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)^|\J^^J^ Vol. III.

JULY,

DIVISION

J)?

Fisnits

No. 32

1894.

A QUARTERLY

MAGAZINE FOR THE

ACCLIMATIZATION OF

Animals and

Plants.

50 cents a year. Single copies, 15 cents each.

HUGO MULERTT, BROOKLYN, Copyright.

N. Y.

All Rights Reserved.

Entered at the Post-Offlce at Brooklyn, N. Y., as second-class mail matter.

\-*l'M'^,7/

uiK/vL-f,UJgr-ur.';


HEADQUARTERS FOR THE FINER VARIETIES OF

Gold Fish, JapanGse Fantails, AND

ALL KIND5 OF AQUATIC PLANTS. For

Descriptive, Illustrated Catalogue, send two cents,

EDWARD

ADDRESS,

SCHMID,

S. AQUARIUM DEPOT,

No. 712 Tweirtn street, N. W.,

WflSHlNBTDN,

C

P.

NICHOLAS WAPLER, IMPORTER OF

China and Glassware, EARTHENWARE AND LAVA GOODS,

French Crystal Grlass Shades. Manufacturer

of

Round, Oval and Square QIass Shades, Fish

Globes, Aquaria, Glass Jars and Floating Animals.

50

NEW

BARCLAY STREET,

YORK,

JEstabliahed Twenty-five Tears,

GAMELAND

Hugo Mulertt, IMPORTER AND DEALER IN

The Atigter's tTottrnal and Sports man- Katuralist's ilhistrated 3Iaffasin,e of

NQYelties fer the Aqaariarn

FISHING AND SHOOTING. ReveaJs virgin woods and waters, and tells of hundreds of places to fish and shoot. It is brimful of practical and authentic matter on woodcraft, landscape and camp-life, and is read by 40,000 bright people. Yearly, $1.00; three trial numbers, 25 cents. No free copies. Address

NOSTRAND AVENUE,

173

BROOKLYN,

No STORE. Grower

N. Y.

of tiigh-grade flquarium Plants.

Gnoice Poroilise Fisn,

Joponese

Goldlisti,

Telescope

Fisli.

:

Sole Manufacturer of the favored

1267 Broadway, U).:;

I

NEW

TOBK.

I

Send for Price

Electrotypes of Fish, Aquatic Plants, Etc., For Sale,

X

L. FlStl

FOOD.

List.

ENGRAVINGS MADE TO ORDER,

AT REASONABLE RATES.

Addre.ss,

THE AQUARIUM.


)

;

Vol.

JULY,

III.

Copyright

1894.

VI.

THE SUCKERS. (

These

Catostomidae. )

fish,

though forming a distinct

family, are very closely related to the

carp-family, and with two or three ex-

32.

THE WHITE SUCKER.

DENOMINATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESH WATER FISHES.

Xo.

1894.

All Rights Reserved.

(Catostomus

teres.)

This is the most common species, being found in the creeks, rivers and lakes, all over the United States, though it is nowhere esteemed as a food fish, the flesh being without flavor and literally The body is filled with little bones. long and cylindrical the color on the back is olivaceous, silvery on the sides and belly. The coloring and size of the ;

ceptions that are found in China and

fish varies in dift'erent localities, attain-

Japan, are exclusively of American na-

ing in some instances a length of 18

tivity.

inches.

The head is

is

naked

underneath,

are fleshy,

is

;

the mouth, which

toothless.

The

extremely protractive, and

when fully produced form a tube through this the fish "sucks" its food, hence the name for the family. The mouth is not supplied with barbies. The scales upon the body are of uniform size. The dorsal fin is short in some species, while in others it extends from the middle of the body almost to- the tail, but in all cases it consists of soft rays. The caudal fin (tail) is slightly forked. The air bladder is divided in two, and Their some species three parts. spawning season is in the spring of the

in

year.

THE STONE-LUGGER.

lips

{

Hyj)entelium nigricans.

This species is also known as the Brown, Mud or Spotted Sucker. The head is rather large and blunt, the eyes small and are set very high ujd and far The body is long and carries back. very large fins. The back and sides are beautifully marbled, or blotched, with different shades of brown,

producing an

interesting effect in contrast with the

grows to a length of and frequents swiftly running creeks, where it is generally found under the stones. The fiesh is soft, the bones too small and numerwhite belly.

about

twelve

It

inches,


THE AQUARIUM, JULY,

114

make

ous to

it

desirable for the table.

and does splendidly in the aquarium, where it can be seen sucking the low vegetation from the glass sides and stones, etc., this habit making it a good scavenger. It is rather a pretty fish

side, gives the

in front, is

(Moxostoma

and green the lower The markets abound with

fins are red.

;

it

is

long, high fin it

rays are

first

The

tail.

fish

a native of Lake Erie and the Ohio ;

in the former place

in large quantities,

split,

THE BUFFALO

it is

caught and

salted,

only re-

garded as a cheap food.

FISH.

{Buhalichtys cyanellns.)

The body is an oblong oval, comupon the sides. The scales with

the sides bright silvery, showing

this species of fish, but

when the

depressed, almost to the is

is

sold as lake shad.

diiqriesnei.)

reflections of red

dorsal fin

and towards the caudal

low, reaching,

The body is long and compressed upon the sides, very much carp-like in appearance. The color on the back is olive,

forehead a very odd ap-

The

pearance.

river

THE RED-HORSE, OR MULLET.

1894.

pressed

which

it is

covered are of a bluish,

very color. size

:

the

The head

mouth

is

of

The

small.

sil-

medium dorsal fin

The Red Horse.

