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Master Studio in Landscape Architecture Oslo School of Architecture and Design Winter 2012 Knut Eirik Dahl Kjerstin Uhre Espen Røyseland Øystein Rø



KIRUNA “There grouse congregate.”

A mining town or a town with a mine (Brynhild Granås, UiT)

Flyfoto LKAB Kiruna






Citronen Fjord Zn, Pb

Navarana Fjord Zn, Barite

G E U S J.C. Christensen Land Cu

Washington Land Zn, Pb, Ag

▲ ▲ ▲ ▲

▲ ▲

▲ ▲ ▲

▲ ▲ ▲ ▲

Inglefield Land Au, Cu Inglefield Land Fe

Qaanaaq Moriusaq Ti

▲ ▲

▲ ▲

Melville Bugt Fe


Brogetdal Cu Clavering Ø Pb, Zn, Fe Ymer Ø Sb, W, Au

Upernavik ■ ■

Langø Graphite

Malmbjerg Mo, W Bredehorn Barite Devon Dal Cu Illoqqortoormiut Karstryggen Celestite Milne Land Zr, REE, Ti

Karrat Au, Cu, Zn, REE

Mestersvig (‘Blyklippen’) Pb, Zn

▲ ▲

▲ ▲

Qullissat Coal Nuussuaq Coal Ilukunnguaq Ni, Pt Qeqertarsuaq Arveprinsen Ejland Cu, Zn Aasiaat Attu Au Eqalussuit Graphite Sisimiut

Maarmorilik (‘Black Angel’) Zn, Pb, Ag Uummannaq Saqqaq Au

Hammer Dal Fe, Pt

Itilliarsuk, Itilli Fe, Au, Cu, Co, Ni

Eqi Au Ilulissat Qasigiannguit

Flammefjeld Mo, Au, Ag

Naternaq Cu, Zn

Kap Edvard Holm Au, Pt

Kangerlussuaq Sarfartoq REE, Nb Garnet Lake Diamond

Tasiilaq Ni, Cu, Pt 500 km ▲

Sillisissanguit Ni, Pt Maniitsoq Qaqqaarsuk REE, Nb, P Majuagaa Diamond

Isukasia Fe

Ice caps / Lakes

Isua Au

Seqi Olivine

Skærgaard Au, Pd, Ti, V


Quaternary rock

Ivisaartoq W

Amikoq Qussuk Pt, Pd, Os Au Storø Au Fiskenæsset Cr, Pt, Ruby Paamiut Taartoq Au Nuuk

Ivittuut Cryolite Grønnedal-Ika Fe Kobberminebugt (‘Josva’) Cu Isortoq Fe, V, Ti

Phanerozoic basins (<400Ma) Lower Palaeozoic and Neoproterozoic basins

Sinarsuk V, Ti

Mesoproterozoic basin

Paamiut Au, Li Motzfeldt Sø Ta, Nb Narsarsuaq Narsaq

Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal rock Archaean supracrustal rock Palaeogene magmatic province

Illorsuit U Ilímaussaq (Kvanefjeld) Niaqornaarsuk Be, REE, Nb, U, Th Au Amitsoq Nalunaq Ilímaussaq (Kringlerne) Au Graphite Zr, REE Nanortalik Qaqortoq

Caledonian magmatic province

Kangerluluk Au Stendalen Cu, Ni, Ti

Proterozoic magmatic province Proterozoic basement Reworked Archaean basement Archaean basement ▲ ■

Fault, thrust Mine site



AHO Pionerprosjekt for ny landskapsarkitektutdannelse i Tromsø kort varighet intenst og tverrfaglig

THE BIG PICTURE The first phase of the course is about mapping the global system of mining. We will study the forces that drive mining, the increased resource consumption, mining’s global network and infrastructure and how this plays out in the circumpolar areas.

THE PERFORATED LANDSCAPE The second phase will focus on mining’s impact on the landscape, study new geological surveys, modes of mining, the life cycle of a mine and mining’s environmental impacts.

