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FIELDS OF EXPLORATION - LIMITS OF EXPLOITATION +

Master Studio in Landscape Architecture Oslo School of Architecture and Design Winterspring 2012

4 COLLECTION Reflections

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D&U


REFLEKSJONER Basert på kunnskapsinnhenting, studiereise, samtaler og workshops med kursets lærere og eksterne eksperter formulerer studentene sine refleksjoner sammensatt av de kunnskapene som er tilført studioet. Kolleksjonen viser bredden, dybden, muligheten og konsekvensene av dette nye nasjonale initiativet i Nord-Norge. Teachers: Knut Eirik Dahl Kjerstin Uhre Espen Røyseland Øystein Rø Critics: Ann-Sofi Rönnsk og John Palmesino fra Territorial Agency / AA

students: Irene Crowo Nielsen, Annabel Danson, Mathilde Grellier, Linn Riise Handal, Kari Sanne Havnevik, Jingyuan Hu, Hanne Johnsrud, Gudrún Lilja Jónsdóttir, Hao Liang, Patrycja Perkiewicz, Francisco Rodríguez Saa, Annisah Solihah, Xin Su, Kit Ting Karie Yu, Ingrid Aas

www.dahluhre.no www.0047.org www.aho.no http://www.fieldsofexploration.blogspot.com/

REFLECTIONS Based on research, study travel, conversations and workshops with course teachers and external experts, the students formulate reflections composed of the knowledge acquired during the studio. The collection shows the breadth, depth, possibilities and impacts of this new national initiative in Northern Norway.


Xin Su: China in the Arctic. China in the world of minerals. Irene Crowo Nielsen: Drill drill drill Ingrid Aas: Scars and Masses Patrycja Perkiewicz: Cross Border Mining Jingyuan Hu: Opportunity out of the extreme Francisco RodrĂ­guez Saa: Cross-Border Stories in Kvalsund, Norway Annabel Danson: MINEOPOLIS Annisah Solihah: Upgrading Svalbard Mathilde Grellier: Mine & City or Mine vs City Hao Liang: The Northern Mining Landscape--- Type/Transformation/Reuse Kit Ting Karie Yu: Kiruna on the move Kari Sanne Havnevik: Chasing endorsment Linn Riise Handal: Hidden Complexity of the Northern Landscape Hanne Johnsrud: Confrontation Ahead


CHI NA :

NIS... ARCT O I T A T S I C T !! X E N E TH

China’sexpansiontotheArctic XinSu


First Chinese in the Arctic

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China is coming!

China can be expected to continue to persistently, yet quietly and unobtrusively, push for the Arctic, in spirit, being accessible to all.

“Canadian Arctic oil does not seem to be high on Chinese firms’ agendas.” ——Frédéric Lasserre professor of The University of British Columbia

“I think it’s broader than oil. Their real interest, I’m convinced, is in transport, simply shipping their goods to Europe. You would save a lot of transport time.” ——Houlden, spokesman for Harper

Linda Jakobson he director of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute

“Grasp this historical opportunity and recognise the political, economic and military value of the Arctic and then re-evaluate China’s rights in the Arctic region and adjust its strategic plan.” “Any country that lacks comprehensive research

on polar politics will be excluded from being a decisive power in the management of the Arctic and, therefore, be forced into a passive position.” “Circumpolar nations have to understand that Arctic affairs are not only regional issues but

also international ones.”

——Guo Peiqing Chinese researcher on Arctic politics

China has "natural and legitimate economic and scientific interests in the Arctic", The Danish government would like to see China as a permanent observer, and I think the others (members) are likewise willing to do that” —— Friis Arne Petersen The Danish ambassador to China

“The Arctic belongs to all the people around the world as no nation has sovereignty over it... China must

play an indispensable role in Arctic explora-

“China can make a valuable contribution in the Arctic Region...China should be welcomed as observer to the Arctic Council. ” ——Jonas Gahr Støre Norway’s foreign minister Norway could shut China out of the Arctic Council if Beijing does not stop a campaign of diplomatic snubs imposed. —— Aftenposten

tion as we have one-fifth of the world’s population.” ——Yin Zhuo Chinese Rear Admiral

“Whoever has control over the Arctic route will control the new passage of world economics and international strategies,”

——Li Zhenfu associate professor at Dalian Maritime University

“The Russian Empire and the Soviet Union built the main navigable sea routes along Russian territory in the Arctic. Anyone who uses the routes should follow

Russia's laws. Should there be international regulations for routes in the Arctic, it is those Arctic nations that should make the regulations.” —— Oleg Khlestov vice president of the Russian International Law Association

“China does not have an Arctic strategy”, China’s wish

to see disputes related to sovereignty resolved peacefully through dialogue. ——Hu Zhengyue China’s assistant minister of foreign affairs


China is transforming 2001

EXPORT CHINA

IMPORT CHINA

2011


11%

2%

14%

6%

20% 69% 78%

5 $5130

7 $5730

2005

2006


2% 11%

2%

14%

6%

11%

20%

23% 64%

69%

15%

1% 12%

62%

10%

78%

5 $5130

7 $5730

11 $13530

15 $24160

2005

2006

2007

2008


2% 11%

2%

14%

6%

3% 11%

4% 2% 8%

15%

1%

35%

22%

20%

23% 64%

69%

4%

6%

12%

78%

47%

33%

62%

10%

36%

5 $5130

7 $5730

11 $13530

15 $24160

18 $12500

15 $9110

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010


2% 11%

2%

14%

6%

3% 11%

4% 8%

15%

1%

35%

22%

20%

23% 64%

69%

1%

2%

4% 13%

6%

12%

78%

47%

33%

62%

10%

52% 31%

36% 1% 2%

5 $5130

7 $5730

11 $13530

15 $24160

18 $12500

15 $9110

14 $14920

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011


Arctic as the backyard? OIL 13%

GAS 30%

COAL 25%

DIAMOND 10%

GOLD

SILVER

ZINC

LEAD

FOREST

?

FISHERY

HYDR ELECTRIC

FRESHWATER ......

?

47%

62%

69% 78%

52%

36%

$3520

$4480

$8670

$14850

$4550

$4330

$7810

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011


Things not always go rignt...

Militarybackground

Racialdiscrimination

Thesensitivityoflocalethniccultural

Nationalsecurity

Thesuspicionofahostiletakeover

Lackofexperience MarketRisk


500

400

2000

RISING!

2050

Predictivechange 300

200

100

0 0

1950

-100

1850

1900

-200

-300mm

Measuredchange

THE SEA LEVEL IS Estimatechange


China today

上海 上海

LOOK!!! IT’SSHANGHAI!!!


China ... in 300 years

THISISSHANGHAI???!!! BUTWE’RESTILLAT SEA!!!

上海


China, now here in the Arctic

EMBASSY


Future, the busiest countury in the Arctic

EMBASSY


"DRILL, DRILL, DRILL� by Irene Crowo Nielsen

how far are we willing to go?


Geophysical measurments are the foundation for finding mineral resources. The data are public and free. Helicopter (mag, rad, EM) 3.900 km2 Plane (mag, rad) 24.600 km2 Regional seismic surveys 2012

By the end of 2010 only 15 % of norwegian ground had coverage of high-resolution magnetic data. While Sweden had covered 90 % and Finland are now selling their gear because they have covered 100 %. Why are we so far behind? It looks like the government is asking the same question and gave 25 million NOK in 2011 with the promise of the equivalent for another 3 years.

(source: status i mineralkartleggingen MINN programmet, NGU, Sintef)

How do they scan the ground?


When you know where the minerals are, then what?

Mining Rights a quick introduction Register a proprietorship Read the rules for exploration at www.dirmin.no or see drawing

(source: www.dirmin.no/rettigheter)

Pay the fee and you are ready to go!

Happy Prospecting!


The explotion of mining rights in norway NGU starts detailed geophysical measurments

THE SUDDEN BOOM

Only 15% of norwegian ground has coverage of high resolution magnetic data

WHO ARE THEY?

sweden

w u ag Au th

UK USA

Au, base metals

Australia

WHAT ARE THEY LOOKING FOR?

Cu

Norway

finland denmark chile

REE nb, + mo ti

canada

Cu, Au ni, cu,pge

FE Cu, Pb,ZN

fe, ti ,v

Finnmarksvidda: a booming example Applications for mineral rights 2006

2007

Alta

karasjok

kautokeino

2008

Alta

karasjok

kautokeino

2010

Alta

karasjok

kautokeino

2011

Alta

2012 Alta

karasjok

kautokeino

No change in 2009

Alta

karasjok

kautokeino

(sources: http://www.sintef.no/project/GeoNor-konferansen2011, dirmin.no)

EU publish the Raw The Act of Minerals Materials Initiative (01.01.10) - RMI

karasjok

kautokeino

...and it is only the end of march


(sources: the different companies websites via www.google.com, http://www.ngu.no/kart/)

k

Looking north: how willing to share information are they?


(source: http://www.ngu.no/kart/bergrettigheter/)

how are they organized?


Here is an example: 2Bernt Stilluf Karlsen (61) a business man with several positions in the norwegian business world suddenly became the name on everybodys lips when he pretty much overnight via his mailbox company Klosters Rederi secured big areas of exploration rights in Norway (november and december 2011). According to the Directorate of Mining, the company paid approximately 1 million kroner in an establishment fee and secured a total of 1164 exploration areas in the north. Some called it a raid because it all happened so quickly.

Stilluf Karlsen says to the newspaper Budstikka that he has actually been working on this in silence for a couple of years. Stilluf Karlsen was even in contact with the canadian company Dalradian Resources in june 2011 before he secured the mineral exploration rights. He then struck when the timing was right. He functioned as a mediator and sold the exploration rights to the canadian company as recent as in january 2012. To the norwegian online newspaper geo365 he says that there were three reasons why he conducted his “little” initiative. To be short he mentioned the two year old Mineral Act, that the country is hardly explored and that the government has contributed money to upgrade the geological and geophysical database. He ends it with saying that this was an unique opportunity and a “cheap” option.

