Page 1

OCTOBER.

1913

TTT TTi^

Ten Cents

Price,

tr^D^Tf^^ '1

4 5-^

f^v..

'aj** 'A.'


FRANKLIN BARRETT 4815

D

Street. Olney, Philadelphia, Pa.

Largest Greenhouses in the World Devoted to the Breeding of Fancy, Chinese and Japanese Goldfish and

Propagation

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Plants

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Manufacturer of the Celebrated Rustless corner pieces.

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Globes, Nets, Pebbles, Sand, Foods, Etc. Everything Pertaining to the Aquarium and Pond Send

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(T'

The Aquarium

Volume

Number

OCTOBER, 1913

II

^ 5

J

^. Hemichromis Bimaculatus or Red Chromides By

This

member

a native of the zil,

J.

W.

GAGE

of the Cichhdae family

Amazon

frequenting

is

District of Bra-

shallow

or

stagnant

waters, ranging from 65 degrees to SO

degrees Fahrenheit.

The head

is

having a 2" bottom of well washed lake and planted with Vallisneria Ludwegia, Spiralis, Sagitaria Natans, Elodia and floating water fern, and filled within one inch of the top with water which had been standing about two weeks to insure its being flat or ripe, and fed them as wide a variety of food as sand,

very

blunt and heavy, tail

possible.

In about a month the tank

spatulate and

extremely powerful. The fish has

two

pectoral,

had a beautiful growth of plants and was as nearly balanced as any I ever had. But by this time there seemed to be con-

two

pedal, one dorsal

and one anal fin. The color is reddish brow^n with

small

emerald spots,

greenish

spawning

when

siderable

during

except

the

lor

time, head

and lower half body are

the

I

of

that

a

best Hemichromis Bimaculatus.

red.

another.

This species

is

carnivorous and

devour not only

its

When

will

own

so, in I

to

so fact,

thought

to separate

them by

])artition,

ravenously

family,

his

much

deep rich red, hence the name, Hemichromis, or half

cause

contention in

a glass

i)rcvcnt their killing

they found

it

one

impossible to at-

tack one another they were apparently

young but all young fish, also scraped raw beef, fish worms, dried shrimp, chopped oysters or clams, meal worms,

and within twenty-four hours had every

etc.

spear, either routed out or cropped

My

acquaintance with this species was in the late fall of 1912, at which time I secured a pair about eight months old,

first

and

set

them up

in a brass

bound

glass tank, 16" long x 10" wide xl l"high.

so

angry that they started

in

on the

vegetation in their respective quarters,

down

off^

and I noted that their color was changing from the reddish brown to a dccj), rich red about the head and stomach, and the green spots became very brilliant, or like emeralds. close

to the roots,

NOV 18

1913


AQUARIUM

THE

38

One Saturday morning home I noticed that the

before leaving"

was apparently over, and that the combatants seemed anxious to become reconciled. On my return at 2:30 P. M. I found to my great regret that the female had

made a

strife

deposit of eggs, covering a nearly

round spot about

'1"

diameter on her and the male was frantically trying to fertilize them.

side of the glass partition,

removed the partition with the eggs it and have kept it now for several months as a specimen. But very few of the eggs have fallen off, although no fixing solution was used to I

remaining on

secure them.

#

The growth of the had now become cjuite

scintillating jewels.

roe in the female

perceptible.

Fortunately

I

was able

to observe the

actual deposit of the eggs on the pot, as

The by swimming in

occurred on Sunday morning.

it

female

made

a deposit

above and just touching the spot for a few moments, then on moving to one side was immediately followed up by the male, who apparently circles

selected

fertilized the different deposits as fast

This deposit was

as they were made.

about the same

size as the

When

ly described.

it

one previous-

was completed

the pair took turns in hovering over the

The spawning time was now

and am pleased to state that there was no more scrapping. Within a week the fish were back to normal color, and did not molest the vegetation which had again

eggs and fanning with the pectoral

been planted. The next spawning occurred in April, 1913, when the tank was again nicely balanced. A flower pot 4" diameter at

the other

the wide end was prepared

over,

by knocking

out the bottom and

filing off

edges and placed on

its side in

the sharp

the tank with the wide end towards the front. At once both the specimens started in to clean

it

up, in spite of the fact that

had been most carefully scrubbed. During this time they both took on a beautiful red color, and the maneuvers of their mating were very interesting to watch. The male would start to swim around the female, and then she would start to swim around him, with the result that they were constantly swimming in circles. Then one would come in close to the side of the other and deit

with the

liver a love slap ofif

and strutting

playing

all

which were

the like

like

tail,

backing

a peacock,

dis-

emerald green spots one encrusted mass of

fins

coming over them and to keep silt and dirt from lodging among them. They kept up this process to keep fresh water

for forty-eight hours,

dug

little

one fanning while

hollows in the sand

the roots of some plants they cropped off. The temperature of water was about 75 degrees to 78 grees Fahrenheit, and the hatching completed in a little over ("0 hours. at

As

fast as the eggs hatched, the

were taken

in the

and deposited

mouths

of the

had the de-

was

young parent

one of these holall been removed from the pot, the parents again took turns in fanning the little group, which, fish

When

lows.

to the

mass

in

they had

naked eye, appeared

like a small

of agitated gelatine, bvit

on closer

inspection with a powerful reading glass

baby

the

On

fish

were plainly discernible.

the stomach of each

I

could see the

yolk-sack of the egg which

furnishes

nourishment for the little fellows until they are able to swim and hunt their

own

food.

took about four days for them to absorb the yolk-sacks, during which time each little individual fish kept up It


THE

₏•

AQUARIUM

a constant wriggling, which caused the agitation of the jellyHke mass.