THE MULTILAYERED LANDSCAPE In this phase we will examine the impact of mining on communities, the indigenous dimension, the overlapping use of land and competing activities.

REFLECTIONS Based on the mapping and study trips students will formulate critical reflections on sub-themes identified in the course.




PROJECT NETWORK Ivar Bjørklund, sosialantropolog, UiT Rognvald Boyd, geolog, NGU Karianne Bråten, biolog, UiT Jeff Corner, geolog, UiT Kelly Doran, arkitekt, Regional Architects Chrisopher Eads, senior editor, Economist Intelligence Unit Elisabeth Gammelsæter, Gen. Sek. Norsk Bergindustri Brynhild Granås, forsker, Høgskolen i Alta Siri Hermansen, kunstner Luba Kuzovnikova, daglig leder, Pikene på broen Hadi Lile, Senter for menneskerettigheter, UiO Harald Martinsen, Utviklingsdir. Sydvaranger Gruve AS Thomas Nilsen, Redaktør, Barents Observer Svein Helge Orheim, Daglig leder, Barents Institute Lina Persson, kunstner Philippe Rekacewicz, kartograf, Le Monde Diplomatique Øystein Rushfeldt, Direktør, Nussir Tore Tanum, Spesialrådgiver, UD Jack Ødegård, forsker, SINTEF Bente Aasjord, Spesialrådgiver, Fagforbundet


Mined in Brazil as bauxite

Aluminium works in Swe-足 den

Made into tubes in Asia

Handlebar in the USA

Taiwan to be fit-足 ted to the bike

Europe for sale

source : Abfahren magazine



10 biggest goldmines Other big goldmines

BARRICK COMPANY Barrick is the gold industry leader, with a portfolio of 26 operating mines located across five continents. The Company also has the largest reserves in the gold industry, with about 140 million ounces of proven and probable gold reserves. Barrick produced 7,765 millions ounce of gold in 2010. The Company is targeting growth in annual gold production to 9.0 million ounces within five year.

2010 Production

North America 40% Africa 8% Australia Pacific 25%

South America 27%

2010 Gold Reserves

Africa 9%

North America 40%

Australia Pacific11% South America 40%



Every cellphone and computer contains important minerals, several of these come from the ores in Kongo. Lot of these minerals are smuggled ille-足 gal across the borders to neighbouring countries. Smuggling points are controlled by armed groups (mafia), they earn money by tax and stealing .

From this point the minerals are mainly shipped il-足 legal out of Africa and towards Asia When reached desired destination the minerals are refined and mixed with other minerals. By doing this it is al-足 most impossible to trace the origin of the minerals and they are sent to countries all over the world for further developments of different components.

2006 Northwest Territories British Columbia Ontario Michigan Nevada Saskatchewan Arizona

Bolivia Dominican Republic Venezuela Argentina Brazil Peru Chile Mexico

North America

South America

5 - 14 %

NW. Territ

13% of Net R. 2% of Net P.

Bri. Colum.

10 %




5 % of Net P. 2%




Europe 5%


India Mongolia China Myanmar Papua New Guinea Philippines Indonesia

Ghana Mozambique Botswana Namibia South Africa Tanzania Zambia Zimbabwe

Sweden Greenland


Mining Royalties & Mining Taxation



3-12 %



Dom. R. Ve Ar

0,2 - 3 % Br Saskatch.

Pe Ch, M


Northern Territories New South Wales Western Australia Queensland

Asian & Pacific Countries 3-10 %


5-10 %


Australia 0.4-20 %




18 %

North. Territ. 4 - 7 % N. S. Wales

1- 4 %


Variable SA - V Ta 0-5%






N. Gui, Phi



2.5-7.5% W. Aus. 2.7 %

0% Sw, Gr

Unit Based Indo.

NW. Territ. Bri. Colum.


Ont. Mon





Dom. R.


Mya Phi


G N. Gui Ta




Bo N


M Zi

B W. Aus.



