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TEN CENTS

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THE

690.

AQUARIUM ISSUED IN THE INTERESTS OF THE STUDY, CARE AND BREEDING OF AQUATIC LIFE

RED-BELLIED DACE Chrosomus Eiythrogaslei

One of the most brilliantly colored and gen>>rally satisfactory aquarium fishes. Fins, light yellow: base of dorsal fin, red; lop of head and back, olive speckled black; top stripe, b'ack; next •tripe, light shade of metallic gold; stripe running through eye and into tail, black; belly and lower jaw, brilliant red; gill

plates,

white

JUNE

Vol.

PUBLISHED AT PHILADELPHIA. PA. BY THE AQUARIUM SOCIETIES OFTHE CITIES OFc

r=i NEW YORK CHICAGO

:

:

BROOKLYN

PHILADELPHIA

77s.


WII^I^IAM

MACK

THE

Terminal Pet Shop h

Importers, Breeders and Dealers in

CO

lapanese Goldfish and Tropical Fish Fish foods, plants and aquaria

< D

Pets of every description

C

Birds, seeds and cages

Burnett's Japanese Fish

<

Booth No.

i8

Food

Concourse

HUDSON TERMINAL BUILDING NEW YORK West

I02

io6th Street,

New

Prices cheerfully furnished for special sized aquariums

York City

AQUARIA

Plants Decayed? Goldfish Dead? There's a Reason! A helping hand to the amateur aquarist and a

SUPPLIES

We take the lime to answer your trouble? Full instructions for balancing your aquarium for year without change of water, 35 cents copy, postpaid. profit to ourselves.

little

questions.

What

is

Birds, Cages, Seeds, Etc.

We

buy, sell, exchange, import and breed the rarest Chinese scaledragon-eyed goldfish and Japanese scaled fantail and fringetails. Goldfish shipped anywhere in Snails, beautiful aquarium plants. United States, guaranteed safely. "©Ol^Cn E)ragon," the fish food that saves the lives of your fine fish, and makes them fat and Don't exoeriment feed the Imhappy, 20 cents box, postpaid. Contains dried daphnia, laxatives and perial Food of Old Japan. Pair fine young Japanese fantails, $1.50. Big bunch cereals, etc. aquarium plants, 25 cents, postpaid. less

KAEMPFER'S BIRD STORE

Cije ©riental

&0Mi&\) S.

F.

G.

114

N. State Street

CHICAGO, Write

Co., 924 Gates Av.. Brooklyn, N.Y.

ILL.

for Price List

Chichester LInyil, Manager

KUHLKIN

H. A. BOIES

THE

NATURE SHOP

Aquarium Book Herman

T. Wolf's work

"Goldfish Breeds and Other Aquarium Fishes"

Our Sped a /lies All varieties of fish for the aquarium is

Self-sustaining aquaria

a perfect balanced food K. B. Fish Food Guaranteed singing and talking birds

The Shop ivorth

^jc)

W.

I

•visiting

8 1ST

— Broadivay

Subivay

STREET, Subway

to

the standard authority.

all

about breeding

way on all aquarium and terrarium subjects. 240 beautiful illustrations. Price, postage prepaid by us, $3.00

our door

Bldg.

Tells

fancy goldfish and treats in a practical

INNES & SONS Twelfth Street, Corner Cherry, Philadelphia, Pa.

For nSHY" T":;' "5* tKot areMEW ee rn V "A A" iW H s Two ave -ms Price-Lisr Senttft V«>>-i ••

>if.T.7/i^viii-.vyiaige

THE NEXT NUMBER OF THE AQUARIUM will appear in

September

Notices of change of address should be sent to Innes

&

Sons, 12th and Cherry Sts., Phila.


May

American Muxeinn Jouriud for

Till'

Document No. 110 of the Bureau of FishWashington, "Methods of Studying

contains an illustrated article by Bashford

eries,

Dean on "The Exhibition

the Habits of Fishes, &c.," by Prof. Jacob

American Museum,

seum methods

for exhibiting fishes

The

terestingly described.

showing specimens ])laced

them

the

as in

in imitation

This

is

in

is

placing

are in-

of the

eries Congress,

Washington, and was awarded the prize

making

held

and, after coloring

and recording the

with an illustrative example.

in

groups and

mam-

selected was the

model

its

Society sends

four elder sisters.

behalf of the latter,

we welcome

How

to the ranks.

its

The Fourth

Estate,

New

In early

York, of June

8,

histories of fishes,

reconmiend

this

jmper

such work and suggest to

for

studjing

life

histories

Fish Commiission

of

for a

copy of Document No. 110.

numbers we hope to publish

sev-

by noted naturalists; articles on live-biaring fishes, a series on labyrinth fishes, and a continuation of the series on j)lants started in this number. eral

follow?

for

The example Horned Dace (Semotilus

fishes to write the

Mil-

soon will Boston

life

We

atromaculatus). as a

life.

The young Milwaukee

On

September, 1908, at

the best method of observing the habits

those intent on

waukee

in

them

keeping with the groujjs of

birthday greetings to

University of Michigan,

Fourth International Fish-

at the

being dis-

of their natural surroundings.

mal and bird

Reighard,

was read

method of

rational one of

objects

life,

old

bottles

in

by the more

casts of

of Fishes" in the

which modern mu-

in

articles

1912, announces us thus:

Those who read German have a

FISH RAISING "The Aquarium,"

a magazine devoted to

the interests of the study, care and breeding of aquatic It is

life,

has just been established.

New

York, Brooklyn, Chicago

and Philadelphia.

Eugene Smith of Ho-

Societies of

boken, N.J.,

is

the editor-in-chief.

KNCLOSE

$1.00 for

ria

hope from time to time to it

to the notice of our readers.

The "MoscoAv Society of Lovers of y\quaand House Plants" is an old established

Russian Society which issues a bi-monthly magazine from which we shall publish some articles in the future.

FILL IN,

1

We

posal.

bring some of

issued monthly at Philadelphia, except

during July and August, by the Aquarium

rich field

of literature on aquatic topics at their dis-

CUT OUT AND MAIL

ONE YEAR'S SUBSCRIPIION TO

THE AQUARIUM TO COMMENCE WITH THE

Make

checks payable

to

THE AQUARIUM

and mail

to

ISSUE

W.