During these four days they were repeatedly carried from one sand pocket to another in the

mouths

of the adults,

and on the fifth morning, which happened to be bright and sunny, the tank seemed to be literally alive with baby fish out for their first swim under the chaperonage of the female, who seemed to watch over them with most pronounced maternal attention, and if one seemed to be in any difficulty she would take it in her mouth and spit it out again in a portion of the tank where conditions seemed to be more favorable. She was able to hold their attention and govern their movements by swimming backward very slowly, causing them to follow by frequently stopping and strutting. In the evening I found them to be carefully herded in a close group and tucked away for the night in one of the sand pockets, like a lot of little helpless children with their mother standing guard to protect them from danger.

From

the time they started to

swim

oi)

young were three weeks old, the mother showed her maternal instinct by taking this milky substance into her mouth and apparently masticating it, then spitting it out in fine particles which the fry greedily devoured.

When

the

young were one month

old

the mother was removed, and from that

time they were able to take care of themselves. I

get the best results in spawning this

variety

by not using

by pro-

ariators,

viding plenty of vegetation and placing the tank in the sunlight so as to obtain a good growth of Algea.

Under no conditions should silt or off during spawning

sea-

accumulation seems to

set

be syphoned son, as this

dirt

up the condition most favorable to the young when they are big enough to take care of themselves.

The

Effects of Inbreeding (Coiitril)Uti-d)

Everywhere in nature are evidences of a pronounced antipathy to self-fertilization and inbreeding. While it is true

the male began to lose interest, and soon resumed his old color, and, as on the

that desirable characteristics can be de-

day after the babies' first swim caught him indulging his canibalistic appetite, I removed him to other quarters. The tank containing these specimens was in a window with south exposure, and by the time they could swim nicely there was a good growth of Algea; Infusoria also had developed, on which the babies fed, and their growth was

it is

third

I

very rai)id. During all this time the female was fed largely on tish worms, scraped raw beef, or dried shrimp, a ration which the babies were too small to touch, but on my squeezing the milky substance from live

meal worms into the tank when the

veloped and perpetuated by inbreeding,

always at the expense of vigor, and

results in the degeneration of other parts,

and even

Cross-breeding with-

sterility.

in the species, in contrast,

strain, be

increased

it

fish,

strength, vigor,

The mere

and

of

re-

any means

into

bird or beast, rapidity

size,

with the

new blood

sulting infusion of

growth,

fertility.

inter-crossing of different

lines of a species (unrelated individuals),

The advantage itself does no good. depends much upon the selection of inby

dividuals of desirable characteristics and"

stamina.

The

a good male

occasional acquisition of

fish

from another breeder-

should be considered a necessity.

Were


it

AQUARIUM

THE

40

possible to practice the line-breeding

Laws

not be so essential. Animals, having the power of loco-

power.

motion, and

free

move about from

to

place to place mingling with their kind, have not been provided with means to

prevent inbreeding. Movement, restricted only by the climatic and food requirements of the species, renders the liabihty of consanguinity very slight. Plants, however, have developed various

means

species bear the male

on

Many

to insure cross-fertilization.

separate

and female flowers

individuals,

or,

when a

species produces flowers of both sexes, or hermaphrodite (combination) flowers

on the same plant, the organs of the sexes do not mature simultaneously, thus making fertiUzation by another The pollen, or male plant necessary. element,

is

carried from flower to flower

by the wind

or insects.

Nature frowns with equal vehemence

upon inter-breeding The

or hybridizing.

of divergent species, result

is

usually loss

degeneracy and sterihty. More commonly, even though the individuals

of vigor,

may

be of closely related families, the attempt is productive of no result whatever. Anatomically, the animals may be very much ahke, yet the spermiatozoon of the male is unable to effect the ovum of the female. There are, however, instances where the offspring, while

and thus unable

sterile,

to reproduce their kind,

are yet vigorous.

The mule may be

as an example.

A

cited

hybrid has been

se-

cured by crossing the American bison (buffalo) with the domestic cattle that is said t6 be very vigorous. Exceptions,

may

be found to any rule, but when we oppose Nature, we have forces arrayed against us, the workings

of course,

of

which we do not comprehend.

Far

we

better that

plan of the poultry fancier, this would

of

^ the help of the

enlist

Nature than to controvert her

Goldfish breeders, working as they do with the very concentrated product of

make every

selective inbreeding, should to

effort

out-breed without losing the

aim

desirable characteristics they

to re-

tain in their stock with increased de-

The writer

velopment.

is

familiar with

the methods and stock of some of the breeders of the best goldfish in America,

and knows

well that inbreeding

is

un-

intentionally practiced to the detriment

Father and daughter are being bred together. Splendid developof their strain.

ment

is being secured, but on extremely low vitality and short

of fins

fish of

With the usual methods

lives.

of breed-

almost an impossibility not to inbreed. The fry are gradually assorted according to size without regard to parentage. Every breeder, sooner or later, by judicious selection of males and ing,

it is

upon a combination that produces a number of fry of excellent

females, hits

With

form. is

his desire for perfection,

natural, that

grown

when

this

same

it

fry has

to maturity, relationship not be-

he

will

mate

brother and sister together.

