Page 1

NUARY,

1^14

THE

Price,

Ten

GcHnt«


FRANKLIN BARRETT 4815

D

Street Olney, Philadelphia, Pa.

Largest Greenhouses in the World Devoted to the Breeding of Fancy, Chinese and Japanese Goldlish and

Propagation

of

Aquarium

Plants

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL

PLANTS

FISHES

CABOMBA MYRIOPHYLLUM

COMMON SCALED

ANACHARIS SAGITTARIA LUDWIGIA VALLISNERIA

SCALELESS

COMET FANTAIL FRINGETAIL TELESCOPES

HORNWORT POTAMOGETON SNOW FLAKE WATER POPPY WATER HYACINTH

CELESTIALS LION'S HEADS SHUBUNKINS

SALVINIA

PARADISE GOLDEN-ORFES GOLDEN-TENCH GAMBUSIA-AFFINIS STICKLE-BACKS

WATER FERN LACE LEAF

WATER LETTUCE UMBRELLA PALMS CYPERUS PAPYRUS CYPERUS ALTERNIFOLIUS

SNAILS

GRACILIS

COMMON

LAXUS-FOLVA

RAM'S HORN

VARIEGATED BOSTON FERNS

POTOMAC AFRICAN

Drawing by H. T.

WOLF

PTERIS FERNS

WATER

lAPANESE

LILIES

Submerged and Semi-Submerged Plants FOR PONDS ON ESTATES

Manufacturer of the Celebrated Rustless corner pieces.

and brass nickel

Marbleized

slate

"SUPERIOR" AQUARIUMS Made

bottoms.

the purest of materials.

For

fish only.

aquarium pure and sweet and does not injure the plants

Once

tried,

We maim

the

galvanized sheet iron, wrought iron

"AMERJAP" FISH FOOD

Manufacturer of the Celebrated Made from

in

plated.

in

Keeps your

the aquarium.

good condition, keeps your Eaten by the fish with aviditv.

No

rough, sharp edges to injure and

fish in

always used.

carry the finest line of aquarium ornaments in the country. fish,

but every ornament glazed with a smooth and beautiful finish, and

in

harmonious

colors,

creating an artistic effect in the aquarium.

Globes, Nets, Pebbles, Sand, Foods, Etc. Everything Pertaining to the Aquarium and Pond Send

for Price Lists


Uv-^

T

'

-L iij^-i^--'^'d^^'"'-'''!fc-_-

r-

'^j^

^^!r^r-^

The Aquarium

Volume

JANUARY,

II

1914

Number

^. History of Goldfish W. SHUFELDT. M.

By

R.

It

would seem to be a matter beyond

D.,

Washington, D. C.

question, at the present time, that the

common its

or simple form of goldfish

had

original habitat in certain parts of

China.

Our

earliest records

establish the fact that

some

appear to of these,

probably about the year 1500, were imported into Japan and received at a small town not far from Osaka. This importation was followed by numerous others, not only from China, but from

Korea as

well.

In both of these coun-

had long been under cultivation, the history of which dates back to and beyond recorded history. tries goldfish

Fancy goldfish were even cultivated Japan many years prior to 1700, and some of those very early establishments in

are

still

in

existence,

continuing

work commenced by the ancestors

the

of the

present proprietors or others associated

with the enterprise since. The goldfish farms of Japan stand among her most important industries, and several very extensive ones have grown up in the United States, for the culture and sale of these fish

is

of

Figure

1,

referring to

however,

them

8

J In

here.

have given a good illustration of the Common Carp of Europe in order to show its resemblance to the wild goldfish, a figure of which is given below it. Many have gained the idea that the goldfish is a sort of modified carp, or in other words that it may be traced back to the common carp from which it was bred at an early date in China. There is no truth in this tradition and nothing in history to substantiate ticularly

it.

I

The Japanese

the

variety

goldfish, par-

known

as

the

Wakin, will, in a few generations, revert to the form of the wild fish if it happens to escape into open waters. This has already occurred at Washington, D. C, where, several years ago, the goldfish

Government carp-ponds during a flood and escaped into the Pogot out of the

tomac River. They flourished in their new environment, and are now taken in numbers by the local fishermen, who, unfamiliar with their origin, sell them in the city markets as "sand perch." They have

lost

all

their gold color,

though

they are far from being a "perch."

a very profitable business.

Although not belonging genus, the

admit

^=^

common

goldfish

in the is

same

related to

the carp of Europe, the scientific

name

for the first being Carassius auratus

and

the second Cyprinus car pi o.

The

carp, with the varieties artificibred from it, are all very interesting fishes with a history, but space will not

ally

I"iG.

1.

By

Common

Carp of Europe (Cyfrinus carpio).

the author from an old English woodcut


AQUARIUM

THE

they have been seized upon and, through careful, selective breeding, emphasized in the descendants; so we now have im.

mense triple tails, carunculated heads, and other monstrosities. In my opinion these are more extraordinary in appearance than in any way beautiful. Many of the varieties have their eyes bulging out of their heads;

Fig.

By

1

The Wild Goldfish (Carassius aitratus). Goode (Drawn by H. L. Todd

B.

the author after

)

some have no dorsal fins; others are so deformed as to be hardly able to swim and can only wiggle through the water.

To me, There is no question but what goldfish have a strong tendency towards albinism; and perhaps many of the forms, from which the cultivated varieties have been bred, were either entirely lacking completely albiin dermal pigment nistic

When the

—

—or

lacking

in

it.

the latter condition has prevailed

fish

stead

largely

else

of

has a whitish appearance being dark;

yellowish or reddish.

sometimes

in-

it

is

Concentration of

some of the darker has resulted in blotched individu-

these colors with tints als,

or even spotted ones with

the color areas of purer tints.

some It

in

their only

many

such

redeeming feature

cases, their brilliant

is,

and

variegated color-patterns, and the inter-

have with respect to varietal production through artificial selection and crossing. As a matter of fact, as the late Professor John A. Ryder once est they

pointed out in one of his works, the sevvarieties of goldfish produced by man's ingenuity in such operations "are the most profoundly modified of any known race of domesticated animal or-

eral

ganisms."

of

has

been with such fish that the skillful Japanese and a few others have carried on their breeding experiments, and through inteUigent selection have produced some of the most remarkable looking fishes in the world to-day. This has required four or five centuries to

accomplish

in

some

cases, while at the

new varieties have been produced with somewhat greater dispatch. Where morphological ab-

Fig. 2. An Imported Ryukin. Photographed from life by the author from a specimen at the Buieau of Fisheries, Washington, D. C.