F.

DeV'oe, P. O. Box 383, Baldwin, L.

I.


FRANKLIN BARRETT 4815

D

Street, Olney, Philadelphia, Pa.

Largest Greenhouses in the World Devoted to the Breeding of Fancy, Chinese and Japanese Goldfish and

Propagation

of

Aquarium

Plants

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL

PLANTS

FISHES

CABOMBA MYRIOPHYLLUM

COMMON SCALED

ANACHARIS SAGITTARIA LUDWIGIA VALLISNERIA

SCALELESS

COMET FANTAIL FRINGETAIL

HORNWORT

TELESCOPES CELESTIALS

POTAMOGETON SNOW FLAKE WATER POPPY WATER HYACINTH

LION'S HEADS SHUBUNKINS

SALVINIA

PARADISE GOLDEN-ORFES

WATER FERN

GOLDEN-TENCH

WATER LETTUCE

LACE LEAF

GAMBUSIA-AFFINIS STICKLE-BACKS

UMBRELLA PALMS CYPERUS PAPYRUS CYPERUS

SNAILS

ALTERNIFOLIUS GRACILIS

COMMON RAMS HORN

LAXUS FOLVA VARIEGATED BOSTON FERNS

POTOMAC AFRICAN JAPANESE

Drawing

by H. T.

WOLF

PTERIS FERNS

WATER

LILIES

Submerged and Semi-Submerged Plants lOR PONDS ON ESTATES

"SUPERIOR" AQUARIUMS

Manufacturer of the Celebrated Rustless corner pieces.

Marbleized

Made

bottoms.

slate

in

galvanized sheet iron, wrought iron

and brass nickel plated.

"AMERJAP" FISH FOOD

Manufacturer of the Celebrated Made from

the purest of materials.

For

fish only.

aquarium pure and sweet and does not injure the plants

Once

tried,

We maim

the

in

Keeps your

good condition, keeps your Eaten by the fish with avidity.

fish in

the aquarium.

always used.

ornaments in the country. No rough, sharp edges to injure and but every ornament glazed with a smooth and beautiful finish, and in harmonious colors,

carry the finest line of aquarium fish,

creating an artistic

efi^ect in

the aquarium.

Globes, Nets, Pebbles, Sand, Foods, Etc. Everything Pertaining to the Aquarium and Pond Send

for Price Lists


;

The Aquarium Volume

JUNE,

1

Chrosomus Erythrogaster

with

(Rafinesque) I

spring

our waters,

found

is

Outside the State

ported from Maine and

Carolina

and

From Michigan and

It is

northern

in

New Brunswick

lemon yellow,

large

blotch

'

the Ohio Valley gen-

hort,

commonly found only

Its

in small clear

stripes of

77

91

to

and the two long

<

in

dorsal scarlet

a

fins

with at

a its

Head

rather

nose

pointed,

about equal; gcalcs

is

evidently obtained by nib-

sucking the surface slime from

and other objects on the bottom.

consists mainly of

mud

containing

algae.

In captivity the dace should be fed^ once longittidinal .1

dark color upon the

sides, will

Length, 2 to 8 inches

;

day on

fish

food and small scraps of raw

beef alternately

;

earth

worms chopjied up

being really better than the beef.

other s))ecies of Cyprinidte found within

our range.

the

the

readily distinguish the present species from all

food

stones It

scales,

bright

of

breast,

belly,

and

the

pointed, javvs

bling or

streams.

"The minute

in

very small."

Kansas tributary

Missouri.

lateral line,

belly

and the body everywhere minutely

tuberculate.

to

Alabama

have the scarlet,

bright

base

has been re-

northern

erally to the streams of to the

it

coloration

and chin bright

This beautiful species, one of the most

North

males;

in

with silvery; females much

more obscurely marked than males which

Chicago

in

crimson

to

Koi'i»

(Based upon "Natural History Survey of Illinois")

Illinois.

brassy

Avhite, overlaid

3

Ked-Bellied Dace/

Wm.

showv

Number

1912

The breeding season

body ob-

falls in

May

and

long, moderately comjjressd, tapering about

June, at which time the colors of the male

equally each wa}^ from middle of body

reach their most gorgeous development.

color above brownish olive, with a broad

^^'hile

vertebral streak of dusky and dark spots

lives well in the

forming an indistinct row on u])per part of each side stripes

;

not especially hardy, this species

aquarium, where

upper

of

age,

rivers.

Edit.

caudal

fin,

sometimes

breaking up into spots of oblique bars

on caudal peduncle

;

the lower stripe

broader, extending from snout through

eye and along lower portion of sides to

end of caudal penducle, followed

by a black spot

in-

tish is not found in the Atlantic Toast drainexcept in the headwaters of some of the

Note— This

a:id

narrower one extending from upper corner

base

is

marked with two black

sides

(faint in females), the

of gill-cleft nearly straight backward to

it

deed a most beautiftil object.

at base of caudal rays;

RED-BELLIED DACE

the interspace lu-tween lateral bands

Chrosomus

a bright silvery or satiny cream, tinged 19

I'Jry throe/ aster


Worth

Aquatic Plants

Cultivating

Hammond, Indiana

The Floating

1.

Ceratopteris

the

floating

among

ferns and one of the few truly aquatic or

hydrophytic

species.

A

plant

it

extends around

waters of the tropics,

of

quiet

the world, occurring in the United States

The plant

Florida and Louisiana.

in

a

usualh^

more or

divided,

or

the blade

;

ing leaf

being

sacrificed

from

Aside

spores, the

means

by

on

occasionally

leaves,

surface

depending more upon

this

else.

or ponds.

