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Jasmine Area Under Cultivation In India, jasmines are cultivated throughout the country but the commercial cultivation is confined to Coimbatore, Madurai, and Dindigul(Tamil Nadu); Bangalore, Bellary, Mysore and Kolar (Karnataka); Knnauj, Jaunpur and Gazipur (Utter Pradesh); Udaipur, Jaipur, Ajmer and Kota (Rajasthan); Ranaghat, Kolaghat, Pancskura (West Bengal); parts of Andhra Pradesh and Maharastra.

Botanical Name:- Jasminum grandiflorum /J. sambac Family:- Oleaceae Plant Discription:It is a climbing, trailing and erect shrub; there are both evergreen and deciduous species with pinnate or simple leaves and fragnant flowers containing the oil of commerce.

Centre of Origin:- Spain and surrounding areas / East indies Pollination System:- Cross pollinated Chromosome No:- 2n=26,39


Jasmine Diseases Leaf-blight (Cercospora jasminicola and Alternaria jasmini) This disease occurs in a severe form on J. grandiflorum. Reddish-brown, circular spots are produced on the upper surface of the leaves, spreading rapidly in the rainy season. The infected leaves curl and start drying from the margins. Even the young shoots dry up. In severe cases of infection, vegetative buds and young branches dry up. The flower production is very much reduced in infected plants. Control : Spraying of 0.4% Benlate solution, 0.2% Dithane M-45 or 0.1% Bordeaux mixture has been found effective in control of the disease.

Rust (Urornyces hobsoni) Rust occurs on all the aerial parts of the plants including flowers. Yellowish orange coloured pustules appear on the lower side of the leaves and also on young twigs and flowers buds. The infected parts become distorted. Control : The disease can be controlled by pruning the branches or spraying Copper Oxychloride (0.3%) or Mancozeb (0.2%). Sulphur at the rate of 20-25 kg/ha is also useful.

Wilt (Fusarium solani) The disease occurs in patches and the roots turn black. In the case of sclerotial wilt, in addition to the above symptoms, white mycelia are found generally girdling the roots and the sclerotia are found adhering to the roots of the wilted plants. Control : Drenching the soil around the plant with 1% Bordeaux mixture controls this disease.


Jasmine Harvesting The plants start flowering six months after planting. However the commercial yields are taken from the third year onwards. For fresh flowers, fully developed, unopened flower buds are hand-picked early in the morning. The flowers should be handled carefully during harvest and transport.

Yield The flower yield in jasmines varies considerably according to the species and cultivars and management practices. The flower-yield of various cultivars in kg/ha are given below: Species

Yield of flowers(kg/ha)

J. auriculatum

4733 to 9152

J. sambac

739 to 8129

J. grandiflorum

4329 to 10144

(Source: TNAU, Coimbatore)

The life of a jasmine plantation is between 10-15 years. It is advisable to replant the whole plantation after every 15 years.


Jasmine Intercultural Operations Weeding Weed growth within the jasmine crop competes with the main crop for nutrients. Therefore it is essential to remove the weeds at the appropriate time. After pruning, the soil 15-30 cm from the main stem around the bushes is stirred to a depth of 15 cm. This should be repeated every two to three months. Though manual weed control is effective, but it is very expensive. Mulching also reduces the weed population considerably. Chemical weed control is comparatively economical, convenient and efficient in eradicating weeds with one or two applications.

Intercropping In the initial years when there is sufficient space between the plants, vegetable crops and ornamental plants can be grown as intercrop.

Pruning Pruning is an important activity as it influences growth, flower-bud initiation, differentiation and, ultimately, the flower production in Jasmine. Usually, irrigation is stopped before pruning and plants are pruned to half their original length. All the leaves are stripped off after pruning. All the cut ends are smeared with Bordeaux paste to prevent entry of pathogens. Pruning is done at 45cm from the ground level. Pruning done during mid of December to mid January results in maximum number of branches and higher yield of flowers.


Jasmine Irrigation Adequate moisture in the soil is necessary for proper growth and flowering in jasmines. Plants are irrigated by flooding once a week in the summer months. After flowering, no irrigation is normally required till after the next pruning and manuring.


Jasmine Manuring & Fertilization The fertilizer dose depends upon the fertility of soil and amount of organic manure applied to the crop. Fertilizer doses recommended for northern and southern India are as followsFYM

N

P

K

(Ammonium

(SSP/plant)

(MOP/plant)

Sulphate /Plant) January

North

South

North

South

20 kg

20 kg

25 g

20 g

40 g

40 g

20 g

40 g

40 g

February

25 g

March

25 g

April

25 g

May

20 g

June

North

25 g

South

40 g

25 g

July

20 kg

August

20 kg

September

20 g

25 g

North

25 g

South

40 g

25 g 40 g

25 g

40 g

20 g

40 g

40 g

20 g

40 g

40 g

October November December (Source: TNAU, Coimbatore)


Jasmine Pests Bud Worm (Hendecasis duplifacialis) It is a greenish larva with a black head, which bores into immature jasmine buds and feeds on floral structures and, in severe cases, webbing of buds. Control : A basal application of Carbofuran (40g/plant) is recommended for control.

