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Tribhuvan Univ

Institute of Engi

Entrance Examinat MSC Entrance Examinatio TRIBHUVAN UNIVERSITY Name BASUKALA INSTITUTE OF: KIRAN ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE District : Bhaktapur PULVHWOK CAMPUS

Gender : Male Date of Birth : 2048-05-03 Exam Date : 2071-07-15

PULCHWOK, LALITPUR

A THESIS ON: 29-01-066-01901 Citizenship

Stream :PAVILION Planning and Architecture PATHWAY KAMEROTAR, BHAKTAPUR

Exam Roll No : 1030 Score : 42.847%

IOE MSC Entrance Rank : 25 Valid Till : 2071/09/30 BY: KIRAN BASUKALA 066/BAE/218

Note :

• The Candidate must fulfill all the requirements se for the admission in MSc level.

• This Score card must be furnished in the process o

candidate; however this card does not guarantee th

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR IN ARCHITECTURE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE OF TRIBUVAN UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING PULCHOWK CAMPUS PULCHOWK, LALITPUR 2014


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The first note of appreciation goes to the thesis co-ordinator Prof. Dr. Mahesh Shrestha for those valuable suggestions during the meetings right from the beginning and also for the timely notifications of the periodic requirements for the presentation. The second one goes to my thesis supervisor Ar. Surya Gywali for all those fruitful discussions, suggestions and motivation right from the beginning of the project. These two senior teachers in more ways than one have been the reason for me to not leave track of the project from start to upthere. It is a matter of pleasure for us to have opportunity to study, research and work in thesis on Pathway Pavilion, and hope I had taken as golden opportunity to do best in design phase by application of research phase. After research phases on thesis topic that I have chosen, I have got confidence in such work and have felt that I have really understood something. Each pages of this document present the clear ideas of different theoretical frame like circulation, design concept, etc was studied, analyzed; recognized, mapped and parameters are evaluated. This document also contains case studies that I have made in international, regional and local context to understand it. In addition to these I would like to express my gratitude to our respected teachers Ar. Prajwal Hada, Ar. Sanjay Upreti, Ar. Deepak Pant, Dr. Ar. Jib Raj Pokhrel, Dr. Er. Rajan Suwal and other friends for their kind support to make this thesis informative.

Thank you.


ABSTRACT

“Very freely interpreted, a social activity takes place every time two people are together in the same space. To see and hear each other, to meet, is in itself a form of contact, a social activity.� (Efroymson, Ha, & Ha, 2009 c.f. Gehl, 2001) Public square is the same place where the social and cultural activity occurred. Along with such activities many people enjoyed in looking and start talking about its bad and good aspects. Here activities like seeing, talking, enjoying, performing, relaxing, etc all are taken within the public square. Concept within Newar settlement is very developed in ancient period which still continues till now but in process of modification and challenges. Nowadays, many technologies like social network, internet, mobiles, etc are creating virtual environment which leads to change or decline in public square. Many public square are designed for the human interaction with built environment but today vehicles are interacting with each other and used as parking rather than resting for people. So, Pathway Pavilion is also one of the project that is related to public square or public places or public spaces where people can gather, inform and interpret with each other.


TABLE OF CONTENTS Confirmation Acknowledgements Abstract Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: PROJECT INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

2

1.2 Introduction

3

1.3

Objectives

1.4

Scope of Project

4 5

1.5

Project Justification

1.6

Methodology

5 6

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

8

2.2 Origin

9

2.3 Development

10

2.4

Significance

2.5

Public Space Theory

12 14

2.6

Attributes of Great Public Space

2.7

Activities in Public Space

18 18

2.8

Sociability and Public life

20

2.9

Users group and their activities in Public Space

22

2.10

Exhibition and Exhibits

24

2.11

Public Art in Public Spaces

26

2.12

Visual Complexity in Public Spaces/ Squares

27

2.13

Summary

28

CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES

3.1

Denmark Pavilion by Big Architects, Sanghai Expo

31

3.2

India Pavilion by Charles Correa, Japan Expo

34

3.3

Patan Durbar Square, Patan, Lalitpur

36

3.4

Russian Cultural Centre, Kamalpokhari, Kathmandu

41

3.5

Inferences from case studies

44


CHAPTER 4: PROGRAMME FORMULATION

46

CHAPTER 5: SITE ANALYSIS

5.1

Site Information

51

5.2

Site Introduction

52

5.3

Swot Analysis

5.4

Site Justification

53 53

5.5

Site Inferences

54

5.6

Bye Laws

54

CHAPTER 6: DESIGN

6.1

Design Approach

6.1.1 Ideas from Literature Study

6.1.2 Ideas from Case Study

Design Concept

6.2

6.2.1 Site analysis

6.2.2 Analysis Of Activities

6.2.3 Analysis of Public Spaces

6.2.4 Analysis of Temple Structure

Concept Development

6.3

56

58

61

6.3.1 Zoning

6.3.2 Massing and functions

6.3.3 Open spaces and Usages

6.3.4 Accesses and linkages

CHAPTER 7: BIBLIOGRAPHY

63

CHAPTER 8: FINAL DESIGN AND DRAWINGS

65


CHAPTER 1

PROJECT INTRODUCTION


CHAPTER

1

PROJECT INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND With the advancement of technology and scientific research world is moving very fast that slower people get backward within a second in terms of their business and occupation. Similar in the case of Nepal, Nepal as we called the developing country which face different changes in the course of time. Some of the changes faces by Nepal are as follows: • Political changes • Changes in technological services • Educational changes • Physical changes • Geographical changes, etc

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Such changes in Nepal may uplift the country in the reference of development but on the same time there may be different changes or way of thinking among people. For example most of tennage are fonds of playing and gathering but there is shrinking of such places with increase in development of country. In such situation most of teenage frustrated or depressed resulting the decrease of manpower in the near future. So pavilion is the solution to overcome such battles between development and effect on the certain group of community or society. At present context, public spaces play a vital role in the social and economic life of communities. New kinds of public spaces and meeting places are now being created in towns and cities, which can be an important social resource. Public space is not shrinking, but expanding. Public spaces (including high streets, street markets, shopping precincts, community centers, parks, playgrounds, and neighborhood spaces in residential areas) play a vital role in the social life of communities. They act as a ‘self-organizing public service’, a shared resource in which experiences and value are created. Public spaces play a vital role in the social life of communities. Public spaces facilitate the exchange of ideas, friendships, goods and skills. At their best, public spaces act like a self-organizing public service; just as hospitals and schools provide a shared resource to improve people’s quality of life, public spaces form a shared spatial resource from which experiences and value are created in ways that are not possible in our private lives alone. Dines and Cattell mentions that “People tolerate each other when they are in the market. You might bump into each other....It doesn’t matter. You move on. In that sense you get to know people....We meet different cultures. I might be buying vegetables that I don’t know how to cook, and the lady from another part of India will tell me how to cook it.” This statement proved that public spaces have important public value where different degree of interpretation is possible. That’s why pavilion can plays vital role in creating public spaces.

