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Textbook of Field Crops Production— Foodgrain Crops VolumeI

Technical Editor

Dr Rajendra Prasad

ICAR

Directorate of Knowledge Management in Agriculture

Indian Council of Agricultural Research Krishi Anusandhan Bhavan I, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012


.V

FIRST EDITION REVISED EDITION FIRST REPRINT (REVISED EDITION) SECOND REPRINT (REVISED EDITION)

Project Director Incharge, English Editorial Unit Editor Chief Production Officer Assistant Chief Technical Officer

2002 NOVEMBER 2012 JANUARY 2014 SEPTEMBER 2014

Dr Rameshwar Singh Dr Aruna T Kumar Dr Sudhir Pradhan Dr V K Bharti Kulbhushan Gupta

All rights reserved Š 2014, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi

ISBN : 978-81-7164-116-1

Price : ? 400.00

Disclaimer The textbook contains information from very authentic and highly reliable sources. Reasonable attempts have been made to publish reliable data and information. Extensive efforts have also been made to validate the methods describedin this textbook. However, neither the scientistsinvolvednor ICAR can assume responsbility for the validity of all the materials or for the consequences arising as the result of their use.

Published by Dr Rameshwar Singh, Project Director, Directorate of Knowledge Management in Agriculture, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Krishi Anusandhan Bhavan-I, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012, lasertypeset at M/s Prini-OWorld, 2579, Mandir Lane, Shadipur, New Delhi 110 008, and printed at M/s Print Process, 225, DSIDC Complex, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase-I, New Delhi-110 020

*


Contents Foreword.

Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition Contributors 1. Rice

iii v vii xi 1

2. Wheat

65

3. Maize

98

4. Sorghum

137

5. Pearlmillet

182

6. Barley

202

7. Small millets

227

8.

248

Kharif Pulses (Pigeonpea, Greengram, Blackgram, Cowpea)

9. Rabi Pulses (Chickpea, Lentil, Peas, Lathyrus, Frenchbean)

Appendix I Appendix II Index Contents for Volume II

320 379 380 382 394


1 Rice Rajendra Prasad, Y.S. Shivay, Dinesh Kumar and J. Pandey

-

*

V

Rice (Oryza sativa L.), grown in India and South east Asia is a plant of Asian origin. Archaeological findings of the Indus-Saraswati civilization point out that rice was eaten in the advanced Mesoloithic or pre-Neolithic period (c. 8080 ±115 BC) at Chopani Mando. Rice grains were also found at Mahagara (c. 5440 ± 240 BC) and rice husk was found to have been used as pottery temper at Koldiwal (c. 6570 ± 210 BC). All these three locations are in central Uttar Pradesh (Nene, 2005). Rice was also found to be grown in Neolithic Chirand in North Bihar (2000-1300 BC) and in Hastinapur (1100-800 BC) and some other places (Raedhawa. 1980). The Jeypore tract of Odisha has been established as the centre of origin of Oryza sativa, the cultivated rice in India (Mishra, 2009). The word Oryza is most likely of Indian origin (Vrihi - Sanskrit and arise' Tamil) (Nene, 2005 ). No wonder 90% of the world's area under rice is in Asia and also about 90% of world’s rice is produced and consumed in Asia. In 2009, rice was grown over about 150 million ha in the entire world, out of which 132 million ha was in Asia (Table 1.1). Five countries having more than 10 million ha rice area, namely India, China, Indonesia,Thailand and Bangladesh, are in South and Southeast Asia and make up a little over two-thirds of the total area under rice. Again, out of total world rice production of 685 million metric tonnes, 590 million metric tonnes was produced in Asia in 2009. India, the country having the largest rice area in the world had only 40.5% of the productivity reached in the USA and 48.5% of that in China during 2009. The area, production and productivity of rice in different states of India is given in Table 1.2. A large number of factors such as drought, lodging, weeds, soil acidity/sodicity, poor soil fertility, insect-pests, diseases, rodents etc. are responsible for these low yields and their contribution to the yield loss varies from ecosystem to ecosystem. However, the major factor is too much or not enough water at some critical stage of the rice crop. Percentage irrigated area under rice in eastern India is only 30 as against nearly 100 in Punjab and Western Uttar Pradesh, the latter forms the backbone of country’s selfsufficiency in foodgrains. Also eastern India has country’s 90% area under rainfed uplands, where droughts occur frequently. High-yielding varieties with multiple disease and pest resistance for this region are yet not available and where available enough seed is not produced to meet the demand. The socio-


