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Protecting Afghanistan’s Borders
Overcoming challenges in training Afghanistan’s border enforcement personnel requires demonstration and hands-on practice to achieve the needed effectiveness. U.S. personnel in Afghanistan are constantly improving their approach to this important training program.
Command Profile: Asymmetric Warfare Training Center The Army’s Asymmetric Warfare Training Center complex features training and range facilities that support the Asymmetric Warfare Group’s mission of rapid material and non-material solution development as well as adaptability and resiliency training.
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The military is consistently replicating live events through simulation, and with advancements in technology, training in a secure environment is becoming a staple to preparing the warfighter for realworld operations.
Military Training Technology had the chance to talk to the 160th Special Operations Aviation Training Battalion regarding training pilots to operate rotary aircraft in adverse weather conditions and varying environments and the challenges associated with such training.
By Erin Flynn Jay
Flying in Any Environment
Cultural and Language Training
One set of critical lessons learned from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom involves the importance of cultural and language training for forces operating on a global stage.
By Scott Gourley
Gen. John F. Campbell Vice Chief of Staff U.S. Army
“As we continue to draw down and restructure over the next three to four years, the
By Rose Noxon and John Shellnutt
Army will have readiness and
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As the drawdown in Afghanistan continues, the strategy for the U.S. military to train the warfighter will have to adapt. For the past decade, training has been focused on mountainous and desert regions, with signs written in Arabic and mosques dotting the training grounds. For example, the Fort Irwin National Training Center in the middle of the Mojave Desert between Los Angeles and Las Vegas is specifically geared toward training for operations in Afghan villages. This form of full immersion training prepares soldiers for deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq with very realistic scenarios of what they are expected to encounter. This training center was designed from lessons learned from 10 years of operating in that Brian O’Shea Editor environment. In an Afghan village, soldiers may be asked to clear a building where combatants and civilians are mixed together. Don’t pull the trigger and you could be killed; pull the trigger at the wrong moment and a civilian could die. “The towns and villages are the direct result of lessons learned from the battlefield in Iraq and Afghanistan,” Major General Ted Martin, the commander in charge of the center, recently told the media. “We need to learn to fight in an urban environment and also peacefully coexist.” Units who have gone through the training center said it was very beneficial. “We can practice going in and out of buildings, in and out of rooms in these buildings ... it’s a great little training facility,” said Colonel Cameron Cantlon, commander, Army 3rd Cavalry Regiment, which is training at Fort Irwin before its final deployment to Afghanistan. But where will the next conflict take our military? That’s the question that military leadership is facing today. The training center is a highly specific training installation designed for a very specific environment. Martin said when the next conflict is known, the training center will adapt to the changes. “We have to be prepared for an uncertain future,” he said. “If we see a new enemy tactic, we seek to train it here. Would you think that a brigade combat team would have to worry about cyberwarfare? Yes. So we train now, and I never would have thought 10 years ago that we would do that.” However, transforming a desert-specific Army training installation can be costly, and with budgets being slashed across the board, I wonder if future installations such as this will have to be designed on a much broader scale. If you have any questions regarding Military Training Technology feel free to contact me at any time.
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Contract in Support of KC-130J Awarded
First Task Order for Home Station Training Complex
Aviation Training Consulting LLC, is being awarded a $25 million contract to provide instructional services in support of the KC-130J aircraft for the government of Kuwait under the Foreign Military Sales program. Services include instruction on operating the KC-130J simulators and aircraft. Work will be performed at Kuwait City, Kuwait (90 percent) and Cherry Point, N.C. (10 percent), and is expected to be completed in March 2017. Troy Harter; email@example.com
A-T Solutions Inc. recently announced it has been awarded the Home Station Training Complex support task order under the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division (NSWC IHEODTD) contract. This is the first task order that has been awarded through the new multipleseat $23.5 million contract, on which A-T Solutions won a position in February. “A-T Solutions is extremely honored to be supporting the Naval Surface Warfare Center and Navy Expeditionary Combat Command (NECC) in the delivery of highly effective and relevant counter-IED training for our joint forces,” said Dennis Kelly, president and CEO of A-T Solutions. “Many of the required skills for this project are highly specialized and unique to the EOD community, and our extensive work and expertise within the combination of EOD, counterterrorism, intelligence and homeland security areas allow us to offer unparalleled capabilities in this area.” Under the task order, A-T Solutions will provide support to NECC in counterIED and IED defeat integration and force protection training. The mission of NSWC IHEODTD’s EOD Department is to use technology and intelligence to develop, deliver and provide life cycle support for explosive ordnance disposal information, procedures, tools and equipment to meet the needs of joint service operating forces and other customers worldwide.
British Army Orders Seven New Victrix Simulators The Ministry of Defence has awarded Indra a contract to provide seven new Victrix shooting simulators that will be installed at various British Army barracks and bases. The systems, which will be delivered throughout the year, will be combined with actual training to help improve soldier preparedness. The systems have been developed at Indra’s center of excellence in León and will join 15 other simulators that Indra delivered to the Army in previous years. The simulators include the improvements that have been developed for the Army in recent years, including the simulation of the new combat firearm, equipment consumption optimization and the addition of new exercises. The Victrix system has an intelligent tactical environment that allows the virtual reproduction on a large screen of common situations faced by forces involved in international missions. For example, it simulates advancing through a street in a hostile urban environment, establishing a control point in a city or a joint operation with forces from another country. Soldiers must learn to react properly, distinguishing situations that are dangerous from those that are not. For optimal realism, the simulator allows soldiers to use their own physical weapon, adapting it with a laser and a compressed air system that reproduces the recoil effect. This means that soldiers can train with the same weapon they will use in actual operations, such as the H&K G36 assault rifle used by Spanish Armed Forces or other standard weapons. The system also allows setting various agility and precision exercises, such as those used at a shooting range. The system’s benefits include the flexibility it offers instructors in terms of designing the exercises and determining the degree of difficulty. It also significantly improves soldier capabilities by allowing additional training hours. Indra’s Victrix simulators will be implemented at the General Morillo Base in San Andrés de Figueirido (Pontevedra), the General Gabeiras Barracks in Ronda (Málaga), the Santa Bárbara Barracks in Murcia, the San Bernardo Barracks in Jaca (Huesca), the Puerto Rosario Barracks in Fuerteventura, the Hoya Fría Barracks in Tenerife, and the General Almirante Barracks de Valencia. www.MT2-kmi.com
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president of IAI and succeeds Joseph Schwartz, Ph.D., who had served as the company’s CEO since 1997. Schwartz has been appointed as the chairman of the board of directors.
Brig. Gen. Christopher G. Cavoli
Brigadier General Christopher G. Cavoli, deputy commanding general (Operations), 82nd Airborne Division, Fort Bragg, N.C., has been assigned to commanding general, Joint Multinational Training Command, U.S. Army Europe and Seventh Army, Germany. Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI) recently announced that its board of directors has appointed Vikram Manikonda, Ph.d., as president and chief executive officer effective April 1, 2014. Manikonda is currently the
Brig. Gen. Walter E. Piatt
Brigadier General Walter E. Piatt, commanding general, Joint Multinational Training Command, U.S. Army Europe and Seventh Army, Germany, has been assigned to deputy commanding general/ chief of staff, U.S. Army Europe and Seventh Army.
MT2 19.3 | 3
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS F-35 Training in High Gear at Eglin Since the first F-35 Lightning II arrived at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla., in 2011, the base has accomplished more than 4,100 training sorties and has ramped up to 45 aircraft. Now, the 33rd Fighter Wing has reached another major achievement—the qualification of 100 F-35 pilots and more than 1,000 maintainers. A class of six pilots from Marine Fighter Attack Training Squadron 501 completed the sequence of F-35B academics and training flights on March 21, bringing the number of pilots qualified by the base to 100. These pilots join the 1,082 F-35 maintainers who are supporting operations, testing and training around the nation. Also this week, F-35 pilots at Eglin began training for night flying operations. Pilots will focus on pattern work to master takeoffs and landings at night. The curriculum also includes simulated weapons deployment using air-to-air and air-to-ground targeting. “These pilots and maintainers are establishing the initial cadre of trainers that will build a foundation for their respective service’s or partner nation’s fifth-generation air capabilities,” said U.S. Navy Captain Paul Haas, 33rd Fighter Wing vice commander. “We’re hitting our stride as a key training facility for the F-35 program.” “In partnership with the services, our focus is ensuring that F-35 pilots and maintainers are combat ready,” said Mary Ann Horter, vice president of F-35 sustainment support at Lockheed Martin. “To maximize the capabilities of this fifth-generation aircraft, the F-35 technology suite provides the range of training needed through an efficient mix of simulation and hands-on learning.”
4 | MT2 19.3
To drive affordability, pilots train with full mission simulators that replicate all F-35 sensors and weapons employment and provide half of the initial qualification flights. Currently, pilots progress from the simulator to six training flights. The number of required simulator and live flights will increase with increased software capabilities. The maintenance training program also maximizes simulation in the classroom where maintainers develop an in-depth understanding of the F-35 before they head to the flight line. As the lead F-35 training location, Eglin Air Force Base has qualified pilots and maintainers from the U.S. Air Force, Marine Corps, Navy, the U.K. and the Netherlands. The F-35 military and industry team is currently applying the lessons learned at the base’s Integrated Training Center to launch F-35 pilot training at Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort and Luke Air Force Base in support of the services’ and international partners’ needs.
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Training Programs and Systems Contract Awarded Crew Training International (CTI), an industry provider of training for elite teams, recently announced a new contract with the United States Navy and Marine Corps to revise and maintain curriculum in support of training programs and air combat training system (ACTS). This effort also provides training of the USN/ USMC Fleet Replacement Squadron, ACTS, and marine aviation training system site training programs. This training will be implemented in four military bases located in Virginia, North Carolina and California. In addition to supporting Navy and Marine Corps in the continental United States, CTI will also provide training to the Spanish Navy and Italian Navy. “This contract represents our first win on the new contract vehicle we have in place with Naval Air Warfare Systems Training Systems Division, and we hope just the first of many more,” said Alan Mullen, president and CEO of CTI. This contract began on March 1 and the one-year contract has three one-year extension options. Over the next three years, this contract is expected to generate over $7 million in revenue. Matthew Black; firstname.lastname@example.org
Finnish Army Purchases Combat Training Centers Saab Training and Simulation has received an order from the Finnish Defence Force on Combat Training Systems that will be supplied to regiments. The order also includes support for seven years starting in 2014. The value of the order amounts to approximately 360 million Swedish krona (approximately $55 million). “The Finnish Defence Force has once again chosen Saab as its partner. The Finnish Army uses Saabs systems since more than 10 years and has always been a competent user. This order strengthens our position as one of the world’s leading suppliers of combat training centers,” said Henrik Höjer, vice president training and simulation, Saab. www.MT2-kmi.com
Sustainable video training for Afghanistan’s customs and border law enforcement.
