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Introduction What is Coffee ? Coffee is a brewed beverage prepared from the roasted or baked seeds of several species of an evergreen shrub of the genus Coffea. The two most common sources of coffee beans are the highly regarded Coffea arabica, and the "robusta" form of the hardier Coffea canephora. The latter is resistant to the coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix), but has a more bitter taste. Coffee plants are cultivated in more than 70 countries, primarily in equatorial Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Once ripe, coffee "berries" are picked, processed and dried to yield the seeds inside. The seeds are then roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor, before being ground and brewed to



ESPRESSO Espresso (Italian pronunciations: ) is coffee brewed by forcing a small amount of nearly boiling water under pressure through finely ground coffee beans. Espresso is generally thicker than coffee brewed by other methods, has a higher concentration of suspended and dissolved solids, and has crema on top (a foam with a creamy consistency). As a result of the pressurized brewing process, the flavors and chemicals in a typical cup of espresso are very concentrated. Espresso is the base for other drinks, such as a caffè latte, cappuccino, caffè macchiato, cafe mocha, or caffè Americano. Espresso has more caffeine per unit volume than most coffee beverages, but because the usual serving size is much smaller, the total caffeine content is less. Although the actual caffeine content of any coffee drink varies by size, bean origin, roast method and other factors, the caffeine content of "typical" servings of espresso vs drip brew are 53 mg vs. 95 to 200 mg.


LONG BLACK AMERICANO Americano (English: American coffee) is a style of coffee prepared by adding hot water to espresso, giving it a similar strength to, but different flavor from, regular drip coffee. The strength of an Americano varies with the number of shots of espresso and the amount of water added. The name is also spelled with varying capitalization and use of diacritics: e.g., cafĂŠ americano. In the United States, "Americano" is used broadly to mean combining hot water and espresso in either order, but in a narrower definition it refers to adding water to espresso (espresso on the bottom), while adding espresso to water (espresso on the top) is instead referred to as a long black. Americano Coffee?

FLAT WHITE A flat white is a coffee beverage developed in Australia and New Zealand in the1980s.It is prepared by pouring microfoam (steamed milk with small, fine bubbles and a glossy or velvety consistency) over a double shot of espresso(sometimes ristretto espresso). It is somewhat similar to the cappuccino or the latte although smaller in volume, therefore having a higher proportion of coffee to milk (closer to a cortado), and milk that is more velvety in consistency allowing the espresso to dominate the flavour, while being supported by the milk.The beverage is typically served in a small 150–160 millilitre ceramic cup. Microfoam is used, and loosely frothed milk from the top of the steaming vessel is typically discarded or held back in the vessel while the creamy milk from the bottom of the vessel is folded into the coffee, resulting in a smooth and velvety texture. A flat white may incorporate latte art.


LATTE A latteis a coffee drink made with espresso and steamed milk. The term as used in English is a shortened form of the Italian caffè latte or caffellatte(pronounced (kaffellatte]), which means "milk coffee". The word is also sometimes incorrectly spelled latté or lattè in LATTE

English with different kinds of accents, which can be a hyperforeignism or a deliberate attempt to help customers realize the word is not pronounced as this combination of letters would normally be interpreted by native speakers. In northern Europe and Scandinavia the term 'café au lait' has traditionally been used for the combination of espresso and milk, but this term is used in the US for brewed coffee and scalded milk. In France, 'caffè latte' is mostly known from American coffee chains; a combination of espresso and steamed milk equivalent to a 'latte' is in French called 'grand crème' and in German 'Milchkaffee' or 'Melange'. Variants include replacing the coffee with another drink base such as masala chai (spiced Indian tea), mate or matcha, and other types of milk, such as soy milk or almond milk are also used.