SA - V

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Many nations impose royalty tax, but some nations -as diverse as Chile, Greenland, Mexico, Sweden, and Zimbabwe- do not. In most nations that impose royalty tax, policy nakers are interested in determining whether the level of royalty and its computational method are competitive and efficient.â&#x20AC;? Mining Royalties A Global Study of Their Impact on Investors, Government, and Civil Society.

North. Territ. Queensl.


The Oriental Dragon Looks North

Xin Su

Norway Arctic Policy 2011 The High North, Visions and Strategies 100 most used words

Norwegian foreign policy is based on the respect for international law and cooperation. As one of the five Arctic littoral states, Norway has a strong position in the Arctic Council and the strategy of cooperation has been confirmed by the establishment of a permanent secretariat for the Arctic Council in Tromsø.

Murmansk, 15. Sept. 2010. Norway and Russia signing the treaty on maritime delimitation and cooperation in the Barents Sea and the Arctic Ocean.

The main drivers for the Norwegian arctic policy are: climate change - establishing northern Norway as a laboratory for climate change. A polar research hub resources - partly a consequence of the first, access to and knowledge about new resources become available. The expectations of oil and gas and consequences for regional development are only rivalled by the environmental concerns. relationship with russia - “Norway’s policy with Russia is based on pragmatism, interests and cooperation.”

Foto :: FilmCamp

MAUKEN: different readings of the Landscape

A new set of rights is superimposed onSnegotiated U P E Rrights I M P O S E D Minerals are categorised “of national interests” or “of national significance”, and “the nations’ need for minerals” is legitimising the reservation of exploration rights for large private companies, the opening for renegotiation of already granted rights and the r e m o v a l o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d c o n t r o l of the impactsKautokeino assessments from local political control. Superimposed spatial narratives From a satellite perspective, it seems that in these large territories we should be able to afford some damages and take our part of the burden of mining. After all, we do want our mobile phones and batteries. The world needs minerals, and so we are silenced in the encounter with the economic and consumerist values presented to us by the Websame of reindeer husbandry: administrative districts, industry that pasture reaps areas, the benefits. fences, herding routes, tent areas and hearding cabins. Following the lines of the terrain and adjusted to national borders and There is a long way from exploration rights infrastructure

to operative mining. The mineral concessions map however, carries an understanding of rights, rights that justify private company investment in exploration because they expect future revenues from mining. The satellite images do not show the multiple and overlapping spatial narratives of this landscape, Kautokeino and as lines are drawn on the map, t h e f i e l d for negotiation is altered step by s t e p , undermining our understanding of what are already existing rights and agreements, and a new map of northern Norway is formed. Borders in our head are shifting and so are the limits of exploitation.

F i e l d s o f e x p l o r a t i o n : in the demands for a mineral strategy of the north, northern Norway is portrayed as unchartered territory, where enormous riches await those ready to venture into the underground. Already established rights and extensive land uses Hammerfest are under pressure as we open for a new negotiation of the limits of exploitation. Lakselv

Investigating the spatial narratives of the northernmost areas of Norway, I travel across the Finnmark plateau and Varanger onboard Google Alta images show a landscape Earth and the satellite formed by geological histories and hardly visibly marked by human activity.



While Norway has explored oil and gas potentials Kirkenes in the north, Finland and Sweden has mapped their mineral resources. As marked prices of metals and rare earth minerals skyrocket, the Norwegian mining industry argues for the need of a mineral strategy along the line of these countries. The Finnish strategy recognises the challenge of competing land uses and calls for a p r i o r i t i s a t i o n of extensive mineral exploitation. Both the Finnish and Swedish strategy calls for s i m p l i f i e d p rKarasjok o c e s s e s and regulations concerning mining concessions. In Norway, the new mining law of 2009 brought simplified procedures for mineral exploration and by 2010, 23 companies had been granted searching rights in Finnmark alone. In February 2012, the Canadian exploration company Dalradian Resources secured exploration rights of 11.000 km2 in northern Norway.



