST BOOK

WALTER BELL Breeder

»

Can

practical

fish

::

Breeder and Importer of

in

Three boxes,

TROPICAL & GOLDFISHES

Tappan's Natural Fish Food.

Telescopes

Guinea Pics and Thoroughbred Collie Pups, "Write for prices. beautifully marked.

Calicos

Japs

postpaid.

Fan-tails

Dealer in All Varieties of Aquatic Plants All Kinds of Fish Foods Fresh and Dried Daphnia

AQUARIA, UTENSILS

AND

25c.

F. L.

SUPPLIES

Route 2,

TAPPAN Hopkins, Minn.

jj

CZ3O0

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-,nm

QOC-D<Z=XXXXZ

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innrx

^

HARRY

ilros

if^ltcijaelsen

1210 N. Warnock

GOLDFISH BREEDERS

PETERS

P.

Street, Philadelphia,

Pa

BREEDER AND IMPORTER Rare and Fancy Fish Plants

FLORISTS

variety. Snails and of all kinds at all

every

of

Aquarium Supplies times.

MANUFACTURER OF

58th and Walnut Streets 110

South 52nd

Green River Fish Food

Street

15c Box

Green River Baby Fish Food

Philadelphia

20c Box

Aquarium Fishes

A

GOOD FISH FOOD

most

All Kinds of Aquatic Plants

&

Aquaria

Supplies

Wholesale and Retail

n

OOCTDOOOI

)000Cr3000C^-)(

)OOOr

30COOCOOOOC

HERMAN RABENAU,

YOUNG

Aquarist

Nymph

PERMANENT DISPLAY OF Aquatic Life must be seen

Welcome

New

(

g

o

Dozen Up. Assortment

of

Blues, Blacks and Calico Telescopes and Japs at Reasonable Prices.

Shipping Cans,

Plants and Tropical Fish a Specialty Importations of

U

8

JbCCOOOOOOC^JOQ

BREEDERS— Largest

to be appreciated

Visitors

x

>OOOCZr3000C300

„ Broad-tails, Fringetails and Telescopes and Japs. All

Colors, $1.C0 per

& Terraria

one of the

is

necessary to After the keep fish in good health. test of years Green River stands out It as the best food on the market. keeps the fish in good color by promoting a healthy, robust growth. It Ask will not sour ot cloud the water. vour dealer or send for it today. things

essential

50c.

Fine Assortment of Lionheads

Varieties received

regularly 1163 Myrtle Avenue. Brooklyn, N. Y.

8

Near Broadway.

n

HARRY 1210 North

P.

PETERS,

Warnock

St.,

) nrv-K

>m-rv

inmi

Combination Natural Fish Food

-

Sample Box 10c

Imported Shrimp Fish Food

Sample Can 15c

Imported Wafer Fish Food

Large Sample Box 10c

Mail Orders Promptly Attended for

to

"ART AQUARIUMS"

Special Prices on Quantity Lots. Cash With Order.

Catalogue

Vpon

Sent

::

j

New York

z=xxxx=xxx*

Nippon Goldfish Co 1749 Buchanan Street, San Francisco, Cal

Importers

:

City

>ooo

and

:

Dealers

JAPANESE GOLDFISH DtRRCT From Breeders in Japan Awarded Gold and

Request.

AQUARIUM STOCK CO 273 Greenwich Street

Pa.

JOOCXXX5000C^>OOOCX300CXDOOOCr3CXDOOOCOOOi

m-

GOLDFISH, FOODS, PLANTS, DIP NETS

gents

Phila.,

DOOOOOOOOOCDOb

oocnoooooooooc

Paciflc International ciseo, 1915.

Silver Msdals,

Exposition,

Panama-

San Fran-

Q

X

ALL KINDS OF AQUARIA AND SUPPLIES g Price Lists Furnished Trade Only.

:OOOOOOOOOC=)OOOCXX3000C=3o8


Aquatic life 10 1918