The

result

ing

is

known,

positively

very apt to be weaklings.

may

My

opinions

be disputed and considered mere

it will be hard to them, as pedigree breeding is scarcely possible with goldThe columns of the magazine are fish.

theory, but

adduce

open

1

feel

that

facts to offset

for a discussion of this subject.

The Diatomacea as Food

for

Fish Fry By W.

A.

POVSER, Hammond,

Ind.

Mr. Smith, in his interesting article on

Plankton and Nepton has indicated a

field

in the

which

June is

issue,

not only


^

AQUARIUM

T H E

a rich one for investigators, but one that of general interest to fish breeders as

is

The plant and animal

well.

of

life

which

plankton is formed, furnishes the first food of the newly-hatched fish and more

mature individuals this

is

many

of

species.

phase of the subject that

It

will

()00 feet,

a fact indicative of their great

age and long

As

life

period on the earth.

to the vast extent of such deposits

it

a fact worthy of notice, that the city of Richmond, Virginia, is built upon a strata of almost pure diatom remains, is

below the forming such de])osits is going on at the present time in the bottoms of our rivers and lakes.

in

some places lying The process

fifty feet

prove of interest to the aquarist who may not have the facilities or the inclination to study the purely scientific aspect of the problem. The economic and the scientific viewpoints are, how-

surface.

ever, closely related.

of

one of the many constituents of plankton, and has received a good deal of attention from micro-

present time, however, a more intimate

The diatom

scopists

in

is

recent

No

years.

greater

proof of its importance as a food for fish can be deduced than the fact that the scientist in quest of specimens loses no opportunity if examining the stomachs of mollusks and fish, for there it is that he is sure to find a goodly collection. Many a rare specimen has been added to the cabinet of the student by this means. The diatoms are a large group of plants, so very small that the aid of the microscope is necessary to reveal their diversity of beautiful forms. in

both fresh and

They

thrive

water; so abund-

salt

ant and widely distributed arc they that there

is

specimens

may

have existed of time

or ditch in

numbers

in vast

their

are found in

pond

which not be found. That they

scarcely a

silicious

all

parts of the world, fre-

quently in almost pure

which are

of

for a?ons

remains, which

fossil

deposits

utmost commercial Many dental and the action of which is

the

value, give testimony.

metal polishes,

abrasive, not chemical, contain as cutting material the remains of the diatom.

In

boring artesian

wells

these

fossils

have been brought up from a depth

of

of

Formerly, naturalists placed this famianimal kingdom in consequence

ly in the

movements;

peculiar

their

at

the

acquaintance with their nature and habacquired by the aid of improved microscopes and confirmed by chemical experiments, has resulted in their being

its,

transferred to the vegetable kingdom. The plant consists of a siHcious en-

velope of three parts, made up somewhat after the fashion of the old card-

with top and bottom They are of every joined by a ring. conceivable shape, all microscopic in

board

pill-box,

Their great beauty consists in the marking or sculpture of the envelope,

size.

which

is

greatly diversified in

pattern, some

si:)ecies

parallel lines so fine, that

measure but one inch

The

frustulcs

whether or not

in

9(),{)()0

of

them

breadth.

contain

it is

minute

its

being marked with

protoplasm;

structural

is

a ques-

tion that has been widely debated, as

has also the peculiar power of movement. Diatoms are able to jjroceed back-

ward or forward, with no visible means of propulsion, and after much discussion the ciuestion remains a mooted one. I have been informed that a method has been evolved to propagate diatoms as a commercial food for oysters, but no details on the subject are at present available. will

If

successful,

prove a great boon to

the discovery fish

breeders.


AQUARIUM

THE

42

rubber ball on one end.

Sheep Manure as a Cultivator By

FRANK

In a past issue of

J.

MYERS

The Aquarium

there

some investigating along this line, as I had always had very poor success with under certain conditions of years ago I had an eighty gallon aquarium built to fit into a square space containing three windows with The dimensions of western exposure. this aquarium were not what they should have been, the depth being too great in Sagittaria

Some

proportion to the width; besides it was full glare of the after-

subjected to the

noon sun.

filled

I

both

aquaria with water at the same time,

appeared an article on the advantages of using sheep manure as a cultivator for aquatic plants in the household aquarium. I thereupon decided to do

light.

#

Plants, with the single ex-

ception of Anacharis, never grew well in

aquarium. I tried Sagittaria many times with the same result; they never this

shot off runners, and gradually died out

each time.

and injected the aqueous solution among the roots in acjuarium No.

three times

About the third day,

um

1,

No.

I

in aquari-

noticed clouds of pulveru-

nebulous organizations ascending columns from the sand up to the surface of the water, and there spreading A microout into cloud-like masses. scopical examination proved this to be

lent,

in thin

composed of a

of countless

myraids of spores

certain fungus belonging to the

Phycomycetes. Let us now digress a bit The Phyfor a few words about fungi. called on (Alga-fungi) are so comycetes account of the fact that they resemble certain Algae more closely than other fungi, and are supposed to have been derived from the Algae, having lost their chlorophyll (sap-green) and power of independent living. Saprolegnia, spores

up two twelve gallon aquaria in the following manner: In No. 1, I placed a layer of sand about

2,

a week.

in

a

genus to which our

aquarium No.