THE GOLDEN MULLET.

is

long and consists of twenty-three or

The

twenty-four rays.

(J/, aureoliim.)

buffalo

is

the

largest representative of the carp -like

This species Lakes, and

is

is

a native of the Great

also called the

The body

horse.

is

Lake Red-

shaped like the size, gen-

former, but grows to a larger erally

color

weighing about 20 pounds. is

a yellowish

brown

;

The

the abdom-

inal fins are red.

this country, perhaps in the Specimens weighing some 75 or 80 pounds have been caught in the Ohio river, and those from 30 to 40 pounds in weight are often taken now. fishes in

world.

The German carp has been compared with the

THE SPEAR-FISH.

resemblance

is

frequently

buffalo, but the only

in the

shape and coat of

scales.

{Carpiodes velifer.) It

is

also

known

as

the Sailback,

The body and covered with silvery scales. The head is small, the mouth, situated on the extreme lower Quillback, and Carpsucker. is

like that of the carp

The

flesh of the buffalo fish is

not

equal to that of the genuine carp in flavor,

though the buffalo

eight pounds weight

is

of from six to by no means

to be despised as a table fish. (?*o be

Contimied.)


THE AQUARIUM, JULY,

WHERE

SNAILS ABOUND.

115

1894.

Mollusks prosper best, coeteris ]^aribroken landscape, with plenty of lime in the soil. The reason, no doubt, why the West India Islands, bus, in a

For fresh water species various

Go

are to be searched.

resorts

to the torrents

with rocky bottoms for the pah;dinas

and periwinkles (Melania)

;

quiet

to

brooks for physas and coilshells

;

to

stagnant pools in the wet ooze and the reeking swamps for limneas.

no better place Pacific

great

slope,

among

other hand,

stacpialis

lie

the rotting vegetation, or float

upside down at the surface of the

But some

water.

of the

still

fresh water

mollusks remain most of the time at the bottom, coming to the surface only to breathe

now and

their shells

it is

then, and to get

bottomed dipper, or some sort of dredge. When the water becomes low they bury

mud

always profitable, to rake out the

;

it

is

therefore

late in the summer, bottom of mud-holes

where the water has entirely disapAnother plan is to gently pull up the water weeds by the roots and

peared.

cleanse will

them

thus

in a basin of water.

You

many

small

secure

very

Experience will quickly teach the collector where he may expect to

species.

find this

and that kind, and that some

caution and

much

sharpness of observa-

some species by their naturally dead tints, and others by a coating of mud, assimilate them-

tion are necessary, since

selves so nearly to their surroundings

as easily to be overlooked.

The first

lines

shell

is

increased raj^idly for the

two or three of

outlines visible

years,

and the

delicate

increment, parallel with the of

on

the aperture, all

the

larger

are

readily

specimens.

Various other signs indicate youth or adult asre in the shell.

those

districts

;

on the

not surprising that we found nine-tenths of the Rocky Mounit is

species

tain

geology

is

to

be minute, since the

represented by sandstone and

Hot springs are very

volcanic rocks.

likely to be inhabited

when

by mollusks, even

the temperature exceeds 100 de-

grees Fahrenheit, and the

waters are very strongly impregnated with mineral salts.

necessary to use a sieve-

themselves in the

Avide area of limestone rocks

pond

where hundreds of the

Limnea

and a

characterize

in the world for

graceful

of every sort, is that a ravine-cut sur-

face

We know

than the tule marshes of the

snails

the Cumberland Mountains and similar regions are so peculiarly rich in shells

Snails are mainly vegetarians, and their

mouth

all

parts and digestive organs

Just below the

are fitted for this diet.

lower tentacles

is

the mouth, having

on the upper lip a crescent-shaped jaw of horny texture, with a knife-like, or sometimes saw-like, cutting edge. The lower

lip

has nothing of this kind, but in

same attitude as our tongue arranged a lingual membrane, long,

precisely the is

narrow and cartilaginous, which may be brought up against the cutting edge of the upper jaw. This "tongue" is studded with rows of infinitesimal silicious ''teeth," eleven thousand of which are possessed by our common whitelipped helix, although

its ribbon is not a quarter of an inch long. All these sharp

backward so that the tongue acts not only as a rasp, but

denticles point

upon the food. On holding the more transparent snails up to the light it is easy to see how they takes a firm hold

eat,

and you can hear a nipping noise

as the semi-circular piece

the

leaf.

is

bitten out of

Their voracity often causes

immense devastation,

particularly

in


THE AQUAKIUM, JULY,

116

England,

wliere

the great gray slugs

will ruin a garden in one night,

the

not daily on the watch. Our strawberries sometimes suifer, but

gardener'

own

if

is

sawdust, sand

a border of

ashes

or

1894.

raising of the temperature breaks the torpor, the

enough

warmth

hand being Ex-

of the

to set the heart beating.

treme drouth also

will cause

snails to

without

seal their doors hermetically,

an adequate protection in dry weather. In trying to cross it the marauders become so entangled

even hanging a card basket outside. This

in the particles adhering to their slimy

summer, hence

it is

bodies, that they exhaust themselves in

Certain

(Testacellidae),

around the bed

is

They

the attempt to get free.

very fond of fungi,

also are

many

including

poisonous kinds.