Textbook of Field Crops Production — Foodgrain Crops

2

Table 1.1 Area, production and yield of rice in major rice-producing countries (2009)

Continent/country

Area (million ha)

Production Yield (million tonnes) (tonnes/ha)

Asia

Bangladesh China India Indonesia Japan Mynamar

Pakistan Philippines Thailand Vietnam Korea, Rep of Europe Italy Spain Russian Fed. Africa Egypt North America USA South America Brazil World total

11.4 29.9 41.9 12.9 1.6 8.0 2.9 4.5 11.0 7.4 0.9

47.7 196.7 133.7 64.4 10.6 32.7 10.3 16.3 31.5 38.9 7.0

4.2 6.6 3.2 5.0 6.5

0.24 0.12 0.18

1.5 0.9 0.9

6.3 7.5 5.1

0.75

7.5

10.0

1.3

10.0

7.9

2.9 158.3

12.7 685.24

4.4 4.3

4.1

3.6 3.6 2.9 5.2 7.6

Source: FAI (2011)

economic situation in this part of the country is not good and rice farmers have very little funds of their own and the credit availability is also meagre. During the triennium ending 2008-09 the per caput income (?/annum) was 45,114 in Punjab, while it was only ? 12,740 in Bihar. Similarly, during 2007-08 flow of institutional agriculture credit (f/ha) was 46,593 in Punjab as against ? 8,880 in Bihar (NAAS, 2010). This keeps rate of application of fertilizer and other agricultural inputs very low and the potential of available rice varieties is not attained. For increasing the productivity of rice in India, this region deserves full attention of the state governments and scientists. TAXONOMY AND CLASSIFICATION Cultivated rice belongs to family Poaceae (Graminae), sub-family Bamboosoideae, tribe Oryzeae. The genus Oryz.a has been divided into four species complexes: 1. Sativa complex, 2. Officinalis complex, 3. Meyeriana complex and 4. Ridley complex (Khush, 2005). The chromosome number, genomic composition and geographical distribution of different Oryza complexes are given in Table 1.3. The spikelet and its structure is the major criterion in species classification.


Rice Table 1.2

3

Rice area, productivity (clean rice) and fertilizer (N+P205+K20) consumption in some states of India (2009-10)

State

Rice area (1,000 ha)

Productivity (tonnes/ha)

Fertilizer (kg N+P205+

K20/ha)

North Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Punjab Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand South Andhra Pradesh

Karnataka Kerala Tamil Nadu West Gujarat Madhya Pradesh Chhattishgarh Maharashtra Rajasthan East Arunacbal Pradesh Asom Bihar Jharkhand Manipur Mizoram Meghalaya Nagaland Sikkim Odisha Tripura West Bengal Total (India)

1,205 77 260 2,802 5,187 294

3.0 1.4 1.9 4.0 2.1 2.1

3,441 1,487 234 1,846

3.1

221.4

2.5 2.6 3.1

166.4 98.3 205.5

679 1,446 3,671 1,470 151

1.9 0.9 1.1 1.5 1.5

155.5 80.4 94.5 138.7 47.1

122 2,496 3,214 995 169 47

1.7 1.1 1.5 1.9

108 169 13 4,365 246 5,630 41,918

1.8

0.9 1.9 1.4 1.9 1.6 2.6 2.5 2.1

209.1 56.9 98.2 235.8 166.9 130.7

3.0 60.8 168.0 99.1 51.0 57.6 10.9 2.3 Not available 57.3 48.1 167.8 127.2

Source: FAI (2011)