By Rose Noxon and John Shellnutt
Overcoming challenges in training Afghanistan’s border enforcement personnel requires demonstration and hands-on practice to achieve the needed effectiveness. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Border Management Task Force (BMTF) in Afghanistan Force is constantly improving their approach to this important training program. Moving portions of the training program to video modular training (VMT) meets the needs of the mission to build sustainable law enforcement operations. VMT products are now assisting the government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (GIRoA), specifically, the Afghan Customs Department (ACD), Afghan Border Police (ABP), and Afghan Customs Police (ACP) to sustain a trained workforce. The CBP/BMTF courses being delivered help border enforcement agencies in Afghanistan reduce contraband and narcotics smuggling into Afghanistan. As the Afghanistan government is building up their law enforcement training infrastructure, U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) have trained more than 7,169 students in 54 customs and border related courses to establish a baseline on everything from basic administrative procedures through the use of technical inspection equipment. The BMTF currently provides advice, training and leadership to GIRoA Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Interior, and especially the ACD, ACP and ABP. This activity extends to border crossing point (BCP), airport, and inland customs depot authorities through the BMTF Mentors Program and includes advising and training in management, customs operations, border enforcement, compliance procedures, customs revenue collection and immigration inspection activities. In 2007, ACD lacked the internal infrastructure and management skills to standardize and instruct Afghan customs agents. An ACP/ACD/ABP capability metrics assessment showed that there was a broad need for specific inspection training. A consistent approach to increasing the skill set was needed to save time in knowledge transfer; reduce costs of the skills transfer; and standardize the processes and procedures nationwide. Literacy, as well as cultural and language barriers, also presented significant challenges. VMT increases classroom engagement and facilitates a direct transfer to training applications by developing understanding and competence throughout the training process—classroom, field training and exercises. VMTs have become a key component to the ongoing standardization program. Having instructors facilitate classroom teaching using VMT ensures standardization of instruction throughout the entire training pipeline for ACD/ABP/ ACP. VMTs have been produced for training courses in marksmanship, analyzing documents, examining containers/commercial trailers/CT30 kit elements, targeting land borders, targeting/risk management, customs and border operations, and law enforcement techniques. The training team was already teaching successful classroom and hands-on training courses to several Afghan ministries. Cultural tailoring and selection of the most appropriate training tasks to move to VMT were studied and priorities given to production and development. A key requirement for VMT course materials was to target and overcome the differing literacy, language and dialect challenges faced in the region. Cultural considerations are built into the fabric of the VMT. Some of the cultural aspects the VMT team considered were the strong need for students to identify with the instructors. Students MT2 19.3 | 5
also performed better when they knew that senior authority endorsed and valued the skill sets being taught. To address these cultural norms, VMTs have a senior official introduce the content and stress the importance of skills being taught to their countries safety and security. VMTs also show Afghans in agency appropriate uniforms executing the process being trained and demonstrating equipment use in field environments. The cultural aspects and constraints were just the start of several aspects to consider when filming and producing VMT for Afghanistan. Pre-production, production and post-production each offer a unique set of challenges. VMT is also a force multiplier on the battlefield. As mobility throughout the country becomes more difficult and western contractors are reduced, the VMT enables the Afghans to sustain the program while reinforcing positive procedures and techniques as demonstrated in the videos.
Pre-production planning is the most important part of the VMT production process to stay on budget, on schedule and to produce the highest quality training possible. Making a training video in a foreign desert combat zone presents challenges that can only be overcome with detailed planning, instrumental relationships with local subject matter experts (SMEs), reliable interpretation and access to controlled areas. Every possible aspect of the production process is continually reviewed to reduce time needed filming in the field. To successfully produce training videos in Afghanistan, video pre-production activities include: •
Complete storyboards of all major scenes listing cast, props, uniforms and other detailed notes about the scene. Generation of cast and prop lists and prop transportation requirements are baselined. Having SMEs on-hand during detailed storyboarding allow the training development team to identify exactly what needs to be filmed and at what level of detail.
Conversational narration is portioned out to each scene. Training videos are being produced with three language tracks and with three separate fonts, one each for English, Pashtu and Dari. It takes a different amount of time to say or present the same phrases in different languages. This affects the length of time of each scene on screen. Planning for both the shortest and the longest times needed assists the post-production team and determines the scene time requirements during filming. B-roll requirements are also developed to accommodate the timing needed for all languages. Planning out when multiple camera angles will be needed in the script to add variety and keep learners engaged helps build out the equipment requirements for the filming. Relationships with local authorities are explored to identify site experts who will be available during video production. Site experts are tasked with on-site production scheduling, obtaining needed equipment, extras and props and ensuring the technical direction of the actors.
VMT Production Transportation of filming equipment and crew, language and direction present a different set of challenges during the filming of the training segments. Very real threats from IEDs, ambush, and any number of other life-threatening dangers exist in a live combat zone. Safety of the filming crew is paramount and many of the team moving to the field to conduct the filming perform more than one role to keep the team as small as possible. Film crew that have served in Afghanistan and understand the security and safety procedures help keep the video production on schedule. Security for the film crew is provided for during transportation and filming. The training development team found several means to keep the shoot on the shortest possible schedules:
Highly realistic vehicle simulations born from real vehicle experience: as real as it gets
Highly precise vehicle logic and dynamic
MBT as well as IFV
Use of NATO ballistic kernel for weapon simulation
Embedded training Virtual and live training
| www.kmwsim.com |
Filming equipment care and maintenance while in transport and production has to be considered. The evolution of filming technology and the high quality produced by today’s DSLR cameras make filming equipment more lightweight and mobile. Having as few equipment cases as possible helps reduce the time needed at security checkpoints and reduces the crew, vehicles and aircraft capacity needed to transport film equipment. With temperatures well over 100 degrees and constant dust and dirt issues, environmental effects on filming equipment require careful equipment selection and constant equipment maintenance. Equipment power sources and batteries also need to be considered and transported. Using local language assistants as actors dramatically reduces filming time. Language assistants understand and can take direction more quickly so that film scenes are shot in a minimal number of takes.
VMT Post-Production The VMT takes shape during post-production. Narration and other sound considerations are dealt with during this final phase. The complexity of producing the same training instruction in three languages and keeping the instruction standard is the challenge of the editing team and can easily push the production schedule limits. The training team has developed several means to keep the postproduction schedule in check while increasing the quality of the finished product: •
By having the narration recorded while in Afghanistan, the translations and dialect of the training material improves. Having translators and SMEs together during narration post-production meetings helps control content consistency. Narration is recorded in small files and tagged to the corresponding scene so as each language version is assembled with the appropriate narration and on-screen film segments.
Background noises are filtered and reduced so that learners are not distracted from the lesson objectives. Afghan background music is used when appropriate to help the adoption of the video as an Afghan product produced for their country. On-screen text in each language is numbered and tagged to each scene. On-screen text in different languages takes up different screen space. Working out on-screen text footprints in advance helps post-production teams meet schedules. On-screen text animations of the text and b-roll of closeups and alternate camera angles are added to clarify salient points and finish off the completed training video.
The primary key to the successful VMT production lies with the subject matter experts and their ability to ensure partner nation cultural aspects, detailed translation nuances and their dedication to the success of the mission to train and supply sustainable training materials.
Impact of VMT on the Mission The BMTF VMT program is increasing the effectiveness of the training to the classrooms of the ABP. BMTF mentors and ABP instructors are using the training material in various training venues across Afghanistan. VMTs were recently used during the ABP mobile enforcement team training during spring 2013 in the Helmand Province. The encouraging introduction message from the ABP commanding officer, Lieutenant General Gul Nabi Ahmadzai, and the ACD director general, Bismillah Kamawi, inspired and promoted positive morale within both Afghan agencies. Afghan instructors received positive feedback from students when using VMTs. Having the VMT translated into Afghan native languages and tailored to cultural training needs of the Afghan agencies gave a sense of ownership to the students and the instructors. BMTF mentors also administered VMT to ABP, ACP, as well as ACD personnel. ABP and ACP leadership at the Torkham Gate
TRAINING & SIMULATION Wegmann USA, Inc., Training & Simulation mailto: email@example.com Krauss-Maffei Wegmann GmbH & Co. KG, Training & Simulation mailto: firstname.lastname@example.org
An Afghan border policeman monitors traffic at the Wesh border crossing, Afghanistan. The mission of the ABP is to secure the borders of Afghanistan from infiltration, illegal entry of persons and the smuggling of contraband. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Air Force/by Tech Sgt. Francisco V. Govea II]
CACI Video modular training videographer Aaron Lewis captures footage of Border Police operations in Torkham, Afghanistan. [Photo courtesy of CACI]
BCP stated, “Previous to receiving these VMTs we were unable to conduct routine weapons maintenance and inspections to all those that should have had that training. Now we are conducting this training using the VMT at appropriate intervals and stressing the importance of proper weapons maintenance throughout our forces.” Another example of the far-reaching effect of the VMT is the use of the VMT on basic vehicle inspections. This VMT presents how to conduct thorough physical inspections on commercial vehicles in order to detect concealed goods. This training has reached additional ACD personnel not previously able to receive training at a remote location. Training metrics and surveys show that Afghan students prefer the video instruction to the usual PowerPoint instruction they were using in the past. Course evaluations cited that language factors and the VMT’s engaging presentation helped them gain the knowledge they needed from the course. Perhaps one of the most positive recorded effectiveness metrics of the VMT was measured at the ACP at Spin Boldak, which reported an increase in illicit seizures, particularly from commercial vehicles, by agents having received VMT. The VMT has made a profound impact on the sustainable training mission and is now being planned to be part of the instruction in several other Afghan law and border enforcement environments. Training in Afghanistan still mainly relies mainly on instructor led training (ILT); however, getting ILT to function in Afghanistan, given security concerns, the low base of organizational training capabilities, limited information technology resources and training facilities, and the dispersed locations of Afghan border agencies, presents tremendous challenges and
expense. BMTFs need a sustainable Afghan training solution focused on simple, computer-based modules without access to the Internet or instructors to provide basic and recurring training to Afghan personnel. The Afghan operating environment drove the selection of computer CD-based training, and BMTF developed the training to work in the CD model. The VMT training solution empowers our Afghan partners to communicate consistent customs and search processes to staff at disparate locations. This economical, low technology solution also provides resources that staff can use on their own to refresh training as needed. Additional VMT benefits for the Afghan border agencies include:
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Training is offered via the visual medium, proving content in a conversational manner, increasing the ease at which staff are exposed to content. The need for external training resources is reduced as the video-based training sessions can be managed in-house. The adoption of video-based training by the Afghans will dramatically reduce training costs as training can be accessed as needed reducing the amount of time a participant needs to be available for training. O
Rose Noxon, Ph.D., is a senior human capital architect at CACI and John Shellnutt is a senior program manager at CACI.