Dalradian paid 20 million kroner, and up to 80 millions for the stocks in the company. Stilluf Karlsen then stated to the newspaper Nationen, that Dalradian was the best option and that they are among the best in the world of exploration. -”They are ahead on the technology front, they have the knowledge and education, they have acess to people and drilling facilities as needed”. Patrick Anderson the CEO for Dalradian Resources stated that “as an exploration company, we could simply not let this opportunity slip away from us”.

Reactions: - “Im happy that foreign companies invest in the norwegian mineral industry. It will have positive influence on us, both as a country and as individuals.” - Per Roar Bredevold, Frp. “It is positive that canadians show interest, it suggests that there are many who have faith in norwegian mineral industry” - Svein Flåtten, Høyre. “We want to facilitate for private actors, but not in a way that the values are taken out of the country without national benefits as well as regional ones” - Irene Lange Nordahl, Sp. Irene Lange Nordahl (Sp), Alf Holmelid (SV) and Rigmor Andersen (KrF) are worried that such large areas of land now is in foreign hands before Norway has made a national mineral strategy. Manager Morten Often in the exploration company Store Norske Gull says: “the mineral industry in Norway has never experienced similar large acquisitions of rights, and the acquisition has consequences for other actors”.

CEO Patrick Anderson and CFO Keith McKay, Dalradian Resources Foto: Ketil Blom Haugstulen/Nationen

Managing Director in Nussir AS, Øystein Rushfeldt makes it clear that he believes the way Dalradian does it as “special”. ”It is impossible to look efficiently in such a large area and within a reasonable time limit, much of the area will probably just be there without any activity.”

(source: http://www.nationen.no, diverse artikler om mineralindustrien og om dalradian resources, www.geo365.no)

Speculation is a part of the picture when the limits are fewand the prize is high...

What are Dalraidians next steps in Norway?


The canadian "gameplan" for the north Data acqusition/compilation

drill drill drill...

target selection

data analysis

...SEE FOR YOURSELF

ground truthing

“ It is a rare opportunity today to be able to assemble a dominant land position in a stable first world country, covering geological belts known to host major precious and base metal deposits.” Patrick Anderson, CEO Dalradian Resources

“Let The Treasure Hunt Begin...” These five words starts the norwegian part of Dalradians investor presentation (march 2012) including the “famous” picture of Trond Giske holding up the norwegian mineral map. The canadian company must feel like they won the lottery, being able to have the mining rights for as much as 5% (approx. 11 000 km2 in north of Norway) of the norwegian land. They sure presents it as an adventure, with gold being one of the main minerals they are looking for.

They present their further steps almost as a strategic gameplan. They use words as “Boots on ground”, “Target selection” and “Drill Drill Drill”. They describe Norway as a mining friendly country with large population centers, paved highways and thin or absent forest cover and excellent infrastructure. They have only scratched the surface layer of what is there, what will happen now? Have this in mind: while Norway (Statoil) is looking for black gold in Canada (oilsands), Canada (Dalradian) is looking for real gold in Norway...

(source: www.dalradian.com/investor presentation march 2012)

Boots on ground


think about this... What is the knowledge, what are our learnings now that we are starting to see the whole picture? First of all it is easy to see that exploration rights pretty much are up for grabs for the first one to come. All data are public, free and easy to find. NGU and the Directorate of Mining work together gathering detailed data resulting in a yearly “Mineral Statistics of Norway”. According to their website they do this to mark the importance of the industry to the Ministry of Trade and Industry and other ministries and authorities as well as the public. They also want to contribute to counties, municipalities and industries so they will be able to put the mineral resources into good landuse planning including both existing mineral deposits and possible future ones. The government is also very public about the millions they want to invest in high resolution data in the north. Are we being too public with our data? Maybe we should hold back a little to protect our own national interests? We should keep in mind that these northern areas also are Europes last large continuous natural areas and that they are in fact both a national and a world interest. One can discuss the potential risks and consequenses of having such an open profile. When speculation is a part of the picture it does also attract actors with other intentions than just the mining business in itself. The hunt for money is strong. Lot of undefined norwegian actors shows up in the map of actors in the north. The businesses looks like proprietorships with only one owner. Who are these mining jokers? Why do they have exploration rights? Are they only there to speculate?

We have already seen tendencies towards this happening in the case with Bernt Stilluf Karlsen and his mailbox company being a mediator and selling the rights for millions to the canadian company Dalradian Resources.

Will the big actors in the end manage to sqeeze out the small norwegian ones? What will happen then? No norwegian controll over exploration rights? Why is this happening so fast?

Does anyone else find this a little frightening but me? What will an experienced canadian company benefit from owning 5 % of exploration rights in a country who is just establishing itself in the field? One can also ask the question: when foreign companies buys exploration rights for such big amounts of money, will they then have the good-will and money left to actually care about what is best for the local communities?

One can start to wonder if this will be history repeating itself in terms of another Klondike Gold Rush. If we take a quick look back....

Another interesting thing on the map of exploration rights in the north is the way recent actors is suddenly surrounding already established businesses in the area. Take for example the norwegian company Store Norske Gull, it has been in the Lakselv-Karasjok area for years (permit in 2006) and is now pretty much overnight surrounded by the canadian company Dalradian Resources. Morten Often, the company manager of Store Norske Gull stated to the newspaper, Nationen, that: - “There is a definite problem for us and others operating in the same areas when they now have covered the field of rights” He also fears that the acquisition will lead to slow exploration activities several places because it is almost impossible for only one actor to look efficiently for minerals in such a large area. -”It requires enormous resources to seek actively in such a large area”. Store Norske Gull is only one of many companies who finds themself caught in the middle with stamplike areas compared to the big actors.

The sudden news of gold in the Klondike (1897), led approximately 100 000 people to travel to the Klondike of the Yukon in north-western Canada in hope of successfully prospecting for gold. It created a nation-wide hysteria and led many people leaving their jobs to set of to make fortunes as miners. The prospectors came from many nations, and most of them had no experience in the mining industry. Some miners was there only to speculate, buying and selling claims building up huge investments. As an effect of this, “Boom towns” sprang up along the gold routes to accomodate the flow of prospectors. Dawson City (in the heart of the gold creeks) grew from a population of 500 to around 30 000 people in only 2 years. The difference between rich and poor became very visible. The native Hän people who had been living along the Klondike long before the gold suffered extensively being moved into a reserve to make way for the prospectors, many of them died as a result. The grass is always greener on the other side and it all came to an end when announces of gold discoveries in Nome, Alaska was found. Prospectors left behind ghostlike towns and the Hän people found only few ways to benefit economically from the gold rush, their fishing and hunting ground was almost completely destroyed and by 1904 they needed aid from the NEWMP to prevent famine.


I am not saying this will happen in north of Norway, it will most likely not because of todays society and democracy. Tore Tanum from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated in a lecture that no one is served by a new gold rush, and that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs sees it as a task to argue that history will not repeat itself. He says that “the bad guys does not always win”. But it is interesting to compare the situation happening right in front of our eyes with the Klondike Gold Rush. It is a story we need to know in order to detect similar conditions taking place in our era in perhaps only different, more modern ways.

think about this...

As a final comment, should not the law be tightened slightly to protect national interets on all levels? From national interests in mineral resources to the indigenous rights and traditional landuse? It could be a governmental institution that have to approve exploration rights according to the companys degree of seriousness. The companies should for example be able to show previous references, relevant education and hand in a written statement with their intentions for the area. It could also be a requirement for foreign companies to hire a norwegian communications manager to make the communication between locals, the understanding of societies, laws and rules more easy and efficent. One thing is for sure: something needs to be done!

Sources: Direktoratet for Mineralforvaltning (www.dirmin. no), “Norske gruveselskaper fryktar kanadiske Dalradian Resources sitt oppkjøp av mineralrettar” (www.nationen. no/2012/02/16/naring/store_norske_gull/store_norske/ nussir/dalradian/7257852/), Klondike Gold Rush (http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klondike_Gold_Rush)


SCANDIUM CANDIUM

Sc Sc 21

21

SCANDIUM

Sc

SCANDIUM

Sc

21

21

MANGAN

ARS

AND

M

24

MANGAN

M

24

ASSES

SHAPING THE SKIN OF THE EARTH

SCANDIUM SCANDIUM

21

INGRID AAS

MANGAN


A SCARED LANDSCAPE «Scars are areas of fibrous tissue that replace normal skin after injury. A scar results from the biological process of wound repair in the skin and other tissues of the body. Thus, scarring is a natural part of the healing process. With the exception of very minor lesions, every wound results in some degree of scarring.» Due to the human body, landscape is a complex system, that can be scared. The mining landscapes are left as scars after periods of mining. The mining companies makes their cut in the skin of the earth, and the landscape starts to bleed. An active mine is an open wound. After the mining period the landscape is left as a wound that is starting to heal.

In geographical terms- what is a scar?

Scars in the landscape can also be caused by nature itself. Erosion is the process by which materials are removed from the surface and transported to another location. It works by hydraulic or aeolian actions and transport of solids (sediment, soil, rock and other particles) in the natural environment, and leads to the deposition of these materials elsewhere. It usually occurs due to transport by wind, water, or ice; by down-slope creep of soil and other material under the force of gravity. Water enters the cracks, and if it freezes, expands. As the water expands, so do the cracks. A cliff on the side of a mountain, is an example of a scar created by nature itself. The biggest difference due to the human made scars is that they is created over a longer period of time. Then the ecosystem can develope in the same rate. Grand Canyon is one of the biggest examples of a nature made scar. Nearly two billion years of the Earth’s geological history was exposed to the Colorado River and its tributaries cut their channels through layer after layer of rock while the Colorado Plateau was uplifted. Since that time, the Colorado River continued to erode and form the canyon to its present-day configuration. What the natural and manmade scars have in common is that they stay in the landscape over time. People have become significant earth movers, outpacing all sources of natural erosion. Should it not be our task to help the nature to get back to its equilibrium? And should we not have any roles for this kind of eath shaping?


