Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Housing + Open Space Masterplan - Final

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HOUSING + OPEN SPACE MASTERPLAN for the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe, Towaoc, CO September 20, 2017

KoningEizenberg Architecture | D.I.R.T. studio | Ten x Ten

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It has been an honor to assist the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe in the development of a holistic, aspirational Housing and Open Space Masterplan. The Masterplan gives voice to recommendations, desires, and concerns expressed by Tribal members over a two-year interactive process, during which collective values were identified and made actionable. The resulting impact for future housing, open space, and community catalysts are strengthened when partnered with other Tribal initiatives: emerging programs like the Tiwahe Initiative, Tour de Ute, and other social and health initiatives being proposed amplify opportunity to enhance quality of life in Towaoc. We have been inspired by the elders, who are so invested in the land and community, and the energy of the youth, who see heritage in unexpected, innovative ways. Community members of all ages have shared their time and insights to convey the kind of future that they want for the Reservation. This document records that vision. Signed,

Julie Eizenberg, FAIA KoningEizenberg Architecture

Julie Bargmann D.I.R.T. studio

KoningEizenberg Architecture | D.I.R.T. studio | Ten x Ten


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TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION

3

5.0 HOUSING

47

4 5 6

48 51 52

7

6.0 IMPLEMENTATION

53

8 10 15 16

PHASE I 10 YEAR PLAN 20 YEAR PLAN FUNDING

54 56 57 58

3.0 FUTURE FRAMEWORK

17

61

18 22

7.0 RECOMMENDATIONS GOVERNANCE

GRANT SUMMARY OBJECTIVES FINDINGS SUMMARY

2.0 ANALYSIS

OVERVIEW EXISTING CONDITIONS YOUTH OBSERVATIONS ELDER OBSERVATIONS

CIRCULATION ZONING

4.0 BUOW PARK + TRIBAL CROSSING

31

32 33 36 40 41 44

OVERVIEW MESAS, WATER, + WELLNESS DESIGN PROGRAM PRECEDENTS PLANT PALETTE

HOUSING NEED SURVEY ZONING HOUSING MATRIX

HOUSING COMMUNITY CATALYSTS MAINTENANCE

DEFINITIONS

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1.0 INTRODUCTION


1.0 INTRODUCTION

GRANT SUMMARY In January 2016, the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe (UMUT) received a $250,000 Rural Communities Development Initiative (RCDI) matching funds grant through the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). RCDI grants are awarded “to help non-profit housing and community development organizations, low-income rural communities and federally recognized tribes support housing, community facilities and community and economic development projects in rural areas.” Grant deliverables include the development of a “Place-Based Comprehensive Masterplan” with stakeholder input. Koning Eizenberg Architecture (KEA) entered into contract with the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe on February 1, 2016, to complete a Comprehensive Housing Masterplan, and were joined by landscape architects DIRT studio + Ten x Ten to complete an Open Space Masterplan component in August 2016. Beginning in May 2016, the design team met with representatives from over 20 focus groups, organizations, initiatives, and Tribal departments. Six community workshops were hosted over three site visits, in which the design team worked with youth, elders, and the Policy Group (a collection of department heads and community leaders) to identify social, economic, housing, and environmental issues in Towaoc. The Masterplan addresses Context and Research (2.0 Analysis), Documentation of Process (Digital Addendum), Vision and Values (1.0 Introduction: Goals), Community Assets (2.0 Analysis), Infrastructure Analysis (2.0 Analysis), Affordable Housing Prototypes (5.0 Housing), Site Options and Design Opportunities (3.0 Future Framework), Funding Sources (6.0 Implementation), and Approach to Maintenance and Repair (7.0 Recommendations). A Community Catalyst (4.0 Buow Park; 7.0 Recommendations: Catalysts) is identified, as are strategies for new affordable housing (5.0 Housing), and survey results (5.0 Housing; Digital Addendum). If desired, Approach to Construction Delivery and Upkeep for Buow Park and Tribal Crossing can be delivered through a separate contract between DIRT studio, Ten x Ten, and the Tribe.

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UTE MOUNTAIN UTE TRIBE COMPREHENSIVE MASTERPLAN

The Masterplan Development Process included representatives from: Tribal Council Planning & Development Program Housing Authority General Council to the UMUT Public Safety Education Higher Education Weeminuche Construction Authority (WCA) Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Indian Health Services (IHS) Elders’ Committee Social Services Elders’ Center Affordable Housing Residents Veterans Teen Mothers Tribal Elders Tribal Youth Transportation Drug Free Communities Center for Rural Outreach & Professional Services (CROPS) Media Department


1.0 INTRODUCTION

OBJECTIVES

PROMOTE WELLNESS

CREATE A HEART STRENGTHEN SOCIAL SPACE INVEST IN HEALTHY + SAFE PLACES PRESERVE CULTURE

MAKE CONNECTIONS

ENCOURAGE INTERACTION BETWEEN GENERATIONS CELEBRATE HERITAGE AND STORIES WEAVE TOGETHER FAMILIES AND COMMUNITY

IMPROVE HOMES

RAISE EXPECTATIONS RESPECT WAY OF LIFE EXPAND HOUSING OPTIONS

RESPECT THE NATIVE LANDSCAPE

CHERISH NATURAL RESOURCES HONOR SACRED SPACES LEARN ABOUT NATURAL SYSTEMS

KoningEizenberg Architecture | D.I.R.T. studio | Ten x Ten

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

FINDINGS SUMMARY Early analysis of Towaoc revealed a community that grapples with large issues, but finds strength in heritage and tradition. Economic and social pressures resulting from rural setting and the legacy of colonialism and trauma have fundamentally changed the lifestyle of Tribal members. Economic expediency and strict federal funding guidelines rule development, which often does not address how Tribal members want to live, socialize, or receive services. This masterplan sets a framework for development that centers on sustainable wellness and community connection to decolonize the built environment. From the beginning, it was clear that the land in and around Towaoc holds special significance for all Tribal members, regardless of age. This connection with and knowledge of the land is deeply moving; but passion is not reflected in current land conditions. Requests for parks, trails, and revival of the natural landscape reveal that revitalization of open space would best link housing and community space to revive Towaoc. Proposed zoning (3.0 Future Framework) focuses on Towaoc at three scales: "The Horizon," the distant landscape of the Reservation which frames Towaoc; "The Evirons," the greater Towaoc area, including large enterprise centers and expansive housing area; and "The Core," the new heart of Towaoc. The Core is approximately bordered by Rustling Willow to the north, Beardance to the east, the playing fields to the south, and Ute Trail Road to the west. Service, civic, commercial, and social uses are centered in the Core, while large enterprise is concentrated near the highway (Casino) and lagoons (WCA). As a new town center, planning for the Core includes two primary "Community Catalyst" components: Tribal Crossing and Buow Park (4.0). Strengthening the identity of central Towaoc, Tribal Crossing signals the town entry through a powerful streetscape along Mike Wash Road. Connected to the Crossing, Buow Park revitalizes and significantly expands Veterans Park for community gathering. As this was the first comprehensive masterplanning effort in Towaoc’s history, the design team faced significant challenges in gathering information from Tribal Members and departments alike, despite persistence and best efforts. Section 7.0 (Recommendations) suggests changes to governance, transparency, data gathering, and information sharing that could improve day-to-day functionality for Tribal staff and increase future collaboration between departments.