For more information, contact MT2 Editor Brian O’Shea at email@example.com or search our online archives for related stories at www.mt2-kmi.com.
Industry leaders share their innovations of 2014. Military Training Technology reached out to European industry leaders in the field of training and simulation to learn about the latest innovations to be offered to the U.S. military in 2014. MT2 asked the following question:
What are your most recent innovations and how are they improving training and simulation for the U.S. military? Robert LaBelle
CEO AgustaWestland North America
In addition to launching new products, applicable to both our military and commercial customers, AgustaWestland is continuously upgrading our current product line to meet the needs of our operators and integrate the latest in
technology into our helicopters and training solutions. AgustaWestland is unique in that it invests over 10 percent of its revenue in research and development, adding up to nearly $600 million last year alone. Pertaining to the U.S. military, the latest evolution of our AW119 light-single engine helicopter, the AW119Kx, provides the optimal solution from a price and performance standpoint for primary flight training of military aviators. The AW119Kx features a stateof-the-art Garmin G1000 digital
glass cockpit that allows critical flight information to be shown on two large multi-function displays in real time, ensuring the highest levels of safety and ultimate situational awareness. As we remain consistently mindful of all safety considerations, the AW119Kx also features redundant systems, ensuring that training is conducted according to the strictest of safety standards. A reduction in U.S. defense budgets means that efficiency must be emphasized in all aspects
of training. The AW119Kx’s combination of low operating costs, strong performance characteristics, advanced capabilities, superior avionics upgrades and reduced maintenance requirements would actually allow training squadrons to conduct the same levels of training with fewer aircraft. Innovations and upgrades such as those made to the AW119Kx will allow training to be conducted safely and efficiently and will improve the effectiveness of real-time flight training for future aviators.
Co-CEO Bohemia Interactive Simulations firstname.lastname@example.org Bohemia Interactive Simulations has made many important innovations in its software Virtual Battlespace 3 (VBS3) for the U.S. Army. Performance is the key takeaway. We have made important www.MT2-kmi.com
strides in optimizing our game engine. VBS3 introduced a new multicast system that reduces bottlenecks on the server and increases engine performance. We’ve also made changes to the real-time editor that has resulted
in dramatic performance improvements—for example, saving large scenarios to disks happens 10 times faster now. We’ll also soon deliver new fast-air capabilities in VBS3 to the Army. We have been tackling the MT2 19.3 | 9
Special Section problem of how to maintain runtime performance while supplying enough environmental fidelity— a common problem faced by the simulation industry. To solve this challenge, we are completing a real-time object aggregation system that brings more performance when viewing complex urban environments from the air. This object aggregation technology allows individual scenery models (trees and buildings) to be grouped together into an aggregated model in real time, which will require far fewer draw calls to the graphics
card. This is already proving to be a huge leap forward for rendering performance. It will allow much greater view distances and higher density of scenery objects than previously possible. We’ve also made major strides in terrain development. VBS3 now supports massive terrains thousands of square kilometers in size, and lets users create and populate terrains much faster. One of the innovations that enables this faster performance is biotopes, arrangements of landscape features that can be applied to any
terrain in real time. Biotopes allow developers to quickly define vegetation and other objects that will populate a terrain. VBS3 also includes support for procedural generation of realistic snow. And VBS3 can now page in road networks, which reduces the memory load. Another exciting innovation we introduced to enhance immersion is a plug-in for VBS3 that produces an individualized avatar modeled on key performance attributes of the soldier who operates the avatar during training.
The avatar plug-in gives users more realistic player entities, with corresponding strengths and limitations. Right now this is only available for the Army, but we are considering productizing it. VBS3 has been rigorously tested and accepted by the Army. And just a few days after the Army announced it was available, they had received 17,000 license requests from its units. That kind of demand is very encouraging to us and we’re excited to share with customers these improvements to performance.
Business Development Manager Saab Defense and Security, Training and Simulation email@example.com
With continuously evolving technology, the training and simulation industry has been able to benefit with some of the most realistic experiences in training that have ever been produced. It is widely known that the equipment the U.S. military has is only a fraction of what makes it the best in the world. It is the availability of the most realistic training that makes our warfighters able to use that equipment to its fullest extent. This constant surge in technology has allowed Saab Defense and Security, Training and Simulation division, to grow with other industry leaders with some very unique innovations. The ground war is fundamentally where we face down our enemies, and Saab Defense and 10 | MT2 19.3
Security has been able to make major strides in our design and interoperability. Our personal detector devices (Manworn MILES) have been outfitted with a slimmer design that allows for less intrusion to the warriors wearing them while still retaining the functionality you expect from Saab equipment, with pinpoint accuracy and comprehensive after action review (AAR) technology. With a focus on medical attention on the battlefield, we have developed training for first responders, medics and physician assistants with full diagnostic abilities that tap into a wounded warrior man-worn system through a handheld computer and, based off the injury, formulate a series of questions that, through corrective actions, keep that warrior alive. With a full immersive environment, we have allowed the players to interact not only with each other but with buildings as well, allowing vehicles and personnel to fire at other players inside of buildings. Based on
ballistics, the players in buildings are no longer able to “hide” from the laser, which more accurately simulates the battlefield. We have also re-designed our grenade packages to not only more accurately simulate a frag grenade but have developed a simulated stun grenade, providing a more comprehensive training ability in an urban environment. This entire exercise can be controlled and viewed from a central location with instrumented training. With our portable systems (Manpack and recently released “Super Manpack”) one can control the environment and have comprehensive AARs at a company (or below) level anywhere in the world that they desire to train; all they have to do is take it with them in their carry-on. Homestation instrumentation is a key focus to the U.S. Army, which allows immersive training at home stations that would normally only available at one of the major training centers. Through instrumented range systems homestations are now able to
take their training stock of MILES gear and have them communicate with HITS Exercise Controller over an expansive 20-by-20-kilometer training area. Continuous improvement in technology is key to the U.S. military staying ahead of its adversaries. No longer can live, virtual and constructive training be segregated. Training technology has to now move toward joining systems into larger training architecture. Companies like Saab Defense and Security are doing a good job of embracing new technology and employing it in the training systems. This pursuit of excellence provides our warfighters with the edge they need to fight and win. Battles may be won on the battlefield, but campaigns are won in training. O
For more information, contact MT2 Editor Brian O’Shea at firstname.lastname@example.org or search our online archivesfor related stories at www.mt2-kmi.com.
New simulator enhances realism needed for full immersion training.
By Erin Flynn Jay, MT2 Correspondent
matching the flight and aircraft system performance provides a solid The military is consistently replicating live events through foundation for the visual system and motion effects to be added to. simulation, and with advancements in technology, training in a safe We have legacy simulators with old display systems that look similar environment is becoming a staple to preparing the warfighter for to individual TV screens for each window instead of a dome like is real-world operations. used for IMAX (Image MAXimum). These visual systems make it difCoast Guard’s Aviation Training Center (ATC) provides initial ficult to impossible to look out the opposite side windows and can and recurrent training for all Coast Guard pilots. This covers trainmake some people feel ill.” ing pilots fresh out of flight school and seasoned pilots transitioning Another gap is the ability to have one pilot using night vision to a new airframe, as well as refresher and upgrade training, said goggles while the other is not and to see the environment as it would Lieutenant Commander Dave Hunter, HC-144A instructor pilot. The look in real life, said Hunter. This feature is being provided in the primary focus is on emergency procedures and instrument flight new HC-144 simulator and will enhance the realism needed for full procedures. However, there is a theme that changes from year to immersion training. year; for example, cold weather ops or high altitude training. Currently in Mobile, Ala., there are simulators for the MH-60, MH-65, HU-25 and an aircrew weapons trainer. Delivering True-to-life Visual Displays “Right now we are in the middle of acquiring a Level D equivalent simulator for the HC-144,” said Hunter. “This should allow 90 Christie’s most popular projectors for military simulation are percent of the initial pilot training events to be conducted in the the Christie Matrix Series of DLP (digital light processing) projecsimulator and all of the annual recurrent training. With the recent tors, which are designed for complex blended arrays, where color announcement that the Coast Guard will receive matching and uniformity are key and clarity of fast C-27J Spartans from the U.S. Air Force, in the next moving content is critical. three to five years we are looking to acquire a simula“The projectors are all built on the same stable, tor to conduct training in that aircraft as well.” long-life platform and employ two alternative illumiWhat simulator training shortfalls and gaps does nation technologies: arc-lamps and solid-state illumiATC need industry’s help to address? Hunter said this nation. They include: the Christie Matrix StIM, the answer depends on the age of the simulator and the first DLP simulation projector to provide indepenlimitations of the technology when it was initially acdent control over both the visible and infrared specquired. trum and real-time balancing of color and brightness “For example, the aerodynamic modeling for one levels; the Christie Matrix StIM WQ, which provides of our helicopters is being updated with a more sohigher levels of resolution and brightness along Lt. Cmdr. Dave Hunter phisticated and accurate model,” he said. “Accurately with advanced smear reduction; the Christie Matrix www.MT2-kmi.com
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SIM and Christie SIM WQ, which were designed for Military Simulation Training overall reduced sustainment costs and offer a fully Facing Threats ruggedized chassis for motion platform use; and the Christie Matrix WU7K-J, a compact lamp-based proDigital Projection provides a wide variety of jector that provides the highest 3-chip-DLP perforprojectors to the U.S. military for its training and mance on the market,” said Dave Kanahele, director, simulation needs. From standard auditorium proSimulation Solutions at Christie. “All of our Matrix jectors to specialized simulation projectors for forprojectors provide maximum dynamic image quality ward observer trainers and advanced flight trainers, with 120Hz support along with capabilities to warp its products run the gamut from bright lamp-based and blend multi-channel arrays.” projectors to specialized high resolution LED+IR Dave Kanahele For high-performance military simulation en(infrared) projectors. vironments, Kanahele said, the key challenge is de- email@example.com “With sequestration, the military is facing tightlivering true-to-life visual displays that accurately, er budgets for acquisition and being questioned on consistently and safely replicate situations that can’t if certain training program should be considered or be repeatedly performed in the real world, allowing canceled,” said Phil Laney, Digital Projection Inc.’s trainees to practice routines and tasks in a secure endirector of simulation and visualization. “If one vironment. couples sequestration with the recent BRAC [base “To achieve this, simulators today demand higher realignment and closure] of existing bases and the pixel densities over larger areas than can be provided closure of their associated training ranges, then one by any single fixed projector, leading to a need for finds that military simulation training is facing mulhighly synchronized projector arrays,” he said. “Aero tiple threats to their traditional methods of trainSimulation’s HC-144A operational flight trainer ing.” (OFT) for the Coast Guard’s ATC, for example, uses Because of its cost effectiveness and with the Phil Laney nine Christie Matrix StIM WQ WQXGA-resolution reduced access or elimination of training ranges, 1-chip DLP solid state, LED (light emitting diode)- firstname.lastname@example.org virtual simulation training has become more imbased projectors, helping it to achieve a visual display portant as the simulators can be linked in groups, that is closer to real life.” across domains to other simulator types, or even tied together with As technologies change, the need for lower cost, off-the-shelf live training forces. simulation systems with higher resolution, higher brightness and “Since virtual simulation training typically involves projechigher frame rates will continue to grow. tor-based displays, companies like Digital Projection with cost“As well, the increased adaption of solid-state illumination effective simulation specific projectors can help the military in simulation projection systems is paving the way for enhancemeet training needs,” added Laney. “Another side effect of sements in night vision training, which has become an increasquestration is reduced budgets for maintenance of training sysingly critical part of military and aerospace simulation training. tems, meaning that the military is looking for ways to reduce Christie simulation projectors are geared to address these current maintenance costs for their trainers. Digital Projection offers its trends, while also being versatile and scalable to better accommocost savings Lifetime Illumination Projector products with ildate future training needs,” Kanahele added. lumination systems that provide 20,000 to 60,000 hours of illumination life. When these products are in a multi-projector display system, they not only save costs by not having to purchase lamps, but their inherent stability means less hands-on maintenance time, reducing maintenance costs and down time. Lifetime Illumination Projectors also run on less power and emit less heat, saving on HVAC and electrical costs.” The future for virtual military training will continue its trend of wanting more resolution, less maintenance and reduced costs, said Laney. Digital Projection follows those trends and has products that balance high performance and costs while continuing to innovate its Lifetime Illumination projectors, introducing brighter LED projectors like its 2,000-lumen 3-chip DLP Titan and its 10,000-lumen HIGHlite Laser.