By

one of the best books we have by Doctor Hugh M. Smith, the present United States Com-

present time a few

on

normalities are present they are to be

is

explained

in

much

the

same way. While

breeding for color varieties it is likely that some changes in form would also occur,

and when

sufficiently

pronounced

to attract the attention of the breeder,

far

this subject is

missioner of Fisheries at Washington;

it

entitled "Japanese Goldfish, their Va-

rieties and Cultivation" (W. F. Roberts Company, Washington, D. C), and is a

most excellent with which

it

lustrations in

treatise deals.

on the subject

Several of the

il-

the jiresent contribution


THE

^

A Q U A R

are from that work, the plates of which,

some

in

instances,

colored

are

For

I

many

M

I

generations at Koriyama,

rendering photographic copying of them

Japan, the goldfish breeders have practiced making designs on the backs of

a

certain varieties

ones,

little diflficult.

by the use

of acid.

It

There are several varieties of goldfish bred in this country, both major and minor forms, which have been designated as "Japanese rarities;" but as a matter of fact they are entirely unknown to those people. Thus far, only teni

that is, the body, for cannot be employed in the case of the head or fins. I only mention this in that it may be condemned. In all other cases only natural methods have been

stable modifications or varieties of the

employed by the Japanese

common

of the empire.

goldfish

have been produced

Japan, and these are

all

known

in

renders the parts to which practically white

—

it

to their

trade.

applied

it is

My

in

any part

attention has been called to The

Technical World Magazine for Decem-

American names upon

breeders

have

bestowed

these which are most

bersome and unmeaning, Japanese appellations are,

while

(see

their

adepts" graft additional

in all cases,

Fig.

2);

the

Ranchu (lion-head), occasionally called the Mamko; the Oranda shishigashira, a name for the Dutch lion-head; the Demekin, or the one with the protruda ranchu the Deme-ranchu that has protruding eyes; the Watonai (a new one) the Shukin or autumn brocade goldfish; the Shubunkin or the variegated vermilion goldfish, and the Kinranshi or the brocaded goldfish.

—

ing eyes;

;

Three or four

of these are

shown

1913, page 517, where a brief de-

scription

very expressive. They are known as the Wakin, which is the stock variety of

Japan; the Ryukin

ber,

cum-

in

is

given of

how

the "Japanese tails

tain varieties of so-called

upon

cer-

"bush-tailed

This "art" is not mentioned Doctor Smith's work, and I believe I am safe in saying that no such operation goldfish." in

ever practiced by any goldfish breed-

is

ers,

To be

Japanese or American.

the "tail" or caudal

fin in

sure

these artifici-

is perhaps most responsive to the laws of selection, and some very marvelous forms of it have been produced, as

ally

bred varieties of goldfish

the

structure

may

be seen in Fig.

1

of this article.

my

illustrations to the present article; but

they only give us the form of the several

and we miss their magnificent These have all been minutely described by Doctor Smith in his work, and he also presents us with varieties

color variations.

a "family tree" of the pedigree of six of derivations

varieties, where their have been made out with great accuracy. We have cjuite a literature upon this phase of the subject alone indeed, there are a great many papers and

the

—

treatises

on

goldfish extant

Fic. 3. The ShuV)unkin or Speckled Goldfish. the author after the colored plate of S MatMihara in Dr. Hugh M. Smith's work on "Japanese C.oldlish"

By

A word now goldfish

shown

as to the coloration of the in

my

figures.

As

to the

wonderful imported Ryukin, shown Fig. 2, the parts in

black

are

in

brilliant


AQUARIUM

THE vermilion in fish is

while the rest of the

life,

chalk white.

Passing to Fig.

shaped color;

it

is

we have a normally

3,

bred

fish

for

a mottled

and a

Character-

spotted on both body and

single

may comand vermilion,

specimen

prise in color blue, purple

Some

as well as black and white.

mens

are

in

pecuHarities

form presenting

great individual variation. istically, it is fins,

^

all of

speci-

a purple shade which

is

unique and truly remarkable. In Fig.

4,

the

Ranchu

is

generally a

bright red fish with short, rounded body,

and three-lobed, short

conspicuous

tail;

head (except lower jaw), and a complete absence of the dorsal fin. Of this variety there are some extraordinary examples, but their descriptions would carry me far beyond the legitimate limits of this red,

or whitish

warts on

red

its

my

article; this applies, too, to

furnish-

ing any descriptions of the varieties not Dr. Smith gives here figured. information in great detail.

4,

With respect to the Kinranshi of Fig. we have another black, red and white

variety that lacks the dorsal is

this

all

This

fin.

the latest addition given us by the

Fig. 4

(Upper cut) The Ranchu or Maruko (Corean Goldfish) (Middle cut) The Kinranshi or Brocaded Goldfish (Lower cut) The Deme or Pop-eye Ranchu. By the author after the colored plates of S. Matsubara in Dr Hugh M. Smith's work on "Japanese Goldfish"

bred

breeders of Japan, and the history of its production forms an interesting chapter

vital

in goldfish literature.

tom

A

veritable monstrosity

Deme-Ranchu

is

seen in the

(lower cut. Fig. 4)

;

for

what beauty can there be in a fish that possesses enormous pedunculated, protruding,

upturned

(90째)

eye-balls,

shortened body, no dorsal triple tail, so large as to

body

In color this variety

a

and a

be out of

proportion to the rest of the

owner?

fin,

all

of its

may

be

black or orange or the two colors com-

bined in

all

varying areas.

manner

of

patterns and

These creatures, when

greatest

the

to

refinement,

can

hardly swim; moreover, they are of low

power and often

sterile,

being slug-

movements on the botpond or aquarium, where

gish in all their of either

they live out their inert existence.

One

of

varieties

Wakin,

the most beautiful of these is

it

the

Watoni or

being a large

fish,

Fringtail parti-col-

(brilliant vermilion and white), with all the fins highly developed, the caudal one of great size and bifid. We are confronted with a big subject when we come to study goldfish culture

ored

for profit, for

it

is

an industry that

is

taking on very large growth in this country at the present time.