1

belong, re-

sheep manure, just enough to cover the sand well, then about an inch and one-

semble certain Algae - Vaucheria and Cladophora so closely that connection The mycelium (working seems plain. body) is composed of cccnocytic hyphae (small thread-like filaments which have no partition walls dividing them into cells) the tips of which become swollen

half of clean sand over

and are cut

Accordingly,

I

set

one-half inch thick; then

sprinkled

this it

a

thin

layer

of

all.

over this|

I

pulverized

I

planted

aquarium with Sagittaria and placed

in

a strong west light, exposed to

the afternoon sun, a position identical

with that aquarium.

of

unsuccessful

the

large

off

by septa

(partitions).

Within these chambers numerous bicilate zoospores (spores with two cilia, which swim about in the water) are formed,

special syringe consisting of a thin glass

which after being motile for a short time, settle down and rapidly form new mycelia. This all strongly suggests Vaucheria and Cladophora. Now the genus of Saprolegnia which appeared in acjuarium No. 1 seem to be perfectly harmless to goldfish in good condition. After a few days these countless spores settled down and formed mycelia on the darker

tube about

portions of the substratum.

In

aquarium No.

I

2,

placed

two

inches of clear sand, planted Sagittaria

without adding the sheep manure ciding to feed these plants directly injecting

a

saturated

manure among the fifteen

by

of

the

by means

of a

solution

roots,

de-

inches long with a


—

T H E

#

In about ten days

A Q

the fungus be-

all

A R

L

Of Interest Regarding Gambusia

gan to disappear very rapidly, the water cleared beautifully, and

I

By W.

They increased with

pidity

—the

surprising ra-

water did not turn green

and conditions seemed eminently satisfactory. Then I introduced fish, which did well from the first. Now, after seven months,

in spite of

S.

HILPERT.

poor conditions, the

One

of

eries at Beaufort, N.

by

much

exactly similar results, only

slower and with more work, as

the plants had to be fed continually.

recommending the sheep-manure method to anybody who is troubled with a poor growth of plants, provided the aquarium is set up as I have suggested. I

do not hesitate

Now,

in

in conclusion, a

few words about

Daphnia.

Some time since, I wrote an article The Aquarium, on the propagation

for of

Daphnia,

them on sions.

I

in

which

I

suggested feeding

hay infuhave recently come to the coninfusoria raised in

clusion that the very best

employ is

in raising

Daphnia

medium

to

in quantities

either Spirogyra, Cladophora or Zyg-

nema. Since September 10th, 1912, I have raised, in a twelve gallon aquarium, sufficient Daphnia to supply one dozen large fish with a liberal feed once a week, and my start consisted of about a quart of Spirogyra and Cladophora. These Algae have been growing and furnishing the young and old Daphnia with plenty of food ever since. I see no reason why a breeder cannot breed Daphnia enough to raise his young fish on if he uses Spirogyra and a sufficiently large tank, making the start in the fall.

C,

is

that reported

of Iowa, in "Science," vSept. 19th, 1913.

Dr.

Kunz's studies were devoted to

the morphology of the reproductive or-

in

me

at

Dr. Albert Kunz, of the University

gans of Gambusia

Aquarium No.

summer

the Laboratory of the Bureau of Fish-

my

2 gave

III.

the most interesting studies

carried out during the past

plants are thriving and multiplying in

80 gallon aquarium.

Chicago,

noticed young

shoots of Sagittaria beginning to showup.

M

U

I

affinis

which abounds

the vicinity of Beaufort, in

all

the

fresh water streams entering the harbor.

His

eflforts

were especially directed to

the structure of the apparatus controlling the modified anal fin in the

Gambusia.

"This

us, "functions as

fin," the

male

report tells

an intromittent organ

and is controlled by a powerful muscle which has its origin on a boney process projecting ventrally from the fourth to the last abdominal vertebrae and the modified anal spines of the proximal end The third, fourth of the anal fin rays. and fifth rays of the fin are enlarged, greatly elongated and variously curved, bearing short spines on their distal portions.

The interhemal which

with the third ray ficiently

is

articulates

enlarged and suf-

elongated to articulate with the

two anterior processes, on which the muscle controlling the anal fin has its The fifth ray may be drawn for-

origin.

at one side of the fourth and brought into proximity with the third. In this manner a groove or tube is formed through which the milt is transferred from the male to the female."

ward

"The history

utility of the

possessing

study

in

natural

be recognized by anyone

will

even rudimentary ideas of Milne-Edwards,

the science."


THE AQUARIUM THE A Q UARIU M

@

44

Those

who have

of our subscribers

writ-

ten us concerning the non-arrival of the

Issued in the Interests of the Study, Care and Breeding of Aquatic Life monthly

Published

except

July and

August

at Chicago, Illinois, by the Aquarium Societies of Brooklyn, Chicago, New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Milwaukee, Minneapolis.

magazine will find our explanation here. If you have any criticisms to make, please send them in to the editor. He will always be glad to entertain a just complaint, and to remove the cause of it if

Send

all

manuscripts,

exchanges, books for review, etc., direct to the Editor-in-Chief; remittances to the Treasurer; all other matter to the Business Manager

possible.

there are

If

any particular

subjects you would like to see treated in the

columns

of

The Aquarium,

a

letter to that effect will be appreciated. Editor in Chief, 8 S. Dearborn St.,

-

Business Manager,

-

-

-

- j

-----

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Treasurer,

-

428 W. 66th

St..

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I.

-

-

GAGE

At the same time, we want to impress upon you the fact that The Aouarium is your magazine. It will be no better than you make it by your support. If you derive benefit from some

111.

