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To understand “Daylight in architecture� - Demonstration by designing an Art Exhibition space for Saurastra region. Indubhai Parekh school of architecture

Krutarth Nanavati A-1711 (2016)


“ Architecture is the learned game,corrected and magnificent of forms assembled in the light.� - Le Corbusier


Acknowledgement: Before I begin I would like to thank all those who knowingly or unknowingly ,directly or indirectly helped during the process. At various stages in doing of thesis ,a number of people have given me invaluable support.In this regard I owe a depth of gratitude to my inspiratation and guide Ar. Satish Vora,who cultivated determination and wisdom in my workings and have been a helping hand at every moment to support and motivate me. My Parents , who kept ultimate faith in me and always provided me backup with their love and best wishes. My friends,who were there for encouraging me thoughout the process and being there for me.Special thanks to Neerja,Jaydeep,Savan,Baba(Neeraj),Kishan. This project would not have been a success without your help. Ofcourse, IPSA which has been a turning point for me,delighted me with these five years and helped me develop into the person I am today.

Thank you


“ A room is not a room without natural light .” - Louis I Kahn


INDEX Chapter I | Introduction •

An overview

5

Terms related to daylighting in architecture

6

Characteristics and effective use of daylight in architecture

Strategies of using daylight into a volume - Region specific guidelines

14

Different conventional methods of borrowing daylight in architecture

15-17

Daylight distribution

18-22

Aim - Objective - Scope - Limitations

23

Keywords

24

Criterias for case study selection

24

7-13

Chapter II | Case Studies •

Case 1 - The Chichu Museum, Japan.

26-28

Case II - Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Newyork, U.S.

29-30

Case III - The Jewish museum, Berlin.

31-32

Case IV- The Kiasma Museum for Contemporary Art, Finland.

33-35

Inferences and Probable urban inserts

36

Chapter III | Site and Context •

Criterias for site selection, City potentials - Rajkot

38

History in brief of evolution - Rajkot city

Nature of space - Race course ground, Rajkot

40

S.W.O.T. analysis of site

41

Stand and programme justification

42

38-39

Chapter IV | Programme and Conceptuals •

Programme - Detailed illustration of desired space

43-44

Area statement

45-46

Nature of space - Outline for designing

47-48

Conceptuals

49-64

Chapter V | Design • Attached Design drawings Bilbliography

65-69


Chapter

I|

Introduction


Introduction

Daylight in architecture : The perception of space is directly connected to the way light integrates with it. Due to the light, it is possible to perceive different atmosphere in the same physical environment. Daylight contributes an element of fundamental relevance for the design of spaces and therefore it plays a significant role in the discussion of quality in architecture. In architecture, light as in form of daylight, the generous use of both sunlight and skylight in the spaces is considered positive, adding spatial values to the architectural object. The concept of perception is used to describe how we see and directly apprehend and understand spaces size, shape, depth and distance. It also addresses experiences such as the level of light and the level of colour as perceived qualities. Evidence that daylight is desirable can be found in research as well as in observations of human behaviour. Windows that admit daylight in buildings are important for the view and connection they provide with the outdoors.Daylight is also important for its quality, spectral composition, and variability. A review of people’s reactions to indoor environments suggests that daylight is desired because it fulfils two very basic human requirements: • To be able to see both a task and the space well, • To experience some environmental spayiality.

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Daylight can also produce uncomfortable solar glare and very highluminance ,reflections on display screens, both of which interfere with good vision. Thus, the effect of daylight on the performance of tasks depends on how the daylight is delivered. All of these factors need to be considered in daylighting design for buildings. Daylight plays a central role in the design of a visual environment. In architecture, people and objects are all made visible by the lighting.

Terms related to daylighing in architecture : 1. Spatiality - having a particular nature 2. Atmosphere - the pervading tone or mood of a place or situation ,ambiance. 3. Visibility - the state of being able to see or be seen . The consideration of spatiality is the possibility to define the physical room –volume, distance, proportion and orientation. Depending on the light in a space we can perceive its volume as huge, as small, open and crowded. The perception of a particular space can also change a lot from an airy to a cramped space. Even the orientation is influenced by lighting, because how we find our way in the space can be well determined by the light present there. Any atmosphere consists the general character related to the psychological mood that light creates. Many times user experience the space as public, private, boring, cheerful etc, due to lighting influences.The visibility is connected only to functions,to the 8

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Introduction

possibility to see things during the task. According to Mr.Liljefors , there are seven basic terms for description of the light in the space visually : • Level of lightness • Spatial distribution of brightness Image.1.Section through the oculus

• Shadows • Reflections • Glare • Color of light • Colors in terms of surfaces. All these aspects are effective to describe and understand the effects of lighting in a space and reliable to classify among themselves.

Characteristics and effective use in architecture: Daylight - As a building element: Project Name : Pantheon Location : Rome Image.2.View of central space in Pantheon

The interior has the shape of a cylinder covered by a half of a sphere; the height of the cylinder is equal to the radius of the sphere, and is 43.3 meters (142ft) . There are no windows ,borrowing daylight inside but the large oculus.A lighting effect can be viewed on April 21 when the midday sun strikes a metal grille above the doorway, saturating the courtyard outside with light. Borrowing the daylight from the top from the oculus - prime element of design.

Image.3. Sectional model of Pantheon,Rome.

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Project Name : Notre Dame du Haut, Location : France , Architect : Le-corbusier The main structure consists of thick masonry walls, which are curved to improve stability and provide structural support. The main structure consists of thick masonry walls, which are curved to improve stability and provide structural support Three thick white walls curl inwards from the outside to create smaller chapels at the sides of the main space. Two sit on either side of the north entrance and one in the south-east corner next to the main entrance.

Image.4. Massive wall with punctures - design element

Recalling feelings: Project Name : Church of light Location : Ibaraki, Japan Architect : Tadao Ando

Image.5. An interior view of the main prayer hall

“In all my works, light is an important controlling factor. I create enclosed spaces mainly by means of thick concrete walls. The primary reason is to create a place for the individual, a zone for oneself within society. When the external factors of a city’s environment require the wall to be without openings, the interior must be especially full and satisfying.” –Tadao Ando Here, Ando’s this urban insert adds a symbolic value to the religion,the way of borrowing daylight in the structure enhances spatiial character.

Image.6. Space for prayer of the Church of Light

Perception of space : Project Name : Hall of Nations Location : New Delhi,India

Architect : Raj Reval

The Permanent Exhibition Complex is designed to form the focus of 130 acres of Exhibition ground designed by Raj Rewal in New Delhi. The depth of the structural system was utilized as a Sun breaker and conceived of in terms of the traditional ‘ Jali ’. 10

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Image.7. The exhibition space at Hall of nations,Delhi

Art Exhibition space using Daylight


Introduction

A geometrical pattern of perforation that serves to obstruct directs rays of the harsh Sun while permitting air circulation.