At the

first hint of frost our snail approach of a resistless lassitude, and, creeping under some mould-

feels the

ering log or half-buried bowlder,

taches

uding a

it

at-

aperture upward, by ex-

itself,

little glue,

and

settles itself for

the

shell,

the

throws across the aperture a film of slimy mucus, which hardens as tight as a miniature drum-head. As the weather

becomes

draws itand makes another " epiphragm," and so on until self

a

colder, the creature

little

farther

in,

to shut off the evaporation of

their

bodily moisture, and happens in mid-

termed aestivation. which have no shells, are able to protect themselves under the same circumstances by a gelatinous appendage of the mantle, which, in case of sudden change of temperature can be extended like an outer mantle, so to speak, from its place of storage, under the "buckler," and having wrapped themselves, they burrow in the soil.

Withanimal

a season of hibernating sleep.

drawing into

is

slugs

AQUATIC PLANTS AT HOME. In the

Amazon

region, which

com-

prises such vast extents of water, there

must

necessarily be a large

number

of

aquatic plants, and some of these are

sleeping snugly coiled in the deepest re-

very ornamental. In voyaging by canoe through miles upon miles of the water ways which thread all of the '' varzea,"

cesses of his domicile.

for so the land subject to overflow with

often five or six protect the animal

This state of torpidity that

is

so

profound

the ordinary functions of the

all

the annual rise of the river

is

called,

many curious species. In the main Amazon there are few, though at one finds

body cease — respiration being so entirely suspended that chemical tests are said to discover no change from its

times one sees bays full of the pretty

original purity in the

are constantly changing, the current is

air

within the

epiphragm. Thus the snail can pass Avithout exhaustion the long, cold

months

of

the North,

be impossible for

it

when

it

to secure its

would

custom-

The reviving sun of spring only interrupts this deep slumber, and the period of awakening is therefore ary food.

delayed with the season, according to the varying natures of the different species.

At any

time, however, an artificial

*'

Eichornia speciosa" for the banks

rapid and

there

is

little

opportunity

any permanent growth to establish itself. But the " varzea" is full of lakes, many of which are very large, and even where the banks of the Amazon are high, there are usually some miles back from the river clear water lakes. All of these lakes communicate with the main river, either directly or indirectly by for

streams connecting one with another.


;

THE AQUARIUM, JULY, These streams are called " igaripes ;" often they are broad and generally very deep and navigable for canoes. When the river

is

falling the water runs

from

the lakes into the

Amazon

water

these

" igaripes" run up

One can

easily lose himself in

rises

stream.

;

when the

This " varnot permanently habit-

these intricate water ways. zea " region

able and

is

only

serves

for

pasturage,

1894.

117

park immense trees scattered over it the ground covered with short grass; no undergrowth clear water lakes here and there the whole forming a most ;

;

;

charming landscape. It is in the lakes

and " igai'ipes" that

water plants abound, though

main

river

the

voyager

in

often

the finds

plenty floating on their way to the distant ocean, they having been torn from

Victoria Regia.

where not wooded, or for summer plantis covered, especially on the up23er river, with gigantic Bamboos, sometimes with a very tall grass, and if low enough to be permanently wet, is

ations. It often

an

inextricable tangle of vines, prickly

Palms, generally species of Bactris, and stinging grasses. Where it is high and only flooded for a short time, it forms in summer a very attractive region.

We

have seen stretches of thousands of looked like a well kept

acres which

their homes and borne from the lakes by the current, dislodged b^" a falling bank, or uprooted by a rise of the river. In low water the shallow bays of the Amazon grow up with grass, which, with long floating root stocks, covers vast areas. As the river rises these masses are torn away and go floating down the river. We have seen them at least half an acre in area, and at times the whole river is covered with them and looks In these masses are like a green field.


;

THE AQUARIUM, JULY,

118

many

aquatic plants, but, beyond some

pretty yellow Utricularias and the Eich-

ornia which

we have mentioned, we

have noticed nothing with bright flowThe cattle owners put out in canoes

ers.

and caj)ture these great grass islands and thus obtain a large amount of fodder. Sometimes one sees a big Victoria regia, its leaves all torn, rolling over and over in the turbid flood. It has come from some broad " igaripe" or inland

1894.

of a lake,

and

lieard the hoarse

bark of

the lontras, an otter-like animal,

who

had already become aware of our approach. Drawing nearer we saw them in the middle of a little lake, plunging up and down, uttering their short bark, showing their white teeth in their anger

The water

at being disturbed.

of the

lake was low and the banks projected

ceived the great flowers, but, as one

it. Reaching the lake we lay down and looked over, and just below in a little bay was a plant of Victoria regia. It was not large, we have seen thousands larger, but it was as perfect a little specimen as one could wish. Five dark leaves, perhaps two feet in diameter, with the upturned rim and one great white flower already beginning to close in the sunlight. We were far away from any house probably there was

often puts off doing what he can do at

not a

any time, our trip had been delayed. One lovely morning, just about Christmas, we had paddled across the broad arm of the river to wander in the vast stretch of park-like " varzea," which lies between the parana-miri Juruty and the main Amazon, and which, in fact, is a great island. It was early the sun was slanting amid the great trees and everything seemed green and gold

but that flower was better company than anything else could be. How long we

lake, for the Victoria

is

never found in

the main river.

We

well

remember our

sight of

first

this noble plant in its wild state.

ing in a

little

Liv-

inland village, we had for

weeks been planning an excursion to a large lake in the neighborhood where

abounds, and whence we had often

it

re-

;

bright butterflies flew

over

;

lay there

;

Since then we have often seen the Vic-

we have under the light of the moon seen hundreds, perhaps thous;

ands, of flowers of

all

the three colors ex-

panding

green beetles basked in the sun on the

the great leaves, but that

Munguba

and the whole world awoke into life. We were familiar with the region, but our tramps had hitherto been north and west we trees {Cecropia),

had

just

;

now turned

to

the

east.

