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Radish Area Under Cultivation The main radish growing states are West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Punjab and Assam.

Botanical Name : Raphanus sativus Family : Cruciferae Plant Discription : It is an annual or biennial herb having rosette leaves and bearing a swollen root which is the economic part.

Centre of origin : Mediterranean region Pollination system : Cross pollinated Chromosome no : 2n=18 Nutritional Levels : Moisture (%)

Protein (%)

Fat (%)

Mineral matter (%)

Fibre (%)

Carbohydrate (%)

Calories (K Cal)

90.8

0.6

0.3

0.9

0.6

6.8

32

Phosphorus (mg/100g)

Potassium (mg/100g)

Calcium (mg/100g)

Magnesium (mg/100g)

Iron (mg/100g)

Sodium (mg/100g)

Copper (mg/100g)

20

10

50

196

0.37

63.5

0.07

Manganese (mg/100g)

Zinc (mg/100g)

Sulphur (mg/100g)

Chlorine (mg/100g)

Molybdium (mg/100g)

Cromium (mg/100g)

0.15

0.68

0

0

0

0.009

Carotene (mg/100g)

Thiamine (mg/100g)

Riboflavin (mg/100g)

Niacin (mg/100g)

Vitamin C (mg/100g)

Choline (mg/100g)

Folic acid-Free (mg/100g)

3

0.06

0.02

0.4

17

0

0

Minerals

Vitamins

Folic acid- Total (mg/100g) 0


Radish Diseases Alternaria Blight (Alternaria raphani): The pathogen affects leaves, stem, pods and seeds. Symptoms of the disease first appear on the leaves of seed stem in the form of small, yellowish, slightly raised lesions. Lesions appear later on the stems and seed pods. Infection spreads rapidly during rainy weather, and the entire pod may be so infected that the styler end becomes black and shrivelled. The fungus penetrates in pod tissues, ultimately infecting the seeds. The infected seed fails to germinate. Control: Though hot water treatment of the seed kills the fungus, use of diseases- free seeds is recommended. Regular spraying with Difolatan (0.3%) or Dithane M 45 (0.2%) or Ridomil (0.1%) controls the disease effectively.

White Rust (Albugo candida): Disease attacks the leaves and flowering shoots. Affected flowering shoots get deformed and bear only malformed flowers. White powdery substance in patches is observed on the under surface of the leaves. Control: Clean cultivation and use of resistant varieties help to prevent the disease. Regular spraying with Dithane Z 78 (0.2%) effectively controls the disease.

Root Rot of Radish (Erwinia rhapontici) It is a bacterial disease, which spreads through implements and irrigation water. Symptoms appear as rotting of pith tissues resulting in cavity formation and wilting of plants. The disease spreads when the roots are transplanted for seed production. Control: Dipping of the seeds in a solution of Agrimycin-100 (100 ppm) at the time of sowing is effective in checking the disease.

Radish Mosaic Virus (RMV): The symptoms first appear as small, circular to irregular, chlorotic lesion in between and adjacent to the veins. Little or no leaf distortion is noticed and stunting or abnormal formation rarely occurs. It is transmitted through aphids. Control: The disease can be effectively checked by controlling aphids with 2-3 foliar sprays of either Dimecron (0.05%) or Monocrotophos (0.05%) at 10 days interval.

Radish Phyllody: The disease is transmitted by jassid Orosius albicinctus. The diseased plant assumes a dull grey to light violet colouration. The symptoms of the disease appear at the time of flowering when all the floral parts become green violet and leafy. The sepals and petals become green thick knob headed leaves. Generally, the whole plants show symptoms of the disease. If the infection occurs at an early stage of growth in the nursery then the whole plant is affected. Control: One or two sprays of Monocrotophos (0.05%) or Phosphamidon (0.05%) or Oxydemetan Methyl (0.02%) is done to eradicate the jassids - the vector of the virus. Soil application of Thimet 10-G (1.5 kg a.i./ha) is also recommended. The application of Thimet should be followed by irrigation.


Radish Harvesting The edible roots become ready for harvesting in about 25-60 days depending on the variety. The temperate types reach harvest maturity 25-30 days after seed sowing while tropical varieties require longer period. At the time of harvest, the roots should not be pithy or solid. Crop is harvested manually by uprooting individual plant. A light irrigation may be given a day before harvesting to facilitate lifting of roots.

Yield The average yield of Asiatic cultivars ranged between 25-35 t/ha in 40-60 days while the temperate varieties yield 15-20 t/ha in 35-40 days.


Radish Intercultural Operations Intercultural operations like weeding and hoeing are necessary to check the weed growth and provide soil aeration for better growth and yield. During rainy season, two weddings are required to keep the growth of weeds under check. In radish, the growing roots tend to push out of the soil surface. Therefore, earthing up and weeding during the early stages of growth are necessary for proper development of quality roots.


Radish Irrigation The irrigation cycle depends upon season, type of soil and amount of organic matter present in soil. The first irrigation is given immediately after sowing. Depending upon the planting season and the available soil moisture, radish may be irrigated at 10-12 days interval during winter and 5-6 days interval during summer.


Radish Manuring & Fertilization The fertilizer dose depends upon the fertility of soil and amount of organic manure applied to the crop. For a good yield, 15-20 tonnes of well-decomposed FYM is incorporated into the soil. Generally, application of 50-100 kg N, 100kg P2O5 and 50 kg K2O is recommended for optimum yield. Half dose of N and full dose of P and K is given at the time of planting. The balance half of N is given 30 days after planting. As the feeder roots are well distributed in 25cm layer therefore, fertilizers should be ploughed to a depth of 25cm, particularly in dry weather, instead of applying them on the soil surface.