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2.0 ANALYSIS


2.0 ANALYSIS

OVERVIEW - LAND/TOWAOC Ute Mountain Ute Indian Reservation is located in southwestern Colorado (Montezuma and La Plata counties) and northwestern New Mexico (San Juan county) and consists of 553,008 acres owned by the tribe, held in trust by the U.S. Government - only a fraction of the land that the Weeminuche Band once traveled seasonally. The elevation of the reservation caries from about 4,600 feet along the San Juan River near the Four Corners to about 9,977 feet at the peak of the Ute Mountain. Notable geography on the Tribal lands includes Sleeping Ute Mountain, the Mancos River and Canyon, high mesas, semi-desert grassland and pinyonjuniper woodlands. There are individually owned lands at Allen Canyon and White Mesa (8,499 acres) and 40-acres of school property, in San Juan County Utah. Most Tribal members living on-reservation reside in Towaoc. Towaoc was first established as a center in 1918, when a group of Ute Mountain Utes successfully revolted against their classification as "Southern Utes" by colonists, who were seizing more and more Ute land. A new agency was developed in Towaoc, and Ute Mountain Utes were able to reclaim some of the sacred land surrounding the Sleeping Ute Mountain. From 1920 on, the Tribal Chairman lived in Towaoc, which was also the site of the colonial boarding school (closed in 1935), made mandatory for Tribal children by the BIA. Towaoc began to rapidly grow in the mid 1950s: housing had consisted of a mixture of tents, hogans, shacks, and wickiup -like structures. In 1953, to encourage more permanent structures to protect against harsh weather in the now mostly nonnomadic town, Tribal Council passed the Homesite Land Ordinance, providing affordable leases ($1/acre) to Tribal members building a house. Between 1955 and 1960, 187 houses were built on the reservation, primarily in Towaoc. Land is owned by the Tribe as a collective and cannot be individually owned. However, land leases are handed down from generation to generation, and many families continue to live on or near the land their family Homesites were established on in the 50s. Today, there are approximately 600 homes on the reservation (595 listed in census data, 614 in IHS inventory). Of these, approximately half are privately owned, 213 are HUD homes, 30 are Tribal Housing (including emergency trailers) and 31 are vacant. There are 10 units for non-Tribal members, including BIA employees. There are a wide variety of civic and service buildings, along with several large enterprises - including the Casino, Weemanuche Construction, and the Farm & Ranch. Development is centered at the highway and along the east base of Sleeping Ute Mountain, with new development taking place near the abandoned Rodeo Grounds. 8

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2.0 ANALYSIS

OVERVIEW - POPULATION The Ute Mountain Ute Tribe is a young tribe: over 50% of individuals are under 24, and the vast majority are under 44. 53% of households are home to children under 18.* Approximately half of households rent their home, and half are homeowners. The majority of on-reservation employment comes from four sources: Tribal Government, and the Tribe's three private enterprises: Weeminuche Construction Authority, the Ute Mountain Casino, Hotel & Resort, and the Ute Mountain Farm & Ranch Enterprise. Neighboring Cortez provides more employment opportunity. 75% of men work in construction, food service, administration, or management, and 75% of women work in administration, sales, and personal care. Significant challenges faced by the Tribe include widespread poverty, addiction (drugs and alcohol), abuse, underemployment, mental and physical health, and lack of opportunity - all issues faced by isolated communities of similar size, both tribal and non-tribal, across the United States. Increased focus on programs for recidivism, obesity and related health issues, drug-free community initiatives, and planned programs for mental health express the Tribe's willingness to recognize and combat these difficult problems head-on.

*2010 US Census & American Communities Survey KoningEizenberg Architecture | D.I.R.T. studio | Ten x Ten

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2.0 ANALYSIS

EXISTING CONDITIONS - HORIZON The unique geographical surrounds of Towaoc create vast, awe-inspiring horizons. Chief among these is the view west, to Sleeping Ute Mountain. This mountain is the most sacred place on-reservation, features in the Creation story, and appears in legends of its own. The Ute Mountain Ute Tribal Park, located on and near Coyote Mesa, houses Anasazi ruins, a source of both local legend and tourism. These ancient geological landmarks are crucial elements forming the vast, sacred landscape in which Towaoc is set.

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WEST - SLEEPING UTE MOUNTAIN

NORTH - CANYONS OF THE ANCIENTS

EAST - COYOTE MESA

SOUTH - CHIMNEY ROCK

EAST - MESA VERDE

SOUTH - SHIPROCK


2.0 ANALYSIS

EXISTING CONDITIONS - ENVIRONS Large Enterprises are primarily clustered near the Highway (US-491), at the Mike Wash Road and Indian Route 201 entrances. There is room for expansion in both areas, and in-progress housing development at Rodeo Drive has opened the area east of the Rodeo Grounds as a possible setting for additional Large Enterprise development. The Elders' Center was sited to ensure room for future development of assisted living facilities, a dialysis center, and other healthcare facilities, however, development has been slow. Highly spiritual areas - the Bear Dance grounds and Cemetery - are closer to the Core, re-enforcing its role as a social, commercial, and service center.

1 POW-WOW

2 UTE MOUNTAIN CASINO, HOTEL & RESORT

5 ELDERS' CENTER

3 TRAVEL CENTER 4 WEEMINUCHE CONSTRUCTION AUTHORITY (WCA)

1 6

2 5 3

7 6 BEAR DANCE

7 CEMETERY

8 LAGOONS 8

10

11 9 RODEO GROUNDS

10 RODEO DRIVE HOMES

11 FARM & RANCH

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4 HOUSING

GATHERING

LG ENTERPRISE

PUBLIC SPACE THE HORIZON

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2.0 ANALYSIS

EXISTING CONDITIONS - THE CORE Most of Towaoc's existing service buildings are concentrated in the Core. Many of the buildings are outdated and in need of maintenance or complete re-building. There are new buildings planned for Public Works, the Church, and the condemned BIA building (services currently housed in a modular, not shown). The Recreation Center is currently under renovation to remove asbestos. Environmental Services buildings - for Minerals Management Service, Gaming, and Environmental Protection- are run out of temporary modulars. The Tribal Park buildings are in disrepair, and expected to be demolished in the near future. Health Service buildings- housing Diabetes care, Women, Infants, + Children,

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1 FIRE STATION

2 POST OFFICE

3 PUBLIC WORKS

4 HOUSING AUTHORITY

5 CHURCH

6 TRIBAL HEADQUARTERS

7 DETENTION CENTER

8 SOCIAL SERVICES

9 YOUTH OPPORTUNITY PROGRAM

10 BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS (BIA)

11 WATER RIGHTS / THIPO

12 VETERANS PARK

13 HIGHER EDUCATION

14 PLAYING FIELDS

15 SKATE PARK

UTE MOUNTAIN UTE TRIBE COMPREHENSIVE MASTERPLAN


2.0 ANALYSIS

EXISTING CONDITIONS - THE CORE and Indian Health Services - are outdated and thought to be unsanitary. The Skate Park has been vandalized and is out of compliance. Large expanses of paving separate buildings and surround Veteran's Park.

16 BASKETBALL COURTS

17 RECREATION CENTER

18 COMMUNITY CENTER

19 POW-WOW

20 TRIBAL PARK FACILITIES

4 21 22

11

16 15

25 26 21 HEALTH

22 BRUNOT WILDLIFE

5

8

17

1

2

6

3

9

23 ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES MODULARS

23

18

12

19

10 13

24

20

7 LG ENTERPRISE HEALTH EDUCATION MIXED-USE

14 24 HEADSTART

25 SECURITY

26 TRANSPORTATION

GATHERING PUBLIC SPACE THE CORE

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2.0 ANALYSIS

EXISTING CONDITIONS - CORE CIRCULATION Gaps in the sidewalks interrupt pedestrian flow. Street lighting only exists along Mike Wash Road between the highway and Bear Dance Streetwhich results in no lighting at the Core. Public park areas are in scattered patches that do not relate to one another. Parking lots in front of the Tribal Council building and Recreation Center dominate this area. All of these conditions cause a lack of cohesion and suggest the need for connected, welcoming streets and landscapes.

LIGHTING SIDEWALKS PUBLIC SPACE TREES PARKING: 238 STALLS

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2.0 ANALYSIS

YOUTH OBSERVATIONS

In August 2016, the Design Team facilitated two youth workshops with a group of 25 Tribal Members between ages 9-20. Using stickers on an interactive 16 ft by 26 ft floor vinyl, Youth were asked to map where they live, their bus stop safe and dangerous areas, where they go to hang out and to be alone, where is beautiful and where is sacred, and where they go when happy. Answers and ensuing discussion revealed an intimate familiarity with the land. They also revealed a disconnect between youth and adults, but an affection and respect for elders. When naming future opportunities, all youth requested some form of park- some big, some small, some structured and some more informal. There was also enthusiastic support for "third space" - social, open access space that is outside of home and institutional programming, like a coffee shop.