United States and Europe. and no real leaves,

to both

real stems

but the whole plant consists of

of

green

little

fronds which look like leaves and of which

one alone constitutes a plant or two or three adhering together, with one or two

the

of

might

name has been given to aquatic plants known to every

There are no

produces new plants

the

it

recently this

who wanders by puddles

mon

tissue

spore-production.

to

propagation species

leaf

which he gave the name,

Several species of duckweed are com-

from proliferous buds at the edges

freely

or

the

is

to

and more divided

segments,

It

was

one

spore-bear-

or

fertile

erect, longer

is

narrow

into

the

;

a leaf.

uncertain as to what the precise plant

a group of

culent in texture with a thick stem filled

with air-cells

whom

now

More

suc-

is

to

have been a "duckweed" or something

bluntly triangular, or del-

less

The savant

was Theophrastus, who wrote a treatise on plants somewhere about B. C. 800. This same Greek was acquainted with an aquatic plant to which he gave the name Lemna. The name was possibly suggested to him by the little island of Lemnos, in the ^gean Sea, apparently floating on the water like

is

young

(in

deeply lobed

or

leaves or fronds

toid

simple

of

rosette

specimens)

Pliny and Aristotle, de-

refer

I

anomaly

an

is

like

the study of nature.

P'ern.

thalictroides,

water-fern,

or

who,

})her,

voted a portion of his time and talent to

W. A. POYSER

thread-like

method

underside.

than upon the more uncertain sexual proc-

from

hanging

the

growing from the edges of those

ones

The viviparous production, asexually of new plants by gemmae, bulblets or buds is not uncommon among plants of

rootlets

The fronds multiply by young

ess.

the lower orders.

In cultivation the

ple

cause to

or

usually

it is

leaves,

grown

probably

frond.

in

water too deep soil. is

While as an oxygenator the floatingis of no value to the aquarist, as a

a tiny oval or round frond, two to five

rootlet.

Given a sunny position it

tentment

fish

with

seem such

to find a certain con-

a

surface

Upwards

covering,

there lived

in

two thousand

Lemna

smaller, aver-

The most

fronds

are

attractive is

Lemna

oblong

and

pointed, growing at right angles in two planes.

The Greater Duckweed, Lemna

poli/rhiza

years

minor.

The

trisulca.

The Duckweeds. of

is

species, as well as the largest,

and vegetarian species are not averse to an occasional nip at the succulent leaves. 2.

single

aging about the size of that of the smallest

The

a

perpusilla too has a sin-

in

responds with a wealth of

cheerful light green, and multiplies rapidly.

with

diameter,

in

Lemna

gle rootlet, but the frond

warm room,

Co-

The Lesser Duckweed {Lemna minor) common species and consists of

millimeters

a

Wolffia

our most

forms a pleasing addition

to a collection.

produced

edge of the

In general this description covers

our local species except

be-

fern

it

are

fissures in the

lumbiana.

permit the roots to reach the

surface plant

flowers, very sim-

rare,

floatall

fronds

and minute and

from cracks or

ing-fern seldom produces fertile or spore-

bearing

The

that are mature.

ago

of

Linnaeus,

has

long

since

been placed in a separate genus of the

Greece a certain philoso-

family and 20

is

now

called Spirodela poly-


or

may

that

thalli

These

lets.

apologies

reach a diameter of

and

millimeters

eight

A Surgical

This species has disc-like fronds

rhiza.

little

for

has

several

root-

"Duckmeats"

with

perpetuating

their

roots,

W.

On

parent,

the

seem far from the accepted flowering plant, but neverthe-

idea of a

fish dealers,

and

in looking over his stock,

fish

swimming about with

saw a goldhead down.

At the

first

word

the last

is

The

in this direction.

may

part of the jaw, and out of curiosity

removed the sack

The

render

aquarist

to

unnecessary

it

for

any concern

exercise

Of

or

more

to

some

course,

and

attractive trisulca, he

may

Microscopic

trouble.

course, present on the rootlets side of the fronds.

This

is

righted itself and

in their

mouths and,

moment

disgorge

it.

in a

ability.

It

or so,

Note on Hearing of Fishes

know

hearing of

fishes.

experimenting

He

almost immediately about in a nor-

inquiring at the store

found the

fish

apparently in

its

with

former dis-

seems conclusive that this

fish

mouth was

fish's

manner, particularly, as

it

We

all

the propensity of goldfish to suck

gravel into the mouth, but they usually

Dr. G. H. Parker, of Harvard Univer-

been

fully

placing

entirely covered with the growth.

Nichols

New York has

On

gravel happen to lodge in the in such a

sity,

an

was held downward by the weight of the gravel, but the mystery was how did the

(To be Concluded)

J. T.

Upon I

it

swam

good health and no trace of

to

to take a plant

fish,

the fish in the tank,

a week later,

known

in-

great surprise, there dropped

of

which may be seen

the

my

out several pieces of gravel, some

and under

well

to

mal manner.

is,

to

However, as a further took a pen-knife from my

I

well go

life

was

I

was due

it

one-eighth inch in diameter.

to se-

one secures the rarer

if

that

I

The

it.

pocket and proceeded to open the sack,

the

cure a start in advance of Nature outdoors.

and

to the touch

believe

experiment,

about

few can be carried over

and examined

abnormal growth.

"wintering" his plants, but, without much trouble, a

fish

hard

felt

clined to

Duckweeds are the smallest flowering plants known to botanists. The great abundance of some of the species

Upon

there was a sack projecting from the lower

be due to

a tiny green seed.

it

is

It is

and the proneness of the unfa-

size

its

miliar to think

was

fish

closer examination, however, I found that

about one millimeter in diameter, floating considered rare, but that

thought the

I

one of the symptoms of that disease.

plant consists of a minute green globule

just below the surface of the water.

glance,

its

with bladder trouble, as this

aff'ected

ana

to stop

one of our local

the extremely tiny Woljfia Columbi-

less

happened

a certain occasion I

in the store of

species by branching and separation from

Case

F. DeVoe Brooklyn

eject the

the

same immediately

after doing so.

finds that sounds in

the air usually cannot be heard well under

water, and that sounds under water usually

cannot be heard well in the fishes

show certain proof

air.

According to habitat, fishes fall into two main groups, marine and freshwater, with an intermediary group inhabiting the trans-

Many

of distinctly hear-

ing under water sounds.

Dr. Parker's article

Bureau of Directing

ition region of is

Doc. No. 755,

group can

"Sound as a Movements of

Fisheries, Wash.,

Influence in the

or

become

species

brackish water.

The

live either in salt or fresh

adapted

may be

strictly

to

either,

or

21

some

confined to areas of

certain degrees of density or sal nity.

Fishes."

last

water


THE AQUARIUM

One form plankton

Issued in the Interests of the Study,

readily

Care and Breeding of Aquatic Life

time.

th

Aquarium

Send

all

,

to the

direct

other matter to the

all

Editor-in-chief;

Manager

Business

for

Savings Building, Hoboken, N.J.