The demand


AQUARIUM

THE

# for the fish

is

a fact that

may

far in excess of the supply,

ing that Japan

be emphasized by statsells

million dollars of

Smith says that

more than

half a

them annually.

Dr.

stock pattern a

much

that they are set to allow

is

greater flow of gas than

average

of goldfish,

wholesale

the

Tokyo breeder

Demekin,

-

per

prices

sv/iit HOLCin-nJBe-

TOfiLlOn £SCAP£OF

a few years ago:

year old,

1

CMrL£r TO^i^M£

fol-

1,000 fish are taken from the operations of a

or

convey some

in order to

G/tS

lowing

ever

G~)

TO degrees of the aquarium.

idea of the actual relative values of the different varieties

is

necessary to maintain the proper

C/J5

T0K:E£P flAME

AUV£

Wakin, 8

$10;

years old, $22.50; Ryukin, 3 years old, $100.00; Oranda shishigashira, 5 years

Ranchu, 2 years old, Ranchu, 5 years old, $2,500. Sometimes single pairs of fancy variefrom fifty ties fetch wonderful prices old,

$750.00;

$75.00;

lei^BL

OF /teeaiKyAK/BS

WITH CHA/YCMS T£/>rP£I?ffnX£

THIS PORTIOPf SUB-

oe oecesfisrno OF a/)s.

j/rc/sn/ts/na

rioHf

to seventy-five dollars, for example.

The breeding

of goldfish

not particularly

terest,

telligent people,

and any

water on it of the United States,

is full

of in-

difficult for in-

farm with any part

old

(in ponds, etc.), in

purpose.

aquaria

is

is

available for the

The management of goldfish by no means an unimportant

The accompanying illustration The apparatus will

explanatory.

is

self-

greatly

repay those taking the pains of installa-

once properly established

tion, for

relieve the aquarist

of

all

it

will

concern re-

subject, but its treatment does not prop-

garding the important essential of tem-

erly fall within the scope of the present

perature.

article.

Last winter

Heat Regulation By

The

article

L. M.

DORSKV

ods

of

this

magazine leads the writer

recently

illustrated

to

in

window

in

as

it

is

my

is

at night, the

tempera-

more, yet the thermometer continually registered the 70 degrees tbat it was set to maintain

and remained

in satisfactory

service throughout the entire winter.

the heat-

ing medium.

The

had two aquaria under method one beside a sleeping room which was

I

this

ture frequently dropping 30 degrees and

oifer

a method of automatic control of tem-

perature where a gas flame

by

always kept cold

presenting various meth-

heating

control

Concluded from page 8i

heat regulator or "thermostat," called, is to

forms of any

be had in various

dealer in

laboratory equip-

ment, and with slight modification can

be adjusted to the needs of the aquarisl.

The trouble with most of those of

fish

spawned

as

far as

we

could see

however, as the brook was not put in operation until about the middle of June,

we hope

that an earlier start will l)ring

us better success next year.


"8

AQUARIUM

n E

r

AERATION Installing the Conductors By FLOYD

Lead pipe

into the ends of the pipe,

pushing the

ends together

tinners' acid

apply a

;

little

Hold the

to the joint.

YOUNG.

vS.

^

joint

above the

fiame of the alcohol lamp until the solder

the long run, prove

held against the top of the pipe melts

cheaper and more satisfactory than iron

and runs in. Wire tin solder should be used. Bar solder, being thick and heavy,

will, in

or rubber

pipe

Iron rusts to

tubing.

such an extent as often to completely

till

must have screw connections, made with great care. Rubber quickly rots out and must be replaced. Lead pipe having an inside diameter of o-l() in., and an outside diameter the orifice

of 5-1 ()

;

in.

besides,

about right for use with

is

requires too

In case no brass tubing

although

connections,

they

many, are in I have reality not difficult to make. known plumbers to spend an entire day in putting in a line which should have been installed in two hours. They are accustomed to handle pipe Yj in. or more have been a bugbear

to

Then,

diameter.

proper

the

too,

handling of the lead-pot and soldering iron requires more skill than is possessed by the average amateur, besides,

such an too

outfit

too rapid

is

not adapted to small

one place, melting the lead

in

Gasoline or other torches are ;

one cannot control the heat.

alcohol lamp such as druggists use

ideal for this

and the solder

To make

a

The

work.

of the ends of lead pipe so that

A

over the other.

fit

large nail

it

will

worked

round and round will accomplish this. other end should be udiittled down trifle,

so that

in

the

first case.

make the may run In the this.

joint

fit

snugly into the

fit

is done as Care must be taken to

soldering

snugly, else the solder

and obstruct it. method the brass prevents All the soldering should be done into the pipe

first

before the pipe will

will

it

The

spread end.

hung, otherwise one

is

have trouble

in

gether while a joint

keeping the ends tois

being soldered.

Lead pipe of this size can be handled and bent as readily as wire. It can be made almost invisible by being run along the top of the picture-moulding where

heat

is

.such

in

where

it

will not

show.

450,000,000 Eggs Taken by

size

as to

into two-inch

a knife-blade or

few times

to another

a hole can be bored over the door-casing

joints.

Fisheries

file

tip

pieces.

around a

the ends of the lead pipe

to brighten the inner surface.

Then

At

fit

snugly inside the lead i)ipe. outside of the brass tubing with emery it

room

mild,

Clean the

paper and cut

the line runs from one

joint procure a piece

good

of brass tubing of

sert

available,

given time to thor-

is

oughly run into the

Turn

is

made by spreading one

be

;

much

tubing.

An

is

Soldering irons apply the heat

work.

may

a joint

a

in

heat.

The

compressors.

electric or hydraulic

Soldered

much

it

in-

one of the sections of brass tubing

is

a time

when

the scarcity of eggs

one of the chief topics of public con-

comes from the L'nited Bureau of Fisheries, Washington. D. C, showing that already this season

cern, a report

States

it

has taken

Lake This

Erie, is

4r)(),000,(Âť(Âť0

whitefish eggs in

by far the largest ever made.

13.000 quarts of the tiny eggs.