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2.0 ANALYSIS

ELDERS' OBSERVATIONS

In March 2017, the Design Team facilitated two workshops - one for elders, and one for elders and youth. Using pins and beads as a reference to Ute beadings, Elders were asked to map on a fabric image of Towaoc where they live and grew up, where the heart of Towaoc is now and was when they were young, community places, places in need of change, where and what they missed, where is dangerous, and where they go to talk, visit, and be happy. Answers indicated that mobility and belonging are important issues to Elders. Many people expressed a desire for walkability, as elders "don't move around much," but driving and biking are the only transportation options in Towaoc. For this reason, the post office, diner, laundry mat, and trading post cluster once on the corner of Bear Dance Street and Mike Wash Road - which many labeled as the old heart of Towaoc - is sorely missed: it was a one-stop shop for socializing and taking care of chores, all within a walkable area. Belonging, heritage, and tradition were emphasized across many concerns - that there is nothing for families to do all together in Towaoc; that the legacy of HUD housing regulations disrupting family clusters and leading to sub-par housing conditions has damaged family life; and that continuing issues with violence and vandalism ruin new resources and make everyone feel unwelcome. Elders all agreed that the Tribe needs an everyday place to come together as families and as a community.

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3.0 FUTURE FRAMEWORK


3.0 FUTURE FRAMEWORK

CIRCULATION - LOOPS

Towoac's street organization is based upon the European planning grid, which has failed to facilitate both desire for family privacy and independence or community connectivity. The proposed Loop framework maintains existing roads (page 30), but strengthens physical and social cohesion by introducing the Tiwahe* Loops: one northern and one southern, intersecting at the Tribal Crossing on Mike Wash Road to anchor the Core. The Loops provide roads and sidewalks or trails to facilitate access to the Core and beyond. They provide both circulation and an important framework for siting future development, including housing and services. By strongly connecting the Loops, even families living in the surrounding Environs will feel part of Towaoc's heart and have a connection the community Core. Encircling Towaoc, the proposed Tour de Ute bicycle trail engages various landscape features, such as the arroyos and washes. Trail heads are named for both distant landmarks and nearby native landscapes, and each offers an opportunity for Youth to learn about native landscape and its sacred significance to the Tribe.

*Tiwahe means family in the Lakota language and symbolizes the interconnectedness of all living things and one’s personal responsibility to honor family, community, and the environment. 18

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TOUR DE UTE

TIWAHE LOOPS

MIKE WASH RD

GRID

LOOPS

ANONYMOUS ISOLATING

INTERCONNECTED UNIFYING


3.0 FUTURE FRAMEWORK

CIRCULATION - TOUR DE UTE LOOP

NORTH LOOP

SOUTH LOOP

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3.0 FUTURE FRAMEWORK

CIRCULATION - TIWAHE LOOPS

The North Loop encircles Mount Sage to the west, extends further north above Green Cedar and then down the east side along Bear Dance Road/Street. The Loop becomes a well-lit and shady street one would travel to the Community or Recreation Center at the Core. The South Loop traces Ute Trail Road along its east edge, turning past the historic Rodeo onto Stable Road. This Loop connects distant and disparate functions of developing housing, pubic works and possible new use of the rodeo.

EXISTING ROADS PROPOSED ROADS PEDESTRIAN TRAIL

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3.0 FUTURE FRAMEWORK

CIRCULATION - TRIBAL CROSSING The proposed Tribal Crossing is a well-defined stretch of Mike Wash Road at the Core, where the Northern and Southern Loops intersect. The streetscape, planted with large trees and animated with lighting and paving, creates a gateway at Bear Dance Street, bound on the west end by Ute Trail Road. Along the Crossing, existing and new commercial, service, and government buildings, a new park (Buow Park), and housing combine to support a lively community hub.

KoningEizenberg Architecture | D.I.R.T. studio | Ten x Ten

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3.0 FUTURE FRAMEWORK

ZONING - 2002 Towaoc is a small community surrounded by expansive area for growth. If unchecked, that growth will undermine the relationship to sacred places, erode the quality of the natural environment, and fail to address quality of life. Using Towaoc’s 2020 Transportation and Development zoning plan (below) as a basis, the proposed 20 year zoning plan (right) includes current Rodeo Drive development plans and accounts for desired re-investment in The Core. The proposed plan sustainably strengthens the center of Towaoc, allows for family clusters, enhances existing circulation and neighborhood, and minimizes further expansion onto undeveloped while maximizing use of existing infrastructure.

Extract from the 2020 Transportation and Development plan by LSC Transportation Consultants, developed October 2002 22

UTE MOUNTAIN UTE TRIBE COMPREHENSIVE MASTERPLAN


3.0 FUTURE FRAMEWORK

ZONING - PROPOSED 20 YEAR PLAN

EXISTING HOUSING PROPOSED HOUSING*

H1 MULTI-UNIT OR 10 UNITS/ACRE

H2 4-8 UNITS/ACRE H3 1-2 UNITS/ACRE LARGE ENTERPRISE HEALTH SERVICES EDUCATION MIXED-USE GOVERNMENT CIVIC COMMERCIAL GATHERING PUBLIC SPACE *See 5.0 Housing, and 7.0 Recommendations - Housing KoningEizenberg Architecture | D.I.R.T. studio | Ten x Ten

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3.0 FUTURE FRAMEWORK

ZONING - EXISTING CORE BUILDING USES

The existing core (near right) is characterized by disconnected activities, buildings needing repair, and walled large enterprise business/services, which cut off potential community connectivity. Proposed core zoning (far right) consolidates similar uses to form service zones, limits large enterprise to focus on community use, creates people-friendly streets, strengthens open space, and organizes parking. Buildings are re-located and added to provide missing services; and to create a sense of arrival.

EXISTING HOUSING LARGE ENTERPRISE HEALTH SERVICES EDUCATION MIXED-USE GOVERNMENT CIVIC COMMERCIAL GATHERING PUBLIC SPACE

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3.0 FUTURE FRAMEWORK

ZONING - PROPOSED CORE ZONES

H1

H1

MULTI-UNIT OR 10 UNITS/ACRE

H2

4-8 UNITS/ACRE EXISTING HOUSING PROPOSED HOUSING LARGE ENTERPRISE

H1

HEALTH SERVICES EDUCATION MIXED-USE GOVERNMENT CIVIC COMMERCIAL GATHERING PUBLIC SPACE TREES RELOCATED PARKING

H2

H2

RELOCATED BUILDINGS PROPOSED BUILDINGS

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3.0 FUTURE FRAMEWORK

ZONING - CORE NEW + RELOCATED Size and footprint of new buildings will depend on funding availability and need. Design guidelines for new buildings should include landscaped open space that maintains sense of openness and highlights indigenous plants to re-instate Towaoc's natural identity.

Tribal Fleet re-locates to highway, keep building K-5 School - potential sites Headstart expands Modulars move to Environmental Resources area Public Safety/Security relocates Primary Health Services consolidate to new building(s) Skate Park and Basketball Courts re-locate Tribal Park buildings are demolished, services move to Mike Walsh Road Education Center is moves west; YOP co-locates Pow-Wow grounds are re-located Buow Park; existing parking is redistributed Condemned BIA building is demolished; services relocate to BIA-leased land Behavioral Health + Wellness Center Tiwahe Building Coffee Shop Bike Depot Grocery Store Public Works admin + services

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HEALTH SERVICES EDUCATION MIXED-USE GOVERNMENT CIVIC COMMERCIAL RELOCATED


3.0 FUTURE FRAMEWORK

ZONING - CORE HOUSING + PUBLIC SPACE

Housing Housing near the Core is split into multi-unit (appropriate for short term and supportive housing) and courtyard-style clusters (for individuals and small families who want to live within walking distance of activities and services). A - Tribal Crossing [Catalyst] A length of Mike Wash Road becomes the central street of Towaoc, defined by a rich array of mixed uses. The improved streetscape creates a gateway into the revitalized Core.

H1 A

B - Buow Park [Catalyst] This landscape is the new heart of Towaoc, representing health and well-being. Extending Veteran's Park, Buow Park replaces an expanse of paved parking with a new community park that welcomes all ages.

H1

B

H2

C - Pow Wow Grounds Moving the Pow-Wow creates a powerful southern end of the park opening up views to Chimney Rock.

D

D - Athletic Areas Outdated Basketball Courts and out-of-compliance Skate Park are upgraded and moved to bridge gathering and education zones. Playing fields are revitalized in anticipation of a K-5 school with organized sports. Sidewalk/Trails Sidewalks (along primary streets) and informal paths radiate from the Core, establishing routes for safer walking and biking.