ACKERMAN

J.

-

Chicago,

FLOYD -----

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\\[

Chicago,

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111.

YOUNG

S.

Chicago,

111.

appear in its pages, do not overlook the fact that each one can help by writing short articles concerning experiences with any particular species of fish or any special form of apparatus. These articles will be of advantage to your brother aquarists, and will give to the magazine the personal element, which is so desirable. Do not hesitate because your article seems to you to have no merit, or because you think you have no aptitude for writing. of the articles that

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Single Copies, 10c

Advertising Rates upon Application

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Vol.

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October, 1913

II

No. 5

Since the publication of the last issue steps have been taken, which we trust

do away with many annoyances of As we have explained to our readers, none of the staff receive any

will

the past.

financial returns for their work.

We

do

this cheerfully, for the sole purpose of

furthering our

hobby

It is for this

reason that

in a scientific

way.

we

com-

are

pelled to ask your indulgence for a little longer, until we get matters in such

shape that we can publish this magazine on time. We regret this necessity, but it

is

the.

only means by which

Aquarium can

Tun

and continue to be of value to subscribers and advertisers. The loss of our editor, and a change of pubUshers at the same time, left us in a live

rather unfortunate position.

now been make up for

This

diffi-

culty, however, has

obviated,

and we hope

lost time.

to

The material vised and put

will

be carefully

all

re-

into shape for the printer.

Now a special word We want you all to

to the advertisers. feel

that you are

we have your confidence we cannot have the greatest measure of success. You have been patient with us in our difficulties, and we appreciate your forbearance. getting value received.

The business manager

Unless

is

constantly in

touch with the trade, and will be glad to answer any inquiries concerning his particular province.

everybody a

We

want to give we invite any communicate with

sejuare deal;

with grievances to

the Business Manager. At' the

same time we must have some


THE

#

A Q U A R

rules for the guidance of advertisers.

the

In

we do not send advance advertisements. The sizes of

place,

first

proof of

type and kindred matters will be kept just as near to the advertisers' desire as

but we must have a little leein view of contingencies. We re-

possible,

way

serve the right to blue-pencil advertise-

ments which do not conform to our standards, but any such changes will be

We

indicated before publication.

will

not accept flamboyant or spectacular advertisements.

We

if

reserve

also

payment

right of requiring

the

The Acjuarium Society

of

Nov. 13th, 1913, they

will

hold a public

auction of various varieties of plants,

fish,

water

and implements pertaining to

be held at the German-American School House, Sherman Ave., Jersey City, N. J., and should

aquaria.

This sale

will

be taken advantage of by fanciers as well as by amateurs desirous of adding

wells are freshwater lobsters or cravfish, often called crabs by the boys. If an observer sits quiet for a time near these

may see a claw carefully raised out from the hole and then several pairs of legs follow, together with two of bead

D.,

Kalamazoo, Mich.

In wandering about the lowlands, an

may

often find a

num-

ber of small mounds, generally near the edges of ditches or streams. These Httle

If

the inhabitant of the tunnel

sees the least suspicious

movement, he drops back into the burrow, and only reappears after quite a lapse of time if at all that day. A new observer is sur-

—

prised to find that the

tunnels

is

maker

of these

the same creature that he has

often seen crawling about on the bot-

toms

of the streams

and ditches;

just a

smaller relative of the big lobster that eat.

It is

Crayfish *

observant person

soil from their burrows broad daylight, and the workers may be busy all day long in their underground abodes. The makers of these

we

to their collections.

By MORRIS GIBBS. M.

carrying out the

in

like eyes.

wishes to announce that on Thvirsday,

}.")

appear to work chiefiy at night. Still I have twice observed the sly laborers

New York

Auction Sale

M

It is very difficult to discover the well digger at work, for these little fellows

heaps, he

necessary.

L

the thoughtful observer they are ever as ource of instruction and interest.

advance

in

1

probable that these wells are be-

gun at the top, l)ut I cannot learn that anyone has seen the beginning of a tunnel.

Then, as the well gets deeper, the brought up and deposited at

pellets are

the sides, and in time these accumula-

form walls at the sides of the well and take the form of chimnevs. The

heaps vary from three to six inches in height and are sometimes nearly a foot

tions

and are made up of small pelIn the centre of lets of mud and clay. inch or more in dieach is a hole of an outlet or inwhich serves as an ameter,

limey nature of the material found in the deeper soil in the lowlands causes

across,

let for the little architect

the well.

who

inhabits

These Httle tunnels or wells

by the ignorant and unobservant to be snake holes, and they are avoided by timid children or broken into bv the bolder ones, but to

are generally supposed

the pellets to stick together in such a

manner that

mud

the result

is

t|uite

like a

chimney.

These Ivmnels always lead to water which is generally found at a depth of two feet or less, but at times the well is

all

of four feet deep.

Reprinted from Ike Atlantic Coast Natura/ist.


fr

AQUARIUM

THE

40

"^

COMMENTS AND

in the house,

how

have worms

to

of the bricks,

to care for sunfish to feed them.

and what

W. Prepare

rectangular

a

B.

Wright.

all

glass

tom, and plant one-half of this surface with any of the water plants advertised

A

tank about 15"

long, 10" wide and 11" high would be large enough for four, three-inch sunfish. Feed once a day, preferably in the

morning, with any of the standard advertised foods, alternating twice a

with either scraped "lean"

raw

will find

for feeding

raise

lift

ofF

one

up the board, and

them on the

surface.