AQUARIUM

THE

#

The Transportation

of Live Fish in

a Frozen Condition Fishes

the class of animals

I)eloiig to

that have variable

body temperature, de-

pending on the temperature of their environment. In extreme cold they assume a rigid condition,

which

in

all

of the

vital functions are

suspended, while life remains present. During several

still

months of each year some of the great rivers of Siberia are frozen solid to the

many

bottom, but

of the fishes impris-

oned in the ice retain their vitality and resume their active life when the ice melts in spring.

This

fact has suggested

experiments

in

the freezing of live fish for transporta-

which are discussed in the Fischcrci Zeitung. Many years ago the celebrated physicist Pictet of Geneva put fresh water fishes into a tub of water, which he tion,

kept liquid at the freezing point for

'^4

hours, and then allowed to freeze slowly into a

block of

solid

which after-

ice,

ward was cooled gradually Cent.

(

—4

was melted

month

— 20

When

deg. Fahr.).

a

to

is

necessary to thaw the ice very slowly

and

deg.

the ice

or even two months

to keep the water near the freezing point for several hours, in order to preserve the life of the fishes. Even those which do not survive are in a perfect

state of preservation.

In the markets of Irkutsk, Siberia, fish are displayed for sale in the frozen state

up like cordwood. Fish in cold storage are preserved frozen in slabs of

piled

The

ice.

method

latter

the shipment of live

is

fish.

of shipping live fish in water

not feasi-

Since the discovery by Pictet that be frozen in blocks of ice with-

riety. fish

may

out being killed, and that they will be-

come as lively as ever after they are thawed out, a method has been devised for preparing them for shipment in ice. The method is described in the Scientific American. The fish in a large amount of water are placed in a closed tank, and

oxygen under pressure greater

drawn

portion ofi".

of

The

fish

is

afterward, the fishes began to swim as

ply of oxygen.

showed no symptom of

fish is

The

then placed

supplied.

The

water is then remain in good conthe

briskly as they did before freezing, and health.

is

on account of the expense, as from 1 to 1 gallons of water are required for each pound of fish, according to the vable

dition on account of the

ill

now applied in The method

abundant sup-

vessel containing the

in a

freezing tank and

the fish are frozen into the ice formed.

Similar

been made

have

experiments in

The

France.

placed in water which

is

recently fishes

are

kept near the

freezing point for a few hours, then at

the freezing point for finally

into

a

1

--)

to IS hours,

and

frozen by immersing the vessel freezing

mixture,

producing a

The

blocks of ice containing the fish can

then be

jiiled

erator car.

up

On

in

the ordinarv refrig-

arrival at their destina-

tion the fish are ])ut through a slow thawing process lasting ten hours, when

they return to their normal state of active animation.

few inches thick, in which This the frozen fishes are imbedded. cake is wrapped in cloth and surrounded cake of

ice a

with a heat-insulating packing, to preIt vent melting during transportation.

The ula

r

fishing line will soon be the pop-

chord.


AQUARIUM

THE

80

Eye

Notropis Chrosomus By WM.

T.

Specimens of this fish which appeared in the Eastern market some time ago, under the names Rhinycthys gloriosus and Chrosonuis snpcrbus, have been recognized, and a few words concerning this variety will doubtless

be of interest.

The Notropis Chrosomus, discovered by Jordan

in 1876, is a desirable inhabi-

tant of the cold water aquarium.

found

in

Georgia and

common

is

was

It

in clear

brooks and outlets of springs throughout drainage

the

A

of

Alabama

the

Basin.

Mcta-

closely related variety. Notropis

licus, is so similar that

it

for

difficult

is

the amateur ichthyologist to distinguish

When

one from the other. of specimens

much

is

in the least doubt,

the best plan

veritable

it

them

to submit

competent ichthyologist. tification

identification is

to a

Errors of iden-

soon get well-rooted and become

weeds

to the scientific worker,

who

is put to great unnecessary labor in running down false trails. Identification

by competent ichthyologists

nearly al-

is

ways possible and, if a new fish has to be named, let it be done by one who can

make a proper classification. The following description is taken from the works of Jordan. The original specimen is in The Academy of Natural Notropis Chrosomus

minnow, head

lined

A

10

;

base,

above

;

Red-

(Jordan) depth

4^ D ;

8

latter

;

4 scales below lateral before dorsal; snout o 1-3

lateral line

;

head; eye 3%, maxillary 2J^

orbital 2 4-5.

Body

pressed, rather slender.

compressed. abrupt in

Snout

front,

inter-

;

elongate, well

com-

Head moderate, convex,

length 4-5

its

protruding and

maxillary reaches eye.

;

Interorbital rather evenly convex.

rakers

short

7

of

hooked, with grinding surfaces.

2,

and well exposed.

small

Scales rather

Lateral line complete, decurved.

midway between

tion of dorsal ter

Gill-

which 3 on Pharyngeal teeth 2,

points

upper part of arch. 4-4,

Inser-

eye-cen-

Anal inserted about Cau-

and caudal base.

opposite last third of dorsal base.

Pectoral reaches ^4 to before dor-

dal well forked.

ventral

latter inserted well

;

and reaches

sal

Color hyaline

vent.

green with bluish

Belly

tints.

silvery.

Plead above and vertebral line golden

narrow

light

from opercle

scarlet streak

above to caudal base, and below

Row

silvery line.

distinct

bar across anal,

Scarlet

spot.

this a

of black dots along

forming into small

lateral line,

caudal

caudal base and dorsal.

Spring males

with muzzle and top of head tuberculate,

and

finer tubercles before dorsal.

2^2

inches.

Basin and

is

Length

Known from the Alabama common in clear brooks and

outlets of springs.

The

writer has kept six specimens of

Notropsis Chrosomus for several months in

water of moderate temperature, and

active habits and gentle nature, combined with the attractive coloring of the fins and the copper and dark stripes

their

along the sides

scales

7

rather

inclined,

slightly

make them,

indeed, a de-

;

scales 38 in lateral line to caudal

and two more on

line; 28 scales in

4

jaw

upper protractile

also

Sciences in Philadelphia.

mouth

rounded,

large; lower

INNES, JR.

slightly

width.

lightful acjuarium fish.

The

of

fact

South at

first

as tropical

their

coming from the

led aquarists to treat

fish.