C

H1 MULTI-UNIT OR 10 UNITS/ACRE

H2 4-8 UNITS/ACRE EXISTING HOUSING PROPOSED HOUSING

H2

H2

PUBLIC SPACE

D

TREES PARKING KoningEizenberg Architecture | D.I.R.T. studio | Ten x Ten

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3.0 FUTURE FRAMEWORK

ZONING - CORE HEALTH + EDUCATION

A - Primary Healthcare Consolidation Where possible, consolidate Diabetes Care, Indian Health Services Clinic, Community Health Resources, and Women, Infants, and Children (approx 14,000 SF existing) into one-two buildings with separate offices (proposed site can accommodate 30,000 SF/floor). Building maintenance and quality were cited as an impediment to sanitation. Consolidation allows programs to pool funding for sturdier, more sanitary clinic building(s) and shared equipment. B - Behavioral Health + Wellness Center To best engage the community, the planned Behavioral Health + Wellness Center is adjacent to Buow Park, creating an informal, social setting.

A

C - Headstart Expansion A four classroom extension replaces rear parking D - Kindergarten-5th Grade School [Catalyst] Either potential site has the capacity to accommodate a 12-classroom K-5 school with science and computer labs, art studio, library, and multipurpose gym/theater, and play space, which can be implemented in one or multiple phases. Parking is off-site, and the school will take advantage of existing playing fields. E - Higher Education The Education Center is moved west, allowing Pow-Wow grounds to move south and open views to Chimney Park. YOP is co-located to share resources with Higher Education.

D B C

E

D

HEALTH SERVICES EDUCATION

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3.0 FUTURE FRAMEWORK

ZONING - CORE MIXED-USE, GOVERNMENT, + COMMERCIAL

Large Enterprise Businesses over 50,000 SF, like the Transportation Fleet lot and the Detention Center, do not fit with the scale of the Core and detract from the focus on wellness, community, and service. We recommend that the Transportation Fleet be re-located to the highway, and that no additional large enterprise development take place in the Core. Mixed-Use Government, Civic, and Commercial buildings line Tribal Crossing, activating the street. Buildings should face the road, with parking tucked behind. Proposed new buildings include a grocery store and coffee shop (see Catalysts), public works administrative space, public safety/security offices, Tiwahe building, and a behavioral health center.

B

A C

A - Environmental Services This consolidated zone includes offices for Environmental Protection, Minerals Management Service, Brunot Wildlife, and Gaming. B + C - Grocery Store and Coffee Shop [Catalysts] Grocery Store and Coffee Shop placement revives a corner that was formerly home to a trading post and diner, which many Elders referred to as the old heart of Towaoc. Gathering Places for gathering (Recreation Center and Community Center) open directly to Buow Park, reinforcing each as a place of social connection.

LARGE ENTERPRISE MIXED-USE GOVERNMENT CIVIC COMMERCIAL GATHERING

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3.0 FUTURE FRAMEWORK

ZONING - CORE CIRCULATION + PARKING Circulation strategies make the core more connected. Sidewalks are improved to eliminate gaps and maximize movement throughout. Shade trees and lighting characterize the new streetscape of the Tribal Crossing along Mike Wash Road. Finally, the large parking lot surrounding Veteran's Park is re-distributed, with parking spaces dispersed around Buow Park (along the one-way Sunset Boulevard loop) and behind buildings throughout the core - finding room for nearly 50 additional spaces.

P

P

P P

LIGHTING SIDEWALKS TRAILS PUBLIC SPACE TREES RELOCATED BUILDINGS PARKING EXISTING: 238 STALLS PROPOSED: 293 STALLS

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4.0 BUOW PARK + TRIBAL CROSSING


4.0 BUOW PARK + TRIBAL CROSSING

OVERVIEW

The primary catalyst for the new heart of Towaoc is a landscape that enables community connections: Buow Park and Tribal Crossing. Tribal Crossing forms a new gateway and vibrant focus for Towaoc. Shade trees, lighting, and special paving stretch along Mike Wash Road between Bear Dance Street and Ute Trail Road, giving identity. Design of the crossing creates a lively streetscape lined by existing and future activity centers - including Tribal Council Headquarters and Buow Park. Named with the Ute word for 'family,' Buow Park is a healthy, welcoming place accessible to all. A place for joyful everyday experiences as well as special events, the expansive park provides a much needed center for gathering, and binds together the inter-generational, mixed uses throughout the Core. Native landscape is honored through a robust planting of indigenous plants, many of which are sacred to the Tribe. Buow Park respectfully incorporates and expands the existing Veterans Park, replacing an expansive, paved parking lot (existing parking is relocated around the park and behind buildings in the core). It extends to meet the re-located Pow Wow Grounds, opening views south to Chimney Rock.

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4.0 BUOW PARK + TRIBAL CROSSING

MESAS, WATER, + WELLNESS The design of Buow Park and Tribal Crossing include elements that promote physical and spiritual wellness, a priority expressed by Tribal members of all ages at community meetings. As the new heart of Towaoc, the park encourages intergenerational interaction and learning. It connections to adjacent buildings, expands landscape links to the south, and preserves long views to the horizon. Rich native planting encourages environmental education, stimulating the senses as well as the mind. With ample room for gatherings and rituals, Buow Park is a prime location to share stories and celebrate heritage.

KoningEizenberg Architecture | D.I.R.T. studio | Ten x Ten

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4.0 BUOW PARK + TRIBAL CROSSING

MESAS, WATER, + WELLNESS

Buow Park's design is inspired by the natural landscape, particularly the local geology and watershed. The park's layout is an abstraction of arroyos and mesas, which form over centuries of rainstorm scouring and sediment deposition. Water movement is central to the formation of the park. Taking advantage of the site's north-south slope, observed during rainfall, the design explores different ways to direct rain water. An abstracted arroyo, a rocky center line that occasionally swells with rain, creates an intermittent stream from Tribal Crossing to the Pow-Wow Grounds. To maximize the presence of precious water, a series of weirs slow and contain flow. This arroyo is richly vegetated with native plants, such as yucca and sage, providing teaching opportunities around the practical and spiritual uses of various plants. Rising above the arroyo, the park's abstracted, flat-top mesas offer spaces for gathering. Each is associated with a different activity, from active play to leisurely pastime, and shaded by large trees, including cottonwood and willow. The park's design is strongly wedded to representation of native landscape. Materials are tough, yet carefully crafted, and planting is rich with connections to heritage.

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UTE MOUNTAIN UTE TRIBE COMPREHENSIVE MASTERPLAN

CONTINUOUS FLOW

BROKEN FLOW

DIRECTED FLOW

SLOW + CONTAIN FLOW


4.0 BUOW PARK + TRIBAL CROSSING

MESAS, WATER, + WELLNESS Geologic features like arroyos, washes and mesas define the distinctive character of Towaoc's region. Buow Park's design borrows forms and flows from the local landscape to evoke a long held love for the land.

BLACK MOUNTAIN

SLEEPING UTE MTN NAVAJO WASH TOWAOC MESA VERDE

DESERT FEATURES FORMED BY WATER MOVEMENT KoningEizenberg Architecture | D.I.R.T. studio | Ten x Ten

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4.0 BUOW PARK + TRIBAL CROSSING

DESIGN - OVERVIEW

BUOW PARK T RUS

TRIBAL CROSSING

LING LOW

WIL

KE

WA

ST

MI

SH

SET

SUN

D BLV

CE

U PR

ST

S

ARROYO PLANTING

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UTE MOUNTAIN UTE TRIBE COMPREHENSIVE MASTERPLAN

GROVES

RD


4.0 BUOW PARK + TRIBAL CROSSING

DESIGN - OVERVIEW ARROYO - YUCCA, SAGE RABBITBRUSH

RELOCATED POW WOW SUNSET STAGE AND AMPHITHEATER

GROVES - COTTONWOOD, WILLOW, ASPEN

VETERANS MEMORIAL

SET

SUN

TRIBAL CROSSING / MIKE WASH RD GATHERING PLATEAUS

D BLV

E UC

ET

RE

ST

R

SP

MATERIALS

KoningEizenberg Architecture | D.I.R.T. studio | Ten x Ten

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4.0 BUOW PARK + TRIBAL CROSSING

DESIGN VIEW SOUTH TO CHIMNEY ROCK The flat mesas of Buow Park are shaded by groves of native trees. Each mesa hosts a different program, ranging from active play to leisurely pastime. Refurbished Veteran's Park forms one of the larger mesas. Spacious steps, wide enough for lounging, cascade down to the arroyo, opening views to Chimney Rock through the park.