After

a

time we saw an irregular belt of large trees, which evidently were on the shore

was

at sunset it

took a short flight to the shade of another. Birds were singing great

great white trunks of the

it

would again expand, but it would be a delicate rosy pink, and again on the third day, but then a deep red and then it would bury itself to perfect its seed.

full

;

miles,

Never more would that

white flower open

25ure

marbled wings, disturbed in his sleep tree,

five

we never knew, but

prickly bud.

toria

some huge buttressed

being within

until the Victoria wholly closed to a

all around, or a great night morj^ho, with beautifully

in the recess of

human

as the

sun

set

;

we have crashed

our canoe ruthlessly through acres of will ever live as

first

sight

one of the pleasantest

memories of our Amazonian life. Voyaging by night we would often put an opening bud of the Victoria in a great it in the bow of the canoe to enjoy the rich fragrance, as it

calabash and place

floated to us with the as

we

motion of the boat,

lay under the tolda in the sternÂť


;

THE AQUARIUM, JULY, The perfume continuous, but

of the Victoria is

given

is

not

off in puffs

one moment the flower is scentless, but soon comes a puff of fragrance which, if one is too near, is almost suffocating,

The

1894.

119

flowers stand out of the water like

the other tropical species. It

is

so large

or rather pounded, into a fine flour by

grower that the plant would soon fill any pond, to the exclusion of every thing else. It is plentiful around Para, being often seen in the roadside ditches. In Curtis' Botanical Magazine a beautiful little yellow Nymph;i?a is figured under the name of Xi/))ip7uea Amnzonica, but we have never been able to see or hear of such a plant and doubt its existence. Possibly it may be the Mexican species, or even that of Florida, with a misnomer. There is, however, we believe, on the far river Purus, an immense Nymphaea with golden yellow flowers, for so many have told us of it, that we cannot doubt the fact. Once a steamer captain brought it for Arriving late at night, he put the us. plants in a tub of water in his yard to L^nforbe sent to us in the morning. tunately his wife kept ducks and when, on receiving his message to come for the plant, we arrived at his house we found

the Indians and makes not unpalatable

that the ducks, wlio

for

it is

very powerful and fully inhaled

The Water Hyacinth— (Eichoruia

makes

The

one's head spin

speciosa.)

round merrily.

seeds of the Victoria are ground,

a

are

very

early

bread.

One would suppose that the Amazon would furnish many species of Nymphajas or Water Lilies, but such is not the case. There is one, KympJuea ampla, which is very common there are acres upon acres in the flats it is a coarse grower with large, dark, reddish green leaves, and flowers of medium size, varying in color from white to yellowish. It is a most disappointing species, for, though the flowers are handsome and have a rich Pineapple fragrance, one must sit up all night with them to smell it, or see the Lilies ;

;

in perfection, for the flowers do not ex-

pand

until very late

and

close in the

very early morning, long before day-

We

had seen thousands of buds before ever we saw an expanded flower.

light.

Pontf:deria ('(ikdata—( Native of North America.)

risers,

had destroyed every vestige of

our Lily. In time we shall again receive it, but nothing in Brazil is ever hurried and the first lesson one has to learn

is ^' patiencia."

Eichornia speciosa, the old Pontederia crassipes,

which

is

now much

cultivated


—

THE AQUARIUM, JULY,

IW

The

T^quhriutv^.

A Quarterly 50

interesting.

It

The

a very large area. cts.

propagates so rap-

idly that a single plant will soon cover

Magazine.

Single Copies, 15

a Tear.

cts.

and

1894.

and small,

sessile

Sample Copies Free. Advertising Rates on Application.

each spathe con-

taining one male and one female flower.

Publisher,

This plant

Brooklyn, N. Y.

173 Nostrand Av.,

On

with

showy

is

its

fioatino^,

the

Amazon flowers.

it

the favorite food of the

is

covers acres

While the plant

the petioles are curiously

Avhich lives

animal

is

upon the long

not

uncommon

;

white with streaks of green

it is

very tender and

tastes

when the plant becomes rooted. Once we found a white flowered variety, and several times we have seen plants with

Boiled in the

it

Unfortunately these ocwhen we were far

flowers.

casions were always

from home on some long excursion, and the plants were lost before we could get

This on the Middle roots.

and Upper Amazon and is much sought, for its flesh makes an excellent dinner

swollen, hut this regularity disapjiears

pink

cow

"2) ixe-hais," the Manitee or sea

under the not inappropriate name of Water Hyacinth, is a very beautiful plant.

spathe at the

in a little

base of the leaves,

HUGO MULERTT,

flowers are white,

Each.

oil

which, when fresh,

like chicken.

forms " mixira," is

a very nice pro-

vision for a long voyage, but

help the

man who

fat,

Heaven

has to live on old

"mixira," hard as iron and of a ranwhich has no comparison, as we once had to do.

cidity

tSah'iiiia little

brasilensis,

a

very pretty

plant, often seen in aquariums,

is

common.

There is a species of Pontederia which closely resembles the common United States species, which in some places forms large masses it is The flower very common round Para. is in appearance just like the North American plant, only not quite as handThere are doubtless many unsome. discovered aquatics on the Amazon. We have described a few of the most common. During our voyaging we did

very

;

not give this class of plants especial attention,

The Water Orchid— (Eichornia

azurea.)

them where they could be jjroperly cared for.

The

other

species,

Eicliornia

azurea, also a very pretty plant,

is

not

Amazonian.

Some

of the Utricularias have very

bright yellow flowers, and we have seen reaches of marsh a mass of color.