“THE GLOBAL LANDART PROJECT� The perforated global landscape People have become significant mass movers, reshaping the the skin of the earth. When we look at the amount of scars and masses in motion, we can see a global landscape in change. In one way the landscape could be seen as one big sculptural project,

forming the skin of the earth.


NEW SCANNINGS CHANGING THE MAP

CHANGING THE MAP In contrast to the carefully negotiation of land uses and rights to resources, new scanns are now forming the high north. New technology, geophysical measurements, is changing the map and the landscape is seen as geological resources underneath the surface. Ore is mined out along the linear beds on the hillsides. The open cuts is running in the same direction as the geologic patterns. Scars and derelict quarries remain today as evidence of exhaustion, both of human bodies and of geologic seams. Linear roads are traceble in the bottom of the valley. Sometimes the roads are following the gap cuts in the ridge lines that is created by rivers.

“Like a scann of a body�


DESIGNED LANDSCAPE Deformation of the ground, testing the rules of gravity. How deep can you dig a hole? 45

1 IN

52

1

:A LE

NG

1M

OF

1M

A

BJØRNEVATTEN MINE

T CU

37

:A

NG

LE

OF

M

AS

S

DE

PO

SI

T 45 M

25

1 IN

2

KIRKENES LANDFORM

18

1 IN

3

5

1 IN 10

Steep angle takes up less land and requires less topsoil. Dozer gouges cover the hillside to slow erosion and capture

EARTH IS CUT, DUMPED, SHAPED DURING MINING PROCESS. TESTING LIMITS OF GRAVITY AND EROSION


SELF SHAPING EARTH

CU

TI

NT

HE

SK

IN O

FT

HE

EA

RT

H

CRACKING AND MOOVING SURFACE

LAKES IS DRAINING, GOING INTO THE GROUND

The mining process is gradually transforming the landscape. Turning the ground under the surface has set its mark on the landscape. The landscape is reacting to the deformation of the masses and whats going on underneath the surface. The ground has become unstable and there will be dramatic consequenses if no one takes action. The ground have been overextracted so the ground is no longer stabil. As a part of a moving landscape the city of Kiruna is now sinking and lakes is about to drain. What will happen to the ground in 50 years?


ANTHROPOCENE The mineral law- Do we have legislations for these landscape interventions (size and form)? Do we have suitable rules/politics for this reshapSome geologists now believe that human activity has so irrevocably altered our planet ing of landscape? Anthropocene: Have humans created a new epoch of geological time?

that we have entered a new geological age. This proposed new epoch is dubbed “the Anthropocene”. Yet some experts say that defining this “human age” is much more than about understanding our place in history. Instead, our whole future may depend on it. Humans have made a dramatic impact on the skin of the earth. We are living in some other age, one shaped primarily by people. From their trawlers scraping the floors of the seas to their dams impounding sediment by the gigatonne, from their stripping of forests to their irrigation of farms, from their mile-deep mines to their melting of glaciers, humans were bringing about an age of planetary change. The human made landscape is reaching a scale due to the geological natural made landscape.

HOW DEEP AND BIG CAN YOU DIG HOLE? WHAT WILL HAPPEN TO THE HIGH NORH?

MIR MINE RUSSIA 525 M DEEP EMPIRE STATE BUILDING 381 M

1,3 KM

Kap.8- § 43. Konsesjonspliktige uttak (operating licenses) “Samlet uttak av mineralforekomster på mer enn 10 000 m3 masse krever driftskonsesjon fra Direktoratet for mineralforvaltning.... Driftsområdet skal fastsettes i konsesjonen....Konsesjonen kan tidsbegrenses” (“The total extraction of mineral deposits of more than 10 000 m3 of mass requires operating license from the Directorate of Mining .... The operating area shall be determined in the license .... the license can have time limitations”)

Kap.6- § 31. Utvinningsområdet (production area) “Departementet kan gi forskrift om utvinningsområdet, herunder om form, størrelse og merking” (“The Ministry may issue regulations concerning the recovery area, including the form,size and labeling”) These are the only restrictions in the Mineral Act that is saying anything about the shape and size related to the KIRKENES 2,3 KM mining operation. As long as you have license to extract more than 10 000 m3 off mass, the mineral act says nothing about the maximum mass extraction. In principel this means that you then can

dig a hole as deep as you want,

as long as it is mineral discovery in the ground!

The mineral law today does not ensure what happens within the approved operation area. The

purpose of the Act is to promote and ensure a responsible management and use of mineral resources. When expanding the territories in the north, Norway with its mineral act, should be in control of the big cuts and mass moovement on the landscape.


MASSES ON THE MOOVE Prepairing the mineral strategy for exploration of the north; Questioning the mineral law?

What to do with the waste?

2,8 mill ton konsentrat pr 책r

Mine reclamation is the process of restoring and healing the scars and erase the signs from the mining operation. Although the process of mine reclamation occurs once mining is completed, the preparation and planning of mine reclamation activities should occur prior to a mine being permitted or started. Mine reclamation minimizes the environmental effects of mining and creates useful landscapes that meet a variety of goals ranging from the restoration of productive ecosystems to the creation of industrial and municipal resources. To heal the scars is not easy but someone got to do it. The mineral act have a weakness when it comes to the securing the landscape and the environment. Norway is one of the few contries that are not allowed to deposit the waste back into the mine. The reason for this is to secure the possible remaining ore in the ground. Is this a suitable strategy? In my opinion the mining companies should be seen as visitors in these landscapes with clear restrictions that tells how long they can do the mining operation. There should also be strong restrictions and plans for how the mining companies is responsable for healing the wounds in the landscape. If the scars are beeing left to heal themselves, it will take hundreds of years, and the environmental effects could be huger than emagined. The up tempo revolution of mining, with its scars and deformation of masses, will need a little help. The noth of norway will sooner or later having thousends of square miles of abandoned mines and dug-up holes in the ground that will need attention for reclaimation.

FOR EVERY TONNE OF COPPER EXTRACTED 99 TONNES OF WASTE MATERIAL MUST ALSO BE REMOVED!

2,8 mill ton konsentrat pr 책r

About 97% of the ore is crushed to less than 0.1 mm size and must be deposited, while the remaining about 3% is a copper-containing Sydvaranger iron mine, Norway concentrate which is distributed to smelters abroad for further processing. 45.000 tons of material are removed from the mine daily

FOR EVERY TONNE OF COPPER EXTRACTED 99 TONNES OF WASTE MATERIAL MUST ALSO BE REMOVED! About 97% of the ore is crushed to less than 0.1 mm size and must be deposited, while the remaining about 3% is a copper-containing concentrate which is distributed to smelters abroad for further processing.

450,000 tons of material are removed from the mine daily.

Toquepala copper mine, Peru


Sources 1. Mineralloven: LOV 2009-06-19 nr 101: Lov om erverv og utvinning av mineralressurser 2. Alan Berger, Reclaiming the American West, Princeton Architectural Press, 2002 3. Lecture by Lina Persson: Anthropocene 4. Picture source: Hanne Johnsrud & Mathilde Grellier (p. 4/7) 5. From sight matters, Groundwork, Robin Dripps, p 84-88 6. www.safewater.org/PDFS/resourcesknowthefacts/Mining+and+Wate+Pollution.pdf 7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthropocene 8. http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/10/gallery_mines/all/1 9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scar


CROSS-BORDER MINING ...STORIES OF A LOST FREEDOM...

PATRYCJA PERKIEWICZ


UNDETERRED BY BORDERS

T

here is a constant growth of hunger for new mineral resources. With China’s development growth commodity prices continue to rise, as does the need for new opportunities. Competitiveness forces new solutions, which very often lie above political separation. Common interest drives the global aspect of the industry. Mining companies travel around the world in search of new mineral deposits. Globalization takes place.

Northern Norway will become an increasingly more important factor in the mining play in the coming future. Norway is filled with potential new ore deposits. Northern lands are in a good position to manage its resources well, the governments is solid, the level of corruption is low and experience from managing oil deposits is quite positive. Nevertheless the mining industry depends on infrastructure; therefore to attract investors new transportation links are required. Many of preexisting existing links need to be updated to adapt to multinational requirements. The important factor is to connect the missing connection that will allow for a smooth and fast international cargo transportation. …One ticket to China please… …How many wagons of Iron you would like to take with you today? By connecting Narvik’s port with St. Petersburg this new link will give direct connection to China which as a country will continue to develop for next approx. 15 years. After that time India will start to play an increasingly important role in global economy. Therefore the connection with Asia will allow for new opportunities in Norway. With the ice melt in the arctic sea ice this bond will continue to strengthen. Northern Norway due to its richness in mineral resources is wanted as a business partner not only by China, but also EU, which is currently the most important partner for Norwegian metal trade. Prices of transportation within Europe are much cheaper than through other continents. Railway connection between Kirkeness and Rovaniemi would open access to a deep sea port connecting to mainland “EU” making relations much stronger. The need for autonomy from China’s mineral regime rise every day with natural consequence in importance of connection between EU and Norway.


CAN I HAVE A PIECE OF NORTHERN NORWAY? The industry ‘without borders’ opens for the possibility of free trade of goods it could become

a driving force for economic growth a globalization agent. On the other hand there is a potential that the economic forces in the multinational companies could act as a domineering overlord, controlling and dictating rights of movement flow and general behaviour in the northern areas. The focus on easy capital and return on economic investments will trumps environmental consequences. Northern Norway has the potential and great transportation access, but is this enough to create a strong position in this game? Will Norway have an important position or be used by bigger and stronger players? There is a thin line between the globalization aspect of relations between countries, and the potential new type of colonization that comes with it. The result of companies’ crusades to acquire new territories, can lead to exploitation: Norway does not have an advanced mining industry, compared to its oil industry. The current structure requires an upgrade, to be able to safely take advantage of the natural resources buried in our crust. The gaps and lack of knowledge is often being abused by those trying to take advantage of the available resources in the area. The mineral exploration right has flaw an economic loophole open too overseas “hostile takeover” A strong position in the raw material power games is necessary to defend ourselves from the neo-colonialism as well as our own folly. By buying the rights to search for possible resources independent companies slowly diminish

Norwegian territories. The market attraction could create an ideal area for establishing monopoly situation. Big investors will absorb smaller players that are not strong enough to protect themselves from current and upcoming economical requirements. It is possible that smaller companies will sell out their claims or maybe merge with the bigger players. This proves the point that mineral industry is not necessary divided by political borders. Dividing lines have been established by common interests. Business become the new frontier ;The movement includes territorial as well as economic engagements. The motion occurs on a foreign and national scale. The domestic interest drives further explorations. Will the involvement of national investors create another form of neo-national-colonialism? Will the ’hunger’ change the idea of ‘common interests’, allowing at the same time for an occupation of your own country in the name of better future? Could local investors capitalize on the emerging markets without merging with a mining conglomerate? What consequences would those types of movements will have on the Northern Territories? Without military oppression: yet still under foreign occupation. Is this mining expansion new form: a neo- colonization?