Do

not dig up or disturb the contents of the box more than is absolutely necessary to supply your requirements.

or

metal bound tank, with about a 2" layer of well washed lake sand in the bot-

in this publication.

and mix thoroughly with When you wish

in the jacket,

you

Please advise

cold potato that has been boiled

the top layer of earth.

QUERIES

^

Every sixty days

casional sprinkling.

mash a

^

week

beef, or

A Common

Mistake

An aquarist can scarcely make a worse mistake than that of adding colder water to that which is in his aquarium. The sudden change of temperature refrom such a course of action, almost invariably cause the fish to take cold. The glands of the skin which secrete the natural waterproof covering of the body become inflamed and emit an sulting

excessive

amount

of slime,

which turns

than the fish will consume daily; the quantity can only be determined by ob-

body a fungus appearance. The gills become congested, and in advanced stages the tail and fins shred and crumble away, and the fish

servation.

soon

fish

worms, chopped

only care necessary

if

is

very large. not to feed

The more

white, giving the

dies.

About the

How

can

I

keep

fish

worms indoors

over winter?

Get one or more empty Fels Naptha soap boxes from your grocer, and see that the sides and bottoms are securely nailed on. Put a 2" layer of black loam

bottom and distribute a good layer of worms over this then add other layers of earth and worms until you have three layers of worms and the upper covered with about 1" of earth. Next get three pieces of 1" board which when placed end in the

;

to

end

will

about cover the surface.

One

inch of the surface should be exposed Next around the edge of the cover. place a brick on each of these boards, and set the box in a moderately cool place

and keep the earth moist by

oc-

best treatment

is

to place

the fish in a strong salt solution for a

few minutes, taking care not to prolong the immersion to the point of exhausRepeat the bath once or twice a tion.

day

until the patient recovers.

do not think of a book on the subject that emphasizes this danger enough; though many of them devote much space to fungus, which is in reality so I

similar to the effects of chilling, that the

beginner often cannot tell the differand does not know what the trouble is. I remember well the trouble

ence,

I

used to have.

I

think

it is

safe to say

that at least two-thirds of the death-loss A to amateurs is due to this cause.

dairy thermometer will prove a useful

and inexpensive aid to any aquarist.


SOCIETY BULLETINS Brooklyn

Aquarium

Regular meetings 2nd

&

4th Tues. in every month except Tulv & Aug. at Fairchild Bldg. 702 Fulton St., at 8 P. M. Initiation Fee, $1.00 Annual Dues, $2.00

Grove Geo. W. Post, 52 Herkeme Harry Roessle, 116 Harman Theodore P. Fritz, 805 Halsey

Dr. I'rudhrick Schneider, 64

President

Society

Vice-President

Corresponding and Recording Sec'y Treasurer Library Local Editor Local Business Manager

Street Street Street

Street

J. SchwEICKERT Frederick Schneider, 64 Grove Street

Dr.

Owen

H. Smith, 702 Fulton Street

Chicago Fish

Fanciers' Club the Regular meetings on Second Wednesday at 809-12 City Hall Square Building, 127-139 North Clark St., at 8:30 P. M. on 4th Wednesday where announced.

President Vice-President Secretary Treasurer Acting Librarian

Young, 428 West 66th Street Preusker, 457 North Avenue W. B. Hoffman, Hammond, Ind. Carl Fossetta, 1341 George Street F. G. Orsingek G. Orsinger, 123 S. Oakley Boulevard 1408 Kedzie Avenue J. Borgstrom. Jr., F. S.

Dr. G. A.

Local Editor Local Business Manager

F. C.

$1.00 $1.00

Initiation Fee,

Annual Dues,

The Aquarium Society Regular Second

meetings

on

the Thursday the at German -'American School, Sherman Ave., Jersey City, and on the Fourth Friday at the American Museum of History, 77th Natural St. and Central Park West, New Nork, each month except CorreJuly and August. sponding membership, $1.00 Annually. Initiation Fee, $1. Dues, $2

Philadelphia Society

Aquarium

Regular meetings on the Fourth Wednesday, at 1414 Arch Street. Initiation Fee, $1.00 Annual Corresponding Dues, $1.80. Membership, $1.00 Annually.

Milwaukee Aquarium Society meetings on First at 105 Grand Ave. Initiation Fee, $1. Dues, $1.20

Regular

Monday

Minneapolis

Aquarium

Society

President Edw. W. Kierann, 22 Nassau Place, East Orange, N. J. Vice-President O. H. Smith, 23 Jacob Street, New York City Recording Secretary Arthur Osborne, 42 South St., Jersey City, N. J. Corresponding Secretary Herman Osmer, West New Brighton, N. Y. Treasurer H. A. Richtberg, 85 South 16th St., East Orange, N. J. Librarian Herman Hoffmeister, 165 Webster Av., Jersey City, N. J. Local Editor John Treadwell Nichols, Am. Museum of Nat. History Local Business Manager Carl P. Ording, 1931 Broadway, New York

President

H. R. Lippincott, Collingswood, N. J. Charles Paxson, 2534 N. 11th Street Hiram Parker, 224 N. Wilton Street L. M. Dorsey, Jr., 2219 N. 19th Street Wm. T. Innes, Jr., 1824 N. Park Avenue L. M. Dorsey, Jr., 2219 X. 19th Street

Vice-President Treasurer Secretary Local Editor Local Business Manager

Schenk, 105 Grand Avenue 31 10 Grand Avenue Geo. J. C. Steffen, 950 First Street Rev. Paul Roth, 2602 Prairie Avenue August W. Pollworth, 1816 Wright Street W. A. Brye, 304 Fifteenth Street

President Vice-President Treasurer

C. G. B.

August Grau,

Secretary Librarian Local Business Manager

I'resident

Treasurer Secretary

Boston I'rcsidcnl

Aquarium

Society

Secretary

Treasurer Initiation Fee,$l An'l Dues,$l

Tappan, 92 South 7th Street

F. L.

W. Franzen, Curator Museum Pub. Library Mrs. Anna Essene, 3421 Longfellow Ave. South J.

Chas.