– Vi kaster bort både tid og penger på måten vi planlegger store veiprosjekter her i landet, mener NHO-sjef John G. Bernander. Han tar nå til orde for bruk av statlige reguleringsplaner for de største vei- og togprosjektene her i landet.

– Gjennomsnittlig tidsbruk for planlegging av de store veiprosjektene er på over ti år nå. Da er det åpenbart at vi skusler bort mye tid underveis og gjør prosessen unødvendig dyr, sier Bernander.


Oppturen fortsatte på årets andre handledag på Oslo Børs. Omsetningen var lav, men hovedindeksen løftet seg over 1 prosent for andre dag på rad. Hovedindeksen endte på 394,09 poeng, en oppgang på 1,18 prosent.


Finanskrisen har ikke gått ut over det norske bilmarkedet. Personbilsalget her i landet i fjor økte med 8,3 prosent sammenlignet med 2010. Til sammen ble det registrert 138.345 nye personbiler i 2011. Det er 10.591

flere biler enn året før, viser ferske tall fra Opplysningsrådet for Veitrafikken (OVF). 2011 er dermed det fjerde beste året OVF har registrert for nye personbiler. I fjor ble det importert 27.069 bruktbiler, nesten 2.000 færre

enn i 2010. Volkswagen topper listen med 15,1 prosent av nybilsalget. På annenplass ligger Toyota med 11 prosent. Deretter følger Ford og Volvo med henholdsvis 9,4 og 8,7 prosent. Tre firedeler av de


nye bilene har dieselmotor. Andelen på 75,7 prosent er den høyeste noen gang og 0,8 prosentpoeng høyere enn i 2010. Vel en firedel, 26,4 prosent, av bilene har firehjulsdrift, som er på samme nivå som året før.

MINERALRAID D I NORD Et postkasseselskap i Bærum har i det stille sikret seg rettigheter til mineraljakt i oppsiktsvekkende store områder i nord. Tekst: Bengt Nielsen

Hanne Johnsrud


The images reveal nothing of the territorial histories of Norway as a nation state or its once heavily guarded border to neighbouring USSR. Neither do they reveal the productive landscapes of indigenous animal husbandry, nor the vast watersheds of the Alta and Tana rivers. Yet, these areas are covered The Norwegian mining industry has called for by an intricate web of borderlines and spatial predictability for i n v e s t o r s , with narratives. Over time, the land uses and rights of less insecurity concerning indigenous issues, and resources have been c a r e f u l l y n e g o t i a t e d . ensuring a geological mapping before any areas The lines regulating the reindeerKautokeino herding industry are earmarked or protected. And to ensure similar can be read as a narrative of the natural landscape; conditions for the companies, the industry asks the vegetation and pasture conditions in summer that the responsibility of impact assessments of and winter; where the herd can cross a river; the NÆRING NÆRING mining is moved from the municipalities to the Opptur Sterkt bilsalg i Norge i fjor NHO vil svekke lokal makt outline of lakes and landforms. These naturally ! directorate of mining. The argument is that the formed borderlines have been altered by national S ou rces: cases are too complex for the municipalities to border divisions, lines of infrastructure, settlements handle. Bergrettighetsregisteret, Direktoratet for mineralforvaltning med Postkasseselskap har i det stille sikret seg rettigheter r til enorme områder i Nordland, Troms og Finnmark and other land uses. Continuous pressure from Bergmesteren for Svalbard., competing land uses has made this vulnerable arctic Thevisited geopolitical 7.3.2012 positioning of Norway has moved landscape into a tense, extensively productive and from a matter of securing national sovereignty, Boyd, Rognvald, Mineral- og metallressurser in Norge: potensial og highly regulated territory. to strategisk the establishment of cooperation in a Barents betydning, NGU, Trondheim 2011 perspective and securing access to untapped In contrast to this slow undulating process of Google Earth, Data SIO, NOAA U.S. Navy, NGA, GEBCO, 2012 Terra AVSLØRER resources. In a global economy, this means negotiation, with the landscape, the vegetation, Metrics developing competences and a political framework traditional lifestyles, new industries and modern råstoffer Behovet to Norsk meetBergindustri, a r a c eMineralske of co m p asom n i emulighet s r a t– h e r for infrastructure, n e w b o r d e r l i n e s a r e n o w t hen a nmineralstrategi o f c o u ni tNorge. r i e s The government has f o r m i n g in the high north, superimposed on the norsk-bergindustri/_attachment/72731?amp;download=true granted 100 Mill. NOK for mineral mapping in the landscape and related to geological resources below north and new Nr. potentials are uncovered and a NæringsRapport 2-2010, Tromsø 2010, the surface. The grid of exploration rights echoes whole new (sub-) terrain is revealed as the geonrapp_1002.pdf the borderlines drawn on maps of former colonial chemical maps are published. Reindriftsforvaltningen visited7.3.2012 empires.