Water Lettuce, Pistia very

common

plant.

stratioides, It

is

and

at our

facilities for their

The is

a

handsome

house we had no

culture.

They

are

found in the lakes it is no easy matter to keep them alive during a liomeward tramp, which may last for days, and even in a canoe voyage they suffer much. In a future paper we may describe some of the smaller species which are worth difficult to transport, for, if

growing. in

Edward

The Mayfloiver.

S.

Rand,

Brazil,


THE AQUARIUM, JULY,

1894.

121

Ki^


THE AQUARIUM, JULY,

1-22

THE

forms and well contrasted

IRIS.

Of all the fairy tales and fables of Ancient Mythology, perhaps the most interesting is the story of Juno, the Mythical Queen of Heaven, surrounding with

world

the

a

1894.

transparent mist,

which, pierced by the glittering rays of the Sun, produced the Rainbow, the archetype of Iris. Ancient Mythology, however, goes still farther and tells us that Juno was attended by five deities and fourteen nymphs, but her most faithful attendant was Iris. But the age of fable is passed, and now we interpret the ancient ideas of the Rainbow, as

colors.

Lin-

naeus, in his effort to obliterate all the

old botanical names, called the family

Ensatce, from the Latin Bnsis

—a sword

— on account of their leaves being long, narrow and pointed, {. e., sword-like. He, however, soon abandoned his name, and restored the old Greek name, Iris, which has been retained by subsequent botanists. In heraldry, the flower of the liis, under the name of Fleur-de-lis, (pronounced by a corruption of the French language. Flower-de-luce,) was also employed as the royal emblem of France during the reign of the old Kings, consisting (in heraldry) of three flowers on an azure field. Its interpretation is "The Royal (purple) Lily, queen of flowers, the true representaSince the establish-

tive of Majesty."

ment

of the Republics, as well as dur-

ing the Empires of France, the Fleurhas ceased

de-lis

national

emblem

modified forms,

be used as the

to

but in some of

;

it

its

figures very conspic-

uously in the heraldic emblems of some the oldest noble families of both

of

France and England.

From

Iris Susiana.

the

embodiment

of all that

is

beautiful

more

a scientific point of view, or,

correctly speaking, in the natural

or divinely fair, and a

order of the vegetable kingdom, the Iris

for the gods, of

approaches nearer the structure of the true Lily, than any other aquatic plant,

still,

fit companion which they knew not,

worshiped.

So much for the ancient origin of the name, while its application to the group of plants under consideration, is equally instructive. It was chosen by the early naturalist, while the study of botany as a science was yet unknown, to designate an indefinite section or group of

plants, with

Iris;

all

brilliant

especial reference to the

which produce more or less and showy flowers, and all of

of

for

which reason,

justified

in

if

for

no other, we

treating of

it

as a

feel

Water

But we know the propriety of it Water Lily will at once be questioned by many, and we must add a word more in explanation, for, although some species are the exact reverse of an aquatic plant, still some of our American and European sj^ecies are Lily.

calling

so

much

at

home on

the low, wet mar-

which are unsurpassed for garden

cul-

gins of lakes and rivers, and are even

ture, especially, since the species

and

often found growing in shallow water,

varieties

now

offered present such varied

where the

roots,

and sometimes the


—

THE AQUARIUM, JULY, crown

of the plant,

is

often submerged

during a large portion of the year, that we see no impropriet}^ in adding the Iris to the

Water

of so-called

list

Lilies;

we propose to treat only American and European forms

particularly, as

of the

in this article.

Before we proceed further with this

common

very

idea of

its

this

no genus of plants can two natural species, or even varieties be found, one with a yellow and the other with a blue flower but this is certainly a mistake, for numerous genera of plants contain one species with in print, that in

;

yellow, flowers

to, for

which

deed,

abandon the

insignificant, to be

time

same genus. Inwe have often seen the statement

flower, or even in the

being too commonplace and

plant, let us

is

worth devoting much

common

of all

plants,

of

often considered the least

attractive, probably

no one

is

so little

and ;

another

with blue

one

the examples of which

may be

linum, Nymphcea, etc. It is not, however, an usual combination of colors, and as some species

cited, are Crociu,

of the Iris

produce flowers with both same flower, adds an ad-

understood, even by amateur cultivators

colors in the

as this family of plants.

ditional

Its flower is so

123

1894.

charm

to their study.

very complicated, that very few, except botanists, really

understand

ture, or at least

we

struc-

its

find quite a differ-

ence in the descriptions published by different authors

By

and

writers.

a reference to standard works on

Botany, we find the Iris distributed over the entire world, from the far north, to the southern points of land in

South America and in

its

manner

of

New

Zealand

;

but,

growth, we find

it

assumes an entirely different character, in different portions of the world.

— In the

For

Iris Germanica.

instead of a creeping rhizoma, as with

Let US now examine the particular points of interest in our chosen subject

us, it concentrates all its vitality into a

for consideration.

bulb or corm, which remains dormant during the prevalence of the drouth, but develops again into activity at the

of the plant

example:

hot and

dry regions,

approach of the rainy season.

These,

and come under our present considIn America we have, at least,

of course, are not aquatic jDlants, will not

eration.

eight well defined species, usually found in

shallow water or swamps, but oc-

is,

First,

commonly

the portion

called the root,

in this case, nothing

more nor

less

than a prostrate stem, to which botanists have applied the name rhizome, which are, usually, only partly covered with earth, but sending down into the

ground numerous small

rootlets to sup-

ply the plant with nourishment. These prostrate stems and rhizomes in the Iris

casionally found in quite dry ground,

consist of a bundle of coarse

and presenting the strange analogy of producing flowers of that unusual combination of colors,— yellow and blue, two colors seldom found in the same

tissues,

and fibrous

thickened with a large store of

nutriment, in the form of farinaceous

and saccharine matter, well calculated to feed a luxuriant growth of foliage.