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PROJECT INTRODUCTION

1.2 INTRODUCTION Pathway pavilion, an architectural thesis topic, is combination of two words i.e. pathway and pavilion. In this sense pathway refers to the busy and traffic movement along the path with aiming to reach some higher point. Similarly pavilion refers to a room in the city for a small or group gathering. In a broad sense pavilion functions as a retreat from busy city life - a pavilion is a structure where the community could gather, relax and play. Again, in architecture a pavilion (from French, “pavilion”, from Latin “papilio”) has two primary meanings. It can refer to a free-standing structure sited a short distance from a main residence, whose architecture makes it an object of pleasure. Large or small, there is usually a connection with relaxation and pleasure in its intended use. On its other primary meaning, in a symmetrical range of buildings in the classical styles, where there is a main central block – the corps de logis – the wings may end in pavilions that are emphasized in some fashion, in order to provide a full stop to the composition, like a period at the end of a sentence. ‘Pathway’ and ‘Pavilion’ are the key words in the title which in totality means ‘A place to gather for interpretation among same age of colleague”. In a sense that Pathway pavilion is the platform or derive park dedicated to helping people to understand and appreciate their inert excitement and joy among with colleague, discussion on current and past issues, interpretation and interaction with different people of different group staying back from the busy rapid and ungap life. The main purpose of design of pavilion is to enhance the public life by encouraging social gathering for all. It offers an array of space suitable for people to talk, eat, sit and gather. On other hand it is an interactive space where users can engage with it holistically. It unites the different groups and promotes the integration between the many castes located on the streets. The pavilion is meant to function as transition or resting spaces.

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Pathway

• It refers to the movement of people from one pont to another point in purpose of their fullfilment of the needs. • Also it represents the busy traffic movement

Pathway Pavilion Pavilion

• It is a room in the city for gathering, talking, interpretating, relaxation • It is also a space connection to the pleasure and relaxation.

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PROJECT INTRODUCTION

1.3 OBJECTIVES The present day pavilion has varied use value, they serve diverse community, they accommodate diverse fields of excitement, they represent a wide range of community and hence they can’t afford to get biased. Pavilion architecture is sensitive to social and political changes and hence its operation and objectives are affected a lot by them. Basically, objectives of a PATHWAY PAVILION can be categorized into four categories. • Physical objectives i.e., design parameters • Socio-Political behavior • Urban objectives • Cultural objectives Physical objectives i.e., design parameters: • To collect all the aspects of different age group under a roof. • To store all the collected or donated items in proper place so as to add another values for public space. • To provide an environment to gathering, seating, performing and other activities. • To present public value, social and cultural value to the general public. • To provide a forum for different aspect of people to do research and interact. • To provide an interaction forum for the teenage as an out-of-school facility. • To take a benefit of natural scenario and natural resources to meet the objective of pavilion.

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Socio-Political Behavior: • It should represent the changing mood and aspiration of the public. • It shouldn’t be biased to any particular community. • It should be environment creating atmosphere so that people can spend their leisure time. Urban objectives: • The complex should have a positive impact on the overall urban fabric of the host community. • The complex should address the urban pattern of the city regarding its transport facilities and congestion, urban landscape, socio-cultural value of the locality. Cultural objectives: • To preserve not only the itinerates associated with the traditional way of life, but also to enrich the culture that has given birth to them, in a sustainable manner. • To make people aware of the inviolability of our community culture.

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1.4 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT The project is a part of an architectural thesis, prepared as for the partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of bachelor of architecture. The project is an academic exercise; however the studies are focused in providing new directions to public or leisure architecture in our National context. On the other hand ,pavilion are built and public space to maintain our self-esteem and satisfaction, by making people aware of their interaction between similar aged group of people. To provide and interactive forum for people from all varied professional fields to participate in a constructive process of enriching our culture and self respecting community and most importantly to offer a new destination for visiting and relaxing. It will be a popular destination for teenage people that will finally contributed to maximum benefit to our country economically, socially, culturally and environmentally. 1.5 PROJECT JUSTIFICATION Most of people in urban areas are busy in life. In other ways it can be interpret that people are mostly oriented toward the money rather than sharing a knowledge, ideas, culture. Similarly in case of educated family most of children get frustrated as they passed different stage of adolescent period. They are seek of sharing the knowledge and interpretation among their similar groups. Pathways are usually busy in 24 hours on a day. Such types of busy are making him/her busy as street. Many vehicles carrying passangers are busy to departure their destination. On departure there is always arrival of new problems. This process is never ending process. In such case pavilion can be good destination place for creating environment to get little far from the busy life. In the case of Nepal, there is lack of such spaces where people can gather and interpret among each other. There many different public square existing in Nepal where many teenage people gather together for their interpretation. In many public square many old aged group of people gather together for sun bathing and sharing their old experience and other. 066/BAE/218 KIRAN BASUKALA

Such public space are mostly crowded on different leisure time. But this type of public square not accessible for all aged group for all allocated space. In western context, most of pavilion are temporary structure serving the different services like event hall, exhibition hall, performance centre, arena, etc. Many people are living in the room of house shrinking their views on with them. So Pathway Pavilion is the room in the city in which public space are managed for gathering tand interpreting. Through the thesis on Pathway Pavilion it is my attempt to provide new home for public, not merely to replace it with modern building but also to enhance the public value in front of national community such that it act as new square plaza which accomplish to be a part of multi dimensional globalization, Design to accumulate space requirements of temporary pavilion and develop as interpretation and community centre as well as place to relax and entertain to some extent. For this reason I think the project will be justifiable for its overall development. Pathway Pavilion

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PROJECT INTRODUCTION

1.6 METHODOLOGY For any project to be carried out the first step will be the selection of proper methodology since, The Pathway Pavilion at Bhaktapur was chosen for thesis topic. The proposed methodology overall project is as follows: Research Phase(Information Collection And Theoretical Understanding) o Literature Review o Case study This is preparatory phase for thesis project in which data, facts, spatial needs and requirements are studied focusing on the approved topic. I will study the present functioning and organization of spaces through case studies. All the findings gathered in this phase will be applied in our design phase. Design phase o Site selection and analysis o Program formulation and zoning o Conceptual design o Design development o Analysis and evaluation of output design o Preparation of architectural drawings and others.

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This phase will orient on creating proper design of thesis topic selected where the combination of all knowledge gathered from research phase would be applied. This could be better understood from the charts below,

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW


CHAPTER

2 2.1

LITERATURE REVIEW

INTRODUCTION “The pavilion has always served as a space for reverence, enjoyment, pleasure or as a medium for architectural experimentation and polemics.” – The pavilion: Pleasure nad Polemics in Architecture “A pavilion is a building type in which the realtionship between art and architecture, perception and exposition, critique and spectacle are at the forefront.” – Pavilions for New Architecture In this sense pavilion can be termed as in different ways such as: i. Interactive space ii. Interpretative space iii. Public space iv. Agent for promotion Pavilions are generally constructed in the context of large expositions and world’s fairs. Pavilion have also been constructed as standalone projects designed to engage the public through various programs of the architecture itself. Structurally pavilions may be temporary or permanent and differs from large scale to small scale. Similarly the function s of pavilions are as varied as the designs but the ultimate objective of any pavilion is that it seeks to engage and inform the visitor while exposing them to new architectural experiences.