LED Driven Projectors in Demand
Sony’s SRX-T615 projector. [Photo courtesy of Sony]
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Barco has an extensive portfolio of simulator projectors available and provides a wide variety of them to the U.S. military market, such as their 1- and 3-chip DLP (lamp and LED based) products, as well as LCoS (liquid crystal on silicon) based solutions. Most projectors are offered in quantum extended graphics array, wide ultra extended graphics array and/or wide quad extended graphics array resolutions. www.MT2-kmi.com
“Our SIM10 (LCoS) offers the highest resolution (10 million pixels) and dynamic contrast ratio available for applications such as fast jet training, while our F22 (DLP) is the projector of choice for firearms simulators such as the U.S. Army engagement skills trainer and the U.S. Marine Corps indoor simulated marksmanship trainer,” said Mark Saturno, vice president, Worldwide Sales Training and Simulation. Their newest product, the FS-35IR, is currently used on the new advanced joint terminal attack training system being deployed by the Air National Guard. As with many types of technology, the demand is continuous for ‘smaller, better, cheaper’ products, and the projector market is no different. “Additionally, total cost of ownership is foremost on all miliBarco’s SIM includes ultra-high resolution, a dynamic contrast range of up to 10 million to one, tary users’ objectives when procuring or upgrading training and a brightness of up to 6,000 lumens. [Photo courtesy of Barco] simulators. Again, Barco answers the call with the widest array of simulation projectors that are continually evolvThe challenges for the military arena involve ing to optimize performance while lowering operavery demanding specs and performance features tional expenses,” said Saturno. “A great example of that typically are not needed in traditional markets, this is the latest LED technology being deployed in said Sander Phipps, senior product manager, Sony our F3X series platforms in order to provide solid Professional Solutions of America. Military procurestate capability and eliminate the need to procure ment cycles pose special challenges with product and change lamps.” development and forecasting. Future programs are The future is pointing toward solid state illuunder constantly changing schedules and funding minated projectors for as many training applicaapprovals. tions as possible. However, Saturno said it will take “Going forward, higher resolution like 4K and some time for the simulation community to fully alternative light source projectors are the real hot Mark Saturno embrace a technology that is in its infancy, and still topics for military applications. And of course cost/ email@example.com needs to prove it can satisfy very stringent requireperformance,” said Phipps. ments related to performance, cost, sustainability, Sony’s SXRD Series 4K projectors provide 4096 size and safety. In the interim, efficient lamp- and by 2160 resolution and have an aperture ratio of 92 LED-driven projectors will continue to be in high percent for immersive and realistic imaging. demand. “The thinner liquid crystal panel used in the SXRD imaging chip allows for incredibly clean motion rendering of fast-moving images. The SRX-T615 model Higher Resolution combines the versatility, performance and image quality needed to create enhanced realism and an opSony currently sells virtually every projector timal viewing experience in today’s visualization and they make to the military. Many are used in meetsimulation applications,” said Phipps. “It delivers 4K ing rooms and classrooms similar to general corresolution with a high brightness of 18,000 lumens porate and education applications, as well has more Sander Phipps and an industry-leading contrast ratio of 12,000:1, demanding and advanced applications including firstname.lastname@example.org a key feature for the visual simulation market. sualization, simulation and training. The 50/60P signal compatibility is ideal for displaying moving graphics smoothly.” Another key feature for the military market is the projector’s ability to edge blend native 4K content, concluded Phipps. “The SRX-T615 projector uses six HPM lamps in individual cartridges to make lamp replacement easier and safer, and the projector also provides a longer lamp-exchange cycle,” he said. “The VPL-GT100 4K ultra-high resolution projector has a small footprint for flexible installation, and is based on a new laser phosphor illumination technology with 2,000 lumens and a dual display port input for 4096-by-2160 resolution at 60 frames per second. Sony’s professional 4K projector line also includes the SRX-T420, SRXT110 and SRX-T105 models. O
Christie Matrix StIM WQ DLP LED-illuminated projectors used in Coast Guard’s HC-144A operation flight trainer. [Photo courtesy of Aero Simulation Inc.]
For more information, contact MT2 Editor Brian O’Shea at email@example.com or search our online archives for related stories at www.mt2-kmi.com.
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DATA PACKETS Virtual Staff Training Applications Engineering & Computer Simulations (ECS) recently announced their new product line of virtual staff trainers (VST). This product line offers Web-based, tailorable virtual staff training that includes engaging scenarios to enhance critical thinking and training within any market sector (entertainment, health care, transportation, energy, education, etc.). Within this new product line designation, ECS has architected a solution that relies on reuse of common core components so clients can select those capabilities relevant to their training and exercise needs. At the same time, the reuse allows clients to obtain the solution at a greatly reduced price versus a “build from scratch” approach. Within the VST product line, ECS has developed and delivered the following applications: •
Emergency management staff training (EMST): Based on National Incident Management System standards, EMST is a Web-based solution used for a variety of emergency and crisis response training in sectors that include National Guard domestic response, state and local emergency management. Crisis response simulation (CRS): Used to assess the knowledge, skills and abilities of individuals, teams or entire organizations related to critical thinking during the complexities of a crisis, CRS can be directed at the full spectrum of an organization’s employees, including the executive leadership. CRS was designed for use by all facets of the energy industry. Health care administration readiness trainer (HART): Aimed at hospital and elder care centers, HART enables personnel to perform risk assessment and mitigation via a number of scenarios. HART enhances preparedness for the myriad disasters that medical facilities may face. Federal acquisition accelerated staff trainer: Using a 3-D office workplace to create an engaging environment where acquisition specialists work through hard and soft tasks associated with their procurement duties, FAAST reinforces procedural and ethical issues associated with federal procurements. Pediatric exercise training system (PETS): Developed to immerse health care personnel in exercises related to pediatric sepsis, a leading killer of infants and children, PETS scenarios deal with recognizing symptoms in addition to communicating vital information. Cruise Simulation (CSIM): Designed for the cruise industry, CSIM is a role-based staff training simulation that focuses on scenarios including a missing person(s) search exercise. CSIM helps build decision-making skills and focuses on crew communications within a web-based framework. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA): In support of the Transportation Research Board, TERA provides interactive training and exercises for transit agency command-level decision makers.
New Terrain for Game Engine Calytrix Technologies and TerraSim Inc. recently announced the availability of a new terrain for the Unity game engine, as an addition to its set of free, correlated terrain databases for distributed simulations. This expanded offering of terrain databases represents TerraSim and Calytrix’s continued dedication to supporting the largest number of third-party runtimes for the modeling, simulation and training industry. TerraSim’s Unity plug-in pushes the bounds of how 3-D environments can be used in the Unity game engine for modeling and simulation. This new TerraTools optional plug-in provides customers with the ability to directly import complex geospatial databases into the Unity runtime. It also enables support for coordinate system information and large area environments within the Unity game engine. Calytrix has taken advantage of these new features to provide streamlined Unity support in its LVC (live, virtual and constructive) Game product for Unity, a software developer’s kit (SDK) that enables Unity-based applications to participate in distributed environments based on distributed interactive simulation or high level architecture networking. To demonstrate both the level of correlation and fidelity, TerraSim and Calytrix are offering the Unity export for “sample desert village” as one of a set of 14 correlated runtime formats available by request on Calytrix’s website. Using LVC Game for Unity with “sample desert village,” Unity developers can build and test applications that integrate into distributed LVC environments. The “sample desert village” set of terrain databases were generated by TerraTools from geospatial source data, including orthophoto imagery, digital elevation data, attributed vector data and 3-D models. TerraTools creates a common terrain representation and exports the correlated result to each runtime format in the set. The terrain databases are ready for testing in LVC distributed simulations, such as those linked together by Calytrix’s LVC Game interconnectivity software. The Unity “sample desert village” terrain is 5 kilometers by 5 kilometers, feature-rich terrain, suitable for supporting rigorous distributed simulation tests for database content and cross runtime correlation. “Sample desert village” contains a variety of complex features, such as parametrically generated buildings with interiors, walled compounds, utility lines, automatically placed 3-D models, vegetation of various types, and paved and unpaved roads. Kate Cummings; firstname.lastname@example.org
Waymon Armstrong, ECS president, stated ,“ECS has developed a product line with a common core of adaptable features. It is flexible and affordable, and is applicable to a breadth of applications in both government and commercial markets. The product line architecture assures that enhancements to the core platform will continue to evolve the VST in order to maintain its relevance to organizations. Together with our library of already existing scenarios, VST enables clients to leverage millions of dollars of previous investments.” Joe O’Connell; email@example.com
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Compiled by KMI Media Group staff
Royal Norwegian Navy to Upgrade Naval Simulator Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace has signed a contract with the Norwegian Defence Logistics Organization (NDLO) for upgrade of the Royal Norwegian Navy’s (RNoN) Proteus simulator infrastructure delivered by Kongsberg. The contract scope includes infrastructure upgrades and migration to a common Proteus simulation core for all the RNoN’s Kongsberg delivered simulators, new visual image generation, a generic high-level architecture evolved
interface enabling further simulator participation in joint collaborative exercises and a new Proteus map centric instructor station. The contract has a value of 49 million Norwegian krones (approximately $8.2 million) and will be delivered to the RNoN training establishment KNM Tordenskjold at Haakonsvern naval base in 2016. “This contract is the result of Kongsberg’s long and proven relationship with RNoN.