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4.0 BUOW PARK + TRIBAL CROSSING

DESIGN VIEW NORTH TO TRIBAL CROSSING Buow Parks extends north to Tribal Crossing, converging to form the new heart of Towaoc. Street trees along Tribal Crossing overlap with the shady tree groves of Buow Park, forming a cool canopy for community gathering. The arroyo combines carefully placed local stone and concrete to orchestrate water flow.

KoningEizenberg Architecture | D.I.R.T. studio | Ten x Ten

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4.0 BUOW PARK + TRIBAL CROSSING

PROGRAM The mesas of Buow Park host various programs and activities. Each mesa relates to its neighboring building, while also relating to the park as a whole, unified by the arroyo. Activities range from playing to sitting to performing. Veterans Park and the Pow-Wow Grounds are refurbished and anchor the south end of the park.

COOK +PICNIC

SUNSET STEPS + STAGE

CELEBRATE

VIEW TO CHIMNEY ROCK + SHIP ROCK

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UTE MOUNTAIN UTE TRIBE COMPREHENSIVE MASTERPLAN

VETERAN’S MEMORIAL

PLAY

WATER LAB

WELCOME

SIT


4.0 BUOW PARK + TRIBAL CROSSING

PRECEDENTS - PROGRAM The mesas and arroyo encourage exchange between generations by making separate but nearby spaces for different activities. Mesas invite gathering for quiet relaxation, telling stories, active play, picnicking or performing. The lower 'arroyo' is animated by rocks that direct the flow of rainwater. The central garden, irrigated by the arroyo, is heavily planted with native plants, many traditionally used for sustenance and for sacred rituals.

CREATE

SHADE + NATIVE PLANTS

RELAX

GATHER + EAT

PLAY

EXPLORE KoningEizenberg Architecture | D.I.R.T. studio | Ten x Ten

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4.0 BUOW PARK + TRIBAL CROSSING

PRECEDENTS - STREETSCAPE Tribal Crossing, an investment in the stretch of Mike Wash Road from Bear Dance Street to Ute Trail Road, is a strong streetscape that announces entry to the Core. The Crossing strengthens present and future mixed-use planning for civic, commercial, and social service buildings. It is the glue that binds together the diverse activities of the Core, and promotes community connection and wellness.

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4.0 BUOW PARK + TRIBAL CROSSING

PRECEDENTS - CROSSING A simple way to mark Tribal Crossing is through patterns of paint or paving: imagine the markings stretching from the Tribal Council building across to Buow Park. Ute bead work, pottery, or geologic patterns could all provide inspiration for an abstract street pattern at the threshold of the Core.

KoningEizenberg Architecture | D.I.R.T. studio | Ten x Ten

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4.0 BUOW PARK + TRIBAL CROSSING

PLANT PALETTE TREES, SHRUBS + PERENNIALS UTAH JUNIPER (J. osteosperma)

ROCKY MOUNTAIN JUNIPER (J. scopulorum)

REDBERRY JUNIPER (J. coahuilensis)

SMOKE TREE (Dalea spinosa)

ONE-SEED JUNIPER (J. monosperma)

ALLIGATOR JUNIPER (J. deppeana)

SINGLELEAF PINYON (P. monophylla)

NARROWLEAF COTTONWOOD (Pop. angustifolia) EASTERN COTTONWOOD (Populus deltoides)

BORDER PINYON (P. discolor)

COMMON PINYON (P. edulis)

MEXICAN PINYON (Pinus cembroides)

ANTELOPE BITTERBRUSH (Purshia tridentata)

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PEACH LEAF OR RED WILLOW (Salix laevigata)

SMOOTH SUMAC (Rhus glabra)


4.0 BUOW PARK + TRIBAL CROSSING

PLANT PALETTE TREES, SHRUBS + PERENNIALS QUAKING ASPEN (Populus tremuloides)

MAT SALTBUSH (Atriplex corrugata)

MOUNTAIN MAHOGANY (Cercocarpus spp.)

WOODS’ ROSE (Rosa woodsii)

SAND SAGE (Artemisia filifolia)

BIG SAGE (Artemisia tridentata)

BUD SAGEBRUSH (Picrothamnus desertorum) BANANA YUCCA (Yucca baccata)

SEGO LILY (Calochortus nuttallii)

DESERT TRUMPET (Eriogonum inflatum)

JAMES GALENA GRASS (Pleuraphis jamesii)

INDIAN RICE GRASS (Oryzopsis hymenoides)

SILVER SAGEBRUSH (Artemisia cana)

BLACK SAGEBRUSH (Artemisia nova)

RABBITBRUSH (Chrysothamnus spp)

KoningEizenberg Architecture | D.I.R.T. studio | Ten x Ten

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4.0 BUOW PARK + TRIBAL CROSSING

PLANT PALETTE EDIBLE PLANTS BLACKBERRIES

BLUEBERRIES

BUFFALO BERRIES

CHOKECHERRY TREE

CURRANT

GOOSEBERRIES

JUNIPER BERRIES

PINYON PINE NUT

RASBERRIES

SERVICE BERRIES

SQUAWBERRIES

STRAWBERRIES

WILD ONIONS

YUCCA FRUITS

WINTERGREEN (Gaultheria procumbens)

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5.0 HOUSING


5.0 HOUSING

HOUSING NEED SURVEY Lack of affordable, well-maintained housing in Towaoc is a recognized problem. However, there has been no formal study on how many homes Towaoc needs to alleviate strain on existing housing supply. The Housing Need Survey was developed to gain insight into economic, maintenance, and size constraints on existing housing, and understand what changes Tribal members would like to see in their housing options. The Housing Needs Survey was distributed by the Planning Department, both online (through Survey Monkey) and in-person at two Town Halls. Individuals on Housing Authority's Housing Waitlist were targeted, but respondents include individuals in every housing situation. 110 surveys were returned, of which only 16 were complete. Due to small sample size and lack of completion, these survey results should not be used as scientific data. Data is inconclusive, and is not necessarily indicative of larger community desires or trends. Survey answers are included in full in the Digital Addendum to this document.

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5.0 HOUSING

HOUSING NEED SURVEY - RESULTS The majority of respondents are middle-aged, working women who would rather own a home than rent. The average surveyed family consists of 4 members sharing 3.1 bedrooms. Most people indicate a preferred household size of 4-6 individuals, with 3-5 bedrooms.

CURRENT

DESIRED

Surveyed households are strongly intergenerational: most respondents have children at home, and many also house parents and grandchildren. Nevertheless, respondents indicate limited desire to co-habitate with older generations. Strong desire to live with children and grandchildren is expressed, but far fewer respondents want to live with grandparents or, especially, parents. More small scale or supportive housing options for elders could provide positive, independent living situations, alleviating strain on intergenerational family relationships.

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5.0 HOUSING

HOUSING NEED SURVEY - RESULTS Though respondents prefer owning to renting, there is not a correlation established between the remote, larger, nontrailer homes that they prefer, and the amount that Tribal members are willing/able to spend. Managing expectations while negotiating between desires and affordability will be key moving forward. Establishing new programs to subsidize housing for Tribal members is one option, but may not be economically viable. Public workshops discussing housing affordability, resources for affording a home (loans, savings programs, existing HUD housing, etc), and home maintenance/ expansion options may help Tribal members better understand their budgets and options. Exploring new housing types is equally important: the tribe can look at regionally pre-fabricated and/or off-the-grid options that will be of greater quality than existing housing stock, but cost less than stick-built, custom housing. As suggested in 7.0 Recommendations: Community Catalysts, expanding the Weeminuche Construction Authority's capacity to develop a pre-fabrication facility would give the Tribe unprecedented input into the design of housing that suits the needs and desires of Tribal members, while earning revenue by serving the surrounding region. Offgrid housing would eliminate the costly and restrictive infrastructure needed to build homes on 1/2-1 acre plots, allowing the Tribe to explore different housing arrangements and orientations - such as the traditional east-facing front door, and spacing that allows efficient land use while preserving views and sense of privacy.