Grid of mineral exploration rights: each area can be max 10km2, a square rectangle, parallell to the UTM map EUREF89. Longest side no longer than 10km and shortest side no shorter than 1 km. There are no limits to the number of exploration areas

Preparing a mineral strategy conquest of the north

I løpet av noen dager i månedsskiftet november/desember slo Kloster Rederi AS til i Troms, Finnmark og Nordland. Det sovende selskapet søkte Direktoratet for mineralforvaltning, og ble tildelt undersøkelsesrett i enorme områder: Det er snakk om til sammen 10.000-11.000 kvadratkilometer, fordelt på Pasvikdalen, Kautokeinovidda med en liten andel inn i Troms, store områder ved Karasjok, samt enorme arealer i Narvikområdet. – I norsk sammenheng er dette et voldsomt stort undersøkelsesområde. En av de største innenfor undersøkelsesrett som jeg har opplevd, sier direktør Bård Dagestad i Direktoratet for mineralforvaltning.

Gammelt cruiserederi Undersøkelsesrett innebærer at Klosters Rederi har sikret seg retten til å lete etter mineraler i områdene, samt retten til å søke utvinningsrett dersom de finner drivverdige forekomster. Selskapet kan sitte på retten i inntil syv år framover. I praksis kan de stenge andre leteaktører ute i områdene for lang tid framover. Framstøtet har kommet overraskende på mineraleksperter i nord. Klosters Rederi er helt ny aktør på mineralfeltet nordpå. Navnet bærer med seg tradisjoner fra cruisetrafikk og skipsfart, slett ikke av kobber, gull og malm. – Hvorfor vi gjør dette? Det er vel rimelig opplagt. Fordi man tror at det kan være mineraler av betydelig omfang i disse områdene, sier Bernt Stilluf Karlsen, eier av Kloster Rederi AS. Karlsen er i Osloområdet kjent fra vervet som styreleder i Oslo Havn. – Jeg tror du bare må se på dette som en indikasjon på interesse, opplyser han. Karlsen sitter i dag som hundre prosent eier av selskapet, som er papirrestene av det som

engang var et av verdens største cruiserederi. Da rederivirksomheten forvitret, overtok han selskapet - for å beskytte navnet, forteller han.

Mellomledd I flere år har selskapet i praksis ligget i søvn, med null omsetning. Firmaet har i dag ingen tilknytning til rederivirksomhet. Bernt Stilluf Karlsen er svært økonomisk med sine kommentarer rundt mineralframstøtet i nord. Men han bekrefter langt på vei at Klosters Rederi i denne sammenheng opptrer som et mellomledd. Etter det Nordlys forstår kan selskapet her operere på vegne av andre, foreløpig ukjente aktører. – Hvis man er et postkasseselskap, så er det jo interessant å se hvem som har huset bak postkassen. Det vil komme fram etter hvert. – Akkurat nå er det egentlig ikke noe mer å si, framholder Karlsen.

STORE OMRÅDER: Klosters Rederi har sikret seg undersøkelsesrett i store områder, blant annet på vidda ved Kautokeino. Kart: Direktoratet for mineralforvaltning.