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Pavilions have attracted many famous architects and have produced some of their more famous works. Many of the new architectural ideas are first implemented in pavilions before gaining mainstream acceptance. Pavillions try to challenge the existing notions of architecture and signal new directions for the future of architecture.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

2.2 ORIGIN The pavilion has its origin as a free standing structure constructed a short distance from a main residence for the purpose of relaxation and pleasure and was built to take advantage of the view. In china, pavilions are known to have been built as early as the Zhou Dynasty (1046- 256 BC) Pavilions which were built in the 18th century were small garden outbuildings, similar to a summer house. These often resembled small classical temples and follies. A free-standing pavilion can also be a large building such as the royal Pavilion at Brighton, which is in fact a large oriental style palace; however the common factor is that it was built for pleasure and relaxation.

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The term pavilion is also used in stadia. A sports pavilion is usually a building adjacent to a sports ground used for changing clothes and partaking of refreshments. Often it has a verandah to provide the protection from the sun for spectators. Eg. A cricket pavilion

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LITERATURE REVIEW

2.3 DEVELOPMENT There have been many phases in the development of pavilions. The philosophies behind the creations fo pavilions have undergone numerous changes since the industrial revolution. They can be categorized onto 3 distinct stages. They are: INDUSTRALIZATION(1800-1938)

The Great Exhibition, 1851 Location: London Theme: Industry of All Nations

CULUTRALEXCHANGE(1939-1987)

New York worlds’s Fair, 1964 Locaiton: New York Theme: Peace through Understanding

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NAITON BRANDING(1988 – PRESENT)

Shangai Expo, 2010 Location: Shanghai Theme: Better City, Better life

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LITERATURE REVIEW

1. Industralization The first era could be called the era of industrialization and covered the period from 1800 to 1938. In those days, world expositions were focused on trade, and were famous for the display of technological inventions and advancements. World expositions were the platforms where the state of the art in science and technology from around the world was brough together. the world expositions of 1851 London, 1853 New York, 1862 London, Philadelphia 1876, 1889 Paris, 1893 Chcago, 1900 Paris, 1901 Buffalo, 1904 telephone were first presented during this era. 2.

Cultural Exchange

The international exhibition in New York City in 1939-1904 presented a departure from the original focus of the expositions. From then on, world’s fair s become more strongly based on the theme of cultural significance, and utopian in scope. Technology and inventions remained important, but no longer were the principal subjects of fairs. “Builiding The World of Tomorrow” (New York, 193940), “Peace Through Understanding” (new York, 1964-65) and “Man and His World” (Montreal, 1967) are examples of these themes. Cross- cultural dailgue and the exchange of solutions became defining elements of the expos. The dominant fair of this era is Montreal’s Expo’67. It was a;sp during Expo ’67 that organizers started calling world’s fairs “expos”. 3.

Nation Branding

From Expo ’88 in Brisbane onward, countries started to use world expositions as a platform to improve their national images through their pavilions. Finland, Japan, Canada, France and Spain are cases in point. Improving national image was the primary participation goal for 73% of the countries at Expo 2000. Pavilions became advertising campaigns, and the Expo a vehicle for ‘nation 066/BAE/218 KIRAN BASUKALA

branding’. Apart from cultural and symbolic reasons, organizing countries, cities and regions utilize the world exposition to brand themselves. Spain used Expo ’92 to underline its new position as a modern and democratic county. Today’s world expositions embody elements of all three eras. They present new inventions, facilitate cultural exchange based on a theme, and are used for city, region and nation branding.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

2.4 SIGNIFICANCE The pavilions are designed as temporary strucutures to be dismantled at the end of the expo, but to the architectural merit possessed by some of the structures, they have been retained either in the same place or relocated. 1851: The Crystal Palace, from the first World’s fair in London, designed so that it could be recycled, was such a success that it was moved and intended to be permanent, only to be destroyed by a fire in 1936. 1876: The Centennial Exposition’s main building is still in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, and serving as the new home for the Please Touch Meusem. 1880: The World Heritage losted Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne, constructed for the Melbourne International Exhibition. 1893: The Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago is housed in the former Palace of Fine Arts. 1901: The New York State Pavilion at the Pan-American Exposition remains today as the home of the Buffalo and Erie country Historical Sociey. 1906: The acquarium built for the Milan Expositions is still open after 100 years and was recently renovated.

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1929: Most of that fair’s pavilions have survived and been adapted for other uses, with many of them becoming consulate-general for the countries that built them. The Barcelona International Exposition featured the famous German Pavilion designed by Mies Van Der Rohe, which eas demolished but later recreated on the original site. 1958: In Brussels, the Atomium still stands at the exposition site. It is a 165-biilion-times-enlarged iron-crystal-shaped building. 1962: The Space Needle, theme building of the century 21 Exposition commonly known as the Seattle World’s Fair, still stands as Seattle’s iconic Landmark. 1964: The Unisphere, theme building of the second New York World’s Fair, still stands on its original site in flushing Meadows, Queens, New York City. 1967: Among the structures still standing from Expo 67 in Montreal are Moshe Safdie’s Habitat 67, Buckminster Fuller’s American Pavilion, and the French pavilion (now the Montreal Casino). 1968: San Antonio kept the Tower of the Americas, the institute of Texan Cultures and the ConvenPathway Pavilion

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tion Center from HemisFair ’68. 1982: The Sunsphere from the Knoxville World’s fair remains as a feature of Knoxville’s Skyline. 1988: The skyneedle, the symbol tower of Expo ’88 in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, still stands. Other survivors are the Nepaal Peace Pagoda of the Nepalese representation, now at the transformed World Expo ’88 site South Bank Parklands. 1992: The pavilions of Expo ’92 in Sivelle had been converted into a technological Square and a theme park. 1998: The main buildings of Expo ’98 in Lisbon were completely integrated into the city itself and manyu of the art exhibition pieces still remain. 2005: The home of Satuski and Mei Kusakabae, built for the 2005 Expo in Aichi, remains operating at its original site in Morikoro Park and is a popular tourist attraction. Pavilions also become significant because of the architects who designed htem. Almost all famous architects have designed pavilions at various points in their career. Some of the famous architects who have designed pavilions: Frank Loyd Wright Meis Van Der Rohe Le Corbusier Alvar Alto Rem Koolhas Santago Calatrava Zaha Hadid

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Daniel Leibeskind Frank Gherry Herzog and DE Meuron Oscar Niemeyer Toyo Ito Morman Foster SANAA