Under

they died rapidly.

them

these conditions

Since

it

has become

known

that they inhabit cool, spring-fed

brooks

we now keep them

cool aquaria,

in moderate to where they do well, par-

ticularlv with aeration.


AQUARIUM

THE

#

An Outdoor Aquarium By CHARLES

W

hile

spending

Champlain

in

curred to

me

last

be absolutely truthful, the actual

THOMAS

construction

summer near Lake

plained

Xew

northern

an

that

To

stocked with such wild fishes as

which has just been ex-

very strongly resembled work,

W,

too, but

brook

the pleasurable difticulties

I

had

in stock-

could

ing the brook and the fun

I

derived from

York,

artificial

81

it

I

oc-

and spelled with a

watching

its

capital

inhabitants afterward

more

woukl be well worth the labor of construction, and would afl^ord an opportunity of observing these fish under

than

very nearly their natural environmeni

without a good deal of exertion on our

find

Accordingly, for to

set

work

to

my own

amusement,

I

About two hundred feet from our house was a small spring which flowed

down

to

at the foot of a hill.

the spring, and a the

some

a brook,

to

little

flowing

rivulet

distance

little

from

Just below

one side of it.

I

dug

a

trench about forty feet long, varying in width from three to five feet and about

The ground was twenty inches deep. hard and clayey. The end of the ditch was finished off square and here a tight

dam

of boards, with a

row of one-inch

below the level of the bank, served to keep the water in the artificial brook at a constant level. The holes were covered with wire cloth.

augur holes a

little

soon enlisted the aid and enthusiasm

I

search

in

We

much

as

possible

mossy stones and gravel and such water plants as to create the

I

with

trans])lanted

could find nearl)y

appearance of nature.

specimens.

of

summer

netted a

large quantity of fish, though not a very

great

variety.

We

even explored the

shallow waters on the edge of the lake. All fish except those in

we wished

to put

our brook were promptly liberated.

The only

varieties

of

small

fish

we

found within a radius of five or six miles of Westport, N. Y., were the Blacknosed, Long-nosed and Horned Dace, the Straw, Spotted-tail and Red-fin minnow and the Tesselated Darter. All of these fish we found to be quite common in

streams

ing oft' nicely through the holes in the upper part of the dam. I soon found it necessary, however, to reinforce the sides of the dam, where the boards were driven into the bank, with a few bricks and a The bottom of the 1)rook little cement. as

variety

handle and during the

gether

covered

for a

used a small seine that two could

the

I

and together we explored

friend,

the brooks and streams for miles around

was a simple matter to divert the flow from the spring into the new course and the next morning I found the ground had become thoroughly saturated and my brook was filled, the water flowIt

study her, as a rule,

part.

of a

variation of the household aquarium.

Nature does

for the labor.

not allow us to

prepare an interesting

away,

made up

we explored

except

but two, and these on our

expedition

in

first

The

exploring

the stream near our house.

All of these fish seemed in

the

we found

P)lack-nosed Dace, of which

to

live

to-

peace and good understanding.

pleasure of

watching their habits

amply repaid us for our eft'orts. MojMng that the TTorned-Dace would l)uil(l

their

gravel

nests,

we provided

them with gravel of various degrees of coarseness at the head of the stream, but much to our disappointment they failed to take the hint.

In fact, none of the

Coiiiuiucd on huge 7"


AQUARIUM THE AQUARIUM THE

82

#

brought together modest sum.

\arieties can be

a very

Issued in the Interests of the Study, Care and Breeding of Aquatic Life monthly

Published

July and

except

August

at Chicago, Illinois, by the Aquarium Societies of Brooklyn, Chicago, New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Milwaukee, Minneapolis.

Send

manuscripts,

exchanges, books for review, etc., direct the Editor-in-Chief; to remittances to the Treasurer; all other mat ter to the Business Manager all

Editor in Chiick, 8 S. Dearborn St.,

-

-

-

----- - -

Business Manager, 6100 Ingleside Ave.,

Treasurer,

-

428 W. 66th

St..

-

I.

-

J.

-

Chicago,

111.

-

Chicago,

-

No fancier was ever successful without acquiring the habit of close observation which discloses an unlimited amount

of detail in the housing, feeding and caring for his subjects.

He soon discovers that it is difficult and unsatisfactory to direct someone else in doing this, that, or the other small job in connection with this pastime and it naturally follows that he

do these things w^ith his own hands and even though he has no mechanical training he soon finds that he can do these things and the satisfaction he will

w^ill

ACKERMAN

FLOYD -----

-

GAGE

W.

J.

S.

111.

YOUNG

Chicago,

111.

get out of Circulation Dept.. 253 Sibley St., - -

-

Subscriptions, $1

_

W. B. HOFFMAN - Hammond, Ind. Single Copies, 10c

Advertising Rates upon Application

-:-

for

-:-

it

much

is

greater than

it

would be otherwise. The high-strung nervous business man can get what he needs as a "let-down" or relaxation from the business tension

gets home in the evening and can spend an hour or so, preferably before dinner, with his pets. While the whole family can enter

when he Vol.

January, 1914

II

In following the

No. 8

hobby or fad

of col-

lecting various varieties of fish

suit-

able for aquarium purposes or of breed-

ing and raising from adult specimens, it is

surprising to note the latent quali-

ties that will

come

to the surface

unconsciously be developed

in

and

one's

disposition.

Very

few^

and enjoy the cultivation of fish hobby, it is advisable that the feeding be under the supervision of one person who will see to it that no more into

as

a

food will be placed will be

consumed

ing against

its

in

the tanks than

thereby guarddecay and contaminadaily,

tion of the water.

indeed, are the

who have made any money

fanciers

out of this

Tanks can be obtained

at prices from few cents to many hundred dollars, but without question the one that will be ap])reciated the most by the owner will be the one that he has made with

a

hobby. So it is generally the case of everything going out and nothing coming in and if a fancier is inclined to be prodigal in money matters and can afford to do so, there is scarcely any limit to the amount of money that can be invested even in a medium or small col-

lustrating that trait or qualification

lection.

his disposition that indicates a well-l)al-

On

the other hand a very satisfactory

collection of both goldfish

and tropical

own hands. At least that particular tank will be the one he will point out to his guests and say "I made it," ilhis

in

mind, \\z., that of ])roducing somethinu" with his own hands.

anced


AQUARIUM

THE

#

Brooklyn Aquarium Society The annual meeting of Aquarium Society was

began, and the following gentlemen were unanimously elected to their sev-

the lirooklvn liekl

on

One

report

of

the

President, Dr. I-'rederick Schneider,

Grove

64

president,

Dr.