Image.8. Plan of Hall of Nations, New Delhi

The main pavilion of the Hall of Nations has a clear span of 78 metres and a height varying from three metres to 21 metres, thereby providing a vast capacity for items to be exhibited, from books to bulldozers.

Reflection : Image.9. Interior of exhibition space,�Hall of Nations�

Project Name : Kimbell Art Museum - Piano Pavilion Location : Texas, USA, Architect : Louis I Kahn , Renzo Piano The location of Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas ,with its sunny/arid climate ,sets off the stage for the conceptual gesture of light reflection , carried throughout the design. The orientation of building plays a very essential role in its design.

Image.10. Plan of Kinbell Art Museum - Piano Pavilion

Image.11. Section of the exhibition space - outdoors

The relationship to site is based on the - Abstraction of a fundamental element of nature and design, light.

Image.12. Daylight - as a design element in building

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Here, the galleries extend from north to south ,parellel to east-west axis.Through a narrow ,elongated opening in the vaulted ceiling ,the concrete walls record the transition of the sun along the day.

Image.14. Plan shows light intensity into the building

Image.13. Section through skylight in exhibition space Image.15. roof - skylight plan

Image.16. Longitudnal section of Kimbell art museum

Shadow: Project Name : Indian Institute of Management Location : bengaluru,India Architect : Balkrishna Doshi The design of IIM,Bengaluru reflects the perfect sense of scale, proportion and light of Architect Balkrishna Doshi.

Image.17. IIM,Bengaluru - transitional space

The interplay of walls and openings, light and shadows, and solids and voids change the character of the main building during different times of the day and during different seasons. The high corridors are sometimes open; sometimes partly covered with skylights and sometimes with only pergolas to heighten the spatial experience. Shadows in a perticular manner segregates and adds spatial experience to spaces. Image.18. Corridor - IIM

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Structure Name : Sanchi stupa Location : Sanchi,Madhya Pradesh,India The stupa of sanchi has a significant value in terms of its monumentality and as the oldest structure in India. Image.19. Sanchi stupa - Monumental Structures

Materials and construction method is used in most effecient way to create this stupa.

Texture: Project Name : Salk Institute Location : Texas,USA Architect : Louis I Kahn Due to zoning codes, the first two stories had to be underground, sinking the laboratories in the courtyard. Image.20. Salk institute central space between the builts

In order for these spaces to receive ample sunlight, Kahn designed a series of lightwells on both sides of each building that were 40 feet long and 25 feet wide. The laboratories above ground are also well-lit spaces with large glass panes for their exterior walls. Image.21. Corridor - monotone - language of material

The materials that make up the Salk Institute consist of concrete, teak, lead, glass, and steel. The concrete was poured using a technique studied in Roman architecture. Once the concrete was set, he allowed no further finishing touches in order to attain a warm glow in the concrete.

Image.22. Salk institue the exterior facade

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Strategies for using daylight into a volume : • Diffused or skylight ( through window or opening) • Externally reflected light through the same window. ( by ground or other building ) • Internally reflrcted light from walls ,ceilings and other interior surfaces. • Direct sunlight along a straight path from the sun through a window top a given point. Region specific guidelines : For hot-dry climate : • Internally reflected light is the best form of daylighting. • Small sizes of openings and blue skies reduce the sky componant in such areas. • Shading devices should be non reflective and positioned so that they are directly visible as they can cause glare. • High level winidows should be used,low level windows are acceeptable only if they open to shaded and planted courtyard. • Strong illuminance difference(contrast)between a sunlit view and window can be avoided by painting adjcent walls and inside of window frames.

Image.23. All wall sections - shows the methods of borrowing daylight from the side surfaces to create Light wells,Atrias and courtyards

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Different methods to borrow daylight within the space : Overhang method Where a cantiliver is created in roofing member. Prevents the direct glare to get inside the building Image.24. Section - Overhang method of daylighting

Generally been used as a conventional method to get protection from harsh sun in hot dry climate.

Slit provision Where a slit at a desired level is given to reflect the direct rays and to get inside the reflected componants of it. Image.25. Section shows the slit method of daylighting

Top lighting - Skylight Where a puncture is created on the top to borrow daylight.

Image.26. Skylight - Top daylighting

Pantheon,Rome and Guggenheim Museum, New york city are the great examples of this techniques of daylighting in their time era.

Creepers This technique on south facade is used effectively to lower down the summer heat in hot dry climate

Image.27. Plantation - reduces heat gain from facades

Due to the plantation it reduces the radiation of heat into the building and keeps the inteior environment workable.

Screening Where an artificial skin is placed of a spcific material to resist heat gain.

Image.28. Sun screen

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Side lighting - Angled According to the climatic conditioins of a particular region and based on the desired conditions of daylighting the angle of the inclined covering is decided in which the puncture is made of derived dimension. It also been used as a spotlight to focus artwork in exhibition spaces and museums. For hot dry climate this angle of opening are majorly 30 and 45 degrees,it may vary based on desired requirnment.

Image.29. 45 degrees opening - Angled daylighting

Image.30. 30 degrees opening - Angled daylighting

Sawtooth Technique - Roofing Conventionally and largely used in factory buildings, large span structures for better ventilation and to avoid glare. Diagram shows the preffered dimensioning for a typical sawtooth roof . It is a preffered method to have reflected daylight,for that reflectors are used in terms of another roof or any surface or slit.

Image.31. Sawtooth method of daylighting

Image.32. Reflective surfaces for borrowing daylight

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Image.33. Reflected or indirect rooflight - various options of skylights to have diffused daylight

Some of the other useful methods of daylighting in terms of roofing a space. Based on the nature of space the method is chosen in certain scale. The height of the ceiling in relation to theproportions of the room affect the probability that the skylight may cause glare. If a room has a very low or very large ceiling, it is more likely that the skylights will be within the occupant’s field of view. The higher the ceiling, the less likely this is to be a problem. Image.34. rooflights for varoius requirments

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Daylight Distribution The amount of light skylights can provide depends directly on how much daylight is available outside, which varies with climatic conditions, the time of day, and the season of the year. On bright, sunny days, the maximum amount of daylight is available. On very dark, rainy days there is less light available. In the winter, days are short, and the number of daylight hours may be eight hours or less. In the summer, days are long and daylight may last for 16 hours or more per day. Once daylight has passed through the opening it can be controlled and diffused by the shape and reflective properties of light wells, shading devices, skylight wells and the surfaces of the room itself. Sunlight or Skylight ? In reality, they have very different physical properties and different effects on skylighting design. The most important differences are their intensity, their color, and the extent to which their light is scattered, or diffused. The sun is considered a point source of light, often referred to as “beam� sunlight, because it is highly directional. Light from the sky, on the other hand, arrives from a large area and is more or less diffuse, meaning scattered and arriving from all directions. Beam light will cast a shadow; diffuse light will not cast a distinct shadow. Current Scenario : The majority of commercial and industrial skylights are installed on flat roofs, where the skylight can see almost the full hemisphere of the sky. A skylight on a sloped roof cannot see the full sky hemisphere, but only a partial view determined by the slope of the roof.