NDLO’s decision to further upgrade and improve RNON’s Proteus based simulator infrastructure strengthens our position as supplier of simulator systems, and in this context this is a very important reference contract for Kongsberg,” said Executive Vice President Leiv Inge Steig of Kongsberg Defence Systems. Morten Kolve; firstname.lastname@example.org
Mobile Helicopter-Simulator for Operations For pilot screenings, tactical training or simulator exercises before real operations directly in the assigned country, Electronic System and Logistics Group (ESG) developed a portable helicopter simulator. Twenty-one Omnishapes form a configurable screen around a simulator cockpit. The flexible system can be adjusted according to different helicopter models, and through its compact dimensions the assembled simulator can also be transported in freight containers in its entirety. Twenty-one eyevis Omnishapes rear projection cubes, a simulator cockpit with pilot seat, an instrument panel on touchscreen basis and control elements (cyclic, collective, pedals) including force feedback, as well as an instructor station, is everything the portable ESG simulator setup needs for authentic helicopter simulations. Thereby, the simulator can be configured to resemble different helicopter models in their dynamic behavior and the respective systems. Thus the switch between light and medium transport helicopter, or a combat helicopter including simulated weapon systems, for instance, is possible. The centerpiece of the technology is the simulation computer on which different ESG software modules process flight dynamics and system simulation, present the respective cockpit instruments on the touchscreen of the instrument panel and provide the instructor station with access to different tactical scenarios. Through the instructor station, a technician is able to control and monitor the simulation, put in failures of helicopter systems (e.g., hydraulics) and choose different mission areas with predefined tactical situations. Different landscapes with regions from Germany, Asia, Africa and Hawaii can be displayed in different seasons and daytimes. In this way, the simulator can be used for pilot screenings. Through the networkability with other simulators, the system is furthermore suitable for tactical exercises like in military training. “Further areas of application result from the use of Omnishapes by eyevis. Despite their comparably large rear projection surface, the compact modules allow for the system to be operated in mobile containers in order to verify, practice or review real missions prior to their execution,” explained Michael Remaklus, project director at ESG. Due to the robust and compact design of the Omnishapes the transport of the assembled system is possible without problems.
For the external view of the simulated landscape, three image generators provide a Genlock synchronized image for the 21 Omnishapes. The Omnishapes allow for a high-definition homogenous image. They are arranged as a concavely shaped video wall around the simulator cockpit, guaranteeing an even viewing distance to the entire screen area. Through the image processing system integrated in each Omnishape, external processing is unnecessary for image presentation. This facilitates transportation and installation of the simulators. The automatic color/brightness correction of the Omnishapes additionally guarantees permanently stable and consistent image representation throughout all modules. The rear projection also provides good color and contrast values for bright ambient light conditions. The zero-bezeltechnology of the Omnishapes allows for a continuous image which improves the simulation effect without disturbing bezels. Due to the LED rear illumination, continuous operation of the simulator is also possible; the high durability of the LEDs of up to 60,000 hours ensures low operation costs. Christoph Pfaeffle; email@example.com
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Mission Ready. Trained by CACI. Across the government and around the globe, CACI’s training solutions make mission-critical performance a reality. Over the past 50 years, we have delivered thousands of training solutions to the U.S. Department of Defense and military services. Our enterprise training, simulation, and education solutions improve performance and increase productivity while meeting DoD requirements for mission readiness and effectiveness. In everything we do, we share the principles of our military customers. Ethics, integrity, and the character to always do the right thing – these principles guide CACI as we find innovative solutions, and provide distinction and excellence. Only in this way can we fully meet our commitment to the nation and to our customers. For more information about CACI’s training solutions, email firstname.lastname@example.org or visit www.caci.com/training.
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S O L U T I O N S A D VA N C E D .
Maintaining Readiness in Today’s Strained Budget Environment
General John F. Campbell Vice Chief of Staff U.S. Army
The son of a U.S. Air Force senior master sergeant, General John F. Campbell grew up on military bases around the world before attending the United States Military Academy at West Point. He graduated in 1979 with a commission in the infantry. During more than 34 years of service, he has commanded units at every echelon from platoon to division, with duty in Germany, Haiti, Iraq, Afghanistan and the United States. After his first assignment with the U.S. Army Europe, Campbell was assigned to Fort Bragg, N.C., where he commanded a Special Forces operational detachment alpha in the 5th Special Forces Group and an infantry company in the 82nd Airborne Division. Returning to Fort Bragg, he served as the aide-de-camp to the commanding general, XVIII Airborne Corps, and deployed in support of Operation Uphold Democracy. He later commanded 2nd Battalion, 5th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division (Light), and then 1st Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division and led the brigade during Operation Enduring Freedom. He has served as the commanding general, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), Fort Campbell, Ky., and led the division as Combined Joint Task Force 101 during Operation Enduring Freedom. Most recently, Campbell was the deputy chief of staff, G-3/5/7, Headquarters, Department of the Army. Other significant assignments include professor of Military Science University of California, Davis; executive officer to the 35th chief of staff of the Army; deputy commanding general (Maneuver), 1st Cavalry Division and Multinational Division Baghdad during Operation Iraqi Freedom; and deputy director for Regional Operations, J-3, The Joint Staff. Campbell holds a Bachelor of Science degree from West Point and a master’s degree in public administration from Golden Gate University. He is a graduate of the Command and General Staff College and the Army War College. Campbell’s awards and decorations include the Distinguished Service Medal, the Defense Superior Service Medal, two Legions of Merit, three Bronze Star Medals, two Defense Meritorious Service Medals, six Meritorious Service Medals, the Air Medal, the Joint Commendation Medal, the Army Commendation Medal, the Army www.MT2-kmi.com
Achievement Medal, the Combat Infantryman Badge, the Combat Action Badge, the Master Parachutist Badge, the Pathfinder Badge, the Ranger Tab, and the Special Forces Tab. Today, the Army remains globally engaged with more than 66,000 soldiers deployed, including about 32,000 in Afghanistan, and about 85,000 forward-stationed in over 150 different countries. I’d like to start by thanking Congress for passing the fiscal year 2014 Consolidated Appropriations Act. This measure provides the Army some relief from previous defense spending caps, and gives us predictability in fiscal year 2014 and fiscal year 2015. While the restoration of some funding in fiscal year 2014 helps the Army restore readiness, it is not sufficient to fully eliminate the void in core capabilities created over the past decade of counterinsurgency operations, and made greater by sequestration. The current level of fiscal year 2015 funding will allow the Army to sustain the readiness levels achieved in fiscal year 2014, but will only generate the minimum readiness required to meet the Defense Strategic Guidance. The anticipated sequestration reductions in fiscal year 2016 and beyond severely degrade manning, readiness and modernization efforts, and will not allow us to execute the Defense Strategic Guidance. To really understand our current and future readiness, I need to quickly provide context with what happened in fiscal year 2013. MT2 19.3 | 17
And due to fiscal year 2013 BCA spending caps, the Army canceled seven Combat Training Center rotations and significantly reduced home-station training, negatively impacting the readiness and leader development of over two divisions worth of soldiers. Additionally, 12 years of conflict have resulted in extensive backlog in our leadership education and training programs due to reductions of schoolhouse capacity. Those lost opportunities only created a gap all the way from 2004 to 2011, because we are focused exclusively on counterinsurgency. In the event of a crisis, we’ll deploy these units at a significantly lower readiness level, but our soldiers are adaptive and agile, and, over time, they will accomplish their mission. But, their success will come with a greater cost of higher casualties. Further results of sequestration in fiscal year 2013 include the deferment of approximately $716 million of equipment reset into fiscal year 2014 and fiscal year 2015. Sequestration also postponed the reset of nearly 700 vehicles, almost 2,000 weapons, U.S. Army soldiers from Headquarters and Headquarters Company perform soldier carry during physical readiness training at and over 10,000 pieces of communication equip- the William W.S. Bliss Parade Field, Fort Bliss, Texas. HHC is transitioning to an updated physical readiness training program. ment, Army pre-positioned stocks, and numerous [Photo courtesy of U.S. Army/by Specialist Sinthia Rosario] soldier equipment and clothing items. The Army as in home-station training, facilities, equipment sustainment and was forced to cut routine maintenance for non-deployed units, modernization. thereby creating an additional $73.5 million in deferred mainForces deployed in Afghanistan will be fully prepared for the tenance costs that carried over to fiscal year 2014. All together, security assistance mission, but not for other contingencies. Forsequestration resulted in the release of nearly 2,600 civilian and ward stationed units in the Republic of Korea will remain ready, as contract personnel, eroding critical trade skills in fields such as will those dedicated to the Global Response Force. Uncertain and engineering. reduced funding has degraded our installation readiness and infraAffordability is driving the need to reduce the total Army structure. Base operation support levels remain under-resourced end strength and force structure. The Army is in the process and need to be a future priority as additional funds become availan accelerated drawdown to 490,000 in the active component, able. This year and next are critical to deciding the fate of what is 350,000 in the Army National Guard, and 202,000 in the U.S. the greatest Army in the world and could have significant implicaArmy Reserve by the end of fiscal year 2015. By the end of fistions on our nation’s security for years to come. Cuts implemented cal year 2017, we will further decrease end strength to 450,000 under the Budget Control Act and sequestration have significantly in the active, 335,000 in the Army National Guard, and 195,000 impaired our readiness. in the Reserve component. These cuts are disproportionally on Further, I’m concerned about the impact to Army base funds the active Army, and they will reverse the force mix ratio, goin fiscal year 2015 if the overseas contingency operations, or the ing from 51 percent active and 49 percent Reserve in fiscal year OCO, budget request is not acted upon by the start of the fiscal 2012 to 46 percent active and 54 percent our Reserve compoyear. Absent approval of OCO funding, we would be required to nent in fiscal year 2017. So we’ll have a greater preponderance in support OCO-funded missions with base funds, which would imour Reserve component, both our National Guard and our Reserve. mediately begin degrading readiness across the total Army. In conjunction with these rapid end-strength reductions, the As we continue to draw down the Army, I can assure you that Army is innovatively reorganizing the current operational force precision, care and compassion will be hallmarks of our process. and eliminating excess headquarters infrastructure in order to Ultimately, the Army is about people. And as we downsize, we are provide greater combat power across remaining brigade combat committed to taking care of those who have sacrificed for our nateams. The Army will also restructure our aviation formation to tion over the last 12 years of war. Required reductions will force achieve a leaner, more efficient and capable force that balances opout many quality, experienced soldiers. We have created the Solerational capability and flexibility across the total Army. dier for Life Program to assist those departing and separating from As we continue to draw down and restructure over the next the Army, and a Ready and Resilient Campaign to ensure that we three to four years, the Army will have readiness and modernizacare for our soldiers and their families, which ultimately improves tion deficiencies. Fiscal realities have caused us to implement our readiness. Our wounded warriors and our goals to our families tiered readiness as a bridging strategy. This concept refers to remain a top priority, and we will protect programs that support maintaining different parts of the Army at varying levels of prepatheir needs. ration. Under tiered readiness, only 20 percent of the total operaThe above is testimony from Campbell to the Senate Armed tional force will conduct collective training to a level necessary to Services Committee regarding the current readiness of the United meet our strategic requirements, and we have accepted risk to the States Army, given March 26, 2014. O readiness of multifunctional and theater support brigades, as well 18 | MT2 19.3
Special Operations Aviation Training Battalion trains for adverse conditions.
