SMALL WATER EDGE CITIES
in quiry by design in Scandinavian context
Kit Ting Karie Yu
-INTRODUCTION -THE CASE STUDY -PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES -DESIGN
Scandinavia small cities are changing rapidly as never before, yet processes are different. On one side upscaling on the order shrinking are effecting the urban space and the society that inhabit them. The thesis object is an investigating by design of the first challenge and in particular regarding water edge cities. The main moves are:
1_ select a case study area as a ground of analysis and design; 2_frame the case in the Scandinavian context providing an insight of the main trends; 3_critical analysis of best design principles and design practices as bridge between the analytical part and the design part; 4_ design exercise of the case study area;here rationalities from previous cases will be tested. The design process will adjust the lesson learned to fit the landscape potentials / limits of the Mikkeli case.
THE CHANGING SOCIETIES
Moving to cities is a global trend, small and villages cities are facing pressure of losing educated, high income and young people. While bigger cities are facing pressure of rapid expansion, small cities are at the edge of The problem is more severe in the lowly densed Scandinavian cities. The desire to create attractive extension to the Scandinavian cities is therefore growing. Small cities / towns have limited inhabitants, resources and attractions. However, the targeted growth set up by the municipality are always of significant amount compared with the existing situation. What is the way to expend? How do ensure the targeted growth? How do we take the balance between growth and sustainability? Instead of striving to grow , is there any other way out?
cities/ regions in expansion Population change in Norway and Sweden 2010-2011 source: http://www.citypopulation.de/
SCANDINAVIA IN TRANSFORMATION
Table of Population in Norwegian, Finnish and Swedish cities 1980, 1990,2000, 2011
Most of the Scandinavian cities are undergoing expansion, most of the small-medium cities has population growth for 10%-20% in the past 20 years. This constant growth is expected to continue owing to favourable economic situation, opportunities and climatic issues.
growing medium/small cities/towns shrinking medium/small cities/towns
3 KEY PRESSURES FACED BY SCANDINAVIAN CITIES:
1. FAST EXPANSION
The capitals and regional big cities are undergoing rapid growth. For Example Oslo is increasing its population 2.19 % per year. Stockholm 2.06% per year and regional hub Trondheim is 1.78 %/year. (refer to table in previous page)
1. The transformation of society from industrial to service industry leads to the reduction of importance of some post-industrial towns. People move to other cities for better job opportunities and living environment. For example, in Imartra,Finland which was industrial centre in 1970s, the population reduced from 36,378 to 28,472 in the period of 1980 to 2012.
2. It is a challenge for small cities to provide variety of job potentials, education opportunities and cultural life. People especially the young groups tend to move to big cities for better opportunities and more dynamic life style. Small towns for example Selbu in Norway are losing young generations. 3. People are moving from the north to the south for better climates. Therefore, most northern towns are shrinking while cities in the south are growing.
3. ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES
Industrial activities brought environmental problems to towns, though most of the industrial activities has stopped, the negative impacts and polluants takes centuries to recover. Kiruna, which was Swedish iron mining town was a good example. The mining activities gave rise to destruction of the ground. The population shrinked from 20,466 in 1990 to 18,148 in 2010.
THE EDGES CHANGES ALWAYS HAPPEN AT THE EDGES. Reclamation, deforestation, excavation.... change the profile of a city. Study the edges of the city in different texture, different scale and different interest.
THE EDGES OF CITY - COUNTRYSIDE URBAN- LANDSCAPE
green - water
landscape - hard surface
WATER - LAND
water - soil
water - hard surface
WATER EDGE Why is water edge important? . the edges of water and land organized the form of settlements in the city . most of the cities are waterside , the developments of cities always happen at the water edge why important? . design of water edge is crucial for upgrading quality of life in city . the edges of water and land organized the form of settlements in . water control improve environmental problems, ecology. the city . source of life . most of the cities are waterside (??%) , the developments of cities always happen at the water edge . design of water edge is crucial for upgrading quality of life in city .-IN water control TEXTURE improve environmental problems, ecology. DIFFERENT .-IN source of life DIFFERENCE SCALE -CROSS DISCIPLINE architecture and ecology
IN DIFFERENT SCALE
-THE CASE STUDY
The city of Mikkeli in Finland is selected as relevant area. Mikkeli has about 49,000 inhabitants and is located on the 61째41 degrees north, about 210 km north-east from Helsinki. Water and forests define the matrix and the basic agent of the landscape. The urban area stretches from the higher areas of the interdigitated pattern of ridges and lakes. The city has recently released a competition with an ambitious program of urban upscaling. The whole program in 370,000 m2 floor area [or other unit of measure] is about in a significant amount of the existing building stock. The main challenge is to match upscaling and sustainability. This makes it relevant as a case study. The competition is a kick off and a tool to produce specific knowledge by design on the site.