Må betale mer Ifølge Direktoratet for mineralforvaltning i Trondheim, har Klosters Rederi i løpet av den siste tiden søkt om, og i dels fått tildelt i alt 1164 leteområder i nord. Dette har så langt kostet selskapet over en million kroner i etableringsgebyr. Senere i januar må selskapet punge ut ytterligere over 10 millioner kroner for å kunne beholde leterettighetene. – Ønsker dere å gjennomføre leting i områdene, og betale dette? – Dere må vente og se til rundt 15. - 16. januar, svarer Bernt Stilluf Karlsen. Større interesse i nord Generelt registrerer Direktoratet for mineralforvaltning en større interesse for mineraljakt i nord. – Det er ikke noe bonanza, men det er en økt interesse. Ikke minst i form av interesse fra seriøse og tyngre aktører, opplyser direktør Bård Dagestad. Forklaringen ligger i at verden hungrer etter nye funn av mineraler og metaller. Samt at prisen på mineraler har flerdoblet seg de senere år. – Dette betyr at forekomster som man snuste på for ti år siden, kan være meget drivverdige i dag, sier Dagestad.

SIKRET SEG: Det sovende selskapet Klosters Rederi har sikret seg leterett i enorme områder ved Kautokeino, Karasjok og i Paasvikdalen i Finnmark, øverst i Reisa i Troms og mellom Skjomen og Rombak ved Narvik i Nordland. Her ved Biddjovagge i Kautokeino.

Foto: Svein Lund

WHO has the right to mine in the north as of today? What will it become?

Tore Birkeland (NO)


Terra Control AS (NO) Antaeus AS (NO)

Tromsø Scandinavian Resources AB (AUS) Store Norske Gull AS (NO)

REE Mining AS (NO) Íverum Fírvaltning AB (?)

Greenland Gold Resources LTD (DE)

Nussir ASA (NO)

Nordic Mining ASA (NO) Mineralia ANS (?) Heli Holding AS (NO)

Geo Mining AS (NO) Robert Norman C/O Citco (Sweden) Hermansen (NO) AB Artec AB (SWE)

Dalradian Resources (CA) Kiruna Drake Resources LTD. (AUS) Mineralia ANS (?)

Store Norske Gull (NO)

Geo Mining AS (NO)

REE Mining AS (NO)

Iron AB

Sydvaranger Gruve Terra Control (NO) Norwegian Crystallites (US)

Scandinavian Resources AB (AUS)

Dalradian Resources (CA) Kimberlitt AS (NO)

Bodø REE Mining AS Råna APS Staten

REE Mining AB C/O Terra Control A/S Energy Minerals Scandinavian Resources AB A/S REE Mining Bleikvassli Gruber A/S

Dalradian Resources (CA) Gexco Norge AS (NO) REE Mining AS (NO)

Universitetet i Trømsø (NO)

Dalradian Resources (CA) Mineralia ANS (?)

Scandinavian Resources (AUS) Artic Gold AB (SWE) Drake Resources (AUS) REE Mining AS (NO) Tasmet AS (SWE)

Thoriumpower Holding AS (NO)

REE Mining (NO)

Scandinavian Resources AB (AUS)

C/O Citco (Sweden) AB Artec AB (SWE)

Sulitjelma Mineral AS (NO) SGM AS (INDIA) Kaare Kvase (NO) Hannans Scandinavia ABTrond Brenden Veisal (NO) (AUS)

Kåre M. Lande Bengt N-Slund

Bindal Gruver AS (SWE) Metal Gruber A/S (NO) Prospecting AS Rana Staten (NO) (NO) Gexco Norge AS (NO)

Kaare Kvase (NO)

Gexco Norge AS (NO) Gøran Rehn (NO) Norsk Mineral AS (NO)

Hannans Scandinavia AB (AUS)

Source:, 11.03.12

Drake Resources LTD (CA)

Tomas Nelson

Irene Crowo Nielsen

Northern Highlands APS (DK) Western Highlands APS (DK)

Scandinavian Resources AB (AUS)