LETS FLY IN! LETS FLY OUT! ONE MINE, MANY INTERESTS,EVEN MORE NATIONALITIES..... new rules these days. Northern territories are filled with different nationalities that rotate on a To run a mine large investments are required. This opens opportunity for foreign capital. Nevregular basis. The opportunity of exchanging cultures and traditions could have a positive impact ertheless national involvement rises on daily basis. The Northern Territories above 65 degrees latitude has so far 22 possible non exploited mines. 15 due to several of reasons were closed in the past which opens new opportunities of a re-opening and a restart the deposition of resources. If only 2 are currently open and running in those territories the idea of new possible 37 craters starts to become a scary image. …I would like to apply for Intercontinental Mining Visa? …Where to? Do you require an accommodation? Each mine requires large amount of space as well as fair amount of specialist workers. Due to lack of skilled that type of workforce companies are forced to look abroad. Norway will become an important destination in the race for finding occupation. Based on a fly in fly out contract employment, starts to be visible in Norwegian mining industry as well as in the rest of the globe. Shifts are mostly based on a 14 day rotation. Current accommodation prices have big impact on current form of mining workforce. Like in the example of Kirkeness due to mining activities the cost of housing rose drastically. The mining industry is not able to afford to create towns for its workers any more. Due to current market and interests companies stopped to play role of the town creators. Still transforming surrounding areas, nevertheless the theatre of changes has

on small towns. Unfortunately due to the temporal aspect of residence doesn’t contribute much to the community. Even if based on temporality it still involves the aspect of territorial movement, therefore this type of employment could be seen as a different form of neo-colonialism. What would happen if fly in fly out workers could become permanent residents of the area? Will towns have a capacity to host this new form of community? The collaboration between mining industry and local society become crucial. Mining companies require social approval to operate in local area. The industry apart from skilled workers depends on the local services. In return companies could offer an employment, training as well as area development like infrastructure. Mining activity very often creates higher life standards. This is a paradoxical situation as per e.g. environmental consequences. Mining Industry shaped towns in the past. Today’s reality imitates this role; nevertheless fund aspect could have different forms of engagement: local events, culture, education, sport and health. The synergy between industry and community is essential to create new type of mining activity. A form that will manage to tackle the neo-colonial aspects of current operations. Imagine what would happen to e.g. Finnmark if China was to close its borders tomorrow. What impact it would have on others? Can you imagine the pressure and desperation? Will this situation be similar to the possible scenario of a collapsing EU?


Northern Norway is currently in stage of shaping a national mining policy. It is crucial to include space for cooperation between local community and corporate interests. Locals should be more engaged in the decision making process. As most of time this stage involves policy making and land use management. Thus affecting areas of land that have been in use for generations. It is crucial to prepare local communities for the possibility of involvement in policy making, regarding the use of the northern territories. The ability to access the required information as well as to take an active part regarding the development of the northern areas is crucial. The history of Northern Norway already includes stories of colonization Indigenous people being pushed away etc. Stories of lost identities vanished lands, including of the notion of lost freedom is an ache the Northern territories remember well. Today the involved parties have different names a globalized incentive for acquisition.. It is fundamental to learn from the past. Only when we realize what is at stake cooperation can insure a future for the northern area. But what direction will we take? ...How can I get to Finnmark?.. ..Where to?..

STOP! RESTRICTED AREA! THE RE-APPEARANCE OF BORDERS


A LANDSCAPE FILLED WITH HOLES.. THE RADICAL EXPLOITATION OF EARTH RESOURCES


A TOWN TO LIVE IN... WHEN WORKFORCE BECOME PERMANENT...


THE HOUSE THAT WALKED... TEMPORALITY AS DRIVING FORCE


WELCOME TO THE NORTH! THE GROWTH OF A MINING TOWN


Opportunity

out of

Extreme

Jingyuan Hu The Reflections for the Fields of Exploration - Limits of Exploration


MOUNTAINS TREES STREAMS SOIL ANIMALS HUMAN

We are relying on mining since we cannot live without minerals, which merges into every detail in our life. However, minerals are a part of the nature, when the extraction started, the destruction and pollution happens at the same time. Those mined land has been used to the extreme, neither anything above, nor underneath. We are more and more concerning about the nature since we have realised that we depend on the big environment as well, we started thinking how we can

rescue the exhausted landscape and how to balance the demand. It seems that before we come up with good and mature solution for the energy and mineral solution, we have to reply on the traditional ones for a certain period in the future. When talking about mining, many people may think that mines


• Wieliczka, Poland From a underground salt mine to multiuse spaces • Aosta, Italy From a copper mine to the storage for Fontina cheese • Zollverein XII, Essen, Germany F From a coal mine to center of the creative economy • Dalhalla, Sweden From a limestone quarry to a open-air opera house

• Estadio, Portugal From a granite quarry to a football stadium • Gotland, Sweden From a limestone quarry to a motor racing track • Sudbury, Canada From a nickel mine to a green habitat • Collier, Appalachia, USA From a coal mine to a green habitat • Haller Park, Kenya From a limestone mine to national park • Florestar, Brazil From a limestone mine to a green habitat • Kinta Valley, Malaysia From a Lead mine to a recreational place • Cricova, Moldova From a limestone mine to a wine cellar


are somewhere far away from their life, however, it is far from the reality. Mine has brought advantages and disadvantages to us at the same time. When some are enjoying their new mobile phones, some are suffering from the poor living condition and acid water and so on. Even for one that lives in the city, he/she might be impact by a mine from the far suburb because of the acid mine drainage. We are thankful for mining, nevertheless, we are dealing with the side-effect all the time. Actually, most of the impact happens after the closure of the mine. When a mine has been closed down, things left there will then make the impact. Acid rocks are exposed to the air, underground water comes up since the pumpers are moved away, then the area become worse and trees cannot grow here, so on and so forth. Different mines have different condition according to the kind of the mine, the environment of the area, the scale of the mine, the method used for extraction, and the environmental control and so on. There are many factors that influence the impact after closure, however, lots of them can be controlled or fixed both during mining and after mining. Taking a look all around the world, there are many good examples for post-mining landscape, reclamation and even attempts for restoration. Underground mines can be transformed to storage, wine cellars, chapel, museum, and so on; open pit mines can be transformed to open-air opera house, racing track, football stadium, parks, an so on. Though within an kind of extreme situation, there are still opportunities for us to find. From the examples, we can also see that for some of the mine, it is much easier to recover and reuse, for some, especially those without good plan and environment

control, it is extremely hard. Before reuse the land, it takes years or decades to reclaim the site and lots of people, money, and effort will be needed for that. So when we come back to Norway, we can take some experience from those examples for the mining industry, which is now trying to step on the stage. First of all, from the big picture, mines are located all over the world and the the business with the minerals is huge. However, when it comes to Norway, it is not that outstanding anymore, though mining has been in this country for centuries, the industry and economy is now leading by newly found oil. Norway is country stretches from north to south with a very long and beautiful coastal line, which brought the huge potential for travelling and fishing industry. Many people were surprised when being told that Norway allows mining waste deposit in the sea. If we take a look at the gross domestic product in Norway, we will see how small the mining industry is for this country. It is a bit strange and hard to understand why Norway is willing to sacrifice the sea for mining. Though the consequence of the sea deposit is unknown, though there are life coming up after a certain period of dumping, many would ask that if it is worth trying so. Secondly, For the mining industry in Norway, it is better to have more strict regulations and better and complete plan for the post-mining period. As we can see that because of lacking regulations, many closed mines in Norway generated bad impacts on this land, for instance, Bidjovaggi. Even if the mine is going to reopen, it is still a mystery that who will clean site up. There


Gross Domestic Product in Norway, valued by basic prices (million kronor) mining and quarrying

mining and quarrying Norway is one of the richest countries in the world and mainly relies on its oil and gas industry, which makes almost 19% of it domestic products’ value while mining and quarrying makes only about 0.2%.