Military Training Technology had the chance talk to the 160th Special Operations Aviation Training Battalion (SOATB) regarding training pilots to operate rotary aircraft in adverse weather conditions and varying environments and the challenges associated with such training.
Q: How does the Special Operations Aviation Training Battalion work with pilots in the 160th for mission success? A: After an aviator successfully assesses, the next stop is Green Platoon. Green Platoon is different for each student depending on his or her current qualification compared to his or her future role in the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (SOAR (A)). The student will attend Combat Skills, Dunker and ALSE Training, Basic Skills, Aircraft Transitions as required, and then Advanced Skills in the specific aircraft to be flown in the regiment. For instance, a UH-60 pilot will progress through four courses encompassing 123 training days to reach BMQ [basic military qualification] status, whereas an OH-58D pilot going to the same line company in the regiment will pass through five courses covering 153 training days due to the requirement for an MH-60 transition. Q: What platforms do you train 160th pilots on? A: SOATB trains in four aircraftâ€”the MH-47G, MH-60M, AH-6M and the MH-6M. Q: Can you give me some specifics about how you train pilots in the following environments: desert, mountain, overwater/ shipboard operations, urban, jungle? What is unique about each one? www.MT2-kmi.com
A: The training for each of the environments is as different as one may imagine, with each having its own particular challenges to the student, the instructors, and to SOATB. Desert and mountain are environments taught at either Fort Carson, Colo., Albuquerque, N.M., or Fort Bliss, Texas. The techniques to operate in those environments are first taught in the classroom, then an aircraft-specific simulator, before the student ever sees the dust or mountain for real. Shipboard operations and overwater training are conducted anywhere along the East Coast or Gulf Coast where a ship is available for training. While landing to a 12,000-foot pinnacle under goggles is not for the faint of heart, landing to a pitching deck 50 miles off the coast with zero elimination will really get your attention. As in the desert/mountain phase, each student will progress through academic and simulator training prior to flying over water and landing on a deck in the aircraft. SOATB incorporates simulation at every step for the student to see the techniques required for shipboard operations prior to seeing them for real. One of those simulation devices is a building which houses a one-of-a-kind Aquatics Training Theater, the Allison Aquatics Training Facility, or AATF. The AATF personnel are seasoned combat divers and dive technicians who teach a myriad of different training courses, culminating with egress from a disabled aircraft at sea, at night, in the rain, with 2- to 3-foot seas, and a 50-mph wind. These courses are all taught from the pilot, crew and passenger perspectives. MT2â€ˆ 19.3 | 19
A 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (SOAR) pilot sits inside a helicopter simulator during advanced flight training techniques. The 160th SOAR uses simulators for approximately one-third of their flight training. [Photo courtesy of 160th SOAR]
Soldiers from the 511th Engineer Company, 326th Engineer Battalion (AASLT), 36th Engineer Brigade escape from a simulated CH-47 Chinook helicopter during Ground Forces Water Survival Egress training at the Allison Aquatics Training Facility. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Army/by Staff Sgt. Thaddius S. Dawkins II, United States Army Special Operations Aviation Command]
Q: What is the ratio of live to simulated training?
darkness is our friend in combat. We strive to have the student as comfortable at night under NVGs [night vision goggles] as they were prior to their arrival.
A: It varies by aircraft type, but about one-third of our flight training for pilots is conducted in the simulator. Q: What simulators do you use for training? A: SOATB utilizes the AATF, MH-47G, MH-60M and A/MH-6M combat mission simulators. The flight simulators would be considered Level D devices in the civilian world. Q: Is there any environment that proves the most difficult to train in or causes the most problems toward achieving mission success? A: This question is a personal one depending on the student. Flying low-level at night across land is a common skill in Army aviation, but landing in a dust cloud with no visual reference in the desert, or to a rooftop surround by buildings and wires, or overwater hoist operations in the rain, or landing to a pitching deck under zero illumination, all cause anxiety to each individual in a different way. The SOATB instructor pilots are all experienced Night Stalkers who have the ability to reach individual students in distinct effective ways.
Q: What are the primary challenges of training for nighttime missions? A: In a nutshell—obstacles! This is where effective detailed planning becomes important, knowing where the obstacles are before you ever walk to the aircraft. Night Stalkers are famous for laborious, detailed pre-mission planning, which is one of the ways we mitigate the high-risk missions we are able to accomplish. Q: Can you give me a recent success story about how you feel your pilots’ training paid off to complete a mission? A: The regiment’s history is a testament to the unit’s superior training, both initial Green Platoon training in SOATB and the continuation training within the 160th SOAR (A). SOATB provides the basics for the basic mission qualified Night Stalker to work with when he or she gets to the line battalion. The real work comes in the regiment with continuation training and customer support. O
Q: What are some of the differences in training for daytime and nighttime operations? A: Actually they are more similar than you would think; of course nighttime has a few additional planning considerations, but 20 | MT2 19.3
For more information, contact MT2 Editor Brian O’Shea at email@example.com or search our online archives for related stories at www.mt2-kmi.com.
Looking at the impact of the U.S. military’s shift to the Pacific.
By Scott R. Gourley, MT2 Correspondent
support the same levels of “hyper-realism” that have The widely cited U.S. policy of “Pacific Rebeen applied to their Iraqi and Afghan training setbalance” is impacting trans-Pacific relationships tings over the past decade. across a spectrum of governmental, economic Kit Lavell, executive vice president at Strategic and security environments. Operations, said much of the current work is being Within the trans-Pacific security environment, done with the Marine Corps through the Program Department of Defense components are working Management Training Systems (PM TRASYS) Atmoto incorporate many of the critical Operation Iraqi spherics contract, a multi-year contract under which Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom the company provides “all of the things that go inside (OEF) lessons learned over the past 14 years into a and outside MOUT [military operations on urban terframework of cooperation and understanding with Kit Lavell rain] facilities to make them look realistic and that new regional partners. And one set of critical leshave the ability to be changed to reflect whatever the sons involves the importance of cultural and firstname.lastname@example.org current theater of operations happens to be.” guage training for forces operating on a global stage. Following up on a record of implementing cultural realism Some of the new efforts to support cultural and language across a variety of U.S. training site locations, Lavell pointed to Attraining range from simplified language efforts to specialized mospherics support of the Pacific Rebalance, offering, “In Guam, training facilities to new software developments designed to acfor example, we are currently making the MOUT facilities look like celerate regional capabilities among U.S. forces. the Far East.” One fairly basic example of early trans-Pacific/Asia language Lavell explained that the company’s business is split between efforts can be seen in “Disaster Assistance Translator for Asia,” manufacturing and training. developed by Kwikpoint on behalf of the Department of the Navy’s “On the manufacturing end, in addition to our Atmospherics, Center for Language, Regional Expertise, and Culture. Similar to we are building for the military services and other governmenthe company’s American Red Cross Disaster Assistance Translator, tal agencies MOUT facilities and other types of buildings, includthe 24-panel laminated card not only features hundreds of visual ing embassies and governmental buildings and compounds that images covering applications from medical to family issues, but might be found through all parts of the world,” he said. also adds key phrases in Bengali, Burmese, Cantonese, Dzongka, “In addition to that, we are involved in training in a big way,” he Hindi, Japanese, Khmer, Korean, Lao, Maldivian, Mandarin, Nepadded. “And being one of the very first companies to use actors who alese, Sinhala, Tagalog, Thai and Vietnamese. know the culture and the language 12 years ago, starting with the At the other end of the complexity spectrum, San Diego-based Middle East, we have provided role player support and everything that Strategic Operations is configuring regional training facilities to www.MT2-kmi.com
MT2 19.3 | 21
goes along with it—wardrobe, special effects and things like that—to replicate different parts of the world. We have supplied role players who know other languages of the Far East—including Tagalog, Korean and others. So we see the shift and we are prepared to provide role players and cultural experts in those parts of the world. “We’re using all of the same hyper-realistic techniques that we have developed to support OEF and OIF,” he added. “And for OEF and OIF those were used in a very kinetic way. But we are now using those same techniques to train our men and women in uniform in those types of situations and environments where it is necessary to work with indigenous elements—either government, military or local populations.” Other companies are focused on new computer-based cultural and training support of the rebalA screenshot of project screen grab. [Photo courtesy of Alelo] ance toward the Asia-Pacific. Highlighting what he described as “an increas“So this is an area where we are gearing up to provide a capabiling need to prepare people for operations in the East Asian region,” W. ity, not just for the U.S. Department of Defense but also as major Lewis Johnson, Ph.D., president and CEO, Alelo Inc., explained, “Most providers to the Australian Defence Force,” he added. “And there’s a of our relationships with Asia are bilateral as opposed to broad allifair bit of overlap between the training requirements of the Austraance, such as NATO. So that results in an increasing need for people to lians and the United States. But it’s not a complete overlap. There be sent over as foreign affairs officers, liaisons and things of that sort. are some countries they work in where we don’t and vice versa. But So we are getting requests for computer-based training for people enoverall I see commonality in terms of the types of missions being gaged in those types of operations.” trained for, the type of training demand and an increasing desire He illustrated his point with a recent project example where the to integrate that training into a virtual simulation based platform.” company developed a course to enhance cultural awareness for people Ryan McAlinden, associate director for digital being sent to Taiwan. training and instruction at the Institute for Creative “The nature of the missions is also changing,” Technologies (ICT), highlighted ICT’s training efforts Johnson added. “Of course there is an ongoing presin support of a military focus away from the asymence and focus in Korea, but there is also a need to be metric counter-insurgency (COIN) environment of ready to support operations elsewhere. That includes the last 15 years toward future decisive action and things like primarily humanitarian assistance and didisaster relief scenarios. saster relief. And again we are receiving requests to “For example, we have an application called Urprovide training support for those types of missions, banSim, which was a