Business

DeVOE

Bank

W.

Manager,

F.

Advertising Rates upon Application

::

the gun, so

the camera has very largely dis-

may

the plankton net

sliould be pleased to hear that

mention

the

No.

acjuarium suggests to case with

the

this

is

managers

word

the

and

in a

ginner,

Wliile this

is

it

The

the

There. is the

Crustacea,

life

his

given

of the insect world,

those

begun

the mollusks, and

minute forms of

life,

all

ticles.

the

of

the

organic

world,

that

of

to

The only

that proper credit be

and magazine by

author

both

who may reproduce any

We

want

azine and trust

the

productive of

As many of our friends are

is

of our ar-

to get the widest possible

With the June magthat the summer may be

number we reach our time

plants.

of

we make

])ublieity for our subject.

including that of the

micro-organisms, not to speak of the other half

subject matter as well as illustra-

request

after having exhausted all fsh possibilities,

work.

illustrations

be cuts used for advertising

it

tions are offered for public use.

truth, as

the thorough aquarist has only

Hereafter there

purposes only.

true, of course,

only a partial

is

and business

matter reach him by

all

more copyright

no

be

used, unless

measure a definition for the be-

still

have

to

of eacli month.

.^th

will

about as

simple a definition as one can get from the uninitiated.

will

so.^

In order to insure earlier publication,

3

hearer a "glass

tlie

and

in"

fish

of

Who

the benefits of their experiences.

do

the editor asks contributors

Ordinarily

some of

members or friends would undertake sucli work this coming summer and give us

::

JUNE, 1912

I

As

l)laeed

We

Single Copies, ioc

Subscriptions, $1

s))ort.

our

383, Baldwin, Long Island, N. Y.

Box

may

recreation out of this sort of

take the place of the rod and reel.

EUGENK SMITH

Editor-in-Chief,

be

s])are

occupation as out of angling or gunning for

Philadelphia

manuscripts, exchange?, books for

review, etc

Vol.

and

may

made by any one with some

much

get as

Brooklyn,

of

Societies

New York

Chicago,

that of

is

which

Sojourners along lake and shore

Published m. nthly except July and August at I 2th Street, cor. of Cherry, Philadelphia, by

of such research

investigations,

renewed the coming in

in the habit

summer vacations much pleaswell as furnish much

spending extended

of rest as a

many new ventures

resulting

activity on the part of all for fall

season.

at small lakes, they could get

ure for themselves as

A CORRECTION.— On the

and even help augment

instruction to others

the knowledge of aquatic life to no

between

in-

considerable degree, by making systematic

neighborhood surveys of their retreat

and recuperation.

research,

no

field

barren and no one

is

miles

endeavor

The Lower

so insignificant as not

evolved

by

and 11,

of

first

column:

Once

a

Falls.

-iniore

oldest

known

indications of fishes teetli

in

very plentiful, but

it is

of fishes Ix'comes known. 22

fishes

in

are

Upper modern type

only in the

Cretaceous deposits that the

masterful

minds.

found

Silurian deposits in Russia.

In the LTpper Silurian, fossil

of facts from which later the great truths of ai-e

1()

Little

are some small spines or

is

to be able to contribute his mite to the pile

science

lines 10

above

page

insert the following line

places of

In these days of

of hunran

May number,


Plankton

The plankton

EirGENE Smith

tion

Iloboken

tion

\MH'n you look into deep waters from

more than the

its

composi-

of water, distance from shore, plentitude of

from shipboard you rarely see

shore or

varies as to

and amount according to season, direcand force of wind or current, depth

certain organisms as attraction for others

reflection of the sky in its

and for innumerable local reasons, having thus maximal and minimal phases period-

varying moods, or perhaps only one uni-

;

You know,

form dark mass of water.

of

Much

annual, monthly and daily.

icitv,

course, that there are fish there as well as

remains to be done to clear up this

other living things, but of the vastness of

the

that

few have any

life,

There is

is

idea.

The word Plankton

life.

Greek

of

is

origin and signifies "that which floats."

mounted on a ring or spreader of about eight to twelve inches opening. The bag of the net should taper from this width to a point at the end where it may either be

It

includes all this manifold life of the water

which

not attached to the soil or which

is

is

not to a large extent free of the swa}' or current of the water.

motion of

own

its

frame covered with gauze or have a small

simply

as well as that

bottle or detachable

borne along by wind and wave.

The

what

swimming part

actively

also

is

net

called the nekton or srcinnninc/, while the

plankton proper

that

is

more

life

are represented.

Thus among

the nekton are wandering

worms,

poly))s,

snails,

covering

after in

either

by

tachable

net

one to two feet in

insects, the adults of a

should be

few only.

certain

the

made

distance

its

the

plankton proper are

many

also

to be

operated

may row

kinds, including

those of fishes and very largely algae and

mass

held

ready

The bag should be from depth. The towing line

of strong linen cord

at least twice as long as the greatest

Among

is

contents,

jelly-like

into a vessel

bottle

bryozoa, protozoa and others, the larvae

protozoa, eggs of

The

by dumping the de-

or

for the purpose.

many

a

scraping

of the

prustacea like daphnia, Cyclops and others,

and pupae of

to hold

the water in tow of

and emptied of

hauled out

many

rotifers,

drawn through

is

and

All classes of

of the water, the drifting.

box attached

from the water.

sifted out

is

a row-boat or a slowly moving motor-boat,

mercy

at the

provided with a smaller

tied with a string or

what has

It includes

of

within the reach of

is

it

many to help in this field. The apparatus for this work are few and A net made of fine silk gauze simple.

not a drop of that water which

not literally quick with animal and vege-

table

water and

life

To

in.

use the net one

the boat while the other

and

depth

man

manages

other plants either freely floating like the

For deep hauls attach a pound weight or more to the end of the line and

sargasso weed, the blue-green algfe caus-

the net at whatever height above the bot-

ing the bloom of the water, or

the

minuter diatoms,

etc.,

the net.

much

as

well

as

spores

the

sea

is

called

tom you wish the whole to

and seeds.