Street.

\'ice-president, Joseph I-'roehlich. 11 P^rancis Place.

Secretary, Harry Roessle.

of the

most interesting parts of the evening's meeting was the reading of the reports of the se\eral officers and the chairmen of the committees.

The

eral ofiices

the

evening of January 13, 11)14. There was a very large attendance, and notwithstanding that it was the coldest night that Brooklyn has witnessed in the past twelve or fourteen years.

s;-;

man

liar-

Theodore

Treasurer,

P.

I-'ritz,

8()o

Ripin.

iJlo

Halsey Street. Librarian.

Seymour

II.

Franklin Avenue.

Frederick Schneider, was received with I^ocal Editor,

a great deal of pleasure and enthusi-

asm by every one present. The showing for the year was such to make him and all the members proud. The in-

IKi

Street.

I""ranklin

Seymour H.

Ripin, 915

Avenue.

r^\ery one of the above accepted with the assurances that thev would

power

make

new

creased membership showed that there

do

were about sixty per cent additional

administration a successful and pros-

members enrolled during the past year, making the past administration the

many

instructive

riums and

The

also

the

])erous one.

The

society expects to

make

great

was studded with and interesting re-

bers are only half realized, the ISrook-

management

if

the hopes of

lyn to

all

the officers and

Aquarium Society none

in this

will

mem-

be second

country.

Seymour H.

Ri])in,

of acpia-

Local Editor.

fish culture.

and treasurer's reBrooklyn Aquarium Society can now boast of a good financial condition, and the outlook is such that the members feel the funds of the association warrant some entertainment, which most pn>l)al)ly will be in the form of an annual dinner to be held during the month of March. The reports of the dififerent committees were very gratifying and were ports

to

progress during the coming year, and

marks appertaining to the welfare of the society, and the work in general. Great strides had been made for the better scientific

in their

Dr.

best in the history of the society.

Schneider's report

all

secretary's

show

that the

received

with

great

applause.

After the reading of the reports, the election of ofticers for the ensuing }'ear

The Natural ligious Truly, he

who

Scientist a

Re-

Teacher

unfolds to us the

way

in

which God works through the world

of

phenomena may

well be called the best

of religious teachers.

In the study of

the organic world, no less than in the

study of the starry heavens, is it true that "day unto day uttereth s])cech, and night unto night showeth knowledge." John Fiske i>i a mciuorial lecture on Cliarli's Danvin.

—


AQUARIUM

THE

84

Index to Vol. A Aeration Apparatus. A Simple.. What are African Flies. Amoeba. On the

Aquarium

page; 14

.

37 44 82-87 5-12 42

The Aquarium. The Household Aquarium Exhibit. The Aquarium Management. Practical Aquarium Notes .

Aquarium.

Possibilitiesof the

Home

39 29 25

1912

I,

H

Brook

Silverside.

07 62

How

L

The C

Box Lion Head Goldfish. The Little Fellows With the Wheel. The Letter

77

80 69

N New York Aquarium.

75

68 66

On New York Our Aim

73-91 65 45 24 2

for

64 78 20

Don'ts for Beginners

The The

86

of the Goldfish

F Feeding Goldfish

On the Uses of Fish Food. Aquarium Fish Food. A General Floating Fern. The Florida Swamp. Fish Life of

83 56

Fishes' Fins.

Formaldehyde Frog Fish. The Trouble. Glass Cleaner.

Plants.

A Cure for A New

77 23

Feeding Aquarium

6-13

20-32 Plants Worth Cultivating Plants in Aquaria. The Function 58 59 55

of

Preserving Fish Specimens Public Aquaria in America Public Interest in Aquaria Quillwort.

72

The

32

R Red-Bellied Dace

19

Red

29

Tirton.

The S

a..

.

.

Snails

37

Society Statistics Spawning Net. The A Surgical Case.

15 17 21

T

9

Types of Sex of The Docile Good Light Important Goldfish. Goldfish. Goldfish.

P Paratilapia Multicolor

15

37 20 30 46

Tadpoles

G Gill

61 4

Q

E Embryology

The

Plankton

D

Duckweeds.

15

Killies

1

Danio Rerio Daphnias Daphnia. Pointers on Propagation

Dogfish.

45 34

17-36 85

Mechanical Helps Mollienisia Latipinna

19

Queries

A Hunt

49-56 37

Labyrinth Fishes

Morris Canal. Along the Mouth Breeders. The

to

A Year with a Cement. An Aquarium Chanchito Breeding Chrosomus Erythogaster

Darters.

79 89

M 9

Catfish.

Comments and

page; 21

Hearing of Fishes. Note on Heating the Aquarium. A Simple Device for Hydra. The

B The Brackish Water Aquarium Ball Fish.

Breeding Goldfish Breeding Tank of Wood. Construct a

#

88

Tropical Fish.

Where From

27 37

V

3(5

11

Veiltail Telescope.

33 84 52

Violet in Aquaria.

The The

11

76

W Water Poppy.

Growth on

the. ...

52


SOCIETY BULLETINS Brooklyn

Aquarium

President

Society

Regular meetings 2nd & 4th Tues. in every month except July & Aug. at Fairchild Bldg. 702 Fulton St., at 8 P. M. Initiation Fee, $1.00 Annual Dues, $2.00

Dr.

Vice-President

1 1

Corresponding and Recording Sec'y Treasurer Librarian

Frederick Schneider, 64 Grove Street Joseph Froehlich, Francis PI. Harry Roessle, 116 Harman Street

Theodore

)

P. Fritz, 805

Seymour H.

ocal Editor > Local Business Manager I

Owen

Halsey Street

Ripin, 915 Franklin Ave.

H. Smith, 702 Fulton Street

Chicago Fish

Fanciers' Club Regular meetings on the Second Wednesday at 809-12 City Hall Square Building, 127-139 North Clark St.. at 8:30 P. M. on 4th Wednesday where announced. $1.00 $4.00

Initiation Fee,

Annual Dues,

President Vice-President Secretary Treasurer Acting Librarian Local Editor

F.