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Again, depending upon the angle and orientation of the sloped roof, the sun may not reach the skylight during certain times of the day or year.

Image.35. Direct daylight - allows glare

Image.36. Reflected skylight - diffused daylight

Image.37. Glazed skylight - diffused daylight - protection

Image.38. Optical fibre technology which collects daylight from roof top and brings it to the light point in interiors

For example, a skylight on an east-facing roof with a 45° slope will only receive direct sun during the morning and midday hours. In the afternoon it will receive skylight, but only from three-fourths of the sky. As a result, in the afternoon it will deliver substantially less light to the space below than an identical skylight located on a flat roof. The shape of a skylight also affects how much daylight it can provide at different times of the day, although these effects tend to be much more subtle than building geometry. For example, a flat-glazed skylight on a flat roof will intercept very little sunlight when the sun is very low in the early morning and at the end of the day. A skylight with angled sides, whether a bubble, pyramid, or other raised shape, can intercept substantially more sunlight at these critical low angles, increasing the illumination delivered below by five to 10 percent at the start and end of the day. The difference in transmission of solar energy (light and heat) for a 50 percent translucent glazing material as a function of the angle of incidence for three different shapes: a flat skylight, a hemispherical skylight, and a segment of a sphere (which most closely models the typical bubble skylight). It shows for very low sun angles (60° - 90° angle of incidence) that the rounded shapes will collect noticeably more light. It is also interesting that they allow in less light at midday.

• Light wells : Light wells are a primary component of skylighting systems.They bring the light through the roof and ceiling structure, and they simultaneously provide a means for controlling the incoming daylight before it enters the main space Image.39. daylight collector device - on roof top

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Introduction

shapes. The simplest are vertical-sided shafts, the same size as the skylight opening. More elaborate wells have splayed or sloping sides that spread the light more broadly through the space. • Room Surfaces :

Image.40. How spacing affects the indoor daylighting

Once the daylight has penetrated past the glazing, the light well, and the shading devices, it interacts with the interior of the building. The surface reflectances of walls, floors, ceilings, and furnishings also have an impact on light distribution. Light-colored surfaces, which have high reflectances, will help to distribute brightness around the space, and this, in turn, will reduce the brightness contrasts that cause visual discomfort. It is especially important for ceilings to be light-colored, so that they are as bright as possible. This reduces the glare potential from having bright skylights next to darker ceiling areas

Image.41. Types of skylight available in use

Sizes and Shapes : Skylights are available in a wide variety of sizes and shapes to match nearly any building need. They range from simple rectangles to complex polygons. They can be small, to fit between rafters, or large enough to run the length of a building. To cover big spaces, the skylights can be in the form of long barrel vaults or smaller units combined on a space frame. The glazing comes in several configurations as well. Flat glazing can be used in a single plane or in a faceted framing system that assumes various pyramid shapes. Plastic glazing is also available in molded dome or pyramid shapes for greater stiffness.

Image.42. Winter sun and Summer sun - Top lighting

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Layout and Spacing : The layout and spacing of skylights in a roof are important factors for the light distribution characteristics of the skylighting system.

Image.43. According to standard spacing between two skylights componants

Given a fixed percentage of the roof area given to skylights, a designer could select anything from a single large skylight to many small skylights distributed uniformly across the roof. However, when skylights are provided in order to create uniform lighting in large open spaces, careful attention to spacing is important. The differences in illuminance level between locations directly under the skylight, compared to locations between skylights, will be greater as skylight spacing becomes wider. The diagram shows close skylight spacing, with relatively even illuminance at the work plane also a wider range of light and dark areas. The total skylight area is the same for both. The general rule of thumb is to space skylights at 1.0 to 1.5 times ceiling height (center- to-center in both directions). This assumes a highly diffusing glazing and a modest depth for light wells. Actual designs can vary considerably from this rule of thumb. Skylight Glazing

Image.44. Ceiling height matters in terms of visibility of skylight compoanant to users

Common glazing materials for skylights include a variety of plastics and glass. The common plastic materials include acrylics, polycarbonates, and fiberglass. These materials come in a number of colors from clear and translucent white, to bronze and gray colors. They also come in a variety of thicknesses and number of layers. All these variables affect the performance of the skylight. The choice of the glazing material for a skylight can have an enormous effect on the quality of the light provided and the energy efficiency of the design .

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• How much light is transmitted through the glazing—measured by the visible transmittance (Tvis) • How much of the direct beam sunlight is difused— measured by the transparency of the material • How much of the sun’s radiant heat is transmitted through the glazing—measured by the solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) or the less precise shading coefficient (SC) • How much heat from the air will pass through the glazing—measured by the R-value of the material or the U-value of the skylight unit assembly Other properties of glazing are also important in selection, such as the strength of the material, the resistance to breaking or cracking, and how the material will age over time.

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Aim To understand “DAYLIGHT” as a qualitative element of space making in Architecture and demonstrate the understanding into a permanent exhibition space for saurastra region.

Objective To create a platform to appreciate art and craft of saurastra region in form of permanent exhibition space.

Scope - limitations • Basically the opportunity is to demonstrate and celebrate the ‘daylight’ as an element of architectural design. • A space can be provided at regional level to exhibit the artwork. • Limitation could be the nature of site and context of this urban insert. • The space will not be active at night as compare to day with this type of lighting system. • The kind of exhibition is limited to a specific type at a time.

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KEYWORDS : Glare : Glare is difficulty seeing in the presence of bright light such as direct or reflected sunlight or artificial light. Glare is caused by a significant ratio of luminance between the task (that which is being looked at) and the glare source. Discomfort and disability : Glare can be generally divided into two types, discomfort glare and disability glare. Discomfort glare results in an instinctive desire to look away from a bright light source or difficulty in seeing a task. Disability glare makes unclear the vision of objects without necessarily causing discomfort. Disability glare is often caused by reducing the contrast between task and glare source to the point where the task cannot be distinguished. When glare is so intense that vision is completely impaired, it is sometimes called dazzle. Illuminance : The amount of luminous flux on a surface, per unit area. In SI derived units these are measured in lux (lx) or lumens per square metre (cd·sr·m−2). In the CGS system, the unit of illuminance is the photon, which is equal to 10000 lux. Criteria for selection of case studies : • The case study should give an overall idea about the Inquiry- Daylight, the nature of space - exhibition space. • The case study could be able to demonstrate different approach to use daylight in architectural insert. • The various case studies in various context would give considerations to be taken care off while designing in urban context.