The

plankton

of

It is

The amount

of this floating life

is

simply

tity,

and

it is

i.

e.

to say, vertebrate life, as

furnishes food to

empty

well not to

it

and proceed again.

make

too long a haul, as

For shallow depths or for surface tow-

makes possible

ing the weight

the immense productivity of the water in

higher,

The weight

))lankton.

inconceivable both as to kind and quanjust this that

explore.

the gauze becomes easily clogged with the

that of the freshwater limnohios.

halobius,

to

drags along the bottom until you haul up

may be dispensed

tirely, or to give the net

a light weight

it

may

a

little

be attached to the line

several feet in advance of the net.

it.

23

with en-

steadier pull

Between


wash out the net so remain open and

liauls

may

thermometer

;

magnifying

least a strong

value

Everybody interested in the culture of probably knows a daphnia when

he sees one, but a few words explaining

(sta-

what a daphnia duces

microscope, or at is

of great

it.

Other-

glass,

ready to use

3'ou are

if

A

made.

and

differ greatly

sure

[)roperly or give

it

each vial

label

to

number

an insect

in a note book.

further

some one versed

or turn

it

send at

the

to

it

U. S.

into

called Cladocera.

is

The

Fish

a

is

less transparent, Avithin

a

bivalvular

carapace

hinged dorsally on the

manner and largely so by aquarists. Whatever little has

studied in this

inside;

eye,

United States so far has

in the

daphnia

animal, more or

small

The life of lakes, and of German,

Washington.

and Italian

Entomostraca are

shell.

daphnia and others.

life

English and Scandinavian lakes has been

been done

a

over to some teacher in a uni-

Commissioner

the help of

in

divided

This group includes

or

the Swiss

are placed into a sub-class called

do that part for you,

scopy or minute

versity,

one

micro-

in

and appearance, tho Daphnia and

several orders, of which

sary means to analyze the matter you have let

from which, however, they in size

Entomostraca, which means, in a rough way,

If you have not the time or the neces-

collected

it

has a single

from four to

six

been mostly through the medium of the

feet having branchiae,

Fish Commission.

or organs of respiration,

Let

us,

too,

make some

and

in this

efforts

large,

branched

Daphnias are very

on Propagation of Daphnias or Water Flea

Pointers

Frank In order to

live,

J.

Meyers

If

we

nature

imitate

closely as possible so that an animal

approximately

ment and feed

it

been accustomed, will thrive is

antennae acting

as

it is

it

them

tion takes place in

two ways

a recognized fact

its

that

as

may has

their birth a

possible food for goldfish, especially

Reproduc-

eggs are received into a large

molt or shedding of the shell

takes place, and the egg coverings are cast

species.

the

in size.

between the back of the animal and its shell, where they are hatched and the young undergo almost their whole development, so as to come forth in a form nearly resembling that of their parent. Soon after

natural that the ani-

and reproduce

females

cavity

environ-

natural

the food to which

the

prolific,

greatly exceeding

First, the

every organism in nature,

whether animal or vegetable, must absorb nourishment.

It

Greatly enlarged

preponderating largely over the males and

Betlilehem, Pa.

mal

A DAPHNIA

swimming organs.

direction.

live in its

not

shell or carapace.

its relatives

the locality, date, depth, etc., under a cor-

resjjonding

crayfish,

have a

all

number and describe

a

is

may

Daphnia belongs to Crustacea, which includes the crab, lobster

with two per cent, formaline solution for

Be

and how it reprocome amiss. the same great class,

really

kind,

its

wise put the mass hauled out into bottles

future use.

of supply by the

source

goldfish

tions) tested as well as lines of direction in whieli hauls are

the

to

culturist.

sampling water at different more extended work would also

depths at the different places

';ake

cursions

in captiv-

necessitating frecjuent ex-

ity die rapidly,

and

temjieratures

test

to

Daphnias

goldfish, are daphnias.

water

tlie

for

bottles

depths

let

Besides the net you want also

through. 1

that the meslies

off

with

it.

In a very short time afterwards,

another brood of eggs are seen

best

and the same process

young 24

is

in

the cavity,

repeated, the shell


:

being again shed after the young have been

But,

brought to maturity.

may be

Second, at certain times daphnias

are

seen with a dark opaque substance inside the

the

of

part

rear

which

shell,

resemblance to a saddle

from

to

called the ephip-

is

ovum covered with

consisting of an

tough casing enveloped

in a capsule

The

opens like a bivalve shell.

first

as

diifers

green matter

both

the eggs.

color

in

much

how

propagate, them

less

The answer is very These small creatures are called

feed to daphnias?

Infusoria,

because

a very

fusions of hay.

which

criminate

traces

microscopic,

they

make

invariably

called

and appearance from

They

consist of an indis-

assemblage of

Some

isms.

the ovaries, which

in

to catch,

their appearance in infusions, especially in-

of the ephippium are seen after the third

molt

we

simple.

its

This contains two oval bodies, each

pium.

daphnias eat small creatures which

if

cannot be seen with the naked eye,

all

common

of the inore

mostly organ-

ones

C'haetonotus,

etc.,

which are greedily devoured

of

ai'e

Paramaecium,

Chilodon,

Stentor,

Stylonchia, Vorticella,

After the fourth molt this green

minute,

animal and vegetable

by

matter passes from the ovaries into the

daphnia.

open space under the shell on the animal's back and there develops into the ephip-

increase successfidly, the following should

pium.

At the

molt

fifth

this is

thrown

To keep daphnias

Do

are

hatched.

nature

is

do not crowd an aquarium with fish. Daphnias, while often found in stagnant water, require oxygen to live; therefore, unless growing plants are present, well aerated

next spring, when the young This

curious

provision

of

destined to afford protection to

the eggs, which are to endure the winter's

The

cold.

with

it

cast

shell

not crowd them, on the same prin-

ciple that successful breeders of fish

closed, floats on the water or sinks into the until the

and have them

be observed

off

and the ephippium, with the two eggs en-

mud

alive

water should frequently be added.

of daphnia carries

The

not only the covering of the limbs,

best plan

is

to

keep the daphnias

in

but of the most delicate hairs and setae

a receptacle in which water plants are grow-

which are attached to them.

ing and add the water containing the infu-

The young,

recently

differs greatly in

ture animal.

hatched

soria

daphnia

It is

from time to time

water

appearance from the ma-

is

some fresh water algae such as Zygnema, Vaucheria, Oedogonium, etc., in a warm, dark or shaded place After this all for ten days or two weeks. that is needed is to stir the water slightly and dip out a quantity, which is poured if possible,

bivalve shell, and only three pairs of limbs.