MIKKELI Mikkeli is a town and municipality in Finland with population of 48,952 (around 34,000 in the town itself ) and covers an area of 2,124.60 square kilometres (820.31 sq m) of which 424.7 sq km (164.0 sq m) is water. The population density is 28.8 inhabitants per square kilometre (75 /sq m)1 Mikkeli is a vibrant centre for the urban region and an important administrative centre on the shore of Lake Saimaa. The City of Mikkeli has set itself the strategic goal of being a modern growth centre for services and tourist attraction on the shore of Lake Saimaa.
THE CAPTAL OF THE FINNISH LAKE DISTRICT
MIKKELI – THE CAPITAL OF THE FINNISH LAKE DISTRICT The population of the City of Mikkeli is growing moderately by about 50-150 inhabitants a year. Growth is set to continue at the same rate in the future. Residents move to the city from urrounding areas following services but approximately 50% come from outside the region. The city suffers from losing some of its most highly educated residents and in the highest income groups a higher number of people are moving away from the city than are moving in. Mikkeli harbour is located on the shore of the bay of Savilahti from where it is about an hour’s journey by boat to the extensive open waters of Lake Saimaa. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries Mikkeli harbour was a busy industrial and tourist port. The transition of use of shipping to road reduced the industrial use of the harbour. Most of the industrial part has been transformed to residential use and Satamalahti is the final part of this former extensive harbour and industrial area that remains undeveloped. The city’s geographical location offers great potential for the development of shipping, tourism and recreational boat traffic. The city’s geographical location offers great potential for the development of shipping, tourism and recreational boat traffic. The desire for the area is to create a high-quality extension of the city centre and an attractive tourist destination which can be reached from as far as the Baltic Sea via the Saimaa Canal. 1
VISIONS OF MIKKELI . Compact centre, rural surroundings and lake scenery presents excellent circumstances for living, working and leisure time in the proximity and influence sphere of Helsinki metropolitan area and St.Petersburg. .The expertise in Mikkeli region consists of modern small- and medium size enterprises, and high education- and research institutes. The city of Mikkeli is a remarkable administrative centre. .Visibility and attractiveness of Mikkeli are based on high quality culture, internationality, good environmental image and on a strong history as a military headquarters. .Development and services of the Mikkeli region and province are assured by the regional municipality frame and provincial cooperation. 1
The whole city of mikkeli is undergoing transformation and is divided into 5 districts. The diploma will focus on the central part of the city, but master planning and relationship with the other districts will be take into consideration. Saimaan rantarakentamisen alueet: New developments on lake Saimaa shoreline Satamalahti (punaisella / in red) Launiala (beigellä / in beige) Pursiala (vihreällä / in green) Salosaari (sinisellä / in blue) Moiso-Kyyhkylä (keltaisella / in yellow)
. ANALYSIS ON EXISITING SITUATION . RESEARCH BY DESIGN . DESIGN BY RESEARCH
. ANALYSIS ON EXISITING SITUATION [GROUND] Landform Land porosity Hard (compact) and Soft (porous) surfaces Sunny and Shadow sides SIZE comparison to different cities [NETWORKS] Surface-water, drinking water, wastewater networks Source - (e.g. spring )- Network (e.g dentric) - Sink points (e.g. sea, treatment plant) Fluctuation (seasonal, flooding..) Pollution areas / pollutats Draw Sections Vegetation Vegetation Network (water-bodies related, fields, forests, roads, gardens, parks..) Form Basic plants composition Pollution Polluted areas Pollutants Traffic Network Fast and Slow Speed networks Relations with occupation structures (e.g road-grid and buildings, fast road and mall... )
[OCCUPATION] Plots Private- public property Built-up Settlement Patterns Building Types (block..) [ACTIVITIES] â€œSinkâ€? spaces (e.g. meeting, welfare, consumption..)
[VIEWS] Visual connections
STUDY IN DIFFERENT SCALE mapping and analysis on existing situation
10KM X 10KM big scale urban / landscape study . network and system analysis . big picture
3KM X 3KM city scaled study . mapping city space in city scale
1.5KM X 1.5KM detailed study / design . focus on targeted area
SIZE comparison with other wateredged cities
Bjorvika, Oslo, Norway
THE WATER In Mikkeli Lake Saimaa forms a long and narrow waterway which culminates in Savilahti bay and Mikkeliâ€™s harbour area. The Savilahti shoreline is bordered to the west by the Satamalahti harbour, industrial and warehouse area and to the north by the residential area of Saksala, while to the east the area is bordered by the Finnish Youth Institute, uoriso Opisto. The southern boundary of Savilahti is the main road VT 5 and the Savilahti bridge.
