Dynamic Urbanism, city changes and the new challenges for art and politics University of Fribourg, Michael Keith, 16th â€“ 18th May 2011 .
Context of the paper • On the crisis of different national integration models • Conceptualising the diversity / solidarity debate - are they incommensurable? • Critiques of Goodhart and Wieviorka and diachronic / synchronic analysis • Normalising arrival in the modern world • Alternative genealogies and prehistories of property destabilising the diversity / solidarity debate • Distinguishing between the analytic, ethical, prescriptive – diagnosis, prognosis, prescription • Multicultural arts – beyond a politics of recognition • Research context of urbanism, London’s 7/7 bombings, the UK Commission on Integration and Cohesion
Dynamic Urbanism, city changes and the new challenges for art and politics 1. The limits of integration 2. Learning from the South: new commons, creative informalities, contingent dwelling 3. Remaking the city: rational settlement, incommensurable rights. The urban historicities of citizenship rights 4. Fabricating community. The modern and the metropolitan : banal multiculturalisms, emergent publics 5. Arts and culture beyond a politics of recognition; curating culture and narrating urbanism 6. Conclusion: Migrant integration and the realms of experts Sections 2 and 3 cut for the Rotterdam presentation , consequently slides 10-65 not to be included in Rotterdam presentation but included here to explain nature of the argument in longer written paper
1. The limits of integration: interrogating integration
The rise of anti migration sentiment •
Sweden Sweden democrats. Malmo, formerly an old industrial city, lays fair claim to being the cradle of Swedish social democracy. In Austria, the extreme right leader, HeinzChristian Strache, is running for mayor of Vienna next month. He will lose. But he looks likely to take more than 20% of the capital's vote. Australia Cronullah Beach l2005, 500000 studnts 2009, Indian students, asylum and arrival In Canada Immigration Watch Canada, Derek Burney (ex US ambassador, Mulroney chief of staff) In Hungary the radical rightwing Jobbik has gained a parliamentary foothold and is demanding permanent, guarded internment camps for Gypsies. In Italy the anti-immigrant Northern League of Umberto Bossi is in government and is the country's fastest-growing party.
USA new laws in Arizona, tea party positions on migration France The National Front's legacy from Le Pen, Sarkozy complex positions of diversity, nationality and Roma Netherlands Geert Wilders, leader of Freedom Party and Islam Austria The Freedom Party, Barbara Rosenkranz, who says anti-Nazi laws should be abolished, came second in presidential race. Hungary Jobbik party entered parliament in April 2010. Italy Northern League used a poster of white sheep kicking out a black one to convey anti-immigration message. Swiss People's party, too, has used such a poster image. Denmark Pia Kjaersgaard, leader of the far-right Danish People's
Uncomfortable truths • Who benefits, who loses out • Communicating immigration policy • (long term demographics, short term • labour markets in Europe, growing mobilities, growing connections through family unification) • Disparity between the geographical scales at which the benefits and the costs of migration are realised • Conceptualising the migrant: remittance economies and ‘receiving states’ • What the state controls: and ‘secure borders’ and inevitable truths • Trade offs between labour market flexibility and regimes of rights? • Social change: insecurities, risk societies, migration, economic
Integration at the level of the nation and the national imaginary • Crises of national identities: Brown, Sarkozy, Merkel • EU integration policy – the national, the national extended • And post-industrial cities: Le Pen in Marseille, Wilders in Rotterdam, Strache in "red" Vienna. Åkesson in Malmo
Analytical shibboleths and conceptual problematics: ‘building, dwelling, moving’ • Risk, insecurity and economic change • Futures present • Anthropologies of home and sociologies of the domestic • Normalising arrivals, problematising dwelling
2. Learning from the south: migrant integration and the assemblages of pirate modernities : the new commons, creative informalities, contingent dwelling
Creativities and post apartheid democracy RSA
Democracies’ legacies: property rights and migration
• Maliq Simone and the pragmatics of the informal? • Stefano Boeri’s ‘Uncertain States of Europe’
Chengzhongcun ‘villages in the city‘ migrant ‘handshake apartments’ woshou fang 握手房
â€“ Maliq Simone and the pragmatics of the informal?