Spirogyra,

This

is

the food upon which very young gold-

and grow so rapidly. The mature

daphnia are too large to be swallowed.

Young

goldfish have been

daphnia about

follow female

observed to in

order

into the water containing the daphnias.

to

By the foregoing means the author has numbers of daphnias from

feed upon the young as they are extruded.

The food

of daphnia consists of

particles of decaying animal

raised countless

small

a few

and vegetable

capture

small

Daphnias are

The

daphnia food,

in

c<".n

do so

Possibilities of the

Home Aquarium

and eat must be very Yet the largest part of

Tracy H. Holmes

capture

indeed.

and summer.

original ones,

and any creatures which

creatures,

they can small

and devour.

hundred

in winter as well as in

matter and such living animalcules as they can

This

Place a re-

ceptacle containing a quantity of hay and,

an odd-looking, sprawl-

ing thing, moving by quick jerks, having no

fish thrive

needed.

as

prepared as follows:

Chicago

An aquarium

the natural environment,

with water clear as crystal

and capable of sustaining

consists of just such creatures. 25

fish life

for an


period without

iii(K'fiiiitc

is

An aquarium

of that kind

cstahlishinfj;

known

is

more

as a

quarters;

secondly, because they dis))lay most won-

an equilibrium of certain nat-

derful colorations, often bizarre, frequently

the

is

result

chang( able, according to the emotions of

ural forces.

In stocking an aquarium to

narrow

with

contented

of

aquarium and

halajued

because they are small fishes and so

first,

a possibility easily realized.

being chanjied

home aquarium,

ticularly suitable far the

iifcossity of

tlu-

it

necessary

is

anger or love; thirdly, because they

fear,

allow at least a certain amount of water

exhibit

the most unusual and interesting

to plant in the sand enough

habits,

especially

each

for

fish,

grownig water oxygen as the

fish will require,

enough tadpoles

or

much

furnish as

plaTits to

to

add

and

concerned

with

brooding,

and,

nest

lastly,

because most of them will breed and

raise

devour the

to

snails

and

those

building

their

young

their

in

the

ordinary home

This ability and willingness

accumulation of waste matters, dead leaves

aquarium.

Such an aquarium will grow more beautiful week by week until it

breed in the aquarium endears these

and green scums. like

and

need only an occasional cleaning

will

fishes to fish lovers, for there

satisfaction

one of nature's limpid pools,

becomes

and

pride

successfully

bringing these tiny water babies through the vicissitudes of life to the full

and an addition of as much water as evaporates. Such a dui)li-

of their grace and beauty.

ular su])ply of fish food,

of

fishes

and

natural

tile

jjlants aflfords

makes the aquarium as

much enjoyment

in

the

how

grow

to

in is

Many

in the

and

artistic

far

more

As

to their ovi]>ar-

only

available

it is

As regards

fully

developed

their breeding

habits

aquarium

bles,

fish.

of air bubbles.

fishes

in these several

interesting,

are tropical

The

i)aradise fish

they have become acclimated to aquarium

forbidding scientific names. is

to be

These

])ouch

which

it

in

fish gills

a labyrin-

each cheek by means of

can utilize the air above whenever

Thest^ air breathing pouches

it

make

sible for the fish to be revived

he necessary to employ their rather

of which mention

thine

(Macro])odus Viridi-

a water and air breather, hav-

the natural su])])ly in the water gives out.

Unfortunately most of them so

is

fishes

groups.

ing besides the usual

and

have been im])orted into Germany, where

common names, and

Space allows of the

mention of but a few of the many

auratus)

Most of these

the nest builders there are

and those that construct floating nests

made

other aquarium fishes, some

many more

Of

builders.

those that build nests in the sand or peb-

not by any

most of them more suitable for the home

will

which give birth to

young.

acjuarium.

have as yet no

that in the air itself.

there are the plain spawners and the nest

beautiful,

conditions.

<n-

fishes

by land-

Interesting and beautiful as goldfishes are,

many

gill-

ous fishes which lay eggs, and viviparous

While the goldfish holds the center of

there are

their

methods of reju-oduction there are

water

in

effective display,

(he stage in public display,

the

to

are

water, and cheek-pouch breathers which can breathe either the oxygen in the

scape gardeners.

means

there

the

aquarists find

water plants as

])lants

breathing

of

breathers which can breathe the oxygen in

grow scores of beautiful plants, and in getting them

done with land

According

grou]is.

in

method

so

to

inti'resting

even as

scribed

problems that tax

and take great delight

fishes,

learning

In order to present these fishes more

a source of interest to

old as well as young.

perfection

readily to the mind's eye they will be de-

of

of the most intelligent, and

the skill

and

home conditions

a genuine

is

in

of the glass sides and pebbly bottom, a reg-

(;iti.in

to

little

fishes,

it

26

))os-

has accidentally leaped out of the aqua-

rium onto the

made, are par-

it

hours after

floor

and become

so

drv and


stiff

as to

seem stone-dead. The male para-

observer of a family of quail on a search for grasshoppers. In the mating season the lower surface of these fishes be-

the

gorgeously colored in green, blue, gold and orange, and is subject to surprising changes in the intensity of its hues, especially during the mating season. Paradoxical as it may seem, the ordinary maternal duties, with the sole exception of the laying of the eggs, are performed by dise

fish

the male

is

fish.

He

comes tinted blood red while the sides scintillate with emerald facets. These few illustrations will suffice to suggest the pleasurable possibilities of the home aquarium.

builds the floating air-

bubble nest, broods over the eggs and young, aerating them by taking them into his mouth, a mouthful at a time, and blowing them up through the water to the nest

Tadpoles C. J.

Heede

Brooklyn

above.