counter-insurgency trainer for particularly in Southeast Asia. battalion and brigade commanders, used primar“And we are beginning to see an increased interest ily at the School for Command Preparation at Fort in joint exercises,” he continued. “For example, there W. Lewis Johnson, Ph.D. Leavenworth,” he explained. “Although it was really have been periodic exercises in Indonesia in collabofocused on the COIN environment, we are currently ration with the Republic of Indonesia authorities. So email@example.com ‘re-factoring’ it to be centered more around civil support for disaster that’s ongoing and may grow to an increasing extent going forward.” relief.” Johnson characterized the current environment as being “at a Another UrbanSim re-design effort recently started by ICT inrelatively early stage in terms of identifying specific training requirevolves working with the U.S. Army 7th Infantry Division—based at ments for the rebalance to Asia,” adding, “So while I cited a few exFort Lewis, Wash., and oriented toward Pacific Command—is also amples for you, I think that’s just the beginning. I would anticipate focused around disaster relief operations, although McAlinden said that there is going to be an increasing need to prepare units for opthat scenario specifics remain to be determined. erations in East Asia.” “The cultural and language parts of these are being framed As another example of how that unit preparation is being suparound disaster scenarios and working primarily with local civil ported by Alelo, he pointed to the company’s development of “a new authorities,” he said. “That’s also a big shift away from what we capability called VRP MIL, which basically makes it possible to inhad been doing, which was focused at the national level or even tegrate cultural awareness training into virtual training in the VBS geo-political level, where you had battalion and brigade [Bohemia Interactive’s Virtual Battle Space] environment.” commanders who were meeting with ministers.” “Basically we now have a plug-in that makes it possible for trainAlong with the UrbanSim efforts, McAlinden said that ICT was ing officers to populate VBS simulations with virtual role players that also working with the Army at Fort Lewis to develop “a general culcan perform in a culturally-appropriate way, using language appropritural trainer for the [Pacific Command] AOR [area of responsibilate to the region, in support of various types of training missions,” he ity].” said. 22 | MT2 19.3
“In the Pacific Rim, there are certain cultural similarities across all parts,” explained McAlinden. “Obviously there’s a heavy Asian influence. And then those Asian influences have something of a transPacific component to them in terms of things like maritime trade and commerce … But that’s a high-level cultural trainer. The next thing will Michael Paley be to drill down into specific regions where units will deploy. So if you are firstname.lastname@example.org going to Korea or the Philippines, it will be a tuned version of the application that will allow them to be a bit more focused for a specific area.” Michael Paley, CEO for Aptima, pointed to that company’s development of Authoring By Cultural Demonstration (ABCD) for its potential contributions toward training for the trans-Pacific region. Originally funded through the Office of Naval Research as a Small Business Innovative Research project (and later transferred to the Army Simulation and Training Technology Center), ABCD is an innovative approach to creating cultural training scenarios that combine cognitive science, technology and commercial off-theshelf scenario-authoring tools. Requiring minimal technical knowhow, the software allows warfighters and instructors to quickly script and transform real-world incidents into animated vignettes for game-based training. In one notional scenario, a commander learns of a cultural disconnect through an interpreter and quickly realizes that other units could be making similar mistakes. A dramatization of the incident can be created using the ABCD software’s drag-and-drop interface to develop characters, imbue them with gestures and fill in dialogue. To facilitate scenario creation, ABCD includes a library of culturally-relevant assets, including physical locations, avatars and props. When the storyboard is complete, ABCD’s AI-based cinematographic software renders the vignette in an artificial 3-D environment. This machine-generated animated scenario, or “machinima,” can run on any gaming engine. The soldier can also specify branching interactions that involve choice and consequence for a more interactive training experience for the game-player. “The value of ABCD in these applications is that it provides an environment to rapidly develop new training scenarios,” Paley said. “As we pivot to new locations (i.e., the Pacific pivot) the need to rapidly develop new training content will be critical.” With primary partners like the Army, Marine Corps and special operations forces, Scott Stanford, a senior trainer for IDS International, offered, “The demand signal we have been getting from our partners is that they want to be ‘generally prepared’ to go anyplace in the world. So the rebalance for them is more about reducing the focus on the Middle East and Central Asia and having a more global preparedness.” Asserting that IDS “innovated the space of bringing interagency role players and actual legitimate cultural experts into large scale training exercises,” Stanford emphasized the need for “operational relevance” in cultural and language training. “‘Culture,’ in the first place, has been one of the most misunderstood and maybe most unfortunate terms to permeate the training lexicon in the last 10-12 years,” he explained. “What we know about culture is that it changes, and it changes in particular in respect to conflict. www.MT2-kmi.com
“So, from the perspective of an Army or Marine or special forces unit going in to deal with those people, the question becomes the specific level that you want to appreciate their culture so that you can deal with them effectively. And one of the ways we have tried to do this has been primarily ethnicity-based or religious-based culture. But the Scott Stanford reality is that our military partners email@example.com realize that might be giving you the right information that you need in order to be able to interface with these people in a way that deconflicts your mission and allows you to anticipate and shape their reactions, and allows you to help them in any meaningful way,” he added. He pointed to programs like the company’s SMEIR [Social Media Internet Replication], now in use at Fort Polk, La., as examples of the types of new efforts designed to provide the training that will be “operationally relevant” for the Asia-Pacific or other areas of the globe. O For more information, contact MT2 Editor Brian O’Shea at firstname.lastname@example.org or search our online archives for related stories at www.mt2-kmi.com.
PLAY. LEARN. COMMUNICATE.®
Start a conversation Review briefing/objectives Weapon on back
VIRTUAL CULTURAL AWARENESS TRAINER
ITEC 2014 stand G-132 / SOFIC 2014 booth 1546 MT2 19.3 | 23
Asymmetric Warfare Training Center Helping to enhance operational readiness. By Colonel John P. Petkosek On January 23, the Asymmetric Warfare Group (AWG) hosted a ribbon cutting ceremony for the Asymmetric Warfare Training Center (AWTC) at Fort A.P. Hill, Va. The facility, built to support the AWG’s mission of identifying capability gaps and rapidly providing solution development, also provides a location to present tailormade operational or training scenarios for various complex environments in support of Army and joint forces, and other government organizations mission requirements. When we examine where our nation and the Army is today, the opening of AWTC could not be timelier for our forces. Our armed forces are about to conclude the longest war in our nation’s history. For the Army, our task is to transition from an Army at war to an Army of preparation— capable of deterring, and if need be, fighting and winning the next war. This is not the first time our Army has had to maintain this stance, and it will most likely not be the last. Each time our forces go through this cycle, the challenge is to retain the hard-fought lessons learned from the last conflict to best posture ourselves for success on the first day of the next conflict. The AWG’s mission, and the development and opening of the AWTC, demonstrates an example of the Army’s goal at posturing itself as a key component to strategic land power and Unified Land Operations. As the Training and Doctrine Command’s (TRADOC) “global scouts,” the AWG embodies the Army’s ability to rapidly adapt to meet current and emerging threats. The AWG focuses on four critical tasks to do this: providing operational advisory support; identifying capability gaps and enemy tactics, techniques and procedures (TTP); enabling rapid development 24 | MT2 19.3
and dissemination of material and nonmaterial solutions to the force; and taking an innovative and adaptive approach of lessons learned and integrating them back into the operational Army.
Operational Advisory Support In providing operational advisory support to Army and joint forces, AWG’s focus remains on increasing soldier survivability and enhancing combat effectiveness. The AWG deploys its advisors worldwide, to include multiple countries within the Middle East, Africa, Asia, Europe and South America. The AWG’s operational advisors serve an important role in assisting the Army to win the current and future fight. By looking forward, the AWG helps to influence the human domain in operations short of war such as peacekeeping and building partner capacity: elements that are critical to sustaining our nation’s strategic land power.
Identifying Capability Gaps and Enemy TTPs In having a global presence, and in most cases embedding with Army and joint forces, AWG members are able to provide firsthand observations, analysis and identification of friendly capability gaps with regard to asymmetric and irregular threats across the globe. Once identified, AWG postures itself to accomplish its mission in providing solutions to these capability gaps.
Development and Dissemination of Solutions via the AWTC Chartered with rapidly developing and disseminating both material and
non-material solutions, the AWG seeks to close friendly capability gaps and allow our military to remain the most capable force in the world. Solutions can range from material—adding a commercial offthe-shelf item to a soldier’s combat kit— to nonmaterial— developing and assessing a TTP for subterranean operations. The solution development piece is where the AWTC comes into play. Located on 300 acres, the AWTC consists of an urban complex—encompassing an embassy, religious structures, bank, school, underground subway and train station, helicopter landing zone that doubles as a soccer field, bridge and other structures that can be found throughout the globe and transformed into a variety of facilities based on the scenario. Also within its confines are firing ranges, a light demolition range, a mobility range, and administrative facilities to support operations. The AWTC is uniquely suited to support AWG solution development efforts. The objective of the AWTC is to create a place where change can happen. The AWTC is a place where leaders are enabled to look holistically at the operational environment and observe potential shortfalls we face globally. The ability to create various problem sets and challenge leaders in ever-changing dynamic and stressful environments is how we prepare for the future rather than confronting them for the first time while under fire. We are able to do this through instituting innovative, tailormade, operational or training scenarios where valuable lessons can be learned, allowing our military to maintain its innovative and adaptive attributes. The AWG also looks at the AWTC as a place where various military, governmental www.MT2-kmi.com
and first responders have access to the facility and collaborate on shared initiatives and best practices. Given its location within the national capital region, these organizations are encouraged to use the facility when not in use by the AWG. Once solutions are identified, the AWG is equipped, and uniquely positioned within TRADOC, to accomplish its final critical task of integrating lessons learned back into the institutional Army.