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5.0 HOUSING

ZONING Meeting Towaoc’s housing need requires balancing desires for tradition, community, and land conservation with constraints of infrastructure and affordability. Colonial housing that follows HUD guidelines has not adequately served tribal members – quality, suitability, variety, and affordability remain issues. New housing should raise expectations and build community. The H1, H2, and H3 zones identified, if fully built out, could accommodate over 350 units - more than the estimated current need. This does not include infill sites across Towaoc, or the in-progress Rodeo Drive development. For full details of proposed housing types and guidelines, see 7.0 Recommendations - Housing. The proposed approach concentrates units in the active, walkable core - a good area for supportive housing, social elders who want to maintain independence, young families, and individuals who like to be close to goods and services. These clustered, small homes surrounded by open space maximize use of existing infrastructure to keep costs in line. Larger, detached homes (regulated by Homesite Land Ordinance process) connect the Core to Rodeo drive along Ute Trail Road - part of the Southern Tiwahe Loop - hooking the development to the rest of the community. Maintaining and infilling existing housing stock is also key. Where possible, infill homes should replace abandoned structures. Tiny homes added to existing lots may provide a cost-effective alternative to expanding a home, or allow a relative to live adjacent to family while maintaining independence.

EXISTING HOUSING PROPOSED HOUSING

H1 MULTI-UNIT OR 10 UNITS/ACRE

H2 4-8 UNITS/ACRE H3 1-2 UNITS/ACRE LARGE ENTERPRISE HEALTH SERVICES EDUCATION MIXED-USE GOVERNMENT CIVIC COMMERCIAL GATHERING PUBLIC SPACE

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5.0 HOUSING

AFFORDABILITY To determine affordability of different housing types, the Housing Authority should work with HUD and a local contractor with regional pricing knowledge to complete the matrix below. That information will guide viability of preferred options for the Tribe.

Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Housing Options type

quantity (by unit)

detached housing- for sale tiny house H2 - cluster houses H2 - cluster houses H3 - family H3 - large family H3 - large family detached housing- rental H2 - cluster houses H2 - cluster houses H3 - family H3 - large family H3 - large family supportive housing teen refuge substance abuse domestic violence homeless

52

need priority

# bedrooms # bathrooms area (sf/unit)

studio 1 2 3 4 5

1 1 1 2 3 4

under 400 550 - 700 900 - 1,000 1,250 - 1,350 1,550 - 1,650 1,900 - 2000

1 2 3 4 5

1 1 2 3 4

550 - 700 900 - 1,000 1,250 - 1,350 1,550 - 1,650 1,900 - 2000

UTE MOUNTAIN UTE TRIBE COMPREHENSIVE MASTERPLAN

const cost/sf

const cost

affordability rent N/A

notes downpayment 10% down

mortgage

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

200 sf/unit + community space


6.0 IMPLEMENTATION


6.0 IMPLEMENTATION

PHASE 1 - RELOCATION + DEMOLITION PLAN The designated areas are prepared to implement key community catalysts, Tribal Crossing and Buow Park. Expansive paving is removed from around Veterans Park and the wide streets that surround this lot. Other areas are prepared for new parking (eg, south of the Community Center) or improved parking (eg, gravel lot north of the baseball fields). Mike Wash Road is readied for streetscape improvements. The education building to the south of Veterans Park is removed and relocated, making way for the relocated Pow Wow Grounds and opening views south to the horizon.

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6.0 IMPLEMENTATION

PHASE 1 - SITE PLAN The expansive parking around Veteran's Park is relocated to construct Buow Park. Some parking is maintained around the perimeter of the one-way Sunset Boulevard loop, and the rest is re-distributed as smaller lots behind surrounding buildings, finding room for 50 additional spaces. Veterans Park is preserved and improved as part of the park mesas, all linked by the designed arroyo. The Pow Wow Grounds are relocated to form a southern anchor and reinforce the continuity of Buow Park. A central length of Mike Wash Road becomes the Tribal Crossing, where street trees, shrubs, and paving treatment signal the heart of Towaoc.

KoningEizenberg Architecture | D.I.R.T. studio | Ten x Ten

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6.0 IMPLEMENTATION

PHASING - 10 YEARS

Priorities: 1. Buow Park and Tribal Crossing 2. Relocating Pow Wow Grounds 3. Relocating Tribal Fleet 4. Establishing small scale housing at the core 5. Beginning Tour de Ute Trail 6. Improving Primary Heath Facilities 7. Strengthening commercial + social services along Tribal Crossing 8. Establishing Behavioral Health Center 9. Improving and expanding education services

EXISTING HOUSING PROPOSED HOUSING

H1 MULTI-UNIT OR 10 UNITS/ACRE

H2 4-8 UNITS/ACRE H3 1-2 UNITS/ACRE LARGE ENTERPRISE HEALTH SERVICES EDUCATION MIXED-USE GOVERNMENT CIVIC COMMERCIAL GATHERING PUBLIC SPACE

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6.0 IMPLEMENTATION

PHASING - 20 YEARS

Priorities: 1. Continuing to develop housing to connect Rodeo Drive to the larger community 2. Starting a K-5 School 3. Completing Tour de Ute Trail 4. Improvements to the Playing Fields 5. Continuing to strengthen services along Tribal Crossing 6. Improvements to the Cemetery 7. Re-establishing the Rodeo Grounds as public space 8. Planned improvements to the Bear Dance Grounds

EXISTING HOUSING PROPOSED HOUSING

H1 MULTI-UNIT OR 10 UNITS/ACRE

H2 4-8 UNITS/ACRE H3 1-2 UNITS/ACRE LARGE ENTERPRISE HEALTH SERVICES EDUCATION MIXED-USE GOVERNMENT CIVIC COMMERCIAL GATHERING PUBLIC SPACE

KoningEizenberg Architecture | D.I.R.T. studio | Ten x Ten

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6.0 IMPLEMENTATION

FUNDING The ideas contained in the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Comprehensive Master plan (generated by youth, elders, members, veterans, residents, leaders and employees) can be funded through a variety of fund development strategies including, but not limited to, state grants, federal grants, foundation grants, sponsorship funding and individual giving. The following fund development sources could produce in excess of $20M for the projects described in the plan. STATE GRANTS • GOCO: invests a portion of Colorado Lottery proceeds to help preserve and enhance the state’s parks, trails, wildlife, rivers and open spaces. Their independent board awards competitive grants to local governments and land trusts, and makes investments through Colorado Parks and Wildlife. Created by voters in 1992, GOCO has committed more than $917 million in lottery proceeds to more than 4,800 projects in all 64 counties without any tax dollar support. • Local Park and Outdoor Recreation (LPOR) Grants: up to $350,000 per project, and mini grants, up to $45,000 per project costing $60,000 or less, fund 1) new park development; 2) enhancing existing park facilities; 3) park land acquisition, 4) environmental education facilities including building new facilities or enhancing existing ones. FEDERAL FUNDING SOURCES • Indian Housing Block Grant (IHBG): Established by the Native American Housing Assistance and Self Determination Act of 1996 (NAHASDA), the IHBG program is a formula based grant program. Eligible activities include housing development, assistance to housing developed under the Indian Housing Program, housing services to eligible families and individuals, crime prevention and safety, and model activities that provide creative approaches to solving affordable housing problems. • Section 184 Indian Home Loan Guarantee Program: The Section 184 Program was created in 1992 to help increase Native access to homeownership by providing a guarantee to lenders on mortgage loans made to Native borrowers, including American Indian and Alaska Native families, Alaska Villages, Tribes, or Tribally Designated Housing Entities. Section 184 loans can be used, both on and off native lands, and for new construction, rehabilitation, purchase of an existing home, or refinance. • Indian Community Development Block Grant (ICDBG): Awarded under an annual competition, Indian Community Development Block Grants provide single purpose grants for housing rehabilitation, land acquisition, community 58