postal and courier activities postal and courier activities water supply, sewerage, waste water supply, sewerage, waste agriculture and forestry agriculture and forestry fishing and aquaculture

fishing and aquaculture

transport via pipelines transport via pipelines accommodation and food service activities accommodation and food service activities ocean transport ocean transport arts, entertainment and other service activities arts, entertainment and other service activities electricity, gas and steam electricity, gas and steam real estate activities real estate activities administrative and support service activities administrative and support service activities other transport activities other transport activities information and communication information and communication professional, scientific and technical activities professional, scientific and technical activities dwelling services dwelling services financial and insurance activities financial and insurance activities education education public administration and defense public administration and defense construction construction wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles manufacturing manufacturing health and social work health and social work oil and gas extraction including serveices

oil and gas extraction including serveices

are also many examples of negotiation between the community and the mining company, how they make the balance and prepare for the post-mining period with the effort from both sides. Money is far from enough, even if the company and the government are willing to give out the money, there need to be intelligent people and volunteers who are able to deal with the problem and willing to come to this place especially the Hight North. The community should negotiate with the company and the local people to figure out whether it is good or not to open or reopen the mine here, if it is, how can all of us take action from the start to eliminate the side-effect to the lowest, and what can be done as preparation for the post-mining period. Nevertheless, the whole process should be involved in professional individual or groups for good suggestions and right direction. Then, if the mine can gradually close down and the government will pay attention and help to reclaim and restore the land and sea, it will be a big step. Norway can say that they are willing to share the minerals in the future with much better technology, which may have much less side-effect for the environment, other than saying that they like to make contributions to the market now. This is an ideal situation that with little possibility so we have to face that the mining industry will continue or even thrive in the future in this nature dominated country. Thus, the government should give more attention on this industry, since it is uncertain, without much good plan and may have undesired consequence in the future. We can see


that in the future, many mines will stop according to the low production or price as happened before, the government and community should start now to see what should be done to make the environment better. As they are testing the sea deposit, they can as well test other positive technology, for instance, mining and green inhabitant growing at the same time, and so. Other than wait for the life to come, we should start to make the possibility from the start. It will reduce the complexity and the load of work much less in the end and even make the mining more profitable. Last, thinking about the mine after closure. When looking at the good examples all over the world, the successful post-mining landscape project all are different, in other words, all with certain characteristics according to the place. Then we should ask that what the characteristics of northern Norway is. The freezing temperature, the rural area, the ice? It seems that all of the characters are negative and push the extreme further on. However, the these can be positive and opportunities as well. It is always true that things have two sides. There are two exam-

ples that tell the opportunities. One is the newly built data centre, which is located in the tunnel near to the fjord. It is a low cost methodology with good access to the chilled water. The cool water from the fjord is optimal for use in data cooling system. Another example is the Global Seed Vault, which is also newly built on the island of Svalbard. The north Svalbard is an ideal place due to its lack of tectonic activity and permafrost, which will aid preservation. As we can see, the north is an ideal place for sever farm, an ideal place to preserve things, and there must be more opportunities. Furthermore, it is possible to connect them with mining. The seeds are formerly stored in the tunnel of a coal mine in Svalbard. If the tunnel of the coal mine was designed for storing and preserving things at the very beginning, there is no need to build a seed vault again. If the underground mines are partly designed for the server farms at first, the government and the mining company can spare the cost, and after closure, community or the state can sell the site technological use, not only the place, the whole north will change to a better and greener high-tech region.


If mining has to be there, we should make it much more worthy to be there, trying to find and create value at the beginning, not rescue at the in the very last minute. For Norway, mining is now at a new start point, it is very important for the country to plan and make full preparation right now. references Post-Mining Landscape-- conference documentation published by Jovis Verlag GmbH www.wikipedia.com Allen Berger, Reclaiming the American West published by Princeton Architectural Press http://www.soulfood.no/ www.ssb.no

http://www.wikipedia.com


Crossing-Border Stories in Kvalsund. Norway I was chatting on Skype with my contact Rasmus on the Midnatsol ship on the way to Hammerfest, when I found a book on Sydvaranger, the mine that me and my classmates have visited just one day before in Kirkenes. The book was about success stories and it had really nice pictures of the workers on the iron mine and it showed the industrialization pride of the north, sealed with a big picture of the Great Ambition, first ship to reach China crossing the polar circle from the North Atlantic Ocean. I could not sleep because it was Northern Lights alert and I was certainly excited and eager to see them, amazing journey, which was about to begin. In Hammerfest I met Rasmus and right away we were talking about how he perceived his

place where he was raised, Kvalsund and Hammerfest. So we talked, the most ancient way of doing politics, already inspired by previous lectures and being exposed to a considerable amount of information it was time to certainly synthesis it but instead I did not expect to acquire more; in this time in a different way, perceiving the place; as we are told to do on landscape architecture theory. The first person I met was a Sami guy, Chris, very nice who lend his car to cruise around Kvalsund and take us to different places while I took pictures, this guy barely reached to see the road, between the car panel and the stirring wheel. I think he is the first sami descendant I met, with Chinese eyes style. He did not say much and always let Rasmus do the talking. Certainly both clever boys, I never felt insecure and they really knew the place. I replied with ideas and they could notice my google-earth knowledge of the place so they

start talking about it with excitement. Rasmus told me that the snow scooters are the main activity and that you need a license to drive them. Rasmus had explained to me the social dynamics around the area between Hammerfest and the satellite towns that are connected with bridges and roads to Hammerfest. Kvalsund and specially Skaidi, are not largely populated says Rasmus. He works in Snow White under extreme conditions as cold as -40 degrees Celsius he says. He already knows young people in Hammerfest so he finds it boring sometimes and they go out to Alta or Skaidi and other relatively near places to socialize, the growing economy in Hammerfest and the acquisition capacity has made of Hammerfest an expensive place to live in and pay rent. To


buy a house in Hammerfest is expensive, he says. So people has decided to live on nearby towns, and particularly Skaidi has become a resting place for cottages owned by people that does not live there, all of these flows had started with the rising of house prices in Hammerfest, and that people has decided to live where houses costs are less. On the way to Kvalsund before the bridge, he also showed me the place where both communes Kvalsund and Hammerfest are planning to build an airport as a hint that development is coming, in the end he expects a good future for the area, and he expects Hammerfest to grow as big as Stavanger has grown due to gas & oil industry. After taking some pictures we stopped 3 Kilometers before entering the road to the mine. We entered onto a secondary road that led us to houses placed between the road and

the Fjord. Guided by the zoning plans from Nussir and the Municipality I spotted the waste deposits location on the Fjord. We went out and took a short walk with some sprints on the way. We walked towards Repparfjord and he tested my mountain climbing knowledge, which was not so bad. While walking on Norwegian landscape I slipped and I fell. We laughed and I said that I was not accustomed to the snow but I am good on walking on rocky mountains just not the iced ones. In my country of origin, Ecuador, there are snowcapped mountains, but to access them you need specialized equipment I said. When I told him where the waste was going to be placed he retorted with a funny look and could not imagine that in such a beautiful place, there was going to be a big earth chunk. There were birds squealing on the island that the land refill it’s supposed to bridge. He joked about the birds because their sound was

unbearable and he said that they were even worst in Melkøya Island. After taking pictures there we went to the access road for the mine and we came close to the crushing plant, the old Folldal Verk, standing next to the Road 94, we drove up until we stand in front of a notrespassing pole we stopped and I started my adventure on foot. I borrowed some wool socks, waterproof pants and a goose feather jacket that he had prepared for me on the trunk of the car; I didn’t know what to say but to react with gratitude. Then he remind me of the dangers of coming down with no light I went up there at 14.00 on Sunday March 11, 2012 I walked 2 hours and 30 minutes and came down in an hour and half with a really nice weather. I took the road up and on the way down I entered the landscape. I felt so relieved and renewed up there, the wind, the snow, and the samies on my mind, trying to imagine intelligences on how to walk through. I was not scared, in a way nature has always been kind to me. When I came down Rasmus’ friend took me to Skaidi Hotel, I slept there for a night, the most expensive night that left me with no money to stay another one. So I decided to take the bus and take chances to


the processing plant, once I got there I took pictures and I immediately took off after a snow storm that lasted a few hours, while heading to Kvalsund on one of the last buses

preparation. Where I got the information presented in this text.

to Hammerfest. I rushed out with no possibilities to get a hotel. So I tried to find a place to stay in Kvalsund. I asked around and fortunately met Jørn, who offered me a place to stay, after listening to what I nervously had to say, with my entire new knowledge on mining, and precisely about the situation in Kvalsund regarding Nussir’s investments on the Area. So some knowledge helped me through.

Kvalsund Municipality.

I came to Kvalsund athletic center, where I did three interviews to some relaxed parents watching their kids play. So next morning, I visited the Municipality with a day of

There are two permits that are necessary for Nussir ASA Company to start mining operations in Kvalsund Commune. One is KLIF Environmental License and the second one is the Kvalsund Commune Permit.

Introduction

Dialogs: 18 min 15 sec.

I don’t want to do something that I am not comfortable with, implicitly says Pål Reidar Fredriksen Industrial zoning chief in Kvalsund Commune. He has to draw the zoning plan for Nussir mine based on 21 documents and plans provided by Øysten Rushfeld, who invested 11 million Norwegian kroners on the development of these assessment plans and research papers. There is a group of three persons involved on this task and they are responsible to draw the limits of exploitation.

Pål, John and Trygve and me

Hi I come from Oslo but I am originally from Ecuador. What are you doing here in Kvalsund?, How can we help you? Trygve. I am trying to understand the area. I downloaded this plan too, referring to the industrial zoning plan designed for Nussir, which was posted on the wall. I exposed my ideas: two of them, the first underwater impermeable bag transport to


land refill where necessary, and the second one, toxic pipes, to confine the waste underground on circular hollow columns, and made them come out as high as 20 to 30 m above the ground so we can spot them from far, signaling open pit mining levels high above the ground. Pål told me that a plastic bag would not be enough, because it is a big volume. So he point out another idea which he was thinking on, and he later explained on his office. The studies paid by Nussir ASA, are ranging from prospecting, water quality, landfills and seafills and they will define what actually draws the limits, what a huge responsibility that relies on the shoulder of one guy at the municipality Pål. It actually becomes a matter of ethics I think. Kvalsund is divided; perceptually 60% want the mining industry to be so they can grow as Stavanger or Hammerfest has grown they say. The other 40% are older people, who believe that their children should experience the same nature as they once enjoyed. But what actually happens is that just a few people lives in Kvalsund, and Sami people does not have representation within the commune. Samies,

they are also exploiting the territory in a passive way. They do better understand what the biotopes are I think better than a landscape architect may do I include me. Repparfjord has been affected already by waste refill on its Delta, 1972 and previous tests recommend the waste disposal on the Fjord as an option, due to reconsolidation of marine life on the Fjord. Exploitation of the mine lasts 20 to 30 years, while the fishing environment is threatened, and we know that the material is toxic. What happens after the land lease? This land use rights can be sold away to any enterprise that may then sell them to another as if it was a simple economic transaction. Kvalsund Commune shield has actually three Salmons stretch on the badge, how is it possible to menace that future? We are thinking on shipping the waste out and thinking on the possibility to place the deposits farther away from the fjord. The thought is a landfill for the new airport for Hammerfest which is within Kvalsund’s Commune borders. Why not!!! let’s ship it there. There is place for 12 years of Nussir operation with the best material Norwegian rock and gravel assures Pål.