Property as a bundle of rights – where ethnography meet jurisprudence meets politics •
Proudhon – property rights, population and Malthusian socialism …… and Amartya Sen Demsetz: control, rent, transfer, exclusion Externalities and the tragedy of the commons – clarity and ambiguity of property rights ….. Boutang’s ‘capitalism cognitif’ Ronald Coase and the law and economics movement Hernando De Soto – ‘dead capital’ (and its critiques eg Timothy Mitchell) Cui Zhiyuan – inverting law and
Space and exclusion: doing borders • Destabilising the diversity / solidarity debate through an understanding of the times and spaces of belonging / identity and citizenship / rights • The times of spaces of citizenship • The spaces of the time of belonging • In this presentation I shall concentrate on the spaces of the ti fb l i d it
3. Remaking the city: rational settlement, incommensurable rights. The urban historicities of citizenship rights
Remaking the city: rational settlement, incommensurable rights and the logics of maximum density
Conceptual problematics: 21st century ‘bridge and door’ • The tension between belonging and diversity • …… and 2005 The New East End – from Immanuel Kant to Madeleine Bunting
Low density: Newham street scape 307 hr /ha
Medium density: Tredegar Square, 412 hr / ha
Express Wharf, 582 hr / ha (mostly 16 storeys)
Glanricade Gardens, Kensington and Chelsea 1067 hr /ha
Low rise and Section 106
Medium rise, 3D urbanism and Section 106
High rise, social capture and Section 106
Virginia Quay logics; the accidental apartheid of city growth River front
Entanglements Sonali Gardens thematics: Social care and health care: a complex assemblage of rights and belongings • • • • •
The transnational and challenges to unitary citizenship Ethnicity v faith; secularism and Islam The politics of recognition, identity and the finite logics of the identitarian Eligibility criteria; welfare reform, social services, Weber’s paradox Land and property rights: the land deal, public ownership, private ownership : property as a bundle of rights Voice and choice – social policy reform and modernisation language Community power – networks and Sonali gardens as a vote bank. Balagonj, Bianibazar (Kalaziri) The state, governance and hybrid institutional forms
Futures present • Francois Julien 1999 The Propensity of Things: towards a history of efficacy • Cui Zhiyuan 2011 Wrestling with the invisible hand. • Appadurai, A. – 1986 The Social Life of Things • Latour, B. 1993 We Have Never Been Modern
Remaking the city: rational settlement, incommensurable rights, competing experts • • •
The logics of maximum density Density and value Density and settlement, quantum, distribution, and social ‘mix’ in the good city: Koolhaas goes to Lille station … l’infers d’état • Logics of number, • Logics of aesthetics, • Logics of social mix, • Logics of value capture and S106, • Logics of the politics of maximum density Settlement rights and migration: needs and queues From Bauhaus to Koolhaas and Werkbund legacies Rebuilding the east end of London Value, rationality, subsidy, market, multiculture and integration
“Solving Poor People’s Housing Problem is Difficult” Economy Housing; “Solving Poor People’s Housing Problem is Difficult. I, Du Pu, Have Thought About It for Over One Thousand Years. Today, Finally It Will Come True. This is Great!” (Yuan Meng, 2006-08-15, China News Network)
4. Fabricating Community, the modern and the metropolitan Banal multiculturalisms, complex publics • ‘Beyond a metaphysics of presence’ • Beyond organic community ‘cellular’ biological community • Futures past and futures present in the unhomely city
The Frankfurt tradition and thinking critically about home and the public realm Historicising the public sphere; destabilising identity and home; normalising the unhomely • Simmel’s ‘rational’ and the arrival in the modern city • Horkheimer’s critical sociology • Adorno’s temporalities; Benjamin’s metropolitan spaces • Heidegger’s unhomely dwelling, Arendt’s singular public • The historicity of the communicative rationality of Habermas, the potential of Negt and Klug’s alternative public spheres
Banal multiculturalisms, complex and emergent publics •
Subaltern histories: London’s colonial echoes • Historical fabrication of community – the staging of the bourgeois public sphere • London’s futures present • Technologies of change time, space, speed • Emergent publics: political machines and the assemblage of the alternative public sphere The new commons and the new enclosures
• • •
• • • • •
‘Beyond a metaphysics of presence’ The prehistory of community The invention of Paris – Eric Hazan -A History in footsteps 2010 English translation(L’Invention de Paris. Il n’y a pas de pas perdus’ 2002) Beyond the community organic ‘blobs’ of biological community London’s colonial echoes Riots, memory and contested space … Brixton 81, 85 and …. Old publics and the public sphere as historically and socially contingent London’s futures present
The banal politics of recognition – birth, education and death – ceremonies, practices and faiths (banal multiculturalism)
Stefano Boeri’s Uncertain States of Europe
Multicultures of deep history – cartographies of Catholic Wapping, Jewish Stepney, the fiction of whiteness, Roman Catholic education
Emergent publics – TV stations, expressive cultures, virtual environments (from here / elsewhere to here and elsewhere) ….