Local Business Manager

C.

Young, 428 West 66th Street Preusker, 457 North Avenue W. B. Hoffman, Hammond, Ind. Carl Fossetta, 1341 George Street F. G. Orsinger G. Orsinger, 123 S. Oakley Boulevard J. Borgstrom. Jr., 1408 Kedzie Avenue F. S.

Dr. G. A.

The Aquarium Society Regular Second

German Sherman

-

meetings

on

President

Thursday American

at

Vice-President

Ave.,

the the School Jersey City,

and on the Fourth Friday at the American Museum of Natural

History,

77th

St.

and Central Park West, NewYork, each month except Correand August. July sponding membership $1.00 Annually. Initiation Fee, $1. Dues, $2

Edw. W. Kiernan, 78 So. Clinton St., East Orange, N. J. John P. Lowel, 146 Grace St., Jersey City, N. J. „ „ Herman Osmer, West New Brighton, N. Y. f

Recording Secretary „ ,. „ ^ Corresponding Secretary ) Treasurer H. A. Richtberg, 85 South 16th )

.

.

St., East Orange, N. J. Librarian Herman Hoffmeister, 165 Webster Av., Jersey City, N. J. Local Editor John T. Nichols, Am. Museum of Nat. History, New York Local Business Manager Carl P. Ording. 1931 Broadway, New York

Philadelphia

Aquarium Regular

Society

meetings

Fourth Wednesday, Arch Street.

on at

the 1414

Initiation Fee, $1.00 Annual Corresponding Dues, $1.80.

H. R. Lippincott, Collingswood, N. J. Charles Paxson, 2534 N. 1 1th Street Hiram Parker, 224 N. Wilton Street L. M. Dorsey, Jr.. 2219 N. 19th Street Wm. T. Innes, Jr., 1824 N. Park Avenue L. M. Dorsey, Jr., 2219 N. 19th Street

President Vice-President Treasurer

Secretary Local Editor Local Business Manager

Membership, $1.00 Annually.

Milwaukee Aquarium Society Regular meetings on First at 105 Grand Ave. Initiation Fee, $1. Dues, $1.20

Monday

G. B. Schenk, 105 Grand Avenue August Grau, 3110 Grand Avenue

President Vice-President Treasurer Secretary

C.

Geo. J. C. Steffen, 950 First Street Rev. Paul Roth, 2602 Prairie Avenue August W. Pollworth, 1816 Wright Street W. A. Brvb, 304 Fifteenth Street

Librarian Local Business Manager

Philadelphia Gold Fish Fanciers Society Meets Third Wednesday evening of each month, except July and August, at Saul's Hall, 802-804 Girard Avenue, Phila-

Georgk B. Smith, 2013 E. Cumberland St. Harry P. Peters, 1210 N. Warnock St. Fred Richardson, 652 E. Lippincott St. Geo. W. Price, 2038 So. 3rd St.

President Vice-President Secretary Treasurer

delphia, Pa.

$1.00

Membership Fee. Dues,

15 cents per

month

Minneapolis

Aquarium

Society

Boston

Aquarium

Society

Initiation Fee, $1 An'l Dues,$l

F. L.

Tappan, 92 South 7th Street

President Treasurer Secretary

W. Franzen, Curator Museum Pub. Library Mrs. Anna Esskng, 342 Longfellow Ave. South

President Secretary Treasurer

Dedham, Mass. Bloomfield St., Boston, Mass. Franklin A. Packard, 5 Perry St., Cambridge, Mass.

J.

1

Chas.

Tennant Lee, W. Alden, 15

18 School St.,


Breeding Goldfish? START NOW! Season commences February — ends September. Full

"The Aquarium" Magazine

in

instructions for breeding and rearing young, feeding, etc. 25c per copy, postMated pairs of breeders shipped paid. safely anywhere in U. S. Prices as follows Young Japanese Fringetails, $1.00 and $2.00 pair upward. Young Chinese Black Dragon Eyes, $2.00 and $3.00 pair upward. Young Chinese Orange and Black Spangled Dragon Eyes, $3.00 pair upward. Young Chinese Calico Dragon Eyes, $2.00 and $3.00 pair upward.

Subscribers

whose sub-

scriptions expire with the

December

issue will assist

the publication and confer

a favor on the manage-

ment by sending

Beautiful East Indian Shubunkins, every cole- of the colored alike, $2.00, $3.00, $5.00 a pair These are comto color. mon goldfish in shape, easily bred and very hardy.

rainbow— no two

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Goldfish Breeding, the ideal money maker for people beautiful pets. with a little spare time a grand hobby We help you, will buy your results. Market never glutted. Order now breeders scarce later.

— — — Oriental Goldfish Company S. CHICHESTER LLOYD, Manager NEW ADDItESS: 508 Bergen Street, BROOKLYN, N. Y.

Floyd

S.

Young

W. Sixty-Sixth

428

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CHICAGO

We

have no circulars or price lists. Every order receives our manager's personal attention and filled in rotation. Feed our Food, 15c postpaid. Extra large bunch plants 12 Tell us your troubles. fot aquaria, 15c postpaid. years in the business.

Aquarium Book Herman

T, Wolf's

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"Goldfish Breeds and Other Aquarium Fishes" Tells all about the standard authority. breeding fancy goldfish and treats in a practical way on all aquarium and terrarium sub-

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1'4()

beautiful illustrations.

Price, postage prepaid by us, $3.00

INNES & SONS Twelfth Street, Cor. Cherry, Philadelphia, Pa.

Aquarium Plants

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Goldfish

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Now

range place, in fact everything. Contains Dr. Loeb's article on scientifically produced FROGS. Tadpoles and Bullfrogs bought and sold.

Aquaria Tanks Fish Globes Ornaments, Etc.

INTERESTING AQUA LIFE

IXTrWTiny A

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St.,

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til

MUn

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LIVE-BEARING FISH BREEDERS Protect your new hum fish from the attacks of the female .by using the Will positively save the life of without any attention on your part

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Made

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INSTRUCTIVE Book "FROG CULTURE," $1.00 postpaid, tells how to breed, feed and ar-

of glass and noncorrosive wire.

111.