Oryza sativa complex (the cultivated rice) is briefly discussed. It has two cultivated species, namely O. sativa and O. glaberrima. O. sativa, the Asian rice is grown worldwide, while O. glaberrima Steud. is grown on limited acreage in a few African countries. The O. sativa has two wild species, namely O. nivara an annual and O. rufipogon a perennial (Sharma and Shastry, 1965). O. meridionalis (also named as O. australiensis) is distributed across tropical Australia. O. glumaepatula a wild species related to O. rufipogon is found in


Textbook of Field Crops Production — Foodgrain Crops

4

Table 1.3. Chromosome number, genome distribution of Oryza species Species Oryza sativa complex O. sativa L. O. nivara Sharma & Shastry

2n

AA AA

O. rufipogon Griff.

24

AA

O. breviiiguiata A. Chev. & Rohr. O. glaberrima Steud. O. longistaminata A. Chev & Rohr. O. meridionalis Ng O. glumaepatula Steud.

24 24

AA AA AA

O. officinalis complex O. punctata Kotschy ex Steud. O. minulata J.S. Pesl.

ex C.B. Presl. O. offinalis Wall. ex Watt O. rhizomatis Vaughan O. eichinegri A.Peter O. latifolia Desv. O. alta Swallen O. grandiglumis (Deoil) Prod. O. australiensis Domin. O. meyeriana complex O. granulata Nees & Am.ex Watt O. meyeriana (Zoll. & Meritzi) Baill. O. ridleyi complex O. longiglumis Jansen O. ridleyi Hook.f. Unknown genomes O. grachyantha (A.Chev. & Rohr.) O. schlechteri Pilger

Source: Khush (2005)

24 24

AA

AA

24,48 BB. 48

BBCC BBCC

24

CC

24 24 48

CC CC

and

geographical

Distribution

Genome

24 24

24

composition

Worldwide Tropical and Sub-tropical Tropical and Sub-tropical Asia, Tropical Australia Africa West Asia Africa Tropical Australia South and Central America

Africa

48

CCDD CCDD

48

CCDD

Philippines and Papua New Guinea Tropical and Sub-tropical Asia and Tropical Australia Sri Lanka South Asia and East Africa South and Central America South and Central America South and Central America

24

EE

Tropical Australia

24

GG

South and Southeast Asia

24

GG

Southeast Asia

48

HHJJ

Java,Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

48

HHJJ

South Asia

24

FF

Africa

48

Unknown Papua New Guinea


Rice

5

Latin America. O. glaberrima is distinguished from O. sativa by its short, grounded ligules, panicles lacking secondary branches and almost glabrous lemma and palea. The perennial and annual relatives of O. glaberrima are O. longistaminata and O. breviligulata respectively. For a discussion on other Oryza complexes, reference may be please made to Khush (2005). O. glaberrima was domesticated in Africa about 3,500 years ago. It was prone to lodging and its panicles had shattering problem. To overcome these problems, O, sativa was introduced in Africa some 450 years ago. O. sativa gave higher yields and has spread steadily in Africa. However, some O. glaberrima varieties, such as, CG 14 are more weed competitive, resistant to iron toxicity, drought, nematodes, waterlogging and major African rice diseases and pests. They also adapt better to acid soils and to soils low in phosphorus. Efforts are therefore underway to develop crosses between O. glaberrima and O. sativa since 1990’s. These new rices are known as NERICA (New Rice for Africa). The best NERICA varieties combine the stress tolerance of O. glaberrima and high yield potential of O. sativa (Mohapatra, 2010). The weedy types of rice have been given various names such as O. fatua/ O. spontanea in Asia and O. stapfil in Africa. The weedy rices have generally red endosperm and are therefore known as red rice. Dependong on location, these weedy types may be closely related to O. rufipogon and/or O. nivara in Asia and to O. longistaminata or O. breviligulata in Africa. Cultivated varieties of O. sativa are further grouped into three ecotypes: indica, japonica and javanica. Indicas are grown throughout the tropics and subtropics. Traditional indicas are charactrized by tall stature, weak stem, droopy leaves, high tillering and do not respond to high input conditions. Japonicas are limited to temperate zone. However, because of high returns, the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) has developed two varieties of japonica suitable for tropics, which are NSIC Rcl70 or IRRI 142 (now called MS11) and NSCIC Rc220 or IRRI 152 for large-scale cultivation in the Philippines (Kang, 2010). Japonicas respond well to intensive crop management due to short stature and sturdy stem, narrow, erect and dark green leaves. Javanicas are grown mainly in parts of Indonesia. They have fewer tillers, tall stature with sturdy stem, long panicles and long bold grains.