The leri)

is

As many of the aquarium

saber-tailed fish (Xiphophorus hela graceful, lithe and active fish,

destro}^

young

fishes

will

snails or the smaller varie-

of snails, thus leaving the aquariimi without scavengers, some substitute must be provided. Tad^joles, particularly of the ties

colored with as brilliant a metallic emerald and ruby as that which bedecks the rubythroated humming bird. The female fish gives birth to some fifty dainty little babies which make a dazzling sight as they dart hither and thither through the vistas of the a;reen waterscape.

larger frogs, will do the

same work and

not be so readily eaten by the

when very much smaller than

fish,

the

will

except

fish.

They

even better for cleaning and purifying an old balanced aquarium with a large growth of algae, rusty-looking glasses and foul sediment. If put into an aquarium for this purpose they must not be fed as thev are

Similar to the saber-tailed fish in the breathing habits are the tiny Gambusia and Girardinus fishes, the females of which are scarcely more than an inch long, the males being not over one-quarter the size of

may

the females and so differently colored as to be readily mistaken for an entirely different species of fish. These little fishes have

neglect their duties

too plentiful.

meat

if

They

no waste matter

is

other food

raw

fish

is

and

at hand, as In

up aquarium. They destroy freshwater polyps and if kept

often reared their

the case of a newly set

more

also

families of twenty or in a quart jar, bearing the three con-

if

will eat

secutive broods within the period of eight

with snails will keep the snail shells clear

weeks. The young mature within three months. The red chromide (Hemichromis maculata) is an examjile of the fishes that build a nest scooped out of the sand or pebbles. The eggs are laid on the u):)per side of a flower ]>ot laid sideways on the bottom for that purj)ose and are aerated constantly by the parents fanning them with their side fins. The young, upon hatching, are trans-

of algae, and

even more important from the white leeches which at times infest and eventually destroy Aside from their usefulness the snails. in the aquarium tadpoles will be found very interesting to raise from the egg. These eggs, in large bunches can be collected by the individual, or may sometimes be bought from dealers in aquaria supplies, Enclosed in a cirearly in the Spring. cular jelly-like envelope the germ looks like When these a small round spot of black. clumps of spawn are placed in a balanced aquarium and kept in a light, moderately sunny, warm place, the development of the germ will soon be apparent. In a few days the eggs will hatch and the little tadpoles will proceed to eat up their erstwhile It takes from four to six months home.

ferred in the mouths of the parents to a nest scooped out of the sand. One ])air of these nests,

what

is

will free the snails

fishes was observed to build two one for use in the daytime, the other

The babies were transferred from one nest to the other twice a day, one parent brooding the young while the other was busy making the unoccupied nest scrupulously clean. It is a wonderfully interesting sight to see these two beautiful

at night time.

swimming about with their large familv of inquisitive youngsters, reminding

up

fishes

to

two years, or even longer,

to reach the perfect frog state. 27

for tadpoles


SOCIETY 'BULLETINS Officers for 1912

Brooklyn Aquarium Society nu Regular meetings

are

held on

Fourth Tues-

day

every

in

W.

Initiation

Annual

St., at 8

New York

Harry Roessle

Theodore

P. Fritz

Smith

S.

T. Smith for Female Mottled Female Mottled Telescope

for

First Prize Blue Ribbon) awarded Or. In the Competition for Lahyrinth Fishes (Classes K. I.) Fredk. Schneider for best exhibit of Paradise Fish. Second Prize (Red Ribbon) awarded Herman Rabenau for Paradise Fishes. Third Prize (White Ribbon) awarded Herman Rabenau for I'ri(

chogastor fasciatus. In the Household Aquarium Competition the following awards were made: Sinclair Smith, First Prize (Blue Ribbon), for Balanced Aquaria. Frank k. Fairchild, Second Pri/.e (Red Ribbon), for

Fee, $1.00 Dues, $2.00

Balanced Aquarium. Frank B Johonnot, Third Prize'(White Ribbon), for Balanced Aquarium. Herman Rabenau, Fourth Prize, Tri-colored Ribbon of Special Mention.

May 2.6th —Special Meeting called to meet and confer with Mr. Wm. T. Innes, Jr., President of the Pniladeiphia Society, with a view to establishing an International Standard for judging goldfishes.

Officers for 1912 President

meetings are held on Second and Fourth Wednesday of each month, at 809-

Secretary

Square Building,

Librarian

Regular

127-139 North Clark at 8.30 P.M.

F. S.

Street

Carl Fossetta, 500 Diversey Buulevard Tracy H. Holmes, 2816 Logan Boulevard

Treasurer

Street,

Young, 428 West 66th

Dr. G. a. Preusker, 457 North Avenue F.G.Orsinger,! 23 South Oakley Boulevard

Vice-President

the

2 City Hall

,

Local Business Manager, Owen H. 702 Fulton Street

Male Mottled I'elescope (Blue Ribbon). Second Prize awarded Third Prize awarded S. C. Lloyd Telescope (Red Ribbon). (White Ribbon).

Fanciers' Club

I

St.

Financial Secretary

Society and friends, Sunday, July 14, 1912, to Grassmere, Staten Island, N.Y. Meet at Staten Island Ferry, Battery Place, New York City, at Trip, including dinner, #1.00. Q.JO a.m First Prize awarded S. T. Smith for in the Competition for Old-fashioned Telescopes (Class F)

Chicago Fish

8

Smith, 52 Wall

Treasurer

924 Gates Avenue Second Summer Outing of the Brooklyn Aquarium

Au-

P.M.

Owen H.

DeVoe, Box 383, Baldwin, N.Y.

Dr. Rudolph C. Lienau Local Editor, Sylvester C. Lloyd

gust, at Fairchild Building,

702 Fulton

F.

Vice-President

month

except June, July and

Corresponding and Recording Secretary

President

i

W.

Local Editor,

A. Poyser, 106 Carroll

Local Bus. Mgr.

f,

G.

Pieser,

St.,

Hammond,

Ind.

3800 Grand Boulevard

Initiation Fee, $1.00

Annual Dues, $1.00

New York

Officers for 1912

President

.

Buchanan, 143 Liberty Street, New York Dorn,7 Norman Rd., Upper Montclair, N. |, Arthur Osborn, 42 South St., Jersev City,N.).

Isaac

.

Aquarium

Vice-President, Richard

Society nuu

Cor. Sec'v, Rev.

Regular meetings are held on Second Thursday at the

the

German

American

Sherman Ave.,

School,

Jersey City, and at the

Am

on the Fourth Friday erican

Museum

New

Treasurer,

Henry

S.