Tenxant Lee, W. Alden, 15

Franklin A. PacKvVrd,

IS .School St.,

Dcdham, Mass.

Bloonitield St., Boston, Mass. 5

Perry

St.,

Cambridge, Mass.


.

Aquarium Book Herman

T. Wolf's

''Goldfish Breeds

work

and Other

THE

Terminal Pet Shop Importers, Breeders and Dealers in

Aquarium Fishes"

Japanese Goldfish and Tropical Fish

the standard authority. Tells all about breeding fancy goldfish and treats in a practical way on all aquarium and terrarium sub240 beautiful illustrations. jects. Price, postage prepaid by us, $3.00

is

Fish foods, plants and aquaria Pets of every description

Booth No.

INNES & SONS

and cages

Birds, seeds

Burnett's Japanese Fish

Food

Concourse

i8

HUDSON TERMINAL BUILDINo NEW YORK

Twelfth street, Cor. Cherry, Philadelphia, Pa.

Prices cheerfully furnished for special sized aquariums

OF GREAT INTEREST to EVERYBODY My

long-promised Book on Tropical Fish in order to be able to include recent data on new and very interesting species, such as Pterophyllum Scalare, Gasteropelecus Steliatus and Fasciatus, Ambassis Lala, Myletes Species, etc. All these fish are in my Aejuaria under study now, as also hundreds of others, as my l)ook is to be a record of personal observations and life studies. I ask the kind indulgence of those who have already subscribed and invite correspondence from jjrospective subscribers and from all who

Ask your

Has been delayed

dealer for the

Lindemann Cage STANDARD

The

Manufactured and sold

O.

desire rare fish cheap.

L

BRIND, F.Z.S., Aquarist, 500 Isham

F. L.

St.,

of Rare and

only by

New

CO.

York

New York

Get A%.\1 Pet

TAPPAN

Dealer and Breeder

to the trade

LINDEMANN &

Free Literature on request on Fish, Supplies. Aquaria, etc.

W.

for

Fifty Years

Fancy Fish

To Keep You Company During Winter Months

!

Long-eared Sunfish

Goldfish

A pretty Canary, bright as a su.ibeam, active as a cricket, fills your home with music and your heart with gladness. He j

Gir^rdinus reticulatus

Mexican Swordtail Girardinus guppyi Geophagus Platypoecilia maculata Gambusia holbrooki And many others

Paradise Fish

Chanchitos

FOUR-HORNED SNAILS

makes you feel life's worth living. Hundreds of pleased customers last year. They are real

{Ampullaria gigas)

Imported German CANARIES

deposit a mass of large coral-red eggs out of ttie water; the little snails drop into the water as they hatch.

Send $l.oofor

A

my new

practical fish in

92 Seventh

book,

Tested and guaranteed singers, obtained from the Germany, in shipping cage, each, $,). Imported females each $1, living arrival guaranteed; handsome brass cage $1. Parrots, gold fish, all kinds cages, etc. Large illustrated catalog free. Largest mail order bird dealers in the we-ld. Bird Book 25 cents. IOWA BIRD CO.. Dept J DES MOINES, lA. best breeders in

"AQ_UARIA FISH".

work on care and breeding of the aquarium. Illustrated.

Street, South, Minneapolis,

Minn.

BEST COLLECTION OF

FANCY FISH

•.•

AQUATIC PLANTS

MILWAUKEE TRYPOD W.

C.

CO.,

457 Eleventh Street

MILWAUKEE. WIS.

EVANS, Manager

Manufacturer and repairer of aquariums. Dealer iij kinds of aquarium fishes and plants, Imported Japanese and Chinese gold fishes. all

Always on Exhibition Many years of experience has enabled me to malce a specialty of all aquatic life. My aim is to assist the student of Nature and rnake it possible for him to obtain the specimens he desires in a healthy and first-class condition.

"ENUF SAIDE. C.

Mention

.

.

315

W. Madison

Wholesale and Retail Dealer

St.,

Chicago

in

BIRDS AND ANINIALS

HERMAN RABENAU 1163 Myrtle Avenue Brooklyn, N. Y. Near Broadway New Shipments received Monthly. Prices Right AQUARIUMS AND ALL ACCESSORIES

VAHLE

QUARIUM

of artistic designs for particular people.

Gold Fish, Water Plants. Imported Catalog

THE PIONEER AQUARIUM MFG.

THE AQUARIUM when

writing advertisers

Siiails.

FREE. CO., RACINE.,

WIS.


Wm.

Paullin

L.

WOLF

425

PHILADELPHIA, PA.