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2.5 PUBLIC SPACE THEORY According to (wikipedia, 2013), “A public space refers to an area or place that is open and accessible to all citizens, regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, age or socioeconomic level”; that is, a place where anyone can come, and further, where most events are spontaneous rather than pre-planned, where people mix with others or simply move about or sit and watch others. Public spaces have no entrance fee, no dress code, and no script. They offer surprises and unexpected pleasures: the sight of children playing, youth strolling, the elderly chatting, the fatigued resting, and the lonely and melancholy and bored escaping their troubles. There are no clear distinctions between observers and observed; all are on stage; all are part of the audience. (Tonnelat, 2010)states that public spaces, in terms of urban planning, are open spaces. He again added that public spaces are streets, parks and recreation areas, plazas and other publicly owned and managed outdoor spaces, as opposed to the private domain of housing and work. It can be interrelated in such a way that public spaces are neither private owned nor it is used as property, public spaces are open places where public can enjoy without any battle between private and public. (Hajmirsadeghi, Shamsuddin, Foroughi, 2012, cf. Hajjari, 2009; 1998) quoted that: “ Public spaces play a major role as a catalyst for social change and provide a place for gathering different community groups”It emphasized thatpublic spaces are important part for social change and it is a place for gathering different from different groups. Public spaces are mediator i.e. it gives a platform for different degree of interpretation among public but it does not act as leader but it creates motivation, inspiration or other to public so that people can change the society in terms of their socialization and life in community. (Hajmirsadeghi1,Shamsuddin1, Foroughi (ibid, Kevin Lynch, 1979) classified the cities and the urban space during the famous five aspects: paths, edges, districts, nodes and landmarks; linking on 066/BAE/218 KIRAN BASUKALA

both the physical shape and the symbolic aspects. Considering all these definition of public space by different sources, it is clear that public spaces are open spaces and open to all ages of users in terms of function and physical where there is no any rules and regulation governing to public and again it is mixture of streets, park, recreation areas, plazas, etc. Similarly on defining public space it is place where strangers share with others who may relatives or not relatives, friends or colleague and is the space for politics, religion, entertainment, sports, etc. Public spaces have been developed by different societies since ancient times. The chautaris, the chowks (square) of Patan, have been important public spaces for centuries. Every community needs a symbol of its existence, a centre on which to focus life. Public spaces can be such a symbol and are Pathway Pavilion

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the ‘pulse’ of a city. They form nodes or focal points, symbolizing shared identity and culture. A city is made up of many urban spaces. Public spaces are among the most important of these. These are tangible spaces with some intangible qualities where friends and strangers alike can come together, communicate, recreate, transact business, work, stroll, promenade, relax, sit, or just enjoy the sights and sounds of each other. Over the ages, the nature of public spaces and people’s preference for

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one kind over another has changed. Urban public spaces are living organisms, which respond to the varying socio-economic conditions and cultural patterns of cities. The meanings of public spaces have varied with time, culture and context. Aristotle believed that an ideal square was one where nothing was bought or sold, instead ideas were exchanged and debates took place. Shakespeare said all the world is a stage. That stage is public space where the drama of public life is played out. Today’s fast pace of life, the Internet revolution and the rupture in traditional value system has given a new meaning to public spaces. They are expressions of our daily rituals and reflect our way of life. “As public life evolves with the culture, new types of spaces may be needed and old ones discarded or revived”. Urban public spaces can be defined as elements within an urban fabric, which bind the different components of a city together, reinforcing the urban fabric. Defining public spaces Paul D. Spreiregen says they are “… buffer space(s) in a city. They create a gathering place for the people, humanizing them by mutual contact, providing them with shelter against the haphazard traffic and freeing them from the tension of bustling through the web of streets”. Urban public spaces are essentially open spaces and could be public parks, gardens, maidans, chowks or squares, plazas, lakes, streets, and boulevards. Public spaces may be planned and designed or may have naturally evolved over time. Public spaces may be either owned and managed publicly, or owned privately but open to the public. For public space to develop it is a prerequisite to have some form of public life. “Although every society has some mixture of public and private, the emphasis given to each one and the values they express help to explain the differences across settings, across cultures, and across times”. At present, the migration of people to the suburbs has changed their life styles and the way they use public space. Over the years the growth these suburbs has led to the consumption of public spaces for development, thus hindering the city’s “communication system”. Public space facilitates the transmission of public messages and ideas and helps to bring a community together. The loss of such spaces isolates people, making them less helpful to others. This can be seen in Kathmandu where loss of public space is leading to competition among various groups. “Contemporary social and political systems, especially as they affect cities, tend to encourage privatization as people are drawn inward by their work, their personal lives, and their political activities, if these exist at all”. According to Carr, Francis, Rivlin, Stone, public welfare is the primary motivation for creating or improving public space. Good streets provide for convenient and safe movement, squares provide space for social interaction, and parks are the “lungs of a city”, a substitute countryside which provides fresh air and sunlight and “the opportunity to stroll freely and relax”. Economic development is another reason for the creation of open spaces such as Ratna Park. Spaces, which are attractive and invite people to relax, have economic benefits for retail business as a resultant spin off. Public spaces also serve as social binders, allowing people to gather to form a sense of unity, power and Pathway Pavilion

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belonging, which is lacking in Kathmandu. According to Jon Lang urban designers have relied on creating public spaces to bring people together. He adds that the goal of design should be to encourage all types of “positive human contacts”. For this to happen he says an environment has to be “rich in behavior settings”. He says that research has shown that participation has increased when there are many settings and these settings are relatively small in size. Public spaces, their origin and how they have evolved over time are influenced by physical, cultural and political factors. The physical factors are climate and topography. Cultural factors are – social public life: catering to the urge to meet, interact and socialize; functional public life: catering to people’s everyday needs like buying groceries etc.; symbolic public life: catering to the need of people to feel a sense of belonging and being a part of a larger group. Besides the above three, technology and economics are two other factors influencing public spaces. Technology determines what can be accomplished by a society in terms of the construction of a physical setting. In addition electronic devices like the personal computer and the television are changing the way the middle-classes live and work and the balance between private and public life. Modern technology like computers, telephones and fax machines is allowing people to work at home in isolation. Likewise television provides entertainment for the family in the comfort and security of their home. But to date the automobile is the single greatest threat to quality of public life especially street life, as seen on New Road. Public spaces need economic commitment for their creation and maintenance. As cities grow, open spaces are used up for short-term economic gains, such as the filling up of Khullamanch for dumping sites, and the area slowly loses its public life. Economics also has a positive effect on public life. For example the presence of certain stores encourages pedestrianization of streets. Political factors also influence public life. For example if the city government of Kathmandu prohibits demonstrations in Ratna Park or Basantapur Durbar Square, there are obvious resultants of disrupting other 066/BAE/218 KIRAN BASUKALA

market areas. This stifles the political public life of Kathmandu’s citizens. Public spaces facilitate people gathering and sharing a sense of unity “that can give expression to communal feelings and an exercise of rights, sometimes leading to political action”. Such a space is lacking in Kathmandu today, which has contributed to haphazard and destructive demonstrations in other parts of city. According to Carr, it is impossible to understand public life and space without recognizing their political nature. Hence public life is one of the most democratic rights. “A public life has the potential of bringing diverse groups together so that they learn from each other, perhaps the richest quality of a multi-class, multicultural, heterogeneous society”.

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According to Carr, Francis, Rivlin, Stone, “three critical human dimensions should guide the process of design and management of public space: the users’ essential needs, their spatial rights, and the meanings they seek”. The theoretical framework derives from the following diagram: PUBLIC SPACE DESIGN

Public places generally have physical and functional conditions, which favorably or unfavorably influence social interaction, people comfort and security, which attract people to the settings. The physical and functional qualities of a public space are related to the physical amenities, the activities, the accessibility conditions, the location characteristics of the public space and the surrounding land-uses that support or not the activities developed in plazas and that will influence in their capacity to promote social interaction, livability and comfort. The following are some findings related to factors that Whyte, PPS and Gehl have found that influence the vitality and public life of plazas, which can be helpful for developing a theoretical base and for guiding the questions that should be asked to plaza users.

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2.6 Attributes of Great Public space: • Promotes human contact and social activities. • Visually interesting design and architectural features. • Safe, welcoming and accomodating for all users. • Promote the community involvement. • Reflects local culture and history. • Well maintained • Has a unique special character.