VARIETAL IMPROVEMENT Systematic varietal improvement began at Rice Research Station, Dhaka (now in Bangladesh) in 1911 with pure line selections (Singh, 1999). Later on, rice breeding and genetic research work was taken up at many other centres simultaneously. During the second world war large-scale food shortage resulted in the establishment of the Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI) at Cuttack in 1946. This was the centre for indica-japonica hybridization programme. The seed of these crosses was made available to different research stations. ADT 27 and Mahsuri in India and Malinga in Malaysia were developed under indica-

F2

japonica hybridization programme. All India Coordinated Rice Improvement Project (AICRIP) was established in 1965 at Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. Meanwhile, the IRRI was established at


Textbook of Field Crops Production — Foodgrain Crops

6

Los Banos in the Philippines. Introduction of Taichung Native 1 (TN 1) and IR 8 during 1965-66 proved a turning point in rice breeding. Utilizing these varieties, a good number of high-yielding varieties were developed in the seventies. At present, 125 rice research stations representing 28 state agricultural universities are working on all aspects of rice. Some of the popular varieties developed before 1960 are given in Table 1.4. Table 1.4

Some of the popular varieties developed before 1960 in India

State

Popular variety

Andhra Pradesh West Bengal Bombay Madhya Pradesh Tamil Nadu Odisha Punjab Uttar Pradesh

MTU 1, MTU 15, HR 19 Chinsurah 7 Kolamba strains Hybrid 2, Hybrid 18, Dubraj GEB 24 m, Co 2, Co 25, Co 26, ASD 1 T 141, SR 26 B Basmati 370 T 136, N 22

Source: Krishnaiah (1998)

Enhancing and stabilizing the grain yield potential with suitable plant type in different ecological conditions is the major objective of a plant breeding programme. For assured areas of irrigation and drainage a semi-dwarf plant (90110 cm) with sturdy stem, high and synchronous tillering ability, relatively erect dark green leaves, and high grain number seems to perform better. In rainfed lowland situations plants with a height of 120-140 cm with sturdy stem perform better. Quick growing, early maturing, relatively taller plant performs well under upland conditions (Chang, 1972). In rice-based cropping systems varieties maturing in 90-110, 115-125 and 135-140 days fit well. After grain yield, grain quality has been the most important consideration. If a variety has poor rough rice (paddy) appearance and its low milling outturn and texture and taste is not acceptable to consumers, it will have no future. Milled rice with complete transluscent grain is preferred. The opaque areas in a transluscent endosperm are known as white belly. Rice possesses enormous variability for grain length. Preferences for grain shape (ratio of length and breadth) vary from place to place. A reasonably useful classification for evaluating the breeding lines for grain quality based on length, width and shape is given in Table 1.5. Table 1.5

Classification of grain quality based on length and shape of milled rice

Designation

Length (mm)

Extra long Long Medium Short

7.50+ 6.61-7.50 5.51-6.60 -5.50

Scale

Source: Jennings et at. (1979)