—

;

)

THE AQUAEIUM, JULY,

124

especially in early spring

;

and, also, to

induce new buds or shoots to break out

and form

at the side of the old rhizome,

a large clump or cluster, but which, in time,

separates

into

distinct

plants.

These, like the stock of a hardy shrub, remain dormant through the winter, or, in the language of botany, are perennial, and are usually seen in short, knotty sections, representing its period

1894.

by drying or boiling, and are then used as food, especially by the Hottentots, of South Africa, where it is called oenkjes,

and has nearly the same taste as our In its growing state, no animal will eat the leaves except goats, but when cut and dried like hay, cattle will quite readily eat it. The roots, howpotato.

ever, are quite extensively utilized in

The

different jjortions of the world.

of growth.

The little

leaves

of

the

Iris

are

very

understood, except by botanists,

up

for in place of one surface facing

(towards the sky) and the other (towards the ground) as

is

down

usual, or one

surface facing the right and the other

the

left, -as in

some

in the Iris the leaf

of the Acacias, etc. is

linear, or

shaped, and erect; but

"each

swordleaf

is

formed and folded together lengthwise, so that what would be the upper surface is within, and all grown together except next the bottom, where each leaf covers the next younger one. It was from their straddling over each other, like a man on horseback, that Linna?us, with his lively fancy, called these equitant leaves."

The

Gray's Lessons.

flowers are erect, usually

from a

spathaceous bract of two or more leaves, produced, usually, singly in succession,

each one opening but once.

They

are

by the aid of insects. The L-is, although not contributing

fertilized

directly to the support of the

Yellow Flag— (Iris pseudacorus.

human

family, except in a limited sense, has

old

added

''Orris Eoot,"

its

mite towards the comforts and

luxuries, usually of semi-civilized people in different portions of the world.

The

and well known

beautiful florentitia,

is

violet

perfume,

the product

of the

white-flowered species,

which was

also at

Iris

one time

tuberous or bulbous rhizomas contain, in addition to the saccharine matter, a

toning liquors. The blue perinth of Iris

small portion of a fatty and acrid matter, together with a peculiar volatile oil

lime, yields the ''Iris

which gives them stimulating proper-

ers.

ties.

Some

species lose their acridity

quite extensively used in flavoring or

Germamca, crushed and mixed with Green" of paintFinally the seed of Iris psned-

acorus are a well

known

substitute for


THE AQUARIUM, JULY, co^QQ.

— {Hooker.)

species,

The roots of some e&^ecmWj Iris psued-acoriis, are

used very extensively in preparing black dyes and ink.

Like most of our native semi-aquatic it thrives in any common garden or mucky soil, requiring no especplants,

ial

attention

but

;

disturbed for a

it

should remain un-

number

of years,

and

1894.

But the old world landscape gardening is on more of an elaborate and gorgeous scale than anything in America, consequently we see very little of sired.

this

j^erfected

art or science to

copy

from except near a few of our large cities, where the art has been applied to the beautifying of cemeteries and parks.

then will bloom quite freely. The two English varieties, Iris psued-acortcs and /,

125

FERNS.

fcetidissima, emit a disagreeable, fetid

odor, not found in our

American species any considerable extent. The dwarf Siberian Iris, I. Siherica, and the Austrian Iris, I. Pnmila, with their many various colored flowers, form excellent border plants and as they are so very hardy, in a few years they make a complete mat of green foliage, and carry

light,

out the object of a border line to per-

the growth of plants

Within the past few years, botanical travelers and collectors have secured an almost endless variety of these choice plants, from the far off and little known countries and now our

to imitate their native climate.

to

;

fection.

;

English cousins, especially, can boast of a collection that vie with any other class of hardy plants in the world, for beauty and well contrasted colors while to say that some of the species are perfectly gorgeous, only indifferently ;

describes their beauty. Of course our American plant buyers will never think of utilizing any of our native species, but we hope the day is not far distant when we shall see this beautiful family of plants more generally grown, especially when our nurserymen advertise more carefully and generally the new foreign varieties. European landscape

gardeners

make

great use of even the

most common varieties of Iris in their lawn decorations, especially in their planting by lake and river margins, where the effect is all that can be de-

The

cultivation of ferns for the deco-

ration of our

come

homes

so general

has, of late, be-

that

are

all

more or

learning what

less interested in

is

the

most successful mode of managing them. The object of green and hot houses

is to regulate the degree of heat and moisture requisite for

But how can such aid

:

in other words,

this be

The question

?

done without is,

how

to suc-

ceed in encouraging the growth, and developing and preserving the beauty of these exotics, and

home

in

rooms.

It

of

and moisture

feel at

our living

can be done with a

The four

care.

making them

the windows

little

essentials, light, heat,

and an can be furnished in an ordinary living room, and many beautiful species of ferns can be grown from appropriate

in a proper degree,

soil

the spore to maturity, and the reward will be

more than ample

for the trouble.

Before speaking of their cultivation,

let

us take a glance at the nature, habits

and habitats

What

of the plants themselves.