And now we know that the fjord basin deposits are contaminated there is proof from NIVA, Pål give me a printed copy, so the water quality limits have been exceeded it is obvious that the limits have exceeded, so are there any alternate scenarios? Yes, he answered put it somewhere else, where underwater currents are not so strong, he pointed out the Hammerfest new airport spot. Pump it as a cheap option and containment can be an alternative. Samies and reindeers used to live in Symbiosis, as a survival strategy. Nowadays, they do a passive exploitation of the landscape and their economy depends on reindeer herding. Sami people actually know reindeer patterns, who know better than them? I don’t feel qualified to speak on their behalf and their requirements for their economy. I think their knowledge of the landscape should be spread through the media, in this way, they will have tools to negotiate with the mining industry.


Dialogs for a place to stay in Kvalsund. 2 min 39 sec. and other comments that were not recorded. Francisco: AHO Student Jørn Stenersen: A School Teacher at the Townhall Commune in Kvalsund Municipality What does the Kvalsund community thinks about the waste disposal on the Repparfjord? I listen to the talks in the community. I would say that people are 60 percent on favor and the rest are against the Nussir’s waste disposal on the fjord and in general the mining industry is regarded as poison

material to be thrown on the fjord. Some of the people are radically against and

sometimes they draw strong words to each other and even insults. Now you have of course a perception on that. I was thinking also on the Sapmi people that are around because they fish. Their main activity is fishing and the other main activity is reindeer herding. If you do open pit mining affects reindeers, and if you do waste disposals on the fjord, it affects the fish, and yes they both affect their sustain activity as Sapmi communities, so when they speak in big meetings together I can understand Rushfeld’s

position because he is also doing this community gatherings so they can give ideas to his project, but I saw that he cannot take ideas further from these voluntary groups unless he has really scientific proof and

studies. So he has to try to cope with ideas to try to make this project practical and doable. Yes it is difficult. As I said the people are divided what to think and mean, some of the people don’t have all the information to take a good decision for themselves I think and they are quite uncertain what to think but it is quiet some heat to the discussions.


Yes it is in the whole Norway because if this is approved, other mines will do the same, so this is like a pinpoint mine in Norway, Yeahp.

Conversation 1. 2 min 37 sec.

Work!!! You can work there, well for what is best. And what do you think about the amount of working places that are going to be created and opened? And that a lot of people are going to move to this area I don’t know what can happen I’ll have to see.

Francisco.

What is your name? Edvin.

Edvin: A parent watching his kid play in the Athletic Center in Kvalsund Commune I would like to ask you some question because I think that the mine in Kvalsund is going to be reopened and I think that the new owner is Nussir ASA a company lead by Øysten Rushfeldt. I would like to know what do you think about this reopening and the dumping of the mining waste on the fjord basin? I don’t know it is poisoned. Yes, You cannot touch it maybe It is poisoned but is going to remain in the bottom of the fjord. So, what do you think are the implications for the Sapmi people for example the ones that fish and the other ones that are reindeer herders? They are against all. So the Sapmi parliament is against all of these decisions. And what do you think yourself about it? Would you like it to happen or not?

ASA, and it is led by Øysten Rushfeld and he is the manager and owner of the company and he has a total reliance that mine activity is restarting in Norway and his company will come into play in Kvalsund area. So, what do you think about the dumping waste on the bottom of the fjord? Which newspaper are you from?

Conversation 2. 5 min 29 sec. Francisco Niclas Häkonson, Teacher used to be metal worker. Introduction  

Explanations on the Companies located on the Area. Folldal Verk is the location of a mining company administered by Wega and Nussir ASA as the new intervention.

Hello, my name is Francisco. I am interviewing people because you know that Folldal Verk mine is going to reopen we don’t know that yet, but they have sold the company to another company called Nussir

I am not from a newspaper. I am a landscape architect student in Oslo, I don’t think it is going to be published anyway just in my boards. Ok.I think it should be in Folldall and they can put the sand in the sea, because if you put it inland it will go to the sea anyway, but it is gonna be more damage if it goes to the ground water and then out to the sea. I think. Ok But your position is opened towards this….I’ll think is gonna be open, we have to live the company for this little village in order to survive. And what do you think about the new workers if the mine opens? What do you think about the inmigration of new people coming into Kvalsund for example? It is ok yeah as long as they stay in the community, stay here and pay tax, and people live here,


we got new schools, and we got better to the children, football. And I have another idea which might not complement what you are saying now, which is that for example in Kirkenes in Northen Norway there is this mining company called Sydvaranger and this is an Iron ore Mine, which is really big, and the people who works in this company, actually does not live in Kirkenes so they actually commute from other parts of Norway, and they don’t pay taxes and they just go back to the places where they live . Yeah I think ahhhm if it is 200 places to work here and 75 of hundred people come here to live and work and a 100 people comes from another place and go. It is gonna be okey. Hundred people work to have children, to have a family, and they gonna expand positively in Kvalsund now we are 1.000 people in Kvalsund… what do you think about the idea of taking one step further on the metal industry in copper because now it is a crushed material that is about 10 cm also it is not big… Do you think that if you put an industrial smelter here next to the Nussir plant and they can use the energy from Hammerfest which is from the gas plant Snow White, NIcholas complements, that s

right…so becomes this energy tool powering the smelter to have a more refine product would you like that idea also? Yeah I am ahh in my other work in Sweden I was in the metal industry and a metal worker so I don’t have any problem with it. Ok. Thanks a lot, what is your name? Niclas

Conversation 3. 7 min. 26 min. Francisco, AHO Student Terje Vikstrøm, Kids Football Coach It is about the reopening of mining activities in the fjord…No problem Can we talk about it? Yes, So I would like to ask you some questions and one of them is, what do you think about the dump waste on the fjord? Do you think it is positive to have an industry like this? I mean… I think that it is important for Kvalsund as a community to have some industry because you have to see at it in different ways, first you have the environment, and it is ahemm. That’s not good, but I have been living in Kvalsund for thirty years now, a little over 30 years. And I

think if Kvalsund wants to stay as a society we need some industry, we need places where people can work so I am in the local politics here. Ok then I see that you have asked the same questions to more people I think I have asked myself this question many times and I have to say I think that the environment issues still don’t know I think and that is not bad as all say it’s going to be. I am willing to start the mines because I want the whole society to grow and then is like everything in life, what is minus what is plus and you have to make up your own decision about any issues in life. Ok what do you think about this overlaying societies which their main economy is based on fishing on the fjord on Repparfjord and also on reindeer herding which well in this case it is not affected because it is not going to be an open mine pit but it is going to be a subsurface mining, underground. So, I think there is a limit between open pit and subsurface, but what do you think about these other layers of communities that live also in this territory, and I think Do they are part of the Kvalsund Commune? Of course of course they are we don’t have many fishermans in Kvalsund anymore but in Repparfjord you have maybe 5 or 6 local fishermans but it is also a national


Salmon fjord that gives some we can’t do what we want with it. It is banned. Because it is prohibited it is banned yeah ok..- and I have great respect for that, if the Norwegian you know KLIF if they say no this is too much contamination for the national Salmon fjord is ok it is ok. Of course it has been many years since since the local fisherman have fished in this fjord because it is another issue there is not a lot of fish that comes to these small fjords in Norway anymore because the big fisher boats take it take it further out this is my opinion we have to see the whole fish, how we allow big fish boats to layout and take big and very very much fish and very small amount piece of the purple fish come into the fjord Ok .So I have great respect for fishermans and also the Salmon and the Salmon in the rivers but I don’t think that is not my biggest issue I want this community to grow and I think that the best way to grow is… in a way I have two children I want my children to come back to Kvalsund when they are grown up as me because it is a society it is a living society here I think if we don’t get some work for people here we might as well be 500 people living here ,and how many are now around 1000 in 20 years from now 60 or 70 percent of this will be people from 50 that

is my point of view on this case. I am not saying that it has to be a copper mine but we have to make the society to grow we have to make places for our children to work. That is my biggest issue. Do you think that if the mine is not open do you think that will be other kind of activities? Yes, which you know will creative thinking may come out with any other good ideas to Kvalsund? I think so. I think so because a lot of the things that has happened in Hammerfest in the area and see around the area. Oil gas and another industry who comes because of the Oil and the Gas I think if we are as a politic and if we are creative we can create a lot of work here in Kvalsund. Uhum I totally agree ok what is your name? Teria Terry Vickstrom, Ok. thank you. No problem.

Francisco Rodriguez Saa. AHO Student, March 2012.


Nussir Site


Nussir Site

Finnmark - Cu Areas

Relationship with Reppardfjord

Fjordfills

Nussir Grinding Plant and Pier


To World

Proposed Connections

Copper Sea Shiping

Copper Sea Shiping

Forsol

Train Shiping

Melkøya - Industrial Island Airport

Hammerfest

Existing Connections

Planned New Airport

25 km

94 Kvalsund Nussir Grinding Plant

Nussir I

94

Ulveryggen Wega Mining

Nussir II

To Alta 70 km

To Smorfjord 25 km Lakselv & Kirkenes

E6

Skaidi

To Kirkenes 240 km

E6

Area Assigned for Nussir Activity within the Kommune Copper Ore Deposits, NGU

Kvalsund Municipality

5 km

10 km

Ship Routes

E6

94 Nussir Grinding Plant

Open Pit Spots & Access to Ulveryggen Mine - Wega


Transposed City Block and Copper Tailings

Oslo Block NY Block 1millon cubic meters

1’ m3

100 m

10

100

=

=

100 m

= 0m

=

=

1’ m3

m

100

1Ha

m

10

0m

1 Cubic Hectar

Container

1’ m3

1’ m3

Hammerfest has grown as one of the main ports on Coastal Norway. Snow White is the main productive enterprise influencing Hammerfest and Kvalsund surroundings, bringing in population and a demand for housing and new infrastructure, this enterprise leads the economical activity in the area. Pollution is one of the issues, Melkøya Island, an Industrial settlement, has contaminated seafjord surroundings. The watersewage system concentrated on lake Storvatn from Hammerfest is also polluted, which is connected to the Fjord. A bridge connects Kvalsund, which is part of continental Norway, where mining is the driving force for economical growth. Together with Kvalsund, Skaidi is the closest town to the Nussir processing plant which is also influencing a river Delta at the botton of Repparfjord where copper tailings from Nussir processing plant are meant to be thrown on the fjord basin, therefore highlighting biotopes on the Fjord Seawater, and inland biotopes like reindeer affecting areas that were last open in 1970’s by previous interventions.