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Chapter

II |

Case studies

( Issue based and programme based )


Case studies

Project : Chichu Art Museum Location : Naoshima Island, Japan. Architect : Tadao Ando The museum was constructed in 2004 as a site rethinking the relationship between nature and people. The museum was built mostly underground to avoid affecting the beautiful natural scenery of the Seto Inland sea.

Image.45. An ariel view of the museum

Despite being primarily subterranean, the museum lets in an abundance of natural light that changes the appearance of the artworks and the ambience of the space itself with the passage of time, throughout the day all along four seasons,year. Taking considerations of ideas from artists and architect to each other, the museum in its entirety can be seen as a very large site-specific artwork.

Image.46. The entrance space

The whole building has conceived as a part of existing terrain and as mergeing into the existing landscape.

Image.47. The main exhibition space - daylight from wall - roof junction

Image.49. Iso view of the ceiling in exhibition space

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Image.48. Section that shows the opening type

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Case studies

Learning : • The case study suggests an approach to existing site responsive architectural design with concious decision of usiing daylight as a prime element to design with. • The building is designed as a certain contextual response, gives guidelines for using daylight from top and side covering for enclosed volumes.

Image.50. Daylight - as a decorative element - to create a spatial experience to the space.

Image.51. Exploded view of Chichu Museum which shows all spaces and their connectivity and circulation

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Image.52. Open to sky passage which leads to the main exhibition space

Image.53. Diagram shows all transitional spaces of the museum like courts , corridors ,passages

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Case studies

Project : Soloman R. Guggenheim Museum Location : Newyork, USA. Architect : Frank llyod Wright. As one step forward the low-ceilinged area suddenly opens into the rotunda (the central space) and draws eye up to the skylight or oculus 96 feet above. The works of art remain mostly hidden, before you get to them. Image.54. An Exterior view of guggenheim museum

It is a spiral-ramped building topped by a large skylight,the main central space is the heart of the Guggenheim Museum. It functions almost like a town plaza. A quarter-mile of concrete ramps climb the outer walls, visitors on the ramps not only view the art, but are also aware of people in other areas of the museum.

Prime Concern : Image.55. The central atrium in the museum

The architect conceived of the museum as an airy, open place where visitors would not have to foot up steps, instead entering the building on the ground level, taking an elevator to the top and descending gradually, enjoying the art on display until returning to the entrance.

Image.56. Built v/s open diagram of guggenheim museum

Image.57. Top floor gallery space panaromic view

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Learnings : The museum has designed with a view to having a journey while observing artworks. As being surrounded by tight urban context, it also offers a public informal gathering at the ground floor level. It has a significant role to perform as a benchmark for an ideal exhibition space at city as well as global level. It was a design call of making this building publicaly more channalized as well as easily accessible and to decide a controlled movement within the building.

Image.58. Building view with immideate context

Image.59. Plan of guggenheim museum

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Case studies

Project : Jewish Museum Location : Berlin, Germany. Architect : Daniel Libeskind The nature of this museum is all about telling the historical turnover of germany, structure is the part of this narration.

Image.60. Ariel view showing existing context

Form of building : Naked concrete walls with sharp angles are not constructed as a regular stuctural componants,they go far beyond the physical realm. The structure is intended to generate a meaningfull conversation between the body and visitors. The informal geometry evokes emotions, conveys anger, fear, exile and death. Squeezing between tall narrow walls ,walking on iron faces, walking in exile garden and terrifying in a uncanny dark space are all the real experience and this real experience make the museum immortal in visitor’s mind. Mass and voids :

Image.61. Interior - the corridor to express death, pain and sacrifice

The voids are stuctural ribs of the museum which organize elements ,they make discontinues empty space illustrates , these are broken backbones of a society which represents the cultural history of berlin.

Image.62. Wall Sections that shows human scale relevance to the design.

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The voids and emptiness emphasize the disturbing nature of space ,it creates a space exist between two lines . Behaves like a unhomely home ,which has been haunted by absense ,silence and violence. Also represents the jewish memories presents feelings like terror inside its cold ,spiritless and strange body . The visitors experience terror differently in each spaces within one body of architecture.

Image.63. Exterior view of facade with the slits - as openings

Scale of built form : The scale of aarchitecture ridicules human proportions and embodies neither the perfect nor the unappropriate human form,while confronting the withdraw exterior and disturbing interior spaces ,visitors find themselves in an another world ,in which they find themselves not exactly at home ,certainly in bodily and mently crisis. Learning : How to build a building typology to convey a particular message to the visitors. Designing with natural light ,as a prime tool to design.

Image.66. Exploded view of overall built mass

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Image.64. view of interior - variety of daylight

Image.65. Corridor of death pain and sacrifice

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Case studies

Project : Kiasma Museum for Contemporary Art Location : Helsinki, Finland Architect : Steven Holl “Kiasma” - a greek word - means the intersection of optical nerves. Image.67. An exterior view of the building

Planning : Visitors enter the museum through a spacious lobby with a glazed ceiling. This lobby serves as the starting point for stairways, ramp, and corridors that curve off to lead into the rest of the building.

Image.68. Double height volume that connects upper exibition spaces by ramps

The gallery spaces are characterized by the architect as “almost rectangular,” each containing one curved wall. This irregularity differentiates each space, creating a complex visual and spatial experience as visitors pass through the museum galleries. The initial impression is that of the typical closedin, placeless museum interior; however, it is only by moving through each space that one discovers various unexpected views to the outside. This choreographed outward focus, combined with the irregular forms of the interiors , which could build its spatial character. Design is been worked out with more than pure massing and windows to give each space its own unique character. Natural light was an important consideration – Holl was fascinated by the constantly changing character of Finland’s daylight. Many of the windows in the building are composed of translucent glazing, which diffuses the native sunlight as it enters the interior.

Image.69. Main entrance foyer - double height space

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The rhythm of city views is achieved by the use of fully transparent glass – that allows a view to Helsinki Station and as full curtain-wall facades at the north and south ends of the building’s volumes. More than simple punctures in the ceiling, the skylights work with the curving, irregular lines of the building to turn light into a sculptural element in itself. Horizontal ‘light-catching’ sections along the ceilings and upper walls deflect and diffuse light from skylights and clerestory windows down into the museum spaces, this system allows natural light from a single roof opening to penetrate through and illuminate multiple levels. The shapes and textures of the building were designed with light in mind. The character of natural light changes depending on the direction it is coming from, and artificial lighting in the building adapts to the natural light. Natural Light, which is borrowed in Kiasma is uniform in all its diversity.