ST.,

Importer and Breeder of

Rare

Aquarium Fish Grower of Finest Water Plants Fancy Gold Fish

Jacob C. Cassel 915 Arch

Street, Philadelphia, Pa.

aquarium requisites and Trade Prices

for Catalog

Aquarium Ornaments Aquarium Cement Aquaria Books

Fish Globes Fish Foods

Aquatic Plants

Gravel, etc.

Dip Nets

Shells Pebbles Choice Line of Fancy Goldfish

in Detroit

I\

Fancy Japanese Gold and Silver Fish Aquaria, Fish Globes, Foods and Plants, Birds and Cages Bird Seed, Mocking-Bird Food, Etc.

THIELER'S SONG REST(3RER Very lUst

in

33 Flatbush Avenue,

BROOKLYN,

FISH FOOD

of 40'7r

Daphnia

Mosquito Larva.

t

equally good for Gold or Tropical Fish.

The fins

act

Send

for Price List.

best winter food on the

and

Will develop color; also

healthy and robust;

will

and is the for Daphnia,

laxative

a

as

fine

makes your

best substitute It contains i J ingredients, also

Daphnia.

It will

not sour or

cloud the water. This food is used by the New York and Philadelphia Aquaria; also by many breeders in Philadelphia and other large cities Retails for 10

cents— Baby Food, 15 cents per box

Ask

voiir dealer fot

HARRY

P.

it

or sinil tn

PETERS

Warnock Street PHILADELPHIA, PA.

i2:o North

the Market

N. Y. F"ine

Teleplitiiie coiineetion

Mention

fish

Greenriver Fish and Baby Fish Food

Detroit, Mich.

THIELER DEALER

10'

Price, 15c a box.

fish

ROYCE & PASSMORE

C.

and It is

composed

is

market.

Aquarium

201 East Jefferson Ave.,

This food

Fish Food

Fish Globes

The Oldest Bird Store

Egg dropping Etc.

HATCHERY

PAULLIN'S

Handle Everything iz Aquarium

A

Live bearing fish Egg laying fish

fish

Try a box of

Floral Terra Cotta. etc.

We

All Kinds of Tropical Fish

Etc.

Aquarium Ornaments

all

Telescopes

Nest building fish Mouth breeding fish

AQUARIUMS

Send

Japs

Fringetails

Bubble nest building

.Maiuifaclurir of

Gold Fish and

Veiltails

THE AQUARIUM when

young

Frinije and Broad-Tails, good color $1.50 per dozen and up

writing advertisers


MMM§

m\

WATERPROOFS #>

IMPERVITE

4029 Ȥ'So88 Ol6i5

Wnere Uthers

IflPERVII

^

J

Fail

a pure Asphaltic Paste that contains no Soap. It is absoOrdinary W'aiirproojing Cotn^ouvds contain soap. They (in'c a tcm l^or'try waterproofing just as soft soap would do. % yf jf It does not reduce the Strength Impervite mixes easily with water. .Sm;/' compouiids do (if Mortar or dclav the vSetliiii;. You will then re"Impervite Pointers"? A ^4-inch Impervite facing will adhere to ceive gratis four interesting and valuable the inside of walls even where the water presbooklets on: sure is from the outside. I heory of the I'arious Waterproofing ^lethods. We guarantee that Impervite will make /'nil Directions /or Waterproofing Against Pressure. Cement .Mortar aljsolutely waler])roof. Description of Some Interesting Jobs. Ho-tv to Make Waterproof. Non-Cracking Stucco. Why not write a postal today, askint; for p

r

lutely

is

permanent.

JH JY

STANDARD PAINT COMPANY, New

Aquarium Specialty Co. WASHINGTON NEW YORK CITY

1827-31

Crystal

halterbeck

j. j.

CYPRESS AVENUE

251

N.-W. Corner 138th

AVE.

Aerator and

Street

NEW YORK CITY Importer

MAKERS OF THE Rogers

I

York

-

Breeder - Dealer

Filter

SELL

LARGEST IWANUFACTURERS OF Aquaria,Terraria, Vivaria and Aquatic Cages, Mouse and Frog Houses

--

BUY

--

EXCHANGE

Rare and Fancy Fish and Reptiles

BREEDERS OF Fringetail Japanese and Chinese Telescopes and of Red, African and Japanese Snails Importers of Foreign and Tropical Fishes.

CULTIVATORS

OI"

Sagittaria Natans and Gigantica and of

TROPICAL FISH A SPECIALTY

Plain Facts! Large Importation of Foreign Fish every month New Varieties with each Shipment More than 3,000 Tropical Fish Sold in

vSingle-rootcd Luchvigia IMullcrtti

Why?

Exchanges ronsidered

See

Correspondence solicited

AQUARIA

my

Ad. in The Aquarium next month

N. State Street

of

kinds

Auburndale Goldfish Co. fNot Incorporated

CHICAGO, ILL.

1449 West Madison \V rile for Price List

Mention

all

Aquaria Tanks Fish Globes Ornaments, Etc.

Birds, Cages, Seeds, Etc.

114

Aquarium Plants

rmported Goldfish

SUPPLIES

KAEMPFER'S BIRD STORE

Four Months

THE AQUARIUM when

Send

for Ciitaloj;

St.,

Chicago,

;ui<l 'rr^idc

111.

Triocs

writing advertisers Pbess n(

WM.

H.

Pom

Pir,.

Aloe.

Co..

626

S. Ciark Si.

Chkaco


The Aquarium 2/5 1913  

The Aquarium 2/5 1913

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