Machine-made Inland Container

a

Scenarios for deposition of tailings

On the ground

Found - Container on the Sea

or

Land Deposit

c

Sea deposit

1,628’ Millon Tonnes = 1’ Millon Cubic meters = 1 Cubic Hectar = 707 columns. Fill half of a 100 m long Steel-hollow column 6m in diameter, meaning a volume of 1413,7 m3

Temporal Storage until solution is found

Water Level

Water Level

Fjord Basin

Concrete Pit

On the Ocean Basin

Underwater Concrete Pit

e

Confinment on the sea

Inland

+

Landfill at Sea Level

Inland

Landfill

Offshore Land

Offshore Land

Water Level

-

b Aesthetical. / Use a steel-hollow column is contradictory because Fe has to be extracted from somewhere else to place this sculptoric landmark.

a Oxidation and compund’s slow combustion with oxigen. / Leakage

c It does not oxidates as fast as inland / Acuatic life

d Development of Underwater Mining / difficult to access now maybe not in the future.

Shore

New Harbor or New Industrial Zone

a

/

1,628’ Millon Tonnes = 1’ Millon Cubic meters = 1 Cubic Hectar = 174,7 Pits. Fill half of a 90 m long Concrete hollow column 9m in diameter, meaning a volume of 5725,5 m3

Confinment on the sea

Global

non-Toxic Land-Fill

d

Found - Container on the Sea

d

Dig out non-toxic and fill with toxic

Strings allow to read terrain shape from far

Deposit from Mining

Fjord Basin

Machine-made Inland Container

+

Steel Columns

or

Water Level

b

e

b

Tests showed that deposit sands is acuttely toxic. There are five levels of toxicity and Nussir Output exceeds the limits, with concentrations of >500<1000 mg/Kg.

Local c

Land deposit

Benefits / Drawbacks

Pipes half filled with mine tailings

Sea

Waste Tailings for Landfills or Storage for the future.

e Development of Underwater Mining. Most suitable solution for Norway Geography. Thin steel walls for containment due to minimal pressure difference of water and landfill / difficult to drop the waste, leakage.


Local

15,35’ Millon Cubic meters transform it and sell it as gravel for concrete industry

d = 1,628 Tonnes/m3

Gravel Different Size

$

Nussir Ore, 8km long 1,2%

SubSurface Mining

Outer Rock Crust

300.000 Tonnes

25’ Millon Tonnes

+

to be transformed into

Ulveryggen Ore

Open Pit Mining

0,7% + 0,8%

85.000 Tonnes 3’ + 8’ Millon Tonnes

Copper Ore

Reuse of Materials

Concentrated Ore Black

Powder

Cu + Au Ag Pt Pd

Cu

Increase Production

To Smelter Sweden & Germany

Copper tailings Sand

97% of the total mass 3% of the total mass

36’ Millon Tonnes in Nussir and Ulveryggen

Global

d=m/V

=

- 0,385’ = 0,225’ 0,61’ Tonnes Difference

d = 1,628 Tonnes/m3

=

35’ Millon Tonnes

22,1 ‘ Millon Cubic Meters

21,5 ‘ Millon Cubic Meters

Millon Tonnes

+

d = 1,628 Tonnes/m3

1’ Millon Tonnes

-

0,385’

= 0,7’

Millon Tonnes


“Silicon is the second most abundant material on the earth crust.”

0,225’

Millon Tonnes Fertilizers Soil Amelioration

+

Food Industry

0,7’

Millon Tonnes

Al K Si Fe Ca Cu Na Ti

44250 37700 359000 11000 5100 15400 24200 3300

Aluminium and Silicon alloys to produce car parts. Ferrosilicon is mainly used by the steel industry.

Reusable. Now used for Aerogenerators

Body Parts, structure for bones to replace.

mg/Kg

By-products Main Metals Al, Fe, Cu,Ti

Sand, which contain Silicon, is a component of glass. Silicon is a semiconductor and it is used in computers, transistors, LCD screens, Solar cells. Silicones are used in high temperature greases and waxes, breast implants, contact lenses, explosives and pyrotechnics. Fly Ash is used for cement, but poisonous Rounded Source Arvid Rein and Rolf Arne Kleiv

Assessment on the concentration of an ore sample from the Nussir copper deposit. Rounded Source Arvid Rein and Rolf Arne Kleiv

Local Global

Silicon dioxide & Silica in the form of clay or sand are important elements for bricks, concrete and cement.

“In the future Silicon may replace coal energy.”

“Waste is a resource in the wrong place.” Thomas

Recapturing Value

NIelsen


Transport

World Vessels

Benefits / Drawbacks + / -

50.000 dwt 150.000 dwt 300.000 dwt 400.000 dwt 550.000 dwt

It is used offshore as temporary deposit.

Too big. spends too much gas

Can Stores different commodities

Market needs smaller vessels

Carrier Plimsoll Line

Pick-up ship

http://the-bob-blog.blogspot.com/2009/05/fail-whale-art.html

Pull and drag the Resource It is used when there is a great depth to cover. Accesibility is difficult on last phases of landfill.

Air

Can these technologies be developed to be of global use?

Plastic Bag Synthetic membrane Technology

Artificial Fabric

Global

Look at Whale Skin how it expands and holds in mass.

1â&#x20AC;&#x2122; m 3

Put in in a Plastic Bag and drag it.

0m +10 , 1atm m. .

alf air bag -20 volu +10 m, 3a me m.. tm. . 1/4 . th a ir b ag volu me

One step - easy unload. 1/8 millon cubic meters

Monitoring Submarine Robot

-10 m +10 , 2at m. m. h

http://grad.berkeley.edu/publications/egrad/1207.shtml

A wagon can be used on very shallow water, last phase of landfills. A crane or arm with claw is needed to load and unload.

will transport

1m

3 Copper tailings Density = 1,5210 ton/m3

A pipe can be used on medium depth landfills

Local

Pump 2

Fjord Basin

28 Bags

Under Water weight = 58600 Tonnes - 37000 Tonnes 1 bag under water weights = 21600 Tonnes easier to carry.

Pump out to close locations or landfills Pump 1

= 3.5 Bags 1 Bag = 36000 m 3 = 58600 Tonnes

1m3

/

Seawater Density= 1,0280 ton/m3

1m3

Air Density at Sealevel means 1atm at 15ÂşC = 0,001225 ton/m3

Maintenance.


A Magnetic ring acts together with the valve to regulate Air pressure to keep the Valve bag floating.

Pick-up ship

An extensible Pier

Plastic Bag Synthetic membrane Technology

Air

Put in in a Plastic Bag and drag it.

Submarine Technology

r = 30m

Inland

+

Space Technology

Monitoring

http://grad.berkeley.edu/publications/egrad/1207.shtml

Look at Whale Skin how it expands and holds in mass.

Develop New loading technologies.

Drags it.

Uses a band to transport material from the shore

Air

Artificial Fabric

Pick-up Carrier or Vessel

Drawbacks / Benefits

Monitoring Submarine Robot

1 BAG = 36000 M3 IF R=30M

Safe Storage in close locations on the Fjord Anchor plastic bag temporarly to the Fjord walls

New Harbor or New Industrial Zone

Seafill

Offshore Land

Synthetic membrane

Cannot be used on advance stages on the Seafill/landfill

Load /Unload No energy for Easy-drop of the sand tailing The commodity can be anchored in several places along the Fjords.


Future Waste

New Coral Reefs?


Wicked Game , Azar Alsharif


GAME RULES The Game of MINEOPOLIS An informative game about the possible consequences of mining, the potential for changes in the regulations given by the state and a promotion of a different kind of value-system, where several considerations are taken into account at the same time.

The winners of the game is the team with the best balance between the different interest that have be taken into consideration (mine, community & society and environment & natural resources).

Brief idea of the game

The player that rolls the highest number on the dice gets to start.

A community is faced with the prospect of having a mineral industry. Many communities and people don´t know what this entails, and the game takes you through a set of events that could, and most likely would, happen if a mine opens.

Each player can only take one jump per round, except if they have the chance to jump over your opponent. It is only possible to jump forwards and backwards, not diagonally.

Additionally there are events governed by the state, indicating changes to the current regulations, that could change the way things work significantly for different interest groups. The goal of the game is to find a way to manage the local society, the local resources, and the operational mine sustainably at the same time. Players Two players – possibly several sequences that can be compared. The players represent/are the mining director and the mayor of the municipality.

The players have to pick up the cards that they land on and save them for later. If a player lands on an empty space they don´t get a card – this can be both a positive and a negative thing, depending on the card and depending on who you represent. All the state cards, the tailings cards and the sub/surface cards have to be picked up in the course of the game – this is something the players have to collaborate on. The player that finishes first get´s to discard of one card collected throughout the board-game phase, before moving on to the next phase.


LET THE GAME BEGIN

Spread all the cards out and mix them properly before you place the cards out. The two players decide if the mine is surface or sub-surface and sea or land tailings at the start of the game, and place the first cards accordingly. Afterwards â&#x20AC;&#x153;state-cardsâ&#x20AC;? are placed where indicated on the board. Once this is done the rest of the cards are laid out.


RESULTS


NEGOTIATION

The cards collected throughout the board phase form the basis of negotiation between the players, who can now trade cards to try to get the most favourable situation from their perspective. They can also fill in blank cards, making modifications that might favour them in the finishing phase.