1 3 5 7

Shape Slender Medium Bold Round

Length : width ratio

Scale

3.0+ 2.1-3.0 1.1-2.0 -1.1

1 3 5 9


Rice

7

Medium slender, medium bold, short bold and round-type grains without belly when milled at 14% moisture do not easily break and have high head rice recovery (percentage of unbroken rice and 3/4th size in a milled rice sample). High brown rice percentage and its colour are equally important. Varieties differ greatly in kind and intensity of aroma. Inheritance of aroma has been studied by several researchers. Grain cooking and eating standards vary considerably from region to region. Milled rice with long slender translucent grain with or without aroma, high volume expansion during cooking (made up by linear kernel elongation), fluffiness (non-sticky and tender), firm texture of cooked kernel, appealing taste and longer shelf-life are preferred in the domestic and international market. Pusa 1121 is an example of high-yielding scented and foodgrain quality rice variety. In the japonica-gromng regions, there is preference for sticky rice. After the advent of semi-dwarf high-yielding varieties in the mid-sixties, rice breeding programme in the country was put on a sound footing. A good number of varieties combining earliness, resistance to biotic and abiotic stress and grain quality have been developed. Table 1.6 lists high-yielding rice varieties developed and available for different regions of India. Hybrid rice Rice is a self-pollinated crop. In the absence of any cytoplasmic malesterile (CMS) lines and restorer system the idea of hybrid rice did not come, until Chinese rice breeders found a sterile wild rice plant in Hunan province in mid-sixties and developed CMS lines utilizing the wild cytoplasm. This cytoplasm was named as wild abortive (WA). By mid-seventies utilizing the IRRI varieties, IR 24, IR 26 as restorers successful hybrids were released for commercial cultivation in China, giving 20-30% higher yield than their best local varieties. The CMS lines developed in China were also made available to other rice-growing countries through the IRRI in 1980. Chinese hybrids did not do well under Indian conditions due to poor quality grains, susceptibility to disease and pests and lower yield than the conventionally bred best varieties. Rice breeders in the IRRI and India developed their own CMS lines using WA cytoplasm. Some of the rice hybrids developed in India are listed in Table 1.7. Hybrid rice development is a two-step process as shown in Fig. 1.1 and such hybrids are known as three-line hybrids. Area under hybrid rice in India has increased from 10,000 ha in 1995 to 1,100,000 ha (1.1 million ha) (Agriculture Today, May 2009 issue), which is about 2.5% of the total area under rice in India. As a contrast more than 50% of area under rice in China is under hybrids (Barclay, 2007). Chinese researchers are now developing single breeding step lines (known as two-line hybrids). These are called as super rice hybrids and yield on average 10% higher than three-line hybrids; or a 30-40% more yield than the conventional high-yielding rice varieties (Barclay, 2007).

GM ‘Golden Rice’ GM (Genetically modified) foods originate from a variety of plants, animals


8

Textbook of Field Crops Production - Foodgrain Crops

//

X

r

4

Cytoplasmic male-sterile line*

\

Maintainer line

?/

A

Cytoplasmic male-sterile line*

4

X

'//

V

Restorer line

Commercial hybrid rice Fig, 1.1. Production of three-line hybrid rice varieties ( Source: Barclay, 2007)

and micro-organisms as a result of recombinant DNA technology (Ammann, 2000), which involves transfer of genes from known species into the foodproducing species. One of the well-known GM rice is ‘Golden Rice’, which has been engineered to express j3-carotene by introducing a combination of genes that code for the biosynthetic pathway for production of pro-vitamin A (13carotene) in the endosperm (Ye et ai, 2000). GM rice has also been developed


Rice Table 1.6

9

Popular high-yielding rice varieties for different ecosystems and riceÂŹ growing situations in India