Image.70. Exhibition space - Roof skylighting is merging with the wall and gives reflected diffused daylight

Scale of desired spaces : The unit in the scaling of spaces at Kiasma is the human body. One of the standards in the design of the building adopted by Steven Holl was eye-level at 165 cm. The height and width of doors, the grid on sliding doors and the proportions of the galleries are all based on the golden section

Image.71. Portion of an exhibition space on upper level

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Case studies

Learnings : Integratioin of qualitative daylight in each spaces differently , strikes this urban insert as a space for art exhibition. Given vistas through massing in way to get large volume connections and desired views of outdoors. Journey of engaging with different volumes are thoughtful to create a spatial experience.

Image.72. A view from entrance looking upwards

Image.75. Section - Main skylight in central space

Image.73. Skylight

Image.74. Model of the building - ariel view

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Case studies

Criterias of design insert and Inferences to be focus from the case studies analysis : • Based on the contextual study the massing of built should be done in a way that it impacts positively in surroundings. • According to the immediate contextual response the design should take its shape. • The need of the project and the amount of public that would be engaging should be in taken care of while designing the spaces. • The existing characteristics of site determines the building typology like site slope ,natural elements like trees etc. and landmarks around it. • By the nature of the develpoment at city level, the language of architecture in a city could be determined. • The urban insert has to have a concious concern about impacting at city / region level. Probable proposals to explore with ,using qualitative daylight - to be a prime tool to design : • Museum space - permenant nature - large in scale. • Exhibition space - dynamic in nature - large in scale. • Art gallery - temporary in nature - small in scale.

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Chapter

III |

Site and context


site and context

Criterias for site selection : • Site which would have strong context in terms of history and art. • Site which is surrounded by urban development. • Site should be such that it could be easily accessible to public, preferable in urban dense areas. • Site location should be, as such as it could be easily approachable to the users

Image.76. Map of Gujarat state, Locating Rajkot city

• Rajkot , as the most important city of Saurastra region is suitable for this urban insert.

Rajkot city Potentials: Identity : Located in south-west region of Gujarat.It is the largest city in saurastra region and fourth largest city of Gujarat.

Image.77. Connectivity of Rajkot - bus station, railway and airport

Rajkot is a geographical centre of the Saurastra region, having good connectivity with major centers of Gujarat state like Ahmadabad-Jamnagar-Gondal-Bhavnagar-Morbi, acts as a catchment area of saurastra region. The city, having 22N -70E GPS location and has hot and dry climatic conditions. Image.78. Suitable Site location - Race course,Rajkot

It has cultural heritage in terms of historical landmarks like Watson museum ,Alfred high school, Royal residence of Gondal Junagadh. Connectivity with surroundings : Air : The city has a domestic Airport ,which operates flights to major cities such as Vadodara, Ahmedabad, Surat, Bhuj, Mumbai, Jamnagar.

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site and context

Road : Rajkot is well connected to other cities through National Highways ( NH ) and State Highways ( SH ) It is connected to Ahmedabad ,Vadodara, Surat, Morbi, Jamnagar, Bhavnagar etc. Rail : The city is well connected by rail network to important cities in Gujarat and India like Delhi, Mumbai, Cochin, Coimbatore and Bhopal. Rajkot - An overview : Rajkot city has population of around 17-18 lakh as per the previous number of 13 lakh of 2001, having 2 lakh of floating populatioin. Image.79. Map of Rajkot city - RUDA Boundary , major road networks

Rajkot has the fastest growth compare to other cities which would have same amount of area and population. History in brief : The city of Rajkot was the main administrative centre of saurastra region in the time of British rule in India. In 1820, on the banks of Aji river, the settle ments of residences were started to develop.

Image.80. Growth of urban development of Rajkot city over time

That was the time when the main city was fortified which had the residences of British officials and they had all recreational activities at the outskirts of the city ,including Race Course Ground. By the time and development of urban areas and British left India, the race course ground became an important centre for recreational activity for public. And as time passed it evolved to be the main space for all the recreational and cultural ,entertainment activities. The city has potential to make an impression as a city of art and craft. • Rajkot Municipal Corporation has taken serious

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site and context

steps towards to make this city as a vibrant part of Gujarat. • RMC has provided portions in civic structures in the city like Under bridge, flyovers, outer walls of government Institutes, as means of achieving this vision of Rajkot city – ‘CHITRANAGARI’.

An architecturally efficient exhibition space in the city would help to grow the art culture in the city.

Image.81. Ariel view of Race course ground , Rajkot

Using daylight as a prime element in design – would help to bring architectural awareness among the users an eventually the society.

Race course, Rajkot : Nature of space Race course ground - being an main recreational space for the Rajkot city, suitable for an exhibition space to spread awareness easily among people. Due to location of site in the city, being a main recreational centre for public activities, allows easy access. Site area is 13545 square meters and it has very diverse natured surroundings on both its edges – almost quite on the sides adjacent to Bal Bhavan building boundary and having a very busy road on the side of Jilla panchayat chowk.

Image.83. Site plan with existing context with landmarks

Site has an existing art gallery, a few food stalls to the road side opposite to Galaxy cinema and an energy park of GEB.

Image.82. Site - Basic dimension - Lineout plan

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site and context

Strength of the site of this insert : • Site is located as a part of main recreational space of the city, so people of the city would get easily aware about this exhibition space and get engage to it.

Image.84. A view of existing site condition - Backside of existing art gallery

• This will provide a better platform for the artists to exhibit their artworks on regional scale in better way than present existing conditions. Weakness : • Site has one major side parallel to the ring road of race course ground , comparatively busy than inside the racecourse ground , makes chaotic atmosphere. Opportunities :

Image.85. A view of site from the ring road

• It is an opportunity to present artworks in more effectively , an act of art appreciation. • Creates an awareness among the people of city for art and architecture. • Being an authorized government exhibition space , would help providing a better platform to artist to exhibit their artworks.(paintings and sculptures) Image.86. Front view of existing art gallery

Threats : • Threat could be in terms of security issues after working hours , safety issues, should be in taken care of.

Image.87. The existing art gallery building at the inside corner of Jilla Panchyat chowk - Dr.shyama prasad Mukhrjee art gallery.

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site and context

Stand : The idea is to provide a space where people can gather and appreciate art in a way that could bring awareness among the people of city as well as region. Using daylight as a prime element to enhance the spatial character of spaces in this urban insert. In Race course ground ,there is an already existing art gallery named Shyama prasad Mukhrjee art gallery is situated on the corner of Jilla Panchayat Chowk. Issues with existing art gallery : • The present art gallery has not that qualitative space to exhibit artwork. • The scale of existing built can not accumulate exhibits in an efficient way. • Due to ineffeciency of the existing built form it is majorly used by government body as a storage and other purpose occasionaly which is not suppose to occur. • As an art gallery it does not have that spatial character or nature of space which it should have to appreciate.