B- Deposit B- Deposit


Nordfeltet Deposit Nordfeltet Deposit

Line of anrikningsverk Line of deponi for avgangsmasser Old gr책berg New gr책berg New gr책berg on old storage Mineralisation Ore Old sand deponi Old opencast

Deposit for avgangsmasser D- Deposit

105 m

D- Deposit

D Vedlegg-2.-Presentasjon-fra-Rambll-pa-folkemtene-

68 m

Laura Deposit Laura Deposit


Bijovagge Mine

Deposit areas put into scale

Kelly Doran In Panama


1st. World War and following depression led the industry in economic turmoil

1930s: rebuilding and rearmament in Europe means increased production

1911-1913 - plants finished and extended for full operation

1970s: Sydvaranger became the leading company in Norther-Norwegian Mining industry. 1530


1450 1250

1906: A/S Sydvaranger established

2nd World War


Population growth of Sør Varanger


2009: Restart mining as Sydvaranger Gruve

1980s: the iron ore at Kirkenes becomes unprofittable

1952: A rebuilt and modernised plant was ready 1000

Iron Ore Price $ per Metric Ton

1000 1969:starting pellet production 1996: AS Sydvaranger ends mining

1910, building the steam power station, Sydvaranger Dampsentral

Sydvaranger production facilities at Kirkenes after 4. July 1944. Kirkenes. Briquette works and rails. Bombed and burnt.

Bergen Group Kimek shipbuilding hall makes the steam central small.


Number of employees Showing the tendency

5 2010 2011 2012

1996 1997









19 1937 1938

1924 1925




1906 1907


Kirkenes at the turn of the century. The church at the penninsula.












1960s: stagnation led to production of pellets to increase product prices.

1925-1927: Bankruptcy



Centre of Kirkenes today, no longer just a mining town.

Energy and Coal

Real cost of coal

Coal burning has existed for centuries, and its use as a fuel has been recorded since the 1100s. It powered the Industrial Revolution, changing the course of first Britain, and then the world, in the process. In the US, the first coal-fired power plant – Pearl Street Station – opened on the shores of the lower East River in New York City in September 1882.1 Shortly thereafter, coal became the staple diet for power plants across the world.

in Process

thermal/ steam

electricity generation

metallurgical, coke


steel production

Cost thermal/ steam

cement manufacture






in US The Annual Economically-Quanti!able Costs of Coal



Land Disturbance: Carbon & Methane

$ 5.5B [Hg] Mercury Impacts


However, coal combustion caused

In 2009, of the world electricity is generated by coal


Chemical and petrochemical


Iron and steel


Cementation metallic mineral product


Energy sector




Electricity transformation




GHG emission in electricity generattion

$ 187.5B

$ 1.8B

$ 2.2B

$ 74.6B

Fatalities Among the Public Due to Coal Transporation by Rail

Public Healthy Burden in Appalachian Communities

Emissions of Air Pollutants from Combustion

$ 8.8B

$ 3.2B

Abandoned Mine Lands


$ 61.7B Climate Contribution from Combustion

$ 345B and More

Coal is pretty cheap on the electronic bill, however, in reality we are paying a much higher cost in the long run, if we look at the big picture. The whole process and its impact on human being and environment can somehow tell the true cost of coal.

30 coal miners dead in America in 2008, 3200 in China. The death rate of coal mining is much higher than imagined.

As in the graph, American actually spent a lot on different issues and problems that brought by coal mining. Though the number is roughly calculated, it reveals the truth behind the “cheap coal”. The high death rate of coal mining is also a serious problem.



Coal (161/TWh)

population coal consumption






BJĂ&#x2DC;rnevaTn irOn Ore DePOSiTS







Sources : independent technical report on the norwagian mineral properties of northern iron limited - rSg global


The extraction of iron produce two diferent kind of wastes. The non-magnetic rejects, are separated at the Bjornevatn site and deposed around the mine, creating fan-like shapes when spreading out. after the crushing, the taillings are discharged in the sea. The seadeposit in Langfjorden was used until 1974 when the fjord reached capacity. a pipeline of 275m was constructed in 1973 to discharge taillings in Bjokfjorden.