The player gets to discard of this card because it finished first

MINE

MAYOR


BALANCE SHEET

The set of cards the players has at the end forms the basis for placing the resulting mine on the balance sheet. First the players have to discuss where their respective cards place them on the balance sheet and come to an agreement. If they only play one game, the player placed closest to the centre of the board wins. If they play several rounds or others also play the game, they now form a team to see where they end up on the balance sheet. Afterwards the results can be compared and the teams/game closest to the centre of the sheet wins.


ALTERNATIVE SUGGESTIONS

The balance sheet can also be used in real negotiations, helping to keep track of the considerations that should be included in decision-making, and as a tool for visualising what the counterpart’s suggestions means to “you”. In the real negotiations other interest groups should be invited to participate in the discussion; say an environmentalist organisation, or other members of the local society. The different interest groups all get their own piece to indicate where the think the negotiations are taking them; making it clearer to the other side what the gravity of what is being discussed is to another interest group. The cards from the game informs people who might not know a lot about mining, about the potential consequences of different choices and changes made to the system, making it easier for them to enter negotiations on the field of mining. Blank cards can be used to fill in new events that might arise. It is suggested that if there is actually a mayor and a mining director playing the game, they should change roles. After the game is finished they can give each other feedback and realisations made throughout the game.


UPGRADING SVALBARD! ADDRESSING GLOBAL WARMING AND PERMAFROST THAW AS OPPORTUNITIES

ANNISA SOLIHAH SONTANI


previous episode cool..!

coal!! longyearbyen

Speculating Svalbard barents sea

as a necessity of preserving coal mining industry

beautiful series of mountain contain mineral resources. create unique landscape in vulnerable circumpolar arctic.

Sir, weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re now so popular in europe.. soon, world! thanks svalbard..

...the mining industry has created society

svalbard already so lavish. its coal production way behind USA, the biggest one.

in mainland...

the industry developed. the land were being more exploited. in the other hand, it contribute some revenue for nation.

we need coal from svalbard!

Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s have another exploitation

meanwhile, many people opposed coal mining regarding to the waste..

clean water

close down mining industry!

clean air

in the same time, restricted areas are established as a way to taking care of environment..

I am fly ash

tourism..

damaging landscape

no need to close down mining industry, yet.

opportunity for researher

his habitat ...CO2 from coal mining process trigger global warming

...they can still walk together


CONTINUED..

Global warming gives many impacts for many aspects, especially for the environment. The warmer temperature of the earth can trigger ice melting on the surface, particularly in circumpolar area

projected temperature increases by 2090

obviously, carbon fuel utilizing contribute global warming but..

+ 12 °C

future sea ice in september

+ 10 °C

observed sea ice

+ 5 °C

+ 1 °C

we are undoubtly facing the climate change. The temperature of the earth is increasing, resulting ice melt in high latitude

methane can be found in the form of organic compound under the earth it ‘s not dangerous as long as it kept frozen by the frozen ground as we call it permafrost

..in fact CH4, a.k.a methane is more potent than CO2

isolated (17%) sporadic (17%)

permafrost classification and distribution

continuos (47%) discontinuos (19%)

lake

permafrost should has temperature not exceeding 0°C, for at least 2 years unfrozen soil and rock


an ironic potrayal of permafrost thaw in the future, which somehow accelerate global warming regarding CO2 and CH4 released from permafrost

permafrost remain

2000

2090

then, what will happen to the landscape?

Temperature

pipes on the surface regarding ground instability

an evil circle; the more it was, the more it is, the more it’s going

CO2 CH4

structtural damage of the building

Permafrost thaw

hole in ground increase risk of landslides

infrastructure damage ë”explosive” ground from methane released excessive irrigation on poorly drainage soil


moving into svalbard.. its vulnerability should keep the islands “untouched” by humans. it belongs to nature and wildlife.

Svalbard is covered almost entirely by permafrost. The thickness are varies around 100 meters thick in coastal areas and 400-500 meters thick under mountainous area .

meanwhile, in svalbard, it has all components to trigger climate change

2500

sea ice during september

2000

thaw soon?

-2 -3

temperature below 8 meters

-1

Lunckefjell

Longyearbyen

settlements contain coal

Svea

100

Ny Ålesund

500

Barentsburg

1000

number of people involved

1500

-4 longyearbyen

raising air temperature up to 10 °C

-5 -6 -7°C

continuous permafrost

2.94

Production(1billiontonnes)

Exportrate

borehole investigation raised assumption of permafrost thawing possibility

Coalprice (USD/tonne)

0

Turnover&Profitaftertax (NOKbillion)

39

2003

0

2.5

5

0

2.5

5

2.5

5

productivity of coal mining that contribute CO2 emmission

2.9

64

2004

1.47 2005

0

67

opportunity?

2.39 2006

0

2.5

5

72

4.07 2007

0

2.5

5

83

3.43 2008

0

2.5

0.88

5

175

2.64 2009

0

2.5

5

2.5

5

128

1.93 2010

0

131


ICE SEA REMAINS IN THE FUTURE WILL SOMEHOW OPEN UP NEW NORTH-ROUTE

ALASKA

INVESTMENT MAY BOOST IN SVALBARD

CANADA

RUSSIA sea ice

SVALBARD WILL BECOME AN IMPORTANT INTERNATIONAL HUB

NEW INTERNATIONAL CIVILIZATION

EUROPE

SHIPPING HUB


SVALBARD TREATY CONCEPTS

PEACEFUL CIVILIZATION AND SAFE ENVIRONMENT

NON-DISCRIMINATION NON-MILITARY ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY


SCIENTIFIC AND HERITAGE TOURIST ATTRACTION

DEVELOPING RESEARCH STATION IN SUSTAINABILITY ENERGY


CLEANER COAL MINING REGARDING PERMAFROST “LEFT OVER”

electricity genration using methane from thawing permafrost

establish cleaner renewable energy


pictures references bulding bytesizebio.net usa today warmalglobing.com churcheswa.com.au e-reful.com earthrelief.wordpress.com stephenleahy.net sustainablechemeng.blogspot.com mpg.de


MINE & CITY

OR

MINE VS CITY Mathilde GRELLIER


ABOUT THE COMPLEXITY OF RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MINE ANS CITY We have the exemple of cities which live thanks to the mine, some times who where build with the mine, and exemple of cities which dead after the fermeture of there mine. The city of Pyramiden, Svalbard, is a good exemple of this close relationship, of the dependance that exist the most of the time and can lead to the destruction of the city, a gost city. The mine is for the city a help to development, it bring poeple and economy which provide life and help the city to grow. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s olso a source of destruction, environmentaly (polution, transformation of the landscape), but olso economicly. Indeed, the fact of basing an economy olnly on the mining industry is not promoting future.If the mine close, the city hardly survive. In an other way, the mine and the city can put distance between them and create a certain independence. The mine employe migrant workers not realy integrated. The city policy promote the divercity of the activities sectors, trying to develope the city by an other way. Mine and City : Dependence / Independence Development / Destruction Are Mine and City incompatible? How to not became a Pyramiden? What challenges teh city have to be able to survive to her mine?


pikene pa broen culture infrastuctures be stronger

POLITIC open border breathing city network

north-east passage investisment

port development

rail road export ice melting

urban planning

temporary infrastructure

barackment

permanent

reasearch

imigration

university

integration

housing

Local

POPULATION prices rents work salaries

Tourism mine diversity aquaculture shipping king crab fish

ECONOMY

KIRKENES

comerce


398 workers in 2011 500 workers planed

47 local workers

Sydvaranger industry Barracks - 30% of the workers Hotels +351 immigrant workers

Private houses


POPULATION EVOLUTION IN KIRKENES

720 700

General population Emmigration Immigration

680 660 640 620 600 10300 580 560 10200 540 520 10100 400 480 10000 460 440 9900 420 400 9800 380 360 9700 340 320 9600 300 280 9500 260 240

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

1989

1988

1987

1986

1985

9400

THE MINE IN THE CITY, AGAIN _ REACTION OF THE CITY The reopening of the mine in 2009 bring new factors to considerate in the life of the city. Indeed, after its closure, the city finded the way to survive and create a new dynamic in its economy. Even if they are not against, the habitant doesn’t feel the necessity of a come back from this industry. Sydvaranger provides to employ 500 poeple to work to the fonctionment of the site. In 2011 on the 398 employees, only 47 were from Kirkenes. The majority are migrnant workers mainly from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. This new population compence the strog emigration of locals and ensure a growing population to the city and like that participe to its development. But those new inhabitants need to be housed. The placement of a part of the workers in barracks - 30% of the employees- or in hotels involve a temporary migration. Those are poeple who doesn’t plan to stay, they come without family and doesn’t realy participate to the city life. In front of that phenomene the city looks for how to integrate them, how to offer them permanent houses and how to make of their presence a benefit for the development of Kirkenes. In an other way, the city is fully conscious that it has to keep its independence from the mining industry. A lots of development projects are planing by the politics. Expension of the port providing Kirkenes as a central point in the Barents sea with the development of shipping and fishing, development of the exchange between the cities in the area to create a stronger economy and influence of the North, development of local industries to compense the influence of the mine policy on the standart of living in Kirkenes.


Sydvaranger policy / how to attract workers

Higher local prices

Higher salaries

Survive to the mine / Diversity

500 WORKERS

MINE

Integration New residential area

Higher rents

LOCAL ECONOMY WORKERS

POPULATION

SEA INDUSTRY

King crab industry

CITY POLICY

AQUACULTURE

Shipping industry Port development

King crab industry BORDER CROSSER

CITY NETWORK

RAILWAY


Sources Northern experiments, The Barents Urban Survey 2009 _ 0047 Transborder Kirkenes _ 0047 Field of exploration, Limite of exploitation _ http://fieldsofexploration.blogspot.com/ Lectures : Barents observer _ Barents institute _ Pikene pa broen _ Sydvarenger AS World port Kirkenes group AS _ http://www.wpk.no/wpkprospect.pdf http://www.sikunews.com/News/Norway/Reopened-iron-mine-near-Kirkenes-looks-past-region-for-workers-6340 The Norwegian Barent Secretaria _ www.barents.no


FIELDS_AHO_COLLECTION_1_2012