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Chapter

IV |

Programme and Conceptuals


programme

Programme : Using daylight as a prime element to design with and demonstrate the understanding of climatical response in terms of daylight ( Rajkot city ) into an urban insert. On the basis of potential probable projects , An exhibition space for Art and Craft is being focused. Exhibition space for Art in terms of exhibition of Paintings - wall hunged specifically and Craft in terms of Sculptures and small scale handicrafts exhibition. The exhibition space would also have suppotive activities as a part of overall programme spill overs for public engagement with the insert. The informal activities that allows public informal interactions within the building and in outdoors as well. The insert would have functional as well as a unique character in terms of spatial organization of interior spaces and would also fulfill the required demands of immediate context. As being a part of race course ground ,the site is having recreational activities ,performed by pubic of the city in surrounding. As an exhibition space the spatiality of space would create an experience into user’s mind that they might have not experienced before, would create chain of thoughts,their movement would be guided from one space to another such that they could appreciate the journey and feel the spatiality of that journey. The activity of exhibiting artworks may require different layout based on... • the type of artwork • public movement in that formation of spaces • the way it has been exhibited 44

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programme

• the quality of Daylight that would filter into that space • the amount of people would be engaging at a time. Site - Progammatic guidelines for designing : • Is having Jilla panchayat chowk at SouthEast corner also having very busy roads on south and east side so that brings chaos and disturbing built environment for the probable insert on this site. • One the other hand site is having a very reverse natured surroundings on edge of North,NorthWest and West,which is having nature that merges with Race course ground other activities, quite peaceful and steady built environment it has. • So, taking this basic observation to orient the probable built mass - not to confront the chowk but the another way - orienting builtform to Race course interior activities. • Based on the connectivity of Local bus transport and other way of engaging with the site - the approach to the site would be designed.

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programme

SPACES Administration Reception area Waiting area Information space Entrance foyer Incharge’s cabin Discussion area Exhibition spaces for paintings Small scale – large scale ( based on the capacity of artworks to exhibit )

NUMBER OF USERS 1 Capacity : 8-10 persons 1 1 As per condition (10 persons)

Small scale : 100 - 150 Large scale : 450 - 500

Exhibition spaces for handicrafts and sculptures

Small scale : 100 -150

Small scale – large scale

Large scale : 250 - 300

Connecting foyers informal gatherings (transitional spaces )

30 - 40

Public spaces open – semi open – covered as per immediate need of context Cafeteria Public recreational space.

100 -150

50 - 60

Circulation spaces outdoor movement

20 - 25

Utility spaces Washrooms

5-7

rest room

1-2

store room

Capacity as per scale of space

Parking vehicular capacity – 2-4 wheeler

2 wheeler – 160 4 wheeler - 60

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programme

A R E A ( Sqm )

L U X L E VE L ( MINIMUM REQUIRED )

15 - 20

1000 (500)

30 - 35

400 (150)

20 - 30

200

450 - 500

250

20 - 25

500 (250)

30 - 35

500 (250)

350 - 400 400 (200)

2500 - 4000 350 - 400 2500 - 3000

1000 (500)

-

500 (250)

350 - 400

350-400

150 - 200

150-200

20% of overall built mass

500 (250)

60

200

10 - 15

150

450 - 500

200

335

150

2340 Total built up area ~ 8300 sqm

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programme

Nature of space There are exhibition spaces which could be classified based on the nature of space it has : • Fixed planning or rigid planning • Flexible planning

Image.88. Diagram - planning of Kimbell art museum

Both types could be having different natured space including enclosed , semi-open, open spaces. Like The kimbell art museum , having an fully wall covered enclosed space, it has a spatial character within the walls , the main exhibition happens in enclosed controlled environment. Just another way some exhibition spaces would have semi-open plus open spaces spill overs.

Image.89. Planning that shows flexible type of exhibition layout

Same functions with different natured space would give spatial character to the built environment. Planning the outdoors, as supportives to interiors would be the concern of designing. Image.90. Outdoors - public activites on various level

Image.91. The outdoor activities should overlap in informal level - Planning should allow to spill over the activities

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programme

The type of encloser system of space would be such as it could allow informal gatherings and interactions. Public spaces are to be designed in a way that it should have easy access and the planninng should allow multiplicity in terms of usage.

Image.92. The stucture should have a defined access path and should allow that flexible movement around the space

Massing of design insert could be such as it should impact as a landmark on the surrounding • The building of art appreciation could have that language according to the purpose or function. • It should be an amalgamation of different natured exhibition spaces in the building. • The nature of each spaces have to be spatial in terms of usage of daylight usage. • The exhibition space should functionally sound as well as the pattern of exhibition space should create a journey. • Modulation - could be a design statement to create a loop of journey. • It could be a formation of experience so that the exhibition space.

Image.93. Exhibition space layout - Principles like modulation, repeatation, geometry, symmetry.

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conceptuals

Stage I | Site • Basic dimensions • Boundary • Hatched portion shows existing art gallery

Stage II | Footprint of built mass : • Boundary of massing on site. • Marking the basic outline of massing without zoning of spaces. • Based on the contextual response lining out the built v/s open zones.

Stage III | Open spaces • Major open spaces on site and their connectivity through the built mass.

Stage IV | Parking and utility blocks • Basic Zoning of utility areas like store rooms, washrooms ,rest rooms and other service areas.

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conceptuals

Exploring the desired typology of built mass : • Effects of overall built mass on context. • Building is conceptulized as an unique profile which would enrich the context with its form and massing typology in an iconic way.

Zoning spaces on site based on proramme : • Shaping spaces based on desired criterias. • Working out the circulation inside the built and in the outdoors. • Connections between interiors and exteriors.

Outlining the built mass in process • According to the immediate conetxtual response the layout has taken shape.

According to the upper diagram - Massing typology is in process.

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conceptuals

Image.94. Working out a large span structure - under which a large exhibition could be held - North facades are comparativly open and having large openings with a view to have diffused daylight - South facades having small openings in size and allows reflected daylight to lit the space, resists the direct glare

Image.95. Working on massing as well - their junctions and trying to incorporate the method of borrowing daylight with use of repeatation of a module.

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conceptuals

Image.96. Based on zoning of spaces on site , trying to derive appropriate volume for each spaces .

Image.97. Iso view of different leveled exhibiton platforms in a same volume

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conceptuals Image.98. Section through road shows the response of desired built mass of design insert, leaving the corner as unbuilt which would help to remain the character of chowk as it is. Image.99. Iso view of chowk - diagram shows the corner condition at the chowk.

Image.100. Desired ground floor plan with surroundng landscape at the chowk corner of the site , edge conditions - compound wall boundary concepts, Parking and other interior spaces , working out facade treatment according to their directions and context they are facing.

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conceptuals

Image.101. Conceptulizing East facade facing colletor office , with typology of desired roof covering, openings, levels.