Integration of Lessons Learned Within the Institutional Army As a key component of TRADOC, the AWG is able to rapidly integrate the solutions it develops back into the institutional Army. We are able to accomplish this in a collaborative partnership with various Army, joint, interagency, industry and key TRADOC organizations that the AWG works with to integrate and change the Army.
N A T I O N A L
Various examples of integration include rewriting doctrine to changing the way the Army trains, reorganizing our personnel, to determining which facilities the Army will use to prepare our soldiers for the next conflict. Everything that the AWG accomplishes at the AWTC has been designed to have a direct and lasting impact on the Army.
forces operating on the land…” The mission that we conduct at the AWTC allows us to help provide those ready and responsive ground forces our nation requires. O
Conclusion As we rebalance our national security strategy, the mission of the AWTC plays a small but key role within our nation. The mission of our armed forces is to deter war and to protect the security of our country; this includes deterring and defeating our adversaries, projecting power, and preparing for conflicts that are yet to come. To accomplish this, our nation must do what has been described by the Strategic Land Power Task Force as having a “ready, robust, responsive and regionally engaged
T R A I N I N G
W W W. I I T S E C . O R G
A N D
Col. John P. Petkosek
Colonel John P. Petkosek is the commander of the Asymmetric Warfare Group. For more information, contact MT2 Editor Brian O’Shea at email@example.com or search our online archives for related stories at www.mt2-kmi.com.
S I M U L A T I O N
DECEMBER 1-4, 2014
A S S O C I A T I O N
O R L A N D O, F L O R I D A
70 Countries, ov er 1,900 International Del egates
W O R L D ’ S L A R G E S T M O D E L I N G, S I M U L AT I O N A N D T R A I N I N G E V E N T www.MT2-kmi.com
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FLETC Celebrates 10-Year Partnership with Team Orlando
By Dolly Rairigh Glass
On April 1, the Federal Law Enforcement Training Centers (FLETC), part of the Department of Homeland Security, celebrated the 10-year anniversary of its partnership with Team Orlando. “When I first visited more than 10 years ago, I was overwhelmed by the camaraderie and unity of the members of Team Orlando,” said Connie Patrick, FLETC director. “I can’t tell you what a difference your partnership has made on the quality of law enforcement training. It put us on the forefront of law enforcement training in the world.” “Today is a spectacular day,” said Captain Steve Nakagawa, commanding officer, Naval Air Warfare Center Training System Division. “We in the training business have to partner with each other, because we all get better through partnerships.” Nakagawa highlighted the FLETC liaison officers and credited them for the success of the partnership. In particular, he mentioned the partnership surrounding the Advanced Use of Force Training System (AUFTS) as one of his favorite success stories. “Even though it’s been out for years, it really helps to tell the story of how partnership works,” he said. “Our partnership really blossomed into much more than what the original agreement stated, and I’m very proud of it.” Nakagawa also described how AUFTS has been used as an example for science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) outreach, at events such as Otronicon, to help educate students and their parents about the need for supporting STEM subjects and the multitude of career fields in which STEM is used. “It was great that 10 years ago, Director Patrick’s vision coincided with the military’s vision of training,” said Kent Gritton, director of the Joint Training Integration and Evaluation Center. “The resulting partnership has been very beneficial to both sides of the aisle.” Like Nakagawa, Gritton mentioned one of the partnership programs that he felt was significant, the Avatar Based Interview Simulator [ABIS], a collaborative effort between multiple branches of FLETC and Program Executive Office for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation (PEO STRI). ABIS is a system used as a training tool and feedback mechanism for teaching law enforcement interview techniques. Traci Jones, assistant program executive officer for Project Support at PEO STRI, spoke about the recently fielded virtual marksmanship training range, which is the civilian version of the firing range at FLETC’s Glynco, Ga., facility, and said she was very proud of it. Described in its information paper as the “largest-known virtual firing range in the United States,” this range provides an accurate representation of a live fire environment to further enhance student learning. “FLETC, in coordination with PEO STRI, acquired the virtual marksmanship training range,” explained Dan Lynch, the program’s lead engineer, PEO STRI. “A key factor in this project was the successful cross-agency coordination for the requirements generation, 26 | MT2 19.3
FLETC Director Connie Patrick is greeted by Naval Air Warfare Center Training System Division Commanding Officer Capt. Steve Nakagawa (center) and Executive Officer Capt. Wes Naylor before the 10-year celebration begins. [Photo courtesy of Team Orlando]
materiel development, and efficient contracting process that produced a world-class training application for a specialized customer base.” Program Manager, Training Systems Dan Torgler also noted how their partnership with FLETC has been good for the U.S. Marine Corps, and how they consistently share information on related force-on-force and force-on-target training, such as close quarters battle, decision making (shoot/no shoot) and target shoot-back technology. “In the area of Joint Non-Lethal Weapons, Colonel Coolican, who was the former PM TRASYS and is now the director for Joint NonLethal Weapons, will visit Team Orlando with his team on May 1,” explained Torgler. “He wants to be sure that FLETC is part of the meeting because of their non-lethal expertise.” But the accolades weren’t all focused on the programs themselves. Dr. Neal Finkelstein, branch chief, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, who has been part of Team Orlando since its inception, said, “The great thing about Team Orlando is nothing is forced. When DHS FLETC and Team Orlando decided to work together 10 years ago, it was the right thing to do, at the right time, for the right reasons. “I am glad we took time to look back at our accomplishments today and smell the roses,” Finkelstein said. “But in this case, it is more than a couple of roses—we have built quite a large garden together.” For FLETC and its mission “to train those who protect our homeland,” it only makes sense they would seek out and find Team Orlando, the key player in what is recognized as the nation’s largest cluster of modeling, simulation and training. “It is all about performing training for events that haven’t happened yet, because if you wait until you need training it’s too late,” said Patrick. “Thank you for recognizing our people. They are the magic that makes it happen.” O www.MT2-kmi.com
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MT2 RESOURCE CENTER Advertisers Index AgustaWestland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C2 www.agustawestland.com Alelo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 www.alelo.com Aptima. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 www.aptima.com CACI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 www.caci.com/training Calienté. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 www.calientellc.com/thermaltargets Havelsan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 www.havelsan.com.tr I/ITSEC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 www.iitsec.org Krauss-Maffei Wegmann. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7 www.kmwsim.com Raydon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C4 www.raydon.com Saab. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C3 www.saabgroup.com/training-and-simulation The Tatitlek Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 www.tatitlek.com Unmanned Experts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 www.unmannedexperts.com
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Where simulation meets reality.
June 2014 Vol. 19, Issue 4
America's Longest Established Simulation & Training Magazine
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MT2 19.3 | 27
Military Training Technology
Joseph Swinski Chief Executive Officer Disti Joseph Swinski has served the simulation and training industry for 25 years. Beginning with his work on image generators for General Electric, he continued his career by joining UCF’s Institute for Simulation and Training, which presented the opportunity to start a business that would provide training classes to the industry. In 1994, he co-founded Disti and is currently serving as the CEO. Q: Can you describe Disti’s history and evolution? A: Disti’s history and evolution began 20 years ago with the vision of Bill Andrews, Darren Humphrey and I to provide training classes to simulation developers around the world. We were teaching DIS [distributed interactive simulation] training classes at the Institute of Simulation and Training at the University of Central Florida, when we realized that the industry could greatly benefit from a more in-depth technical training course that covered how to use DIS protocols. Armed with this vision, we launched Distributed Simulation Technology, now called The Disti Corporation. Today we are a leading provider of 3-D interactive user interface software and customized virtual maintenance training solutions. Q: What are some of your key products in the DoD training and simulation industry? A: Our flagship product GL Studio is a user interface software tool that creates 2-D and 3-D components for use in cockpit instrumentation, dashboards and embedded applications. The industry uses GL Studio content in cockpit repeaters, part task trainers, instructor operator stations and other low-cost touch screen training devices. Since its release in 2000, it has become the gold standard in our industry. In 2005, we started the development of our Virtual Environment Software Development Kit (VESDK), which revolutionized 28 | MT2 19.3
the creation of 3-D scenes for virtual maintenance training applications. In 2013, Disti received a patent on VESDK. Q: What are some of the new training/ simulation technologies Disti is developing for 2014? A: For 2014, we’re introducing this idea of virtual maintenance training that is scalable no matter what the need. Disti is focusing on a single development process using VESDK to create the training content. The training content for a desktop, Web application, mobile device or full platform trainer is scalable based on the project scope without compromising interactivity or fidelity. Q: How are you positioned for the future within the U.S. military? A: As defense budgets consistently shrink, the value for virtual training programs increases. In fact, we have noticed several branches within the U.S. military, who have traditionally used hardware training devices, are now moving toward and adopting a virtualized training approach. We are confident that our past successes will create a concrete sustainable future for continued work with the U.S. military. Q: What is Disti’s connection with the defense community? A: Eighty percent of our customer base falls within the boundaries of the defense community. Our technology is used by
every branch within the U.S. military, is implemented by nearly all tier one defense contractors, and is integrated across several major ministries of defense. A few years ago, Disti was every primary contractor’s best-kept secret. Today, when prime contractors are vying for work they know that our name and technology carry a lot of weight with DoD. They know that training devices built with our tools, technology, or services will be the best in class. Q: What is an example of your success in the military, and what are some of your goals (specific to the training/simulation industry) over the next year? A: Our goal is to have all prime contractors adopting our VESDK tools or technology when developing their virtual maintenance training devices of the future. I have been on this soapbox for the past six years and as a result, our environments are now in use on F-15, F-16, F/A-18 and F-35 maintenance trainers. Our goal for 2014 is to move our technology onto U.S. Army programs. Q: How do customers benefit from Disti’s varied resources and expertise? A: Disti has been driving down the cost to create a virtual environment for maintenance trainers using VESDK. This is a patented process (Patent 8,429,600 B2) enabling risk-free development of scalable virtual maintenance training environments. While most people become enamored with game engines, VESDK delivers much more than just the pretty picture. It’s about the workflow; how the content is developed, tracked and tested throughout the project life cycle. This is the real cost and risk driver in maintenance training contracts. VESDK efficiently manages the entire workflow used in developing a virtual environment tailored to meet the customer’s specific training requirements. O www.MT2-kmi.com
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