THE

THE AQUARIUM when

L. S. CO.,

._

"•'

553 58th

writing advertiseis

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ing mussels, small hermit shoe, shedder or edible crabs,

THE

Terminal Pet Shop Importers, Breeders and Dealers

Fish foods, plants and aquaria Pets ot every description

Booth No.

how

alive

beautiful

to

and

The

advertiser, with fifty years' experience in the work, for reference, refers you to the Museum of Natural History of New play.

York, the New York Acjuarium, the New York and New Jersey Acjuarium Society, and prominent florists in New York.

200 W. H:WA Street R. DONKER, Ne>v York ('ity

Concourse

Prices cheerfully furnished for special sizeJ aquariums

The N. Y. Aquarium Writes

^^^

DOM KSTK'ATKD KISII will usoful to all those who are intere.sted in \or.\ the .small a(|uariuni and its inhabitants." (.Sd.) K.WM().\l> (' OSHOKN. AssI Oirector. ••Tlniik

your

l)<)()k

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.'I'i

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Tost paid

I,

W.

THE AQUARIUM when

,>; p:.nolish on ami the idcnt iticat ion of Tntpical cents to Domestic Fish and 'ioldtish Scnil

the care, cult

500 Isham Mention

i8

HUDSON TERMINAL BUILDINo NEW YORK

horse-

keep these interesting spehealthy in your home. Florists and aquarists can arrange one of these beautiful marine ac)uariums in the window, which will make a lively and attractive disdirections

Birds, seeds and cages

Burnett's Japanese Fish l^ood

colored small sea Hshes and, most beautiful of all. Living Sea Horses, with

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in

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L.

MONEY BACK

BR/ND,

St.

writing advertisers

IF DIS-

F.z.s,

NEW YORK


Imported Fishfood "BLUE RIBBON BRAND"

oi ieed,

100%

Contains no dog biscuit nor otlier adulterant.

pure. It is

that 'I. B.", a New York fancier, bought "C. E." who has been carrying l."> pounds ;it once! oil' the lihif rilil)ons in Pliiladelphia for the best VeilA leadins dealer tailed (ioldtish, bouslit 3 pounds. jiounds. advertising in "The Aquariiun" just l)oui;lit Others bought proportionately. Stop experimenting!

SO (xOon

Flavors of Nature Just as She

If

Not Not Not But

of the shop, the laboratory, the library, the of this ism or that hypothesis;

hysterical nor hypocritical; it is

a sincere, honest, faithful magazine, true to

WHO

KNOW!" Follow the example of "THOSE Send 12ctoday for sample. IMPORTED INFUSORIA 27c pki; produces abundant Micro-

meadows;

••HYDRASALT," scopic Life for Baby Fish. pkg,) destroys Parasites and Hydra.

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woods and

of the

of underfoot

name.

fields; of valleys,

ravines and

and overhead.

who

represents the students and lovers of nature

it

are

or friends of I he Aijassiz As.fociatioii

Send $! .00

for a year.

Edward

F. Bigelow, Managing Editor.

ADDRESS

The RgaSSiz Association,

WANTED

its

THE GUIDE TO N/\TURE

.'•

COMPOUND,

Is

schoolroom;

AnAdi/\:

Sound Beach, Conn.

The American

Federation of Goldfish Fanciers, National

members in all parts of the Corresponding membership dues $1.00 Benefits manifold. Objects many, among which is the aljolition of fish globes, cruelty and ignorant handlini; of aquarium fishes by dealers and individuals; answering of questions relating to balanced aquaria, and any difficulties arising therein research into diseases of aquarium kept fishes and l)ublic dissemination of knowledge attained. Numl>ers among its organizers and members, many of the foremost aquarists of the day, whose experience is at the command of the pul)lic. Address all communications and send dues to S. CHICHESTER LLOYD, Seeretary, 508 Bergen Street, Brooklyn N. Y. Local nienil)ership dues $2.00 yearly, payable semi-annually if desired. in

is

scope, desires live

country. yearly.

TO

BUY:

All kinds and varieties of

Sunfish, Catfish, Darters, etc.,

also tropical

etc.;

foreign

fish,

Minnows, Bass,

and cold water

small Turtles,

Amphiumas,

Hellbenders, Siren, Frogs and Lizzards.

Get Ali^ Pet

A

To Keep You Company During Winter Months!

A pretty Canary, bright as a su.ibeam, active as a cricket, fills your home with music and, your heart with gladness. He makes you feel life's worth living. Hundreds of pleased customers last year. They are real

Arri'

Guaranteed

Imported German CANARIES Tested and guaranteed singers, obtained from the Germany, in shipping cage, each, $3. Imported females each $1, living arrival guaranteed; handsome brass cage $1. Parrots, gold fish, all kinds cages, etc. Large illustrated catalog free. Largest mail order bird dealers in the world. Bird Book 25 cents. IOWA BIRD CO., Dept OES MOINES, lA.

best breeders in

The Avary and Aquarium Park Los Angeles

...

California

BEST COLLECTION OF

FANCY FISH

•/

AQUATIC PLANTS

Always on Exhibition

J

MILWAUKEE TRIPOD CO., W. C. EVANS,

Manufacturer and repairer of aquariums. Dealer in kinds of aquarium fishes and plants. Imported Japanese and Chinese gold fishes.

"ENUF SAID"

a specialty of

E. C.

Mention

VAHLE

.

.

315

W. Madison

Wholesale and Retail Dealer

St.,

Chicago

in

BIRDS AND ANIMALS

HERMAN RABENAU 1163 Myrtle Avenue Brooklyn, N, Y. Near Broadway New Shipments received Monthly. Prices Right AQUARIUMS AND ALL ACCESSORIES

MILWAUKEE, WIS. Manager

all

Many

years of experience has enabled me to make all aquatic life. My aim is to assist the student of Nature and make it possible for him to obtain the specimens he desires in a healthy and first-class condition.

467 Eleventh Street

AQUARIUM

'*

of artistic designs for particular people. Snails.

Gold Fish Water Plants, Imported Catalog

FREE.

THE PIONEER AQUARIUM MFG.

THE AQUARIUM when

writing advertisers

CO., RACINE.,

WIS.


The Aquarium 2/8 1914  

The Aquarium 2/8 1914

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