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conceptuals

Image.102. Working out outdoor space - landscape / garden / informal activities for publc- at the corner of site, diagram shows edge treatment and human engagement and their probable movement arond the space.

Image.103. Conceptulizing the compound wall - with a view to having more interactive spaces on footpath roadside.

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conceptuals

Image.104. Segregating the areas in terms of different level / types of roof covering, responding the road side edge to create more engagement with the immediate context.

Image.105. Concept for edge treatment - on road side - informal nature public engagement

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conceptuals

Image.106. Roof of main exhibiton space - working out on angles for supporting systems of this roof structure

Image.107. Trusses - supporting system - working out the final volumes to cover up, finalizing the facades due to their facing directions and desired functions .

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conceptuals

Image.108. Roof - skylights ,trying to connect the entrance with waterbody as a visually connecting element

Image.109. Emphazing the entrance central space with the use of different stuctural componant for covering

Image.110. Varoius wall sections - shows how the volume would get the daylight from top in exhibiton space corner

Image.111. Revising and working out the floors and their connections with covering structure

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conceptuals

Image.112. Exhibition space for sculptures and handicrafts and the working out their levels and daylight methods to filter into volume with the process models

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conceptuals

Image.113. On south facade - conceptulizing the ovehang method to resist heat gain and to get reflected componant of daylight.

Image.114. Borrowing the reflected componant from floor of daylight , using the creepers on outer surfaces to resist heat gain by material of wall, providing opening over the lintel and trying to use it as a wall washer technique.

Image.115. South facade - Green cover - reduces radiation from the surfaces.

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conceptuals

Image.116. Working out the circulation in the desired volume for exhibition of wall hung paintings and its exit points in case of emergency.

Image.117. Spill over space on the west corner of site - Break area connected to painting exhibition

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conceptuals

Image.118. Working on nature of space plus elevation language facing road edge

Image.119. Shaping up the volumetric space - The Keynode of design - central space with desired quality

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conceptuals

Image.120. Landscape on the corner facing Jilla Panchayat chowk, Spill over spaces of cafeteria ,responding the existing statue of Maharana Pratap,connection with central gathering space

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Chapter

IV |

Design


List of Illustration : Image.1.Section through the oculus

 7

Image.2.View of central space in Pantheon

 7

Image.3. Sectional model of Pantheon,Rome.

 7

Image.4. Massive wall with punctures - design element

 8

Image.5. An interior view of the main prayer hall

8

Image.6. Space for prayer of the Church of Light

8

Image.7. The exhibition space at Hall of nations,Delhi

 8

Image.8. Plan of Hall of Nations, New Delhi

 9

Image.9. Interior of exhibition space,”Hall of Nations” Image.10. Plan of Kinbell Art Museum

9 9

Image.11. Section of the exhibition space - outdoors

 9

Image.12. Daylight - as a design element in building

 9

Image.13. Section through skylight in exhibition space

 10

Image.14. Plan shows light intensity into the building

10

Image.15. roof - skylight plan

 10

Image.16. Longitudnal section of Kimbell art museum

 10

Image.17. IIM,Bengaluru - transitional space

 10

Image.18. Corridor - IIM

10

Image.19. Sanchi stupa - Monumental Structures

 11

Image.20. Salk institute central space between the builts

 11

Image.21. Corridor - monotone - language of material

Image.22. Salk institue the exterior facade

11  11

Image.23. All wall sections - shows the methods of borrowing daylight from the side surfaces to create Light wells,Atrias and courtyards  12 Image.24. Section - Overhang method of daylighting

13

Image.25. Section shows the slit method of daylighting

 13

Image.26. Skylight - Top daylighting

 13

Image.27. Plantation - reduces heat gain from facades

 13

Image.28. Sun screen

13

Image.29. 45 degrees opening - Angled daylighting Image.30. 30 degrees opening - Angled daylighting

 14  

14

Image.31. Sawtooth method of daylighting

 14

Image.32. Reflective surfaces for borrowing daylight

 14

Image.34. rooflights for varoius requirments

15

Image.33. Reflected or indirect rooflight - various options of skylights to have diffused daylight Image.35. Direct daylight - allows glare

  15  17 67


Image.36. Reflected skylight - diffused daylight

 17

Image.37. Glazed skylight - diffused daylight - protection

17

Image.38. Optical fibre technology which collects daylight from roof top and brings it to the light point in interiors  17 Image.39. daylight collector device - on roof top

17

Image.40. How spacing affects the indoor daylighting

 18

Image.41. Types of skylight available in use

 18

Image.42. Winter sun and Summer sun - Top lighting

 18

Image.43. According to standard spacing between two skylights componants

 19

Image.44. Ceiling height matters in terms of visibility of skylight compoanant to users

 19

Image.45. An ariel view of the museum

 24

Image.46. The entrance space

 24

Image.47. The main exhibition space - daylight from wall - roof junction

 24

Image.48. Section that shows the opening type

24

Image.49. Iso view of the ceiling in exhibition space

 24

Image.50. Daylight - as a decorative element - to create a spatial experience to the space.

 25

Image.51. Exploded view of Chichu Museum which shows all spaces and their connectivity and circulation   25 Image.52. Open to sky passage which leads to the main exhibition space

 26

Image.53. Diagram shows all transitional spaces of the museum like courts , corridors ,passages

  26

Image.54. An Exterior view of guggenheim museum

 27

Image.55. The central atrium in the museum

 27

Image.56. Built v/s open diagram of guggenheim museum

 27

Image.57. Top floor gallery space panaromic view

 27

Image.59. Plan of guggenheim museum

 28

Image.58. Building view with immideate context

28

Image.60. Ariel view showing existing context

 29

Image.61. Interior - the corridor to express death, pain and sacrifice Image.62. Wall Sections that shows human scale relevance to the design.

29  

29

Image.63. Exterior view of facade with the slits - as openings

 30

Image.64. view of interior - variety of daylight

 30

Image.65. Corridor of death pain and sacrifice

 30

Image.66. Exploded view of overall built mass

 30

Image.67. An exterior view of the building

 31

Image.68. Double height volume that connects upper exibition spaces by ramps Image.69. Main entrance foyer - double height space

31  31

Image.70. Exhibition space - Roof skylighting is merging with the wall and gives reflected diffused daylig ht  32

68


Image.71. Portion of an exhibition space on upper level

 32

Image.72. A view from entrance looking upwards

 33

Image.73. Skylight

 33

Image.74. Model of the building - ariel view

 33

Image.75. Section - Main skylight in central space

 33

Image.76. Map of Gujarat state, Locating Rajkot city

 36

Image.77. Connectivity of Rajkot - bus station, railway and airport

 36

Image.78. Suitable Site location - Race course,Rajkot

 36

Image.79. Map of Rajkot city - RUDA Boundary , major road networks

37

Image.80. Growth of urban development of Rajkot city over time

 37

Image.81. Ariel view of Race course ground , Rajkot

 38

Image.83. Site plan with existing context with landmarks

 38

Image.82. Site - Basic dimension - Lineout plan

 38

Image.84. A view of existing site condition - Backside of existing art gallery

 39

Image.85. A view of site from the ring road

 39

Image.86. Front view of existing art gallery

 39

Image.87. The existing art gallery building at the inside corner of Jilla Panchyat chowk - Dr.shyama prasad Mukhrjee art gallery.  39 Image.88. Diagram - planning of Kimbell art museum