? Leaving out all botanterms and niceties, a fern may be described, in a popular way, as a plant which bears leaves only, and no flowers, distinguished from other plants not in flower by bearing its seed (called spores) upon the under surface or along the

ical

is

a fern


THE AQUAKIUM, JULY,

126

margins of

These spores are

its leaves.

seen as brown dust like patches, round, Tliey are arranged oval or in lines.

with great regularity, and upon their arrangement, form and covering, botanists

base their division and classification

into the different genera

The development

and

species.

of a fern leaf also dif-

from that of most other plants in the bud it is usually rolled up from the To this rule, howpoint to the base. exceptions. There are some ever, there are two hundred genera and two thousand species of ferns described by botanists. Of the species there are many varieties depending upon differences of These climate, soil and other causes. fers

:

1894.

ground until the next season of The evergreen ferns throw up their fronds and there they remain bright and green until their successors in the

growth.

In the tropics, of course they

appear.

continue to grow during the winter

months, only approaching a condition of rest during the dry season.

Under

protection, with moisture and heat sup-

grow luxuriantly during the whole year. The evergreen ferns of the colder climate do not, of course, continue their growth during the winter season, but the fronds remain erect and plied, they

preserve lantil

It is

tlieir fresh,

the

bright green color

new ones appear in

the spring.

with the evergreen ferns that we

are distributed over the whole surface

have most to do, as they will serve to cheer us in the winter when all of the deciduous ones are asleep out of sight. Many of the deciduous ferns will grow

of the earth, from the equator to the

very well

varieties also are constantly increasing

number by hybridization under cultivation in green and hot houses. They in

cold regions of the north and south,

and always

flourish

temperate or

whether in

able

zones, in moist,

will

best,

troj^ical

m pots, and make very pretty summer ornaments, but the most favorconditions of heat and moisture

not coax them to

you

make

a winter

during your summer excursions, brought home and

shady places. The stems of this plant are usually creeping, but sometimes, as in the case

growth.

of the tree ferns of the tropics, they are

you need not be discouraged when you see them wither and die uj^on the approach of winter. Put them away in some place just warm enough to keep the pots from being broken and destroyed by frequent freezing and thawing. Do not let them get too dry and they will renew their beauty in the spring and gladden you all summer.

The creeping stems

erect.

are

under

ground and the leaves or fronds are the only part of the plant which shows

above the surface.

In height they vary

from two inches, and even

less, to

a few

but the tree ferns of the tropics often attain an altitude of fifty feet and feet

;

even

much

more. Indeed, they are said

We

will say

nothing about the botan-

ical divisions of ferns, but, for

poses

of

the pur-

this paper, will divide

them

only into two great classes, the Decidu-

ous and Evergreen.

They

first

develop

mature the spores, and, upon the approach of frost, the foliage dies, and the stem and roots lie dormant their fronds,

have,

potted a collection of these beauties,

But

to rival the majestic palms.

If

it is

best to confine yourself to

the evergreen ones for cultivation, and the list to select from is indeed a long one.

the

You

can get young plants from you choose to take the

florist, or, if

time and trouble you may grow them from the spores. This is the natural way in which ferns are propagated just as flowering plants are grown from seed.


THE AQUARIUM, JULY, All true seeds have a determinate structure

they contain, folded up within

;

them the embryo, with

the special

all

organs in a rudimentary

of the

state,

paper as bling

;

the

germ

of the descending axis,

which forms the

(called the radicle)

and the germ

root,

of the ascending

axis, (called the jDlumule)

the seed

which forms

No

matter in what position placed in the soil, this al-

the stem. is

fine

brown

float

away

Now

While crum-

dust.

hold your fingers near the

it,

paper or a great

plants which they are destined to pro-

duce

127

1894.

many of

in the air

take a pot of

the spores will

and be lost. any convenient

size

and, after putting drainage in the botfill it up to within one inch of the rim with any light, loamy soil that is In free from insects and weed seeds. order to destroy any such intruders as

tom,

may

be in the

soil,

it

should be well

ready prepared radicle always develoj)s

baked

downwards and the plumule upwards. Not so with fern spores; these have no

Press water before sowing the spores. the soil down in the pot so that it will be firm and level, then thoroughly

determinate parts

minute

When

cells.

damp

a spore

;

is

only a

vesicle containing one or

the spore

is

more

placed on a

surface the cells absorb moisture,

and divide into a number of similar cells which unite. This process is repeated until a minute round or oval

swell

green

leaf,

not at

tic fern leaf is

all like a

formed.

the primordial scale.

characteris-

This is called Next, the point

of this leaf which happens to be in closest

contact

with

the

soil

becomes

thicker by a further division and union of

its

cells,

and from

this thickened

point the roots develop and strike into

the

soil.

Last of

all

the frond appears

and the minute plant is perfect in all If you wish to grow a stock its parts. of seedling ferns, you can get the spores from a seedsman or gather them yourself from the plants of your friends. Take off a portion from a frond with ripe spores, which you will easily recognize by their brown or blackish color. You only want a small portion of the frond, for thousands of the spores are

contained in each of the j^atches.

Wrap

smooth white paper, (the spores would adhere to rough paper) and allow it to become perfectly dry, when you can crumble it with the fingers and the spores will fall on the this piece of leaf

in a

in the oven or scalded with hot

it and scatter the spores evenly and thinly over the surface. Set the pot in a saucer filled with wet sand or moss, and cover it with a piece of glass,

moisten

or, better still,

with a bell-glass or

to prevent evaporation

jar,

and secure con-

stant and uniform moisture.

Place the

pot in a shady place in the room where it will not be disturbed, at a north win-

dow

is

the best. Light, however,

essential

until

after

taken place, then velop the fronds.

any season of the

is

not

germination has

it is needed to deThis can be done at

year.