Ecosystem or rice-growing situation

Varieties

Rainfed upland

Tuiasi, Aditya, Prasanna, Rasi, Satya, Rudrama, PNR 381, Birsadhan101, Birsadhan 104, Birsadhan 105, Birsadhan 201, Birsadhan 202, Heera, Kanchan, Kalinga III, Annada, GR 2, GR 5, GR 6, GR 8, Himdhan, Nagardhan, VLK Dhan, VL Dhan 221, RP 2421, Himalaya 741, Himalaya 2216, Amrut, Mukti, IET 7564, Suvarna, Modan, Onam, JR 75, R 281-31-1, Tuljapur 4, Ratnagiri 73-1-41, Teena, Kranti, Ngoba, Parijat, Pathara, Kalyani II, Sattari, Neela, Rudra, Vanaprabha, Khandagiri, Nilagiri, Ghanteswari, Sneha, Patnai 23, Aswani, Renu, Saket 4, Narendradhan 18, Narendradhan 80, Narendradhan 97, Narendradhan 118, Khitish, Kiron, Bhupen, Anjali, Pantdhan 16, Somasila, Varalu, Danteshwari, Birsadhan 108, Birsadhan 110, Chingam, Harsha, Rashmi, Bha Lum 1, Bha Lum2, Naveen, Siddhanta, Vandana, Baranideep, PNR 519, ADT(R) 48, NDR 1045-2, Virendra, Shivam. Manasarovar, Swarndhan, Phalguna, Mandya Vijaya, Nandi, Swarna, Sambamahsuri, Pinakini, Krishnaveni, Thikkana, Chaitanya, Pothans, Orugaliu, Sri Nanga, Sagarasamba, Simhapuri, Laksmi, Salivahana, Bahadur, Kushal, Ranjit, Manoharsali, Mahsuri, Moniram Katekijoha, Rangili, Bhogali, Pankaj, Savitri, Sita, Jayashree, Janaki, Radha, CR 1002, Rajashree, Kanak, Vaidehi, Hemavathi, Nathravathi, IET 7191, Abhilash Intan, KPH 2, Neerja, Rashmi, Kayamkulam, Shyamalu, Sotril 7, Kranti, Surekha, Mahamaya, Ratnagiri 2, SYE,75, SYEER 1, Dama, Ratnairi 3, R 374-11, Jagannath, NEH Megha Rice I, NEH Megha Rice 2, Rajeswari, Seema, Parijat, CR 1014, Jajati, Urbashi, Samalei, Pratap, Saradhi, Gauri, Daya, Mahalakshmi, Lakhmi,Savitri, Madhukar, Jauyalakshmi, Suresh, Dinesh, Biraj, Bipsa, IR 42, Dhanarasi, Deepti, Godavari, Surya, Tholakari, Vedagiri, Rajendra Mashuri 1, Birsamati, KMP5, Sharavathi, Lam Pnah 1 , SKL 8, Shah Sarangl , Jagabandhu, ADT 44, Giri, Shashi, Ketekiojha. Amulya, Nalini, Jogen sabita, Biraj, Jaladhi I, Suha, Jaiadhi 2, Vaidehi, Jalmagna, Rambha, Utkal Prabha, Manika, Mahalaxmi, Kanchan, Panidhan, FR 13A, Jallahri, Jalnidhi, Jalapriya, Jitendra, Madhukar, Chakia 59, Natina, Mandira, Mahalakshmi, Purendu, Bapatla Sannalu, Bhageerathi, Uphar, Hemavathi, Eriemaphou, Durga, Budeb, Mahanada. Rasi, Vikas, Telia Hamsa, Prabhat, Abhaya, Rajendra, Divya, Sasyashree, Bhaddrakaii, Suraksha, IR 64, Ajaya, Vikramarya, Vibhava, Satua, Saleem, Surekha, Kavya, Erramalleu, Pusa 2-21, Pusa 44, Gautam, CR 1002, Archna, Rajendradhan 201, Rajendradhan 202, Jaya, Vikram, Karjat 2, Karjat 3, Ratnagiri 3, Sugandha, Ambika, Jaya, Narmada, Ratna, IR 20, IR 36, HR 4, Gaur 10, GR 102, GR 103, HKR 102, Haryana Basmati, Tarori Basmati, Basmati 370 , Pusa 44, Pusa Basmati 1, Kasturi PR 103,