MOCHA MOCCACCINO A mocaccino, also called caffè mocha , is a chocolate-flavored variant of a caffe Café mocha takes its name from the Red Sea coastal town of Mocha, Yemen, which as far back as the fifteenth century was a dominant exporter of coffee, especially to areas around the Arabian Peninsula. Mocha coffee has a chocolate flavor. The cafe mocha was created to mimic that natural flavor.Like a caffè latte, it is based on espresso and hot milk, but with added chocolate, typically in the form of sweet cocoa powder, although many varieties use chocolate syrup. Mochas can contain dark or milk chocolate.Café mocha, in its most basic formulation, can also be referred to as hot chocolate with (e.g. a shot of) espresso added. Like cappuccino, café mochas typically contain the well-known milk froth on top, although, as is common with hot chocolate, they are sometimes served with whipped cream instead. They are usually topped with a dusting of either cinnamon or cocoa powder and marshmallows may also be added on top for flavor and decoration. A variant is white café mocha, made with white chocolate instead of milk or dark. There are also variants of the drink that mix the two syrups; this mixture is referred to by several names, including black and white mocha, tan mocha, marble mocha, tuxedo mocha and zebra. The caffeine content is approximately 10.9 mg/oz (370 mg/l), which is 175 mg for a 16 oz glass.


ESPRESSO CON PANNA Espresso con panna, which means "espresso with cream" in Italian, is a single or double shot of espresso topped with whipped cream. In the U.S. it may also be called café Vienne and in the U.K. café Viennois. In Vienna the term Wiener Melange properly refers to a different drink, made with foamed milk rather than whipped cream. An espresso con panna is properly called a Franziskaner, but ordering a Wiener Melange will often yield the arrival of this drink even in Vienna. In France café Viennois refers to both an espresso con panna and a Wiener Melange. In Australia a similar drink may be called Café Vienna although Espresso con panna will traditionally be in an espresso sized cup, whereas Café Vienna will be served in the same size as a latte,Historically served in a demitasse cup, it is perhaps a more old fashioned drink than a latte or cappuccino, though still very popular, whichever name it receives, at Coffeehouses in Budapest and Vienna.

CAPPUCCINO A cappuccino ( Italian pronunciation: ) is an Italian coffee drink which is traditionally prepared with espresso, hot milk, and steamed-milk foam. The name comes from the Capuchin friars, referring to the colour of their habits. The Viennese bestowed the name Kapuziner in the 19th century, although their version included whipped cream, which the Italians found rather heavy.Cappuccino is a coffee drink topped with foamed milk. It is made in a steam producing espresso machine. The espresso is poured into the bottom third of the cup, followed by a similar amount of hot milk. The top third of the drink consists of milk foam; this foam can be decorated with artistic drawings made with the same milk, called latte art. In a traditional cappuccino, as served in Europe and artisan coffee houses in the United States, the total of espresso and milk/foam make up between approximately 150–180 ml (56 imp fl oz; 5–6 US fl oz). Commercial coffee chains in the US more often serve the cappuccino as a 360 ml (13 imp fl oz; 12 US fl oz) drink or larger. The World Barista Championships have been arranged annually since 2000, and during the course of the competition, the competing barista must produce -to four sensory judges- among other drinks four cappuccinos, defined in Rules and Regulations as [...] ...a coffee and milk beverage that should produce a harmonious balance of rich, sweet milk and espresso [...] The cappuccino is prepared with one (1) single shot of espresso, textured milk and foam. A minimum of 1 centimeter of foam depth [...] A cappuccino is a beverage between 150 and 180 ml in total volume.


MACCHIATO Macchiato (Italian pronunciation: kaffɛmmakkjato ), sometimes called espresso macchiato, is an espresso coffee drink with a small amount of milk added, today usually foamed milk. In Italian, macchiato means 'stained' or 'spotted' so the literal translation of caffè macchiato is 'stained coffee', or coffee with a spot of milk. The Macchiato can be prepared either with steamed hot milk or cold milk. If hot, the espresso's name would become macchiato caldo (marked hot); if cold, macchiato freddo (marked cold). The choice between 'caldo' and 'freddo' is usually a matter of personal tastes. Some newer cafes tend to add steamed milk to the espresso in a 1:1 ratio (or more), as well as mixing the milk into the espresso, making it more like a miniature caffè latte or cortado. Some people call this piccolo latte, particularly in Australia. The other variant of the term, latte macchiato, conversely means 'milk with a spot of espresso', and indicates milk with just a little espresso in it (much more milk than in a caffè latte). However, in certain preparations (which differ from place to place), latte macchiato has not much difference in milk-toespresso ratio when compared to the caffè latte; caffè lattes are normally around one-eighth espresso to seven-eighths steamed milk.

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