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2.7 Activities in Public Spaces In relationship to the activities taken place in public spaces, theoretical considerations have shown that necessary, optional and social activities may occur in the public setting. Necessary activities Necessary activities are basic activities that are common in life and had to be done such as walking, working, talking, and going to work. In the short term, these types of activities occur regardless of the quality of the physical environment because people are compelled to carry them out. A good conditions for the many necessary activities and will retain and strengthen these activities over time. Pathway Pavilion

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Optional activities Optional activities occur when people voluntarily participate and engage in activities, if available time and places make them possible. They take place when the outdoor conditions such as weather and the place encourage them. Most of these activities are recreational and will depend on physical conditions and quality of the public space. Therefore, when outdoor areas are high quality, necessary activities occur in a longer period of time and a wide range of optional activities will also take place because placer and situation invite people to stop, sit, promenade and return. Activities people are tempted to do when climatic conditions, surroundings and the place are generally inviting and attrac¬tive. These activities are especially sensitive to quality. They only occur when quality is high. A Good City is characterized by a multitude of optional activi¬ties. People come to town, find the places attractive and stay for a long time. A great, attractive city can always be recogni¬zed by the fact that many people choose to spend time in the public spaces. Social activities Finally, social activities occur when people interact, when children play, for example, which are activities that derive from the previous two categories of activities which occur spontaneously as a consequence of people being present in the same public space (Ghel, 1996). These activities occur whenever people move about in the same spaces.

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Quality of Physical Environment Poor

Good

Necessary Activities

Optional Activities Social Activities

Activities that take place in public spaces according to Jan Gehl, 1996 Pathway Pavilion

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2.8 SOCIABILITY AND PUBLIC LIFE Two concepts are helpful in understanding how people use public spaces. These concepts are sociability and public life, which will be described as followed. Sociability in public spaces is based on people’s need to affiliate and interact with others. This affiliation involves people participating in a supportive social system in order to acquire psychological comfort (Lang 1994). Sociability not only increases vitality in public spaces but also allows people to connect and to exchange information, which are important issues that are examined in this research. Sociability is also related to the public life of a place, which will be discussed further in this section. When the urban environments are uncomfortable, unused or lack many physical amenities, for example, sociability in public spaces diminishes. Although in this research sociability is discussed separately from physical, functional, security and climatically issues, it cannot be fully understood if viewed in isolation from these factors. Therefore, socialization occurs in a setting when activities in the plaza, the physical amenities, and security and climate conditions are favorable for attracting groups of people, for example. Once people satisfy their basic needs, such as survival and security, people feel the need to belong and become member of a group or set of groups, which will provide affection, support and identity for them (Lang, 1994). Specifically affiliation needs that encourage people to gather in public settings will depend on the characteristics of individuals and groups, and therefore will be manifested differently. Affiliation also can be understood through the bonds occurring between places and people. In terms of design it is important for designers to not assume that the layout of environments will dictate specific social patterns and sociability. One important concept addressed in this study is the notion of public life, which is related to sociability in public spaces. Public life involves bonding different and diverse people together for good or bad. It also defines people’s roles in the community in order to become members of groups to make social or political statements. People can discover new things and learn from others (Car, Lynch, 1968). The character of public life will depend on the setting’s characteristic; the activities, the culture of people that interact in it, and the time activities take place. Public life offers relief 066/BAE/218 KIRAN BASUKALA

from daily stress, provides opportunities for relaxation, entertainment and social contact. Public life offers the possibility of bringing diverse people together and becoming a realm where people can express and proclaim their freedom. The street’s condition has the ability to engage or disengage people and determine the relationship between pedestrian and automobile use. Appleyard (1981) has indicated that the automobile dominance in streets has had negative influence in the decline of public life. The socio-political systems influence the right to gather in public spaces and to determine the degree of freedom of speech and expression. Economics also determines the availability of public spaces, and the development and maintenance of those spaces. This will also influence new developments of public spaces that will attract other activities and the users to the environment. Finally, the community’s fitness and health characteristics will determine the use of public spaces. Sport activities demand open spaces Pathway Pavilion

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that are available in plazas and parks and therefore encourages public life (Carr and Francis, 1992). These factors although extensive allow to have a broader understanding of why public life can be encouraged or limited in public spaces. These factors provide knowledge, which will help define the methodology to use, orient the questions to be asked and support the analysis of the results to be developed in this study. Theoretical considerations have indicated that social public spaces are generally filled with people. This people presence in public spaces also attracts other people, which suggest that what attract people the most to urban plazas is the presence of other people. Therefore, the best-used plazas are the sociable ones with a higher diversity of people, more people engaged in groups, in couple and more people meeting people. Those who visit public spaces alone also prefer to frequent the livable ones (Whyte, 1980). Most sociable and livable public spaces tend to; have higher numbers of woman in them, amenities such as monuments, stairs, fountains that encourage people to learn and socialize among them, and also the sense of security experienced in the public space. Other factors present in socially active public spaces are: climatic comfort, the presence of mixed activities in the area, larger number of people presence as stated above. Theoretical considerations have also mentioned that visually and aesthetically pleasing plazas are sociable spaces but this condition does not provide complete satisfaction by itself. The size and number of seating spaces in the public spaces and their comfort influence sociability and people gathering in the space. Finally, the presence of special events, spectacle, street performances, and public art become activities or events that link people together and make plazas more amicable and attractive for people. Whyte defined this ability as “triangulation� which is the process by which some external stimulus provides a linkage between people and prompts strangers to talk to each other as though they were not. (Whyte, 1980 p.94) Considering all these, The key to establishing lively and safe public spaces is pedestrian traffi c and pedestrian activities.The arrival to the public space will - in different combinations - happen via six forms of traffi c - people will arrive on foot, by car, by train or tram, by bus or on bicycles. Eventually everybody will be pedestrians leaving their mode of transport behind and entering the public 066/BAE/218 KIRAN BASUKALA

spaces experiencing the surroundings at eye level. The traffi c in good public spaces will primarily be dominated by walking, cycling and limited vehicular traffi c. How the traffi c will be distributed depends on the quality of the public spaces. If the vehicular traffi c is too dominant the public spaces will neither be exciting for people nor lively. Worldwide examples show how public spaces with unfortunate compromises for pedestrians result in unattractive and deserted public spaces. If on the other hand good conditions are provided for pedestrians more people will walk and many recreative and attractive activities will follow. A public space of high quality will always be recognized by people interrupting their walk or daily business so they can rest, enjoy the city, the public spaces and be together with other people. Good conditions for walking and for life on foot, along with a possibility for staying, for pauses and experiences are the key to attractive and lively public spaces.

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2.9 Users group in Public spaces: 1. The everyday users: People that live and work in the area or

walk through.

2.

The visitors/customers: People that visit the functions in the area.

3.

The recreational visitors: People that visit the area because the public

space is delightful or use the public space in relation to recreation,

pleasure, exercise, play etc.

4.

The visitors to events: People that visit the public space because of

special events.