Always a new commons, invariably a new moment of enclosure
The notion of potential – cultures in the making, publics in contest - the city yet to come
5. Curating culture, narrating urbanism and the future of the arts
Curating culture, narrating urbanism a) b) c) d) e)
Celebrating multiculturalism? Globalisation, city cultures and the multicultural debates Thinking hybridity Multicultures in cities: city quarters Signpost 1: Debates around cultural industries, the arts and the motors of city economies Signpost 2: The gentrification debates Promoting cultural quarters?
a. Celebrating multiculture?
Leonie Sandercock ‘Towards Cosmopolis’ 1998 •
“can a new culture be created on the basis of multiple publics and what are the elements of such a culture” “modernist planners became thieves of memory. Faustian in their eagerness to erase all traces of the past in the interest of forward momentum, of growth in the name of progress, their ‘drive by’ windscreen surveys of neighbourhoods that they had already decided (on the basis of objective census and survey data) to condemn to the bulldozer, have been in their own way, as deadly as the more recent drive by gang shootings in Los Angeles.”
‘Roots to reckoning’ Museum of London
c. Thinking hybridity â€˘
â€œGlobalisation disturbs the notion that people come from originary whole cultures, that they can negotiate their work and artistic practices with other whole cultures and that what each person does is to speak from within, to be responsive and to represent only those cultures of origin from which they come â€œ Stuart Hall
Anish Kapoor ‘oneiric space’
Chris Ofili and the black madonna
Shirin Neshat â€˜border crossings and a body of evidenceâ€™
Gazing across cultures
Man Rayâ€™s legacy?
d. Between ghettos and city quarters • Settlement • Segregation, racism, power • Diaspora sentiment • Glocalisation
e. Cultural industries debates • •
Richard Florida’s optimism “The rise of the Creative Economy is drawing the spheres of the innovation (technological creativity), business (economic creativity) and culture (artistic and cultural creativity) into one another, in more intimate and more powerful combinations than ever.” (2002)
f. Gentrification debates • Return to the city and cultural value • Uneven development and Ricardian rent theory – the gentrification frontier • Culture and economy – a stale debate
g. Promoting cultural quarters • The limits of authenticity • Spaces of identity, identification and transcendence • In a search for good capitalism?
Walter Benjamin (in The Arcades project) •
“The wax museum (Panoptikum) is a manifestation of the total work of art. The universalism of the 19th Century has its monument in the waxworks. Panopticon: not only does one see everything, but one sees it in all ways.”
.. and the spatial sublime?
Narrating the city?
Conclusion: Migrant Integration and the realms of experts Generating expertise and integration • Decisions of quantum, aesthetics, rent, value, distribution, mix, social engineering • …….. All of these structure processes of integration
Hospitality and the city of experts • The utilitarian moral calculus of economics • The political calculus of the good city • The capital calculus of the planning regime and the masterplan • The aesthetic calculus of architectural practice
Fundamental principles 1. Shared futures; a sense of becoming over being; shared identifies looking forward that recognise diverse histories and identities looking backwards 2. A notion of citizenship that is fit for purpose for the 21st century and that accomodates different geographical scales of local, regional, national and transnational rights and responsibilities 3. An ethics of hospitality that recognises the value of the stranger and the newcomer within a framework of mutuality and civility 4. A sense of visible social justice that appeals not only to equality of opportunity and outcome but also to transparency of the decision making process 97