If in winter, it

should be in a room where the temperature does not at any time fall below 50째 F. in the night, and rises to 65째 and 70째 in the daytime.

ature

is

varieties,

A

higher temper-

needed for the

and

more tender growth of

will hasten the

the hardy ones.

If it is

done in the

spring, say in April or May, the growth is

sooner and perhaps more certain, the

hardier varieties coming

up

first,

and

the more tender ones following as the

days become warmer.

When necessary to give water, do not pour or even sprinkle it upon the surface, as that would certainly wash out and destroy many of the plants and spores, but hold the pot in a vessel of


THE AQUARIUM, JULY,

128

water until thoroughly moistened from

1894.

E>rs

Queries.

below.

In a few weeks the surface of the soil assume a green, mossy appearance, and if you examine this with a glass, you will see the minute round or oval leaves, (the jirimordial scales,) whose will

forms a few more days will reveal to You will be much inthe naked eye. terested in watching the development of the little fronds which soon follow. Be patient, give plenty of light but no sunshine, keep the soil uniformly moist, and in good time you will have a fine stock of

little plants.

When

these are

enough to handle, they must be picked out and planted singly in the large

smallest

may

be

sized left in

pots.

Some

varieties

the seed pots even a year

before transplanting. (

To

)

also

money

it

to inquire

into the causes of diseases of goldfish, several

gentlemen

the editor of

The

Germany, and also Aquariltm, are now

in

making up a purse of one thousand (1,000) marks to be given to the person discovering the causes and cures of certain new diseases of goldfish kept in aquariums.

We

expect to arrange about the de-

when abroad this summer, and publish them in our next issue.

tails

shall

to

following formula

effect

hours

a cure

within

offer

no other premium

W.— T^ic weight of the water bend the zinc or galvanized iron bottom of an aquarium if the latter is not supported by a wooden one, and thus cause the cement to give way. In your case we would use a lot of old newspapers put these on the table first to the required thickness and then set the tank on it. An aquarium tank should ;

not be carried with water in

is

IVY. warranted

twenty-four

it.

— Feed

your young goktfish on X. L. fishfood several times a day. Young fish in an out of door basin or pond need not be fed artificially except the pond is overstocked C. L.

powdered

I.

in regard to natural food supply.

Mrs.

CURE FOR POISON The

We

garden.

to our subscribers than that of putting our 25 years of practical experience in these branches at their disposal. Ask as many questions as you please, but please to enclose postage for reply. All questions are answered by mail, and we publish only such in these columns as are of general interest.

will

In due recognition of the fact that

and

scription to The Aquarium, you are entitled to ask information on any point regarding the aquarium or the window

Mr.

be continued.

A CASH PREMIUM. requires time

For the small sum of fifty cents in advance, which pays for a year's sub-

C.

— Pieces of newspaper slided

over the surface of the water will re-

move Dr.

all

S.

the

It

scum and dust from

may

it.

be the iron bottom

of your tanks that causes your plants to

:

One ounce

olive

oil.

die.

You can remedy

that by planting

Fifteen drops bromine.

the plants in small glass salve jars, or

Mix

by lining the bottoms of the tanks with

together and rub the salve over

parts aifected.

Am. Gardening.

glass.


NEW STYLE OF AQUARIUM.

E^UBLICKTION.

NEiJVC

The Amateur

MARK SAMUEL.

By 16mo.

Aquarist.

Cloth.

Illustrated, $1-00.

An American Aquarium book indispensable to everyone ivho wishes to start

an Aquarium, or who already has

one.

Complete Instructions for making a New Self-Sustaining Aquarium, Requiring Change of Water but Once a Year. No.

How to find suitable watei'-plants

35.

and

fishes.

When

to find suitable water-

Where to find suitable water-plants and fishes. Over Fifty from Life, by which to identify the specimens. Just the book to take on country rambles in Summer. Just the book to have when fishing in fresh water. Just the book to use at home in winter. How to breed fishes in an Aquarium, and successfully raise the " babies." Published in sensible pocket edition, and bound in " soakable " cloth. ALL

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SPECIAL TERIVIS TO EDUC AT lONAL INSTITUTIONS. Sent, postpaid,

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THE GOLDFISH AND ITS CULTURE inilTH A

75

VIBJn^

TO PROF=lT.

thorough Guide for the Management of an Aquarium. Used and Recommended this Country and Europe by the Profession.

in

By HUGO MULERTT. Priceper Copy , prepaid by

tnail,

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German Edition,

Stettin,

1892 (paper

cover),

75 cents.

This book contains 108 pages, octavo, neatly bound in cloth with gilt back, colored frontispiece, and nineteen wood cuts, drawn from nature. The author herein presents all the important and essential points concerning the fish, its Treatment in Captivity and the Best Method of Propagating it. Drawing upon a period of practical experience extending over many years, and an acknowledged success in the culture of ornamental fish, the author is confident that the results of his labors as embodied in the work will satisfy a long-felt want in this direction, by furnishing in an accessible and handy shape the most reliable information upon the goldfish and its culture, whether engaged in as an Amiisenient or with the more substantial purpose of making it a Business. The subject-matter is expressed in plain terms, and all unnecessary scientific technicalities omitted, this feature, in addition, aiso making the book a Desirable one for Children, who may, through it, gain a correct idea of "life in water," and more especially of the natural history of fishes. Part I.— Contains the history of the goldfish in this and its native country. Part II.— History and construction of fish pond. Part HI.— Anatomy and physiology of the goldfish, its propagation and care in ponds and aquariums. Part IV. The enemies and diseases of the fish, and how to combat and prevent them. All orders for the book should be addressed to

HUGO

173

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The Aquarium 3/32 1894