 46

Image.89. Planning that shows flexible type of exhibition layout

 46

Image.90. Outdoors - public activites on various level

 46

Image.91. The outdoor activities should overlap in informal level - Planning should allow to spill over the activities  46 Image.92. The stucture should have a defined access path and should allow that flexible movement around the space

 47

Image.93. Exhibition space layout - Principles like modulation, repeatation, geometry

 47

Image.94. Working out a large span structure - under which a large exhibition could be held - North facades are comparativly open and having large openings with a view to have diffused daylight - South facades having small openings in size and allows reflected daylight to lit the space, resists the direct gla re   50 Image.95. Working on massing as well - their junctions and trying to incorporate the method of borrowing daylight with use of repeatation of a module.  50 Image.96. Based on zoning of spaces on site , trying to derive appropriate volume for each spaces

51

Image.97. Iso view of different leveled exhibiton platforms in a same volume

51

Image.100. Desired ground floor plan with surroundng landscape at the chowk corner of the site , edge conditions - compound wall boundary concepts, Parking and other interior spaces , working out facade treatment according to their directions and context they are facing.   52 Image.98. Section through road shows the response of desired built mass of design insert, leaving the corner as unbuilt which would help to remain the character of chowk as it is.  52 Image.99. Iso view of chowk - diagram shows the corner condition at the chowk.

 52

Image.101. Conceptulizing East facade facing colletor office , with typology of desired roof covering, 69


openings, levels.

53

Image.102. Working out outdoor space - landscape / garden / informal activities for publc- at the corner of site, diagram shows edge treatment and human engagement and their probable movement arond the space.  54 Image.103. Conceptulizing the compound wall - with a view to having more interactive spaces on footpath roadside.  54 Image.104. Segregating the areas in terms of different level / types of roof covering, responding the road side edge to create more engagement with the immediate context.  55 Image.105. Concept for edge treatment - on road side - informal nature public engagement

 55

Image.106. Roof of main exhibiton space - working out on angles for supporting systems of this roof structure  56 Image.107. Trusses - supporting system - working out the final volumes to cover up, finalizing the facades due to their facing directions and desired functions .  56 Image.108. Roof - skylights ,trying to connect the entrance with waterbody as a visually connecting element   57 Image.109. Emphazing the entrance central space with the use of different stuctural componant for covering   57 Image.110. Varoius wall sections - shows how the volume would get the daylight from top in exhibiton space corner   57 Image.111. Revising and working out the floors and their connections with covering structure

 57

Image.112. Exhibition space for sculptures and handicrafts and the working out their levels and daylight methods to filter into volume with the process moddels  58 Image.113. On south facade - conceptulizing the ovehang method to resist heat gain and to get reflected componant of daylight.  59 Image.114. Borrowing the reflected componant from floor of daylight , using the creepers on outer surfaces to resist heat gain by material of wall, providing opening over the lintel and trying to use it as a wall washer technique.  59 Image.115. South facade - Green cover - reduces radiation from the surfaces.

 59

Image.116. Working out the circulation in the desired volume for exhibition of wall hung paintings and its exit points in case of emergency.  60 Image.117. Spill over space on the west corner of site - Break area connected to exhibition

 60

Image.118. Working on nature of space plus elevation language facing road edge

 61

Image.119. Shaping up the volumetric space - The Keynode of design-central space with desired quality  61 Image.120. Landscape on the corner facing Jilla Panchayat chowk, responding the existing statue of Maharana Pratap,connection with central gathering space   62

70


Illustration credits : Image 1,2,3,4,5 - Vidal Fontenelle, Ciro. The Importance of Lighting to the Experience of Architecture. 10th ed. Arkitekturskolan, December 2008. Print. Image 6,7,8,9 - Phililps, Derek. Daylighting Natural Light in Architecture,Architectural P, 2004, Print Image 10,11,12,13,14,15,16, - Goggle resources Image 17,18,19,20,21,22,23 - http://www.archdaily.com, October 2016.web. Image 35,36,37,38,39 - Daylight in Architecture,Reasearch based dissertation - TH - 1159TIK, CEPT Ahmedabad: Sept 23, 2016,Print. Image 45,46,51,53 - Nejdet Erzen, Jale. Tadao Ando and Light. N.p.: n.p., 2003. Pdf. Image 54,55,56,57,58,59 - Solomon R.Guggenheim Museum,Archdaily website, Sept 2016, web. http://www.archdaily.com/ad-classics-solomon-r-guggenheim-museum-art-Frank-llyod-wright-architect Image 60,61,63,65,66 - Schneider, Bernhard. Daniel Libeskind: Jewish Museum Berlin. New York: Prestel, 1999. -Libeskind, Daniel. “Between the Lines: Extension to the Berlin Museum, with the Jewish Museum”.12 (Aug. 1990):18-57. < http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0889-3012%28199008%290%3A12%3C18%3ABTLETT %3E2.0.CO%3B2-6>. Image 67,68,69,70,71,72,73,74 - Kiasma Museum for contemporary art,Archdaily website,October 2016. web. -Fiederer, Luke. Kiasma Museum of Contemporary Art / Steven Holl Architects. N.p.: n.p., April 19,2016. Web. http://www.archdaily.com/784993/ad-classics-kiasma-museum-of-contemporary-art-steven-holl-architects Image 76,77,78,79,80 - RMC. DRAFT DEVELOPMENT PLAN 2031 (SECOND REVISED). 2nd ed. Vol. 3. Rajkot: Rajkot Urban Development Authority, n.d. Print. Rest all the Diagrams are courtesy of the author.

Work cited : Shafik Ramzy, Nelly. International Journal of Architecture,. 2nd ed. Vol. 4. El Arish City,: Sinai U El Masaeed, 2013. Print Biche, Boushmaha, ed. Newfert - Architect’s Data. 3rd ed. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Pdf. Ulas, Emrah. Looking an Art in a New Light. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Pdf. emrahbaki.ulas@steevanwarming.com

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Profile for knartstudio Art and Design Studio

Architectural Thesis - Daylight in Architecture  

It contains the analysis , which is essential to understand the importance of Daylight and its expression value in architecture.

Architectural Thesis - Daylight in Architecture  

It contains the analysis , which is essential to understand the importance of Daylight and its expression value in architecture.

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