UTE MOUNTAIN UTE TRIBE COMPREHENSIVE MASTERPLAN

facilities, infrastructure construction, and economic development activities that benefit primarily for low and moderate income persons. Title VI Loan Guarantee Program: Authorized under NAHASDA, the Title VI Loan Guarantee Program assists Indian Housing Block Grant recipients (borrower) who want to finance eligible affordable housing activities, but are unable to secure financing without the assistance of a federal guarantee. New Market Tax Credits: The New Markets Tax Credit (NMTC) Program incentivizes business and real estate investment in low-income communities of the United States via a federal tax credit. The program is administered by the US Treasury Department’s Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund and allocated by local Community Development Entities (CDEs) across the United States. Tribal Economic Development Bonds or TED Bonds: tax-exempt bonds that Indian Tribal Governments can issue to finance any project or activity for which State or local governments could issue tax-exempt bonds. For example, TED Bonds could be used to finance water treatment facilities, sewage facilities, solid waste disposal facilities, and qualified residential rental projects. TED Bonds are not subject to the limits Indian tribal governments have in their use of tax-exempt bonds to the financing of “essential governmental function” activities that are customarily performed by State and local governments. TED Bonds were created by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act), with a total issuance limit of $2 billion, much of which was outstanding as of June 2014. EDA’s Public Works Program: Helps distressed communities revitalize, expand, and upgrade their physical infrastructure. This program enables communities to attract new industry; encourage business expansion; diversify local economies; and generate or retain long-term, private-sector jobs and investment through the acquisition or development of land and infrastructure improvements needed for the successful establishment or expansion of industrial or commercial enterprises. EDA Public Works program investments help facilitate the transition of communities from being distressed to becoming competitive by developing key public infrastructure, such as technologybased facilities that utilize distance learning networks, smart rooms, and smart buildings; multitenant manufacturing and other facilities; business and industrial parks with fiber optic cable; and telecommunications and development facilities. In addition, EDA invests in traditional public works projects, including water and sewer systems improvements, industrial parks, business incubator facilities, expansion of port and harbor facilities, skilltraining facilities, and brownfields redevelopment.


6.0 IMPLEMENTATION

FUNDING •

Loan Guarantee and Interest Subsidy Program: The Division of Capital Investment (DCI) manages the Indian Loan Guarantee, Insurance and Interest Subsidy Program which helps borrowers secure business financing on commercially reasonable terms. Over $1 billion has been provided in loan guarantees and insurance for Indian Country. To help Indian tribes and individuals establish and expand Indian-owned businesses, and to encourage self –sufficiency, Congress passed the Indian Financing Act of 1974. The Act was established to reduce the disparity between business capital available to Indian and non-Indian businesses. The program is open to federally recognized American Indian tribes, Alaska Native groups, individually enrolled members of such tribes or groups, and business organizations with no less than 51 percent ownership by American Indians or Alaska Natives. The Community Development Financial Institutions Fund: CDFI promotes economic revitalization in distressed communities throughout the United States by providing financial assistance and information to community development financial institutions. An agency of the United States Department of the Treasury, it was established through the Riegle Community Development and Regulatory Improvement Act of 1994. Financial institutions, which may include banks, credit unions, loan funds, and community development venture capital funds, can apply to the CDFI Fund for formal certification as a CDFI. US Department of Agriculture’s Community Facilities Loan and Grant Program: This program provides affordable funding to develop essential community facilities in rural areas. An essential community facility is defined as a facility that provides an essential service to the local community for the orderly development of the community in a primarily rural area, and does not include private, commercial or business undertakings. Community Economic Development (CED) Program: is a federal grant program funding Community Development Corporations that address the economic needs of individuals and families with low income through the creation of sustainable business development and employment opportunities. CED’s projects create employment opportunities that lead to increased selfsufficiency for individuals with low income through a variety of activities, such as: a) Capital expenditures such as the purchase of equipment or real property; b) Allowable operating expenses; and c) Loans or equity investments. CED funds a variety of projects, including business incubators, shopping centers, manufacturing businesses and agricultural initiatives.

FOUNDATION FUNDING The Foundation Directory Online lists 296 foundations that fund homelessness, housing repairs, housing and community development projects in Colorado and 190 that fund youth development activities. Braiding the two issues together to implement youth-led community development initiatives generates a list of 500 potential foundation prospects. In depth research into each foundation based on funder’s geographic limits, priority issues, and average grant awards would need to be applied to funnel the list to 10-50 prospects that could fund one or more projects identified as priorities in the plan. Most foundation funders are interested in social impact so projects would be need to be designed as projects that could be replicated on other Native American reservations or small rural communities. Following is a short sampling of possible prospects:

Packard Foundation Kellogg Foundation Wells Fargo Foundation Wal-Mart Foundation Johnson Foundation Annie Casey Foundation

Knight Foundation Daniels Fund Anschutz Foundation El Pomar Foundation Boettcher Foundation Starbucks Foundation

SPONSORSHIP FUNDING Corporations that do business with the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe are prime prospects for corporate sponsorships (such as Verizon), as well as corporations whose missions align with project goals (such as education, housing, health, fitness, environment, community development, etc.) Corporate sponsors are looking for value propositions that align to their core values. In addition, they expect to receive in return for their financial investment sponsor benefits such as the following: • Corporate branding on the project – naming rights • Exposure on UMUT’s website, in press releases, and in social media • Speaking opportunities • Display tables at events (PowWows, Bear Dance, etc.) • Email blasts • Free ad space in programs • Branding on a Native American resource list • Employee volunteer opportunities

KoningEizenberg Architecture | D.I.R.T. studio | Ten x Ten

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6.0 IMPLEMENTATION

FUNDING INDIVIDUAL GIVING Individual giving represents the largest source of funding in the United States, yet it is a funding strategy often overlooked. Individuals give money to support causes such as diabetes prevention, suicide prevention, domestic violence prevention, poverty, homelessness, and more. There are numerous ways to attract individuals to help fund specific projects including: • GoFundMe: launched in 2010, GoFundMe is the world’s largest social fundraising platform, with over $3 billion raised so far. With a community of more than 25 million donors, GoFundMe is changing the way the world gives. UMUT youth raised $2,500 in 2015 using this strategy. • Kickstarter: a global community built around creative projects. Over 10 million people, from every continent, have backed a Kickstarter project. • A Capital Campaign: a targeted fundraising effort that takes place over a defined period of time. Typically, there are two overarching phases: the quiet phase and the public phase. During the quiet phase, 50%-70% of the funds are raised through major gifts strategies. • Faith-based Giving: many churches have stewardship and mission programs where volunteers donate time, resources and talent to implement projects. For example, the University Baptist Church in Clear Lake, Texas sends over 100 volunteers to the Navajo Nation each year to build churches. In 2015, UBC volunteered time on the UMUT reservation to assist with a basketball camp and fellowship programs, as well as to discuss the construction of a church or fellowship hall.

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7.0 RECOMMENDATIONS


7.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

HOUSING ZONES Areas closer to the Core call for greater access to housing: • H1 (8-10 units/acre): max capacity of 56 - 70 units • H2 (4-6 units/acre): max capacity of 64 - 96 units • H3 (1-2 units/acre): max capacity of 70 - 140 homes • Rodeo Drive (2 units/acre): recommend restricting development to the 62 units served by new infrastructure placement NEW DETACHED HOUSING • Infill: replaces abandoned or uses vacant lots in existing residential areas. Prioritizing infill housing will reduce vandalism, improve safety, and visibly contribute to community wellbeing. • Clustered (4-6 units per acre): Small houses or duplexes to take advantage of central location, providing more cost effective development (per infrastructure and resources) • Rodeo Drive (2 homes/acre): 200 homes planned over 10 years - recommend restricting development to the 62 units served by new infrastructure placement. • Homesite (1/2-1 acre): As petitioned to Tribal Council TINY HOMES (a detached unit under 400 sf sited with an existing home) • Overcrowding is perceived as a persistent housing issue. Infilling with tiny homes is a cost-effective alternative to an addition or re-locating to a larger home. This strategy, which allows for more independence between generations while maintaining proximity, has been successful in small communities and conforms with the tradition of family clusters. ATTACHED/CLUSTER HOUSING (smaller houses (1-2 bedroom) and apartments with 70% open space) • Many youth and elders expressed a desire to live more centrally, within easy walking distance to services and community spaces. Focusing this housing around the Core will increase and encourage walking, promote an active center of town, and follows best practices to improve safety by increasing eyes on the street. SUPPORTIVE HOUSING (as identified by focus groups: for teens, women exposed to domestic violence, recovering substance abusers, homeless individuals, and elders who require services as well as accommodation) • Groups have different needs, and location should be determined accordingly. 62

UTE MOUNTAIN UTE TRIBE COMPREHENSIVE MASTERPLAN

QUALITY • Construction • Sustainability • Suitability FUNDING In-place federal funding streams appear to be too restrictive; new funding streams and construction methods are recommended to achieve goals. For example, OffGrid housing alleviates expensive infrastructure costs that inhibit large-lot home development, and opens doors for sustainability- focused grants.