Coffin, 129 East 71st

H. A. Richtberg, 85 South i6th

St.,

St., East

New

York

Orange, N.j.

Hermann Hoffmeister, 65 Webster Av., Jersey City, N.[. Treadwell Nichols, Am. Museum of Nat. Hist. Business Manager, Carl P. Ording, 1931 Broadway, New York

Librarian,

i

Local Editor, John

Local

of Natural His-

Park York, each month

tory, 77th St and Central

West,

Recording Secretary,

except July and August. Initiation Fee, $1.00

Dues, $2.00

June 28th: "Facts and

September 1 2th: Next meeting

Philadelphia Aqu ar i u m Society nUUUU ,

Fallacies of

Aquarium Management," by

W.

L. Brind. at

jersey City.

Officers for 1912

Wm.

T. Innes, Jr., 2th & Cherry Sts, Charles Pa.xson, 2921 N. 9th Street Fred Schaefer, 1610 N. 2d Street Treasurer secretary and Bus. Mgr., Howard S. Crees, 3744 N. 13th St. President and Local Editor,

Vice-President

.

i

.

Officers for 1912

Milwaukee

President

Aquarium

Secretary

Society rou

Librarian

C. G. B. ScHENCK, lo<; Grand Avenue August Grau, 31 10 Grand Avenue

Vice-President

Reverend Paul Roth, 2602

M.

Treasurer

yune jd. "June lyth.

August

The

Society was organized at 105

Next meeting.

J.

Prairie

C. Steffen, 91^0

W. Pollworth,

Avenue

First Street

1816 Wright Street

Grand Avenue with 19 members.


FISH FOOD

DRIED DAPHNIA

WM. L. PAULLIN Goldfish Hatchery Fancy Japanese Fantails and Telescopes Common and Fancy Water Plants Live Daphnia shipped within 100 miles of Philadelphia

WHOLESALE 425

Jacob C. Cassel Arch

915

Pa.

Philadelphia,

Street,

WOLF ST.

RETAIL

PHILADELPHIA, PA.

Greenriver Fish and Baby Fish Food

Manufacturer

develop

will

Aquariums Aquarium Ornaments Floral Terra Cotta, etc. Fish Food

Fish Globes

Goldfish and

Send

all

for

aquarium requisites

Catalog and Trade Prices

The Guide

to

Nature

fine fins

makes your

also

many

breeders in Philadelphia

and Other large Ask your dealer

ARCADIA, SOUND BEACH, CONNECTICUT

color;

healthy

and robust; will act as a laxative and is the best substitute for Daphnia. It will not sour or cloud the water. This food is used by the New York and Philadelphia Aquaria; also by

Publisht Monthly by

The Agassiz Association

and

fish

HARRY

for

P.

it

cities or send to

PETERS

Warnock Street PHILADELPHIA, PA.

1210 North

SINGLE COPY, IOC ONE YEAR, $1.00

IMPORTER AND BREEDER

Frequently has interesting articles devoted to Aquaria,

and

is

always packed

trated

C.

material

full

pertaining

of interesting, beautifully to

all

Young

illus

THIELER

Scaleless Telescopes, all colors from $7.00 per hundred up

departments cf nature.

Aquarium Plants

Imported

of all kinds

Goldfish

DEALER IN Fancy Japanese Gold and Silver Fish Aquaria, Fish Globes, Foods and Plants, Birds and Cages, Bird Seed, Mocking-Bird Food, Etc.

Aquaria Tanks Fish Globes Ornaments, Etc.

THIELER'S SONG RESTORER

Auburndale Goldfish Co. (Not Incorporated)

Very Best

in the

33 Flatbush Avenue,

Market

BROOKLYN,

Telephone Connection

920

West Randolph

St.,

Chicago,

N. Y. Send

for

Catalog and Trade Prices

111.


3 9088 01015 3914

,

AQUARIUM

TAPPAN

F. L.

SPECIALTY

Dealer and Breeder of Rare and

FANCY FISH 92

my new

for

FISH.

A

of

the aquarium.

rish in

book,

work on

practical

NEW YORK

AQUARIA

Makers of the Rogers Crystal Aerator and aria

and Aquatic Cages, Mouse and Frog Houses.

scopes and of Red, African and Japanese snails.

Natans and Gigantica and of single-rooted Ludwigia Mullertti

Cultivators of Sagittaria

Catalogue on application

"ENUF SAID"

iEsasasasasBsasasasasHsasB

IMPORTED AND BREEDER (Live-bearing and Spawning)

Plants,

Snails, etc.

We

507

Singing Canaries and Song Birds

Madison

Street, Cliicago,

111.

and many others

Aquaria

&- Plants

1143-1153 Liberty

Avenue

Open daily except

pays. its

trip

you

of nature. zine to

It

is

kind in

aquarium supplies.

W.

the F.

Union.

De VOE,

have op-

to subscribe.

in

"The Aquarium "

the only publication of this

country.

It

goes

to the very people interested in all kinds of

in

will

Speak of The Aquarium maga-

them and get them

and Tuesdays

ylDVERTISING

y\

your vacation

portunities to get in touch with other lovers

Mondays

BROOKLYN

On

&- Supplies

HERMANN RABENAU El.

W.

Bitterlings

Fundulus

(City Line)

are Specialists.

ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC BIRD STORE

Danio rerio

Domestic Fishes

Fulton St

PARROTS, MONKEYS AND PET STOCK

Chanchito

Gambusia

on

Retail Dealer in

Trichogaster

Poeciila

Girardinus Mollienesia

station

VAHLE, 315 N.Madison St., Chicago wholesale and BIRDS and ANIMALS

E. C.

Paradise, Polyacanthus

heiieri

Filter.

Breeders of Japanese and Chinese fringetail tele-

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN.

Xyphophorus

AVE.

CITY

Largest manufacturers of Aquaria, Terraria, Viv-

care and breeding

SEVENTH STREET, SOUTH

Tropical Fishes

CO.

WASHINGTON

1827-31

Chanchitos, Gambusia, Paradise Fish and Goldfish Send $i.oo

j

It

reaches

every State

Rate card on application.

Business Manager, P.O.

Box 383, Baldwin,

L.I.


The Aquarium 1/3 1912