The Gallery Worm (Elasmopolpus jasrninoghagus) It is a serious pest, which causes webbing of terminal leaves, shoots and towers. Control : The plants should be sprayed with Malathion (0.2%) to control these insects.

Mites The mites attack the undersurface of leaves, which become yellow and drop off. Severe puckering and discoloration of leaves are caused by the gall mite in J. auriculatum. The variety Parimullai released by the TNAU, Coimbatore, is resistant to gall mite. Control : Wettable Sulphur (0.3%) can be sprayed on the infested plants to control this pest.

Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) It causes severe stunting of plants, branches become dry with yellow leaves which drop prematurely. Control : Application of Neem cake at 1 t/ha or Carbofuran at 2.5kg/ha effectively suppresses the nematode population.


Jasmine Post Harvest Technology Grading The flower buds are generally graded according to their shape, size and freshness before packing in boxes or baskets for marketing.

Packaging The best packaging material used are corrugated cardboard boxes which are ideal for distant markets while bamboo baskets covered with wet gunny bags are used for local markets.


Jasmine Planting Season of Planting : The ideal time for planting in North India is during July-August and from the end of January-February, while in South India planting is done any time between July-December.

Spacing : TNAU, Coimbatore has recommended a planting distance of 1.5 x 1.5m for J. auriculatum and J. sambac and a spacing of 2.0 x 1.5m for J. grandiflorum.

Pit Digging : 3

The soil is well pulverized and weeds are removed before planting. Pits of 45 cm are prepared one month before planting and are exposed to sunlight. A few days before planting, pits are filled with FYM, fresh soil and coarse sand in the ratio of 2:1:1. Addition of BHC (10g/pit) to the soil in the pit helps to prevent the attack of termites. Pits are watered to settle the soil compost mixture.

Method of Planting : Well-rooted, healthy and strong seedlings obtained from cutting/layering are planted in each pit. A hole is dug in the centre of the pit sufficient enough to accommodate the soil ball of the seedling. The soil ball is placed in the centre of the pit and the soil is firmly pressed around the seedlings. The plants are then immediately watered.


Jasmine Propagation Layering : Layering is done during June-July in North India and from June to December in South India. For preparation of layers, well matured, one year old shoots are selected and are buried in the soil 1015 cm deep after making a shallow, slanting cut in the portion that is to be buried. The root formation occurs in 90-120 days.

Cutting : It is the easiest method of propagation of jasmine J.grandiflorum and J.sambac are best propagated by apical cuttings while J.auriculatum is propagated by semi hardwood cuttings. Normally 22-25 cm long cuttings with 3-4 nodes are planted in rooting media. Cuttings taken during April-September has highest percentage of rooting with maximum rooting in June planted cuttings. The basal portion of softwood cuttings is treated with growth regulating substances (IBA 400ppm and IAA @ 1000ppm) before planting. The cuttings are buried more than 5 cm deep in the rooting medium and are spaced 7cm apart. The cuttings are ready for transplanting into the main field after 4 to 5 months of planting in the rooting media.


Jasmine Soil & Climate Soil : Jasmine can be grown on a wide range of soils. Well-drained, rich loamy soil with a pH ranging from 6.5-7.5 is ideal for their cultivation.

Climate : Jasmine prefers mild and tropical climate. Jasmine is commercially grown in India under open field conditions. The ideal requirements for successful cultivation of jasmine are mild winter, warm summer, moderate rainfall and sunny days. Jasmines grow well upto 1200 m. A well-distributed annual rainfall of 800 to 1000 mm is optimum for growth and development.


Jasmine Varieties Varieties & Its Characteristics

Parimullai This variety belongs to the species Jasminum auriculatum (Jui). It has a medium round bud with flowering duration of about 9 months/year. It is resistant to gall mite. The average yield is 8t/ha,.

CO 1 This variety belongs to the species Jasminum auriculatum (Jui). Flowers of this variety have a long corolla tube and thus easy to harvest. The average yield is 8.8 t/ha

CO 2 This variety belongs to the species Jasminum auriculatum(Jui). Flower buds of this variety are bold with long corolla tube. It is tolerant to phyllody disease. The average yield is 11.1 t/ha.

CO-1 (Pitchi) This variety belongs to the species Jasminum grandiflorum(Chameli). It is released by T.N.A.U., Coimbatore. It is suitable for loose flower production and oil extraction. The average flower yield is about 10 t/ha/year while the estimated concrete yield is 29 kg/ha.

CO 2 This variety belongs to the species Jasminum grandiflorum (Chameli). The variety produces bold pink buds with long corolla tube. The average yield is 11.68t/ha.

Arka Surabhi (Pink pin) This variety belongs to the species Jasminum grandiflorum (Chameli). It is released by IIHR, Bangalore. The average flower yield is 10 t/ha.

Gundumalli This variety belongs to the species Jasminum sambac (Mogra). Flowers are round with good fragrance. The average yield of flowers is 7-8 t/ha while the estimated concrete yield is 15kg/ha.

Ramban & Madanban This variety belongs to the species Jasminum sambac (Mogra). This is a high yielding variety with long flower buds.

Double Mogra This variety belongs to the species Jasminum sambac (Mogra). The flowers have 8-10 whorls of petals with excellent fragrance resembling that of white rose.


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