7.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

GOVERNANCE

MAINTENANCE

Overlap and lack of clear communication between departments hinders the Tribe’s ability to enact policy and promote development in an economic and efficient manner. To successfully develop the masterplan and other future endeavors, the following are key:

Though there is proven need for new housing and community/service buildings, maintenance and repair of existing structures could dramatically cut estimated need for a reduced cost. To effectively enable large-scale building maintenance and repair would require:

EXISTING BUILDING CONDITIONS SURVEY • To accurately determine housing and community-serving space need, an existing building conditions survey must be conducted. Two Building Inspection checklists should be established: one to address non-residential space; and one to address homes. It is only after thoroughly analyzing existing building conditions and determining which buildings can be successfully re-modeled that an accurate number of homes needed and community-serving space square footage needed may be estimated. Basing this survey on building inspection checklists (civic or private) used in surrounding towns - like Cortez, Farmington, and Durango - will provide a comprehensive overview. The survey should be undertaken on a regular schedule, at maximum intervals of 10 years. • Given issues of cultural sensitivity, these surveys should be conducted by Tribal members certified as building inspectors. Job training for building inspection certification has the additional benefit of providing employment beyond the needs of this survey.

Address Silo’ing of Departments and Funding Streams: When meeting with the Working Committee, different departments were almost always unaware of what their peers were working on – even when goals or grants were similar enough that teaming could produce more impactful results. As identified in the Tiwahe Initiative, clearer communication channels and opportunities for collaboration would benefit departments across the board. Build Capacity of Housing Authority: The Housing Authority only manages HUD homes, and has limited centralized data, most often working off of singlecopy, printed documents from their collection. A digitized database of HUD home statistics, full waiting list information, Housing Authority masterplans, maps, and any other information would be invaluable for future housing efforts. Additionally, expanding purview to all homes on the reservation - not only Tribal-owned or supportive housing - would allow the Tribe to better serve residents, particularly through maintenance programs. Building capacity and increasing transparency is necessary for the Housing Authority to regain trust in the community, who do not feel that the wait list process is adequately explained and worry about their chances of finding an affordable home. Conducting a feasibility study on price-point of for-sale housing would better guide Tribal Council, Housing Authority, and Planning Department on what developments and programs will best serve Tribal members. Expand Purview of Planning Department: In recent years, Planning Department staff has shrunk from 15 employees to 3, reducing the department's ability to manage workload, stay organized, and co-ordinate information. The department should expand, and purview should be expanded to manage approvals (with oversight from Tribal Council) for all built and open space improvements on the reservation, to optimize value and co-ordinate efforts. Expand Veterans Programs and Access to Housing: Federal regulations for Veteran assistance are not currently compatible with Tribal Sovereignty. Veterans feel under-appreciated and disadvantaged. Tribal officials are currently working with the VA to expand benefit programs on sovereign land. Work that accelerates this effort would be valuable to rebuilding trust.

CONSOLIDATION OF EXISTING MAINTENANCE PROGRAMS • Currently, 4 maintenance programs exist in Towaoc through the Weeminuche Construction Authority, the Elders’ Center, Public Works, and the Housing Authority. If combined, these programs could pool resources and knowledge to better serve the community. A consolidated maintenance program could serve both residential and non-residential uses.

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7.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

COMMUNITY CATALYSTS RCDI grant deliverable call for a “community catalyst.” Discussion at community workshops and with Tribal leadership revealed the special significance of the land in and around Towaoc. The Open Space Masterplan was developed as the Key Catalyst: the best possible way to link housing and community space, and revive Towaoc. However, open space is only the beginning: many other ideas were identified by focus groups throughout the masterplan process. The most impactful are identified here, as Complementary Social and Economic Catalysts. KEY CATALYST: OPEN SPACE PLAN Circulation Improvements (p 30) Tribal Crossing (p 31) Buow Park (p 31) COMPLEMENTARY SOCIAL CATALYSTS • Coffee Shop: A youth-proposed coffee shop has received passionate support from all age groups. Adults value the idea of somewhere to get a good cup of coffee; while youth are excited by the promise of an informal hang-out space with free internet. Towaoc lacks informal, unprogrammed social spaces: the Rec Center is visited to attend various classes and clubs; Tribal Council for meetings; and even the Elder’s Center is primarily visited for specific events. A coffee shop provides a space that is comfortable to relax and socialize in for an extended period of time. It can also provide job-training. • K-5 School: In an effort to preserve and honor heritage, many youth are educated at boarding schools run by other tribes. An on-reservation K-5 school would provide the same culturally specialized education while focusing on Ute Mountain Ute tradition and building sense of pride and confidence among youth. • Youth Center: Youth repeatedly expressed desire for a safe, welcoming space where they were free to be themselves, spend the night if needed, and could find an adult to confide in. The Youth Shelter is seen as too institutional and regimented to serve this purpose. COMPLEMENTARY ECONOMIC CATALYSTS • Grocery Store: Towaoc is a food desert. The only local food options are at the Casino (restaurant) and Travel Center (fast-food and convenience store): going to the grocery store requires driving to Cortez. Diabetes and heart disease are both prevalent, and though healthcare and awareness programs are wellattended, readily available healthy food options are needed to drive change. 64

UTE MOUNTAIN UTE TRIBE COMPREHENSIVE MASTERPLAN

A grocery store would provide a source of revenue, employment, and bring food to Towaoc. There are many possible approaches, including: leasing space to an existing market; developing a co-op food program; running a daily or bi-weekly farmers market; or providing both groceries and ready-made food. For increased economic benefit, the store could market to other Tribes: Navajo shoppers living near Ship Rock also drive to Cortez for groceries, and may be more inclined to shop from a geographically closer, Native-owned grocier. WCA Expansion: Of the enterprises and initiatives on the reservation, Weeminuche Construction Authority has the highest potential for skilled job growth. Expansion of WCA’s services could provide valuable services for the tribe; employment opportunities with room to grow; and generate revenue through off-reservation work. Viability of the following ventures should be investigated, through seperate a grant or privately funded study: • Pre-Fabrication Facility: Creating a Pre-Fabrication arm of WCA would allow the Tribe to manufacture their own homes (partially or in full), and would open the door to turning profit by selling pre-fabricated homes regionally. In addition, it would supply year-round, rather than seasonal, work for the 70% native workforce. WCA has job training programs in place, and a pre-fabrication facility would further opportunity as well as broaden skillsets. • Landscape Installation: given the Construction Authority’s experience with earthwork and the Tribe’s eagerness to invest in open space, a Landscape Installation arm could handle on-reservation work, such as the proposed Buow Park, and regional work.


DEFINITIONS AFFORDABLE HOUSING: subsidized, income-restricted, or designated affordable homes (including HUD homes and the Tribal Trailers). CLUSTER HOUSING: a grouping of small houses around open space, evocative of Towaoc's early family clusters. Courtyard housing is a design precedent. COMMUNITY CATALYST: a particular project which embodies RCDI grant goals, has the power to create lasting change, and will encourage other community projects. In this plan, Community Catalysts are split into Key Catalysts: those which have the most community impact and should be delivered first; and Complementary Catalysts: social and economic projects which deliver similar levels of community impact. THE CORE: the area of Towaoc where services, government, and community activities are concentrated; roughly bordered by Rustling Willow to the north, Beardance to the east, the playingfields to the south, and Ute Trail Road to the west. THE ENVIRONS: Towaoc, not including the Core. Includes Casino, Farm and Ranch, and WCA developments; Rodeo Drive; Housing neighborhoods north of the core and east of the highway, and more. THE HORIZON: important land formations visible from Towaoc, located both on and off reservation. Examples include Sleeping Ute Mountain, Ship Rock, Chimney Rock, and the Mesa. MASTERPLAN: a comprehensive plan of action, typically adopted by a city, divided into phases, and administered by a planning department. PRE-FABRICATED BUILDING: a structure (whole or partial) made of factory -made parts, which are transported and assembled on-site. ZONING: designating areas for a specific use or development.

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