The shoreline of Saimma changed with the city development. The design of waterfront and connection to the city is the focus of the project.
The Savilahti shoreline contains several harbours for small boats and the area is popular with boat owners. The water is suitable for swimming but the nearest offi cial bathing beach is at the Kaihu water area. In the winter the bay freezes and a skating route and ski trails start from the harbour running down this branch of Lake Saimaa to different parts of the city.
Shoreline of Saimma
THE NETWORKS WATER Saimaa is Finland’s largest internal lake network and the central lake of the Vuoksi waterway network. The surface area of the lake is approximately 4,400 km² and it is the fourth largest freshwater natural lake in Europe. Saimaa is made up of “countless” open lakes and bays which form a maze containing a huge number of islands. The Vuoksi waterway network also extends far into Russia. The waters of Lake Saimaa descend through the rapids at Imatra into Russia and then down the River Vuoksi to Lake Ladoga and on via the River Neva to the Gulf of Finland.
TRANSPORTATION Mikkeli is a transportation hub in Eastern Finland. The City of Mikkeli is alocated on the Savonrata railway line and at the junction of the VT 5 and VT 13 highways.
3.5 HOUR TO HELSINKI
FAST SPEED NETWORKTRANSPORTATION NETWROKS Increment in traffic Improvement of fast speed networks relationship with occupation structures (eg. road-grid and buildings, fast road and pubic space)
main road secondary road bus route potential cable car route
LOW SPEED NETWORKPESDESTRIAN / CYCLING NETWORK A complete pedestrian / cycling network in the city, along the waterfront, to the greenery not only reduce carbon footprint, but also provide recreation potentials.
F -X C h a n ge
pedestrian and bicycle paths cross potential coastal paths for pedestrian and cyclists
to k lic
c u -tr a c k
THE URBAN MORPHOLOGY
u -tr a c
Study the built up settlement pattern and building type of the city, private and public properties, open spaces c
REFERENCE PROJECTS S.M.L.XL. / OMA, Ram Koolhaas
THE EDGES THE CONNECTIONS
THE CONNECTIONS THE CONNECTIONS
-PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES
A number of real-world cases will be selected and the lesson learned will be translated in a series of conceptual model for to guide the design process.
. EXAMPLES OF DESIGN PRINCIPLES
Amphibious Housing in the Netherland (P.34.40)
. REFERENCES KEY CONCEPTS:
Amsterdam / Jburg Topos
-Area-Flows -Form-Processes -Scales : small, medium, large -Layers: ground-network-occupation
PROJECTS Type: Water edges
Reed Chris / Fox River in Green Bay http://www10.aeccafe.com/blogs/arch-showcase/2011/10/15/the-citydeck-ingreen-bay-wisconsin-by-stoss-landscape-urbanism/
Barcellona, Moll de la Fusta / Manuel de Sola Morales
Toronto / West8
Oslo Bjørvika / Nicolin / in Byggekunst 2001 n. 4
Massachusetts Half-Mile /Reed Hilderbrand
Oslo Bjørvika KCAP in Byggekunst 2001 n. 4 p98-.... Bjørvika projects in Byggekunst 2001 n. 4 pp90-.... Olso Bjørvika / Bystrup Ark. in Byggekunst 2001 n. 4 pp94-.... Rotterdam / Aldo Rossi in Byggekunst 2001 n. 4 pp85 Almere / OMA Amsterdam 1 / West8 Amsterdam 2 / West 8 West 8 book 1996
Stockholm / Asplund Stockholm Hammarby-Sjöstad
Type: Connections West8 Station Rotterdam Buildings 1 / Museo scienza Spiral museum OMA Almere + Guggenheim Museum Wright + Piattaforma West8 Schiphol BOOKS / ARTICLES _Bohemen v. H.D._2004_Ecological Engeneering _Coastal and Waterfront Communities_planning principles _Bosselmann P._2011_ Metropolitan Landscape Morphology Smartguide for waterfront development http://coastalsmartgrowth.noaa.gov/smartgrowth_fullreport.pdf
EXAMPLES OF REFERENCE PROJECTS Oslo Waterfront Development Drammen Waterfront Almere / OMA Station Rotterdam / West8
Water Treatment Park in Toronto
The outcome of the competition is considered as one of the possible scenarios that responds to the `what ifÂ´ given by the competition brief . The conclusions from the competition process will be the starting point of the individual work of the thesis which may lead to a different scenario.
The competition requires 370,000 m2 of residential development and a city land-mark. What does this small medium city REALLY NEED? Designing on the municipalityâ€™s plan is a research process to understand the city, a renewed redevelopment plan will be drawn as the conclusion of the topic.