Activities in Public spaces: A Daily necessary activity: To walk to and from or walk through

A

B

B Daily recreational activity: Breaks and pauses C Recreational activity: Recreation and play

C

D Planned activity: To be a spectator /participant D

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Performer

Stranger Fig.Triangulation Therefore the link can be a physical object, a sight or an activity with the intention of stimulating conversation and human connection. Plazas should provide opportunities for people to interact and engage. High-populated cities where community is diverse, the possibility of having public spaces that can favor people interaction (even among strangers) can support people’s sense of community and sense of belonging within those spaces. Pathway Pavilion

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“Public Spaces is the stage upon which drama of communal life unfolds. The streets, squares, and parks of a city give form to the ebb and flow of human exchange.” -Public Space by Stephen Carr, Mark Francus, Le anne G. Rivilin, Andrew M. Stone

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2.10 EXHIBITIONS AND EXHIBITS An exhibition, in the most general sense, is an organized presentation and display of a selection of items. In practice, exhibitions usually occur within museums, galleries and exhibition halls, and World’s Fairs. Exhibitions include (whatever as in major art museums and small art galleries; interpretive exhibitions, as at natural history museums and history museums), for example; and commercial exhibitions, or trade fairs. The word “exhibition” is usually, but not always, the word used for a collection of items. Sometimes “exhibit” is synonymous with “exhibition”, but “exhibit” generally refers to a single item being exhibited within an exhibition. Exhibitions may be permanent displays or temporary, but in common usage, “exhibitions” are considered temporary and usually scheduled to open and close on specific dates. While many exhibitions are shown in just one venue, some exhibitions are shown in multiple locations and are called travelling exhibitions, and some are online exhibitions.

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Though exhibitions are common events, the concept of an exhibition is quite wide and encompasses many variables. Exhibitions range from an extraordinarily large event such as a World’s Fair exposition to small one-artist solo shows or a display of just one item. Curators are sometimes involved as the people who select the items in an exhibition. Writers and editors are sometimes needed to write text, labels and accompanying printed material such as catalogs and books. Architects, exhibition designers, graphic designers and other designers may be needed to shape the exhibition space and give form to the editorial content. Organizing and holding exhibitions also requires effective event planning, management, and logistics. Art exhibitions Art exhibitions include an array of artifacts from countless forms of human making: paintings, drawings, crafts, sculpture, video installations, sound installations, performances, interactive art, etc. Art exhibitions may focus on one artist, one group, one genre, one theme or one collection; or may be organized by curators, selected by juries, or show any artwork submitted. Fine arts exhibitions typically highlight works of art with generous space and lighting, supplying information through labels or audioguides designed to be unobtrusive to the art itself. Exhibitions may occur in series or periodically, as in the case with Biennales, triennials and quadrennials.

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Interpretive Exhibitions Interpretive exhibitions are exhibitions that require more context to explain the items being displayed. This is generally true of exhibitions devoted to scientific and historical themes, where text, dioramas, charts, maps and interactive displays may provide necessary explanation of background and concepts. Interpretive exhibitions generally require more text and more graphics than fine art exhibitions do. The topics of interpretive graphics cover a wide range including archaeology, anthropology, ethnology, history, science, technology and natural history.

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Commercial exhibitions Commercial exhibitions, generally called trade fairs, trade shows or expos, are usually organized so that organizations in a specific interest or industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products, service, study activities of rivals and examine recent trends and opportunities. Some trade fairs are open to the public, while others can only be attended by company representatives (members of the trade) and members of the press.

Interactive exhibits An interactive exhibits involves physical activity, engaging senses beyond sight ,requiring visitor involvement ,stimulates visitors intellectually and emotionally. It also promotes deeper involvement with the subject Providing information. Sometimes is a computer program offering freedom of navigation and allowing visitors to manipulate information to match their interests.

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2.11 PUBLIC ART IN PUBLIC SPACES Public art is art in any media that has been planned and executed with the intention of being staged in the physical public domain, usually outside and accessible to all. Public art is significant within the art world, amongst curators, commissioning bodies and practitioners of public art, to whom it signifies a working practice of site specificity, community involvement and collaboration. Public art may include any art which is exhibited in a public space including publicly accessible buildings, but often it is not that simple. Rather, the relationship between the content and audience, what the art is saying and to whom, is just as important if not more important than its physical location. Some forms of public art are designed to encourage audience participation in a hands-on way. Examples include public art installed at hands-on science museums such as the main architectural centerpiece out in front of the Ontario Science Centre. This permanently installed artwork is a fountain that is also a musical instrument (hydraulophone) that members of the public can play at any time of the day or night. Members of the public interact with the work by blocking water jets to force water through various sound-producing mechanisms inside the sculpture.

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Public art has oftetn been used for political ends. The most extreme and widely discussed manifestations of this remain the use of art as propaganda within totalitarian regimes coupled with simultaneous suppression of dissent. The approach to art seen in Joseph Stalin’s Soviet Union and Mao Zedong’s Cultural Revolution in China stand as representative. Public art is also often used to refute those propagandistic desires of political regimes. Artists use culture jamming techniques, taking popular media and reinterpreting it with guerrilla-style adaptations, to comment of social and political issues relevant to the public. Artists use culture jamming to facilitate social interactions around political concerns in hopes of chaining the way people relate to the world by manipulating existing culture. Adbusters magazine explores contemporary social and political issues through culture jamming by manipulating popular design campaigns.

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2.12 VISUAL COMPLEXITY IN PUBLIC SPACES/SQUARE Visual means something related to the sight or vision. It is perceptible by the sense or by the mind. Complexity has been derived from the Latin word Complexus which means “twisted together”. It characterizes something with many parts in intricate arrangement. According to (Reihaneh Sadat Hajmirsadeghi, 2012 cf,(Gehl, 2011 ) Relevant to lots of researches on character of square/spaces (such as seating and landscape factors) are important elements of an effective square in physical terms. As mention in this statement visual complexity is due to different factors such as physical condition such as color, texture, roofscape, etc, level changes, seating spaces, facades, human activities, etc. Physical Condtions Generally in Newar settlement visual complexity is due to regular and straight arrangement of building along the streets. According to (Korn, 2006 cf, Father Guisseppe) the residence of Newar are not so luxurious, they have small doors, carved windows and long entire façade with slopy roof which creat visual complexities to the eye. Even in Newar settlement being agriculture as major occupation, they put different vegetable in front of windows for drying, etc. Newar houses have different windows such as sanjhya, gajhya, kujhya, bimanjhya, tikijhya with response to these open public spaces like public square to view out the street activities. Façade treatment of buildings are red in colour due to use of brick and timber.

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Level changes Changes in level creates different degree of interpretation along with visual complexity to the observers. Also changes in level especially in public square of Newar is done by the raising platform like Dabu, raising plinth to the residence, temples, etc. Human activities According to Leo Tolstoy people attract people in which regular activities of people in certain place can attract people. In newar settlement newar prople have different activities like washing, cleaning, bathing, gathering cause people to attract to create more interacting atmosphere in the public square. Seating spaces According to (Reihaneh Sadat Hajmirsadeghi, 2012),”Along with public realm points, seating arrangement is found to be the most important in promoting the social role. Additionally, properly organized seats help users chat and protect casual communication. Another vital factor to an effective open space is the possibly to sit. Converses two kinds of good seating, main and secondary seating. Primary seating is chairs and benches. Secondary seating is staircases, steps, short walls, and another similar kind.” It is obvious that in Newar settlement Public square are mainly provided by the secondary seatings like raised plinth of temples, raised platform, etc.