Rainfed shallow lowland

Semi-deep and deep water situation

Irrigated

Table 1.6 contd


10

Textbook of Field Crops Production — Foodgrain Crops

Table 1.6

concluded

Ecosystem or rice-growing situation

Saline areas

Alkaline areas: post-flood situation Hilly regions

Varieties

HKR 126, RP 732, Himalaya 732, Ranbir Basmati, Jhelum, K 7813, SKAU 23, SKAU 27, Akash, Avinash, Kama, Mahaveer, Prakash, Vikram, Vidhava, Sonasali, IR 30864, Red Annapurna, Mandya Vani, Triveni, Jyothi, Pavizkhani, Athira, Kartika, Makom, Sabari, Jayathi, Kanchana, Swarnaprabha, Aishwarya, Aruna, Remya, Konakam, Mata Triveni, Kairali, Ruchi, Mahamaya, Patel 85, Madhuri Pawana, Sugandha, Punshi, Maniphouibi 1, Manephouibi 2, IR 8, PR 106, PR 109, PR 108, Basmati 385, PR 111, Bharatidasan, Jawahar, Aravinder, Punithavathi, Savitri, Puduvai Ponni, BK 79, BK 190, Mahisugandha, IR 50, TKM 9, PMK 1, ADT 36, ADT 37, IR 20, Co 41, Co 43, Co 44, TPS 1, MDU 2, MDU 3, ADT 39, ADT 42, JJ 92, ASD 17, White Ponni, Ponni, Paiyur 1, ADT 40, Co 42, Co 45, TRC Boro Dhan, Saket 4, Sarjoo 52, Narendradhan 359, Govind, Madhukar, Jayalakshmi, Suresh, Dinesh, Biraj, Bipsa, IR 42, Givind, Pantdhan 4, Pantdhan 6, Pantdhan 10, Pantdhan 12, Manhar, Narendradhan 2, Kunti, Lakhmi, Munal, Pusa Sugandh 2, Pusa Sugandh 3, Pusa Sugandh 4 (Pusa 1121), Pusa Sugandh 5 (Pusa 2511), PR 114, PR 116. CST 71, Lunishree, CSR 10, Panvel 1, Panvel 2, Vytilla, Vytilla 3, Vytilla 4, CSR 5. (a) Early receding of floods: Pankaj, Biraj, Andrewsali,Prafulla. (b) Chronically flood-affected areas: Andrewsali, Biraj, Manoharsali, KMJ 1-19-1, KMJ 1-17-2, Gitesh, Prafulla. (c) Late receeding of floods: Vikas, Heera, Luit, Kalinga III, Sattari. Pantdhan 1, Majhera 3, VL Dhan 39, VL Dhan 163, VL Dhan 206, VL Dhan 221.

Sources: Krishnaiah (1998), Siddiq (2006), Routray (2007), Singh (2006) Table 1.7 Hybrid

Some rice hybrids developed in India

Developed by

Basmati type IARI, New Delhi PRH 10 Suruchi 5901 Mahyco Non-basmati type DRRH 1 DRR, Hyderabad APHR 1 Andhra Pradesh APHR 2 Andhra Pradesh Narendra Sankar NDUAT, Faizabad Dhan 2 Pant Sankar GBPUAT, Pantnagar Dhan 1 Pro-Agro Pro-Agro Seed Co. Mahyco 504 Mayhco Seed Co. JK 6004 Ganga Kaveri Seed Major source: Kumar et al. (2007)

Duration (days)

Expected yield (tonnes/ha)

130-135 115

6.0 6.0

125-130 130-130 130-135 130-135

7.0 7.0

120-125

6.0

115-120 120-125 120-125

8.0 6.5 6.0

7.5 7.0


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