These meänkieli names all say something about the different elements that the landscape is composed of.

The names of places in the landscape surrounding Kiruna are meänkieli and mean; yli, ylä - upper ala, ali - lower lombolo, lompola, lompolo - an expansion/opening of the river joki - river järvi – water, lake vaara – mountain

Jukkasjärvi / Torn river

These elements are gradually transforming and we can imagine the new names that will arise and that have already arisen in the landscape of Kiruna; Jänkkä, jänkä - bog kuru – cut, cleft, valley matala – shallow point in the lake/sea mella – sandbank, low bank on the river oja – stream, small river lantto - pond

Loussajoki Yli Lombolo Ala Lombolo





Kiruna ?


Yli Lombolo


Ala Lombolo



Yli Lantto


Ala Lantto




landscape is a complex system, similar to the human body. An organism that is affected by all of lifeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s effect. It breathes, grows, breeds and dies. It has the ability to memorize , to feel excitement as well as tiredness and disappointment. A system that due to human need of exploration and exploitation is wounded and suffers traumas. The mine as part of the landscape, is exposed to the same functions of life. Could we assume that the mine as well as the landscape could go through all different states of emotions? What itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s reaction to catastrophic events? People can adapt to critical situations. For centuries earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s resources has been exploited, the landscape exposed to the depletion of the natural world. Due to personal experience we can prepare ourselves for uncertainty. Could we say the same about the landscape? The moment we step out of our safety zone and find ourselves in uncomfortable situations, could be a powerful force of creativity. People have a need to belong, to be part of something larger than ourselves. An identity that we can relate to, allow us to survive the destruction, the violence of any sort.

This drive to preserve the comfortable existence we inhabit, force us to treat the natural world as our very own smoere gos board. Very often this lead to the landscape being depleted voided. Eventually left broken and battered. A state it might never recover from. Observing the events, changes and trends in the mining industry similarities become very visible. Drilling is a traumatic event; human hunger and need of certain standard of living become a force for destruction and uncertainty. Mineral extraction takes away from landscape its identity. The same area that could be a potential new finding is a home for others. This illustrates the complexity of the system, which has the ability to all affect others, although always remain under their influence. Exposed to every change, without the possibility to take part in the decision making process. The natural world is our silent bystander.

“Nobody wants another Klondike. We want to secure a good future for this part of Norway“ Tore Tanum, UD

“The potential of improvement lies within the blurring of the line; that is to think outside the line of the lease“ Kelly Doran, architect

“The market will not need as many projects as are now on stream. We might even see a REE bubble“ Ron Boyd, geologist

“Waste treatment is one of the key challenges of future mining.“ Harald Martinsen, SVG

“Every single NOK, that can be taken out, will be taken out of the country to lower taxated places“ Øystein Rushfeldt, Nussir


Ingrid: Scars and masses. New uses. Landscape alterations. Irene: Gold rush of the North. Positioning and speculations in the Norwegian landscape. Hao: Scars and masses II. Decomposing mining landscapes. Afteruse. Linn: Voices in the landscape. Investigating the dialogue between indigenous communities and mining companies. Annabel: Different readings of the landscape. Rhetorics and agendas. Hanne: Investigating the meetings between the logics of the search rights vs existing rights and uses. Xin: China in the Arctic. China in the world of minerals. Francisco: Nussir. Scenarios for waste management. Karie: City in the run. Future scenarios for Kiruna. New mines. Pati: Colonies of the borderless economy. Meetings between economical and political regimes and the landscape. Kari: Following the steel. Flows in society and markets; recycling. Jinyuan: The lifecycle of a mine. Annisah: Meetings between the mining operations and permafrost in the vulnerable arctic. Scenarios

Or CreaTing a neW naTiOnaL aTTraCTiOn?

Fields of Exploration Limits of Exploitation  

Lecture AHO 2012