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2.13 SUMMARY Public spaces are the spaces that act as a forum for exchanges and invite people to linger, interact and connect. They provide a space for wide range of formal and informal activities. For any square to be successful, it needs to have a strong image and identity, attractors like sculpture, fountains, amenities that are comfortable to the users. In addition it should be easily accessible and must have a flexible design so that variety could be offered. It should be well manage so that people can return for multi visits. Visual complexity is vital for the attraction and sustainability of any open space. The spatial qualities of any environment has a direct relationship to our eyes which affect the way we perceive, which varies with the persons’ individual taste, culture and thinking. Density and variety adds dynamism to our perception and makes it complex. It has a great power to make people feel monotonous, surprising or interesting.The physical properties like the size, color, texture, pattern, composition affect the visual environment and can either please us or distract us. The changes in level can have the visual, functional and psychological effects. The changing skyline, the variety and decorations in the façade, the effect of variety of plants with different color, texture and olfactory effects add charm to the surrounding.

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Public life is the vital one for the sustainability of a public space. The human movement, sitting, selling and various other activities makes it alive and also provides a sense of security. The scene of human activities changes during the morning, the day and the night and hence provides a greater complexity to the sense of eye. Hence, visual complexity is important for making a place pleasing and sustainable. Different type of necessary, optional and social activities can be observed in an urban core of Kathmandu. So, while designing any public spaces these activities must be given due importance. The pattern language should be considered and accordingly should be designed, Central location, easily accessibility, physical structure of space, high density use of space with provides space for people to sit and overlook the passerby can be provided. Similarly, space for culture like providing platform for performances and steps or raised tiers for observation, space for economic activities, space for seating, formal/informal seats, space for interaction, place for standing, place for playing should also be provided. The traditional towns have always offered a beautiful place keeping in mind the interest for the public. Pedesterian movement has been duly considered. There are plain surfaced buildings projections provide interest for the pedestrian movement. The streets themselves narrowed and widened which broke the monotony. There are different spaces hierarchy to make complete urban form of Newar settlement which are as follows: •Nodal spaces: Introduction of element of surprise •Street spaces: Offer movement as well as activity corridor •Bahal spaces: Rituals and residential workspaces for communal spaces enhancing community Pathway Pavilion

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There was nothing like formal space – every space encouraged and supported informal use. Hence the public life was really lively full of zest and zeal to be together in the community.Hence, public life is a very vital phenomenon which must be considered for the overall development of an individual and the city. It should offer a delight and provide enthusiasm while, walking, standing, sitting, chatting, or doing any other activities. It is much important to consider the interest and demand of the people and provide a greater sense of belonging in a public place.

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CHAPTER 3

CASE STUDIES •

DANISH PAVILION

INDIA PAVILION

PATAN DURBAR SQUARE

RUSSIAN CULTURE CENTRE


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3.1 THE DENMARK PAVILION Expo 2010 Shanghai, China Introduction The Denmark Pavilion at Expo 2010 Shanghai China was designed in response to the Expo theme “Better City – Better Life”, portraying life in Denmark and celebrating various aspects of Danish culture. A temporary building with a net built-up area of 3000m2, it articulates into a continuous geometric knot, forming a looping ramp that serves as the exhibition’s backbone. On this continuous flowing display area, pedestrians move from internal, to external, and back to internal spaces around the building – a continuous spiral that rises to a total height of some 11m. The structure also acts as a velodrome, with bicycles available for public use. This both raises awareness of a green alternative to cars, and promotes a popular aspect of Danish culture. At the centre of the knot is a pond with the statue of Hans Andersen’s “Little Mermaid”, moved from Copenhagen for the occasion.

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The building additionally includes general office areas, a kitchen, and conference space. The main plant areas are in the basement levels, adjacent to the conference and kitchen facilities. Additional plant space is incorporated into the building floor plate through a technical area located in the structural zone, behind a large display wall that runs the length of the pavilion. Structural and geometric concept Topologically, the pavilion is a unique continuous body, whose knot geometry creates spatial and structural opportunities focused on the centre, where the Little Mermaid draws visitors. The geometry is a modified logarithmic spiral on plan, formed by the rectangular tube, in section typically around 10m wide by 4.5m high. The first stage of the geometry has its starting point at the vertical core, after which the rectangular tube moves along the ground through a quarter-circle. The second stage launches into a cantilever that rises to 7.5m above the ground, completes the remaining 270°, and connects again to the core, directly above the starting section. This “looping ribbon” experience through its structural journey different boundary conditions: touching the ground, interlocking, disconnecting, Pathway Pavilion

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floating, reaching the core, interlocking again, and finally reaching the ground. Structurally, the knot’s box girder comprises two interlocking loops, the outer one cantilevering in space over the entrance to the internal courtyard. The tectonic shift between the boxes looping creates a dramatic effect over the cantilever, and an overall dynamic form. Environmental concept: The envelope build-up is a sandwich, with vertical steel stiffeners delivering the required structural strength. Dynamic thermal simulations were used to test the need for thermal insulation, and it was concluded that the effect would be marginal, given the environmental conditions during the summertime Expo event. The building envelope works as a screen between inside and outside with natural ventilation through the perforations. Solar studies were carried out to assess the penetration of direct sunlight into the exhibition space and possible implications on both solar gains and light conditions. Studies showed that the operative temperature within the pavilion was likely to be higher than outside for conditions that can be defined as acceptable (or even pleasant). More extreme conditions (outdoor operative temperatures >29°C) occur rarely within the pavilion and far less frequently than outside. The analyses were reported in terms of percentage of the occupied hours exceeding certain operative temperatures and always compared with the outdoor conditions. Structural system The structural system is divided into three principal parts: (1) the vertical core; (2) the overlapping scissor beams; (3) the transverse C-profiles closed by the structurally active façade, linked by longitudinal horizontal bars and bracing, forming the continuous tube.

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Circulation

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The sequence of events at the exhibition takes pplace between two parallel facades- the internal and external. The internal is closed and contains different functions of the pavilion. The width varies and is defined by the programme of the inner space. The pavilion’s external façade is made of perforated steel. In the evening time, the façade becomes a sequenced instrument of interactive light illuminating the passers-by.

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3.2 INDIA PAVILION Architect: Charles Correa Location: Osaka, Japan Year: 1969 A.D. Client: Government of India

Introduction This project is a further development of the themes of the Handloom and Hindustan Lever Pavilions. Here the maze is extended to cover the roof-surfaces as well - so that one enters and goes into, through, and over and out of a large puzzle-box. Concept: The central void is a key element of correa’s archictecture, echoing the ‘shunya’ or nothingness at the centre of hindu temples laid out on the divided square of the mandala.

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According to Correa, Padmanabhapuram is important because it is the key to typologies (and to Architectural syntax) quite different from those developed in the cold climates of Europe and North America – where life must be protected throughout the long winter by a sealable weather-resistant box. Thus though the wealthy English travelers visiting the Parthenon in the 17th and 18th Centuries must have been profoundly moved by the sacred pathway up to the top of the Acropolis, they soon realised that the only thing they could really take back and re-cycle within the hostile environment in which they lived were the marble columns and pediments which were rapidly turned into surface tattooing (mere wallpaper!) to decorate the outside of the sealed boxes they had to build.