Radish Pests Aphids (Myzus persicae, Brevicoryne brassicae, Lipaphis erysimi) The pest attacks both the seedlings as well as the mature crop. The nymphs and adults suck the cell sap and devitalize plants. Affected parts become discolored and malformed. High humidity favours rapid multiplication of this pest. The aphids are mostly observed on the lower surface of the leaves. Control: Spraying of Monocrotophos (0.05%) or Malathion (0.1%) at 10-15 days interval contains aphid population effectively. To prevent recurrence of the pest granular insecticides like Phorate @ 1.0 kg a.i./ha should be applied to soil.

Mustard Sawfly (Athalia proxima) It is a serious pest of radish. The pest attack is observed in the vegetative and flowering stage of the crop. The adult female lays eggs inside the leaf tissue. The grubs after hatching from the eggs feed on the leaves by making small holes. Control: Hand picking of larvae when the area involved is small, or spraying with Malathion 50 EC (1ml/litre of water) twice at an interval of 10 days is recommended.


Radish Post Harvest Technology Grading Harvested roots are washed and graded according to size and tied into bunches along with the tops. The radish should ideally, be of uniform and similar shape for the variety, well formed, smooth, firm but of tender texture. It should also be free from harvest damage, decay, disease or insects. Bunched radish tops should be fresh in appearance and turgid.

Packaging Normally the produce is sent to the market loose or sometimes it is packed in gunny bags.

Storage Radish cannot be stored at room temperature for more than 2-3 days. However in cold storage, O topped radish if packed in polybag with few holes for aeration, can be stored at 0 C with 90-95 % relative humidity for about 2 months.


Radish Planting Land preparation : The land should be thoroughly ploughed so that the clods do not interfere with the root development. Well decomposed FYM (15-20 t/ha) is mixed at the time of land preparation. Application of fresh undecomposed FYM should be avoided as it leads to forking of the fleshy roots.

Season of Planting : The crop is sown during winter from September to January, in the plains from 1st September-1st December and in the hills from June September. In the mild climate of peninsular India, radish can be grown almost all the year round except few summer months. The best sowing time in South India is from April to June.

Method of Planting : For regular supply of fresh and tender roots, the sowing should be staggered and done at 15 or 20 days interval. The seed rate of 10-12 kg/ha is recommended. Radish is a usually grown on ridge to facilitate good root development. The seeds of tropical varieties are sown at a spacing of 45 x 8 cm while a spacing of 20-30 x 8 cm is recommended for temperate varieties.


Radish Soil & Climate Soil: Radish is ideally grown on light, friable sandy-loam soils which are rich in humus and having a pH range between 6.0-7.0. Heavy soils should be avoided as they produce rough, malformed roots with number of small fibrous laterals.

Climate: Radish is very specific in its climatic requirements especially, temperature. Radish is predominantly suited to a cool or moderate climate. A long day as well as high temperature results in boltings before proper root development. Also, the roots become hard, pithy and pungent before reaching maturity. It develops best flavour, texture and size at cooler temperatures between 100 15 C.


Radish Varieties Asiatic Types or tropical types :

Pusa Desi It is a subtropical cultivar, suitable for sowing from middle of August to October in the northern plains Roots are pure white, 30-35 cm long, tapering with green stem end, It matures in 50-55 days after sowing. Suitable for sowing in northern India from mid-August to mid- October.

Pusa Chetki This variety has wider adaptability and can tolerate high temperature. Suitable for growing mid- March to mid- August in northern and central parts of India. In southern and western parts of India It can be grown throughout the year. Roots are medium long, stumpy, pure white, mildly pungent and mature in 40-45 days. It is grown as a summer and monsoon crop from April September.

Pusa Reshmi The roots are 30-45cm long, white with green tinge on top. Suitable for early sowing from midSeptember to mid-November but it can tolerate slightly higher temperature. Roots are ready for harvesting in about 55- 60 days.

Japanese White The roots are cylindrical 25-30 cm long and 5 cm in diameter, skin pure white, flesh crisp, solid and mildly flavoured. Suitable for growing between October- December in the plains and July September in the hills. Crop matures in 60-65 days.

Punjab Safed Roots are white tapering, smooth, mild in taste, free of forking, 30-40 cm in length and 3-5 cm thick. Crop matures in 50-60 days. Suitable for sowing in September-October. It is a quick growing type with roots remaining edible for 10 days after attaining full size.

Kalianpur No. 1 Roots 20-23 cm long, white with green shoulder.

Nadauni Roots are long, light pink, popular in Himachal Pradesh.

Arka Nishant Roots are long, marble white, resistant to pithiness and pre- mature bolting. Chinese Pink Roots 1215 cm long, semi-stumpy to stumpy, pink with white colour towards the tip. The skin is shining red and smooth and the flesh is white, crisp, solid and mildly pungent. Crop matures in 50-55 days.


European types or temperate types :

Pusa Himani Sowing is done in northern plains from December February. Roots are 30-35 cm in length and 1012 cm in diameter. Rots are pure white with green stem end. They are semi-stump to tapering with short tops. The skin is pure white, the flesh is crisp and sweet- flavoured with mild pungency. Crop matures in 55 days. It is the only variety, which can be grown throughout the year in the hills except for winter months from November-January.

White Icicle It is a medium short European table variety, which matures in 25-30 days. The roots are 12-15 cm long, 2-3 cm in diameter. Sowing time from mid-October to February. The skin is pure white, while the flesh is icy white, juicy and sweet- flavoured. Suitable for kitchen garden.

Rapid Red White Tipped It is an extra early European Table type, which matures in 25-30 days. The roots are smooth, small, round, bright red with white tip, flesh pure white crisp and snappy. Sowing time from midOctober to February

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