Now a box generates a very simplistic architectural equation. One is either inside this box or outside it. The transition from one condition to the other is through a precise and clearly defined boundary: the front door. Inside and outside co-exist as opposites, in a simple duality. How very different from the pluralistic and subtle variations of air and light conditions generated by the open-to-sky spaces we have been discussing! The old architecture of the warm climates of this globe – from Pathway Pavilion

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the acropolis of Athens to the pyramids of Teotihuacan to the temples of Kyoto were generated by an understanding of the Subtleties and ambiguities of such spaces. The irony is that the very same cultures, which produced the original typologies, are now happily importing the closed box model (complete with wallpaper) from the “advanced” countries of the north, to fill up their towns and cities from Athens to Singapore to Tokyo to Sao Paulo. Fortunately, in India one cannot build a closed box (unless one can also afford the air-conditioning that will make it habitable) Though generated by a precise and disciplined plan of sixteen squares, it actually creates a highly ambiguous space, neither quite covered nor quite uncovered, containing Legend: 1 Entry Foyer 2 Art Gallery 3 Industrial Exhibits(Exhibition Hall) 4 Restaurant 5 Auditorium 6 Services and Green room 7 Public Space(Roof) 8 Open Air Theatre(OAT) 9 Open Court

a series of platforms in an ascending – and then descending – spiral. At some distance above is a “sky”, separated from the peripheral walls by a gap all around.

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So theme followed by Charles Correa in India Pavilion is pedestrian path, shifting axis and low-key builtform. Also it is said that the central void is a key element of correa’s archictecture, echoing the‘shunya’ or nothingness at the centre of hindu temples laid out on the divided square of the mandala. In same manner India Pavilion is based on same concept that he had left the void on the centre that is open to sky which represent as “shunya”. Form: The architectural form is deliberately low-key, a “non-building” given scale principally by the flights of stairs (echoing the bathing ghats of the rivers of India) and the effigy of the mythological demon Ravana. Energy Efficiency: Central court on India pavilion is designed for garden which helps in the circulation of fresh air around the building and the central court is open to sky a space which helps in sustaining the building in context to energy efficiency in building.

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3.3 PATAN DURBAR SQUARE:

Patan Durbar Square, the most charming urban ensemble of the Kathmandu Valley, is a beautiful open space which was a palace square of the Malla Period. It is famously known as Mangalbazaar or Manga in Newari (Mani-Gwala- meaning the central place in Newari). Also in Sanskriti Mani means jewel and mangal means auspicious.

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The central palace square was created in its present form in the 16th and 17th centuries in Malla Period when the city reached its highest priority. Two famous kings, Siddhi Narasingh Malla(1919-61) and Shri-Nivas Malla(1661-84), were especially responsible for development of the palace and its surroundings. It consists of two distinct sections arranged to form the squares of Patan are as follows: i. the palace with its temples and courtyards; ii. the group of temples built in front of the palace complex. Both areas are enclosed by newar dwellings in which all temples are standing infront of the palace in the Darbar Square. LOCATION AND ACCESS At Prime centre, Due to central location of the square in the city, it is easily accessible from all parts of the city in a walking distance with the major pedestrians in the city cross through here. The square is directly linked to major arrival points such as Lagankhel, Pulchwok, and Gwarko. It also connects the streets of Kumbeshwor, Sundhara, Machchhindra Bahal and the famous Golden Pathway Pavilion

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temple. Main streets run parallel to the palace creating two division of square with one part temple complex and palace complex. ACTIVITIES

Different activities with interpretation of today’s context and past context can be observed such as activities of Passive enjoymen such as meeting, gathering, hanging out, people watching, rest and relaxation, sun and shade, etc

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special events such as concerts, speeches, rallies, cultural programmes, art shows or display, social programmes, etc on dabali or floor of square. Different Jatras and festivals are passed throught these square since it is the main square of the Patan. Religious activities like worshipping various temples Getting water from the hiti, satisfying the thirsty, etc Different shopping and vendors activities of people non these squares. TEMPLES: There are 13 different temples in the square, varying in shapes, styles and sizes, dedicated to many Pathway Pavilion

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different deities. Many worshippers during festivals passed through these temples and Krishna temple is the one of the popular temple of this square. The styles of temples also range from the tiered temple to shikhara temple to even domical form of the Bisheswor temple making them architecturally significant as well. USERS: People of all ages and backgrounds can be seen in the square at any time. The number of users depend upon the time of day and weather but the square is never empty throught the year. The square has something for everyone whether they are youngsters playing around, students meeting with friends, adults, or old people reminiscing about old days. Tourists from many different countries can also be seen taking photographs of the square.

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CIRCULATION There is no definite path to take when moving around the square. There are multiple paths and ways around the square encouraging the movement of people through these paths. The central path is a major pedestrian walkway used by people as a shortcut to get from one place to another.

SUBSPACES: There are a number of subspaces within the square, each with its own ambience and environment. These subspaces are defined by building configuration and changes in levels. Each subspaces has a unique sharacteristics. Some subspaces are reclusive like garden behind Narasimha Temple and courtyards of the palaces while others are more open like area around the Maharani Temple. These spaces contribute to a more efficient use of the square. VARIETY Variety in styles such as shikhara styled Krishna Mandir and Chyasin dega, tiered temples of Harishankar, char Narayan, Bhimshen, Bishwonath, etc. There are varieties of shapes and the spaces radiated by these geometric spaces are different. The Harishankar radiates out in four directions around its shape. Chyasin Dega radiates out in eight directions around its octagonal shape and MaPathway Pavilion

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CASE STUDIES

harani pukhu radiates in ten directions in a radial form. Thus, there is variety in shapes and sizes. As with the variety present within the square, scale also contributes to the success of the square. From the large scale degutale to the small details of the carving of the pillars of the temples, the scales of many things act to keep the spaces planning. BUILT UP ENVIRONMENT AND LUBRICATION Faรงade is composed of different variety of elements. The contrast, color, texture, light and shade, material types all add to the visual richness of the faรงade. The amalgamation of the wood, bricks, stone and metals is very beautiful providing richness to its faรงade. The dark brown of the doors, windows and columns, the dull red color of the brick on the walls, the boldness of the stone sculptures and the shine and warmth of the gilded golden pinnacles, torans, etc add a contrast to the scene of square. Pathway Pavilion

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Skyline around the streets from the square provide visual dynamism which are enhanced by the different shaped temples

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Any change in the level affects our visual perception and also fulfills the functional and psychological requirements. The level changes are observable as steps leading to the temples, plinths around the temples, sunken courtyards, raised platform(dabu) and as space demarcations. The steps and the plinths elevate the built up structure of the temples and this symbolically explain the divine power of the God above. The sunken courtyard of Mani Hiti is visually attracting and aurally luring and besides the ever flowing water from this Dhunge Dhara is used by the people for drinking purposes.

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3.4 RUSSIAN CULTURE CENTRE Russian culture centre located at the junction, in front of Kumar deity was formerly build as Soviet Culture Centre about one and half decades by USSR Embassy Nepal, later known as Russian Cultural Centre. It displays composition of different volumes combined together in brick texture. Its main components are auditorium, library, conference hall, exhibition hall and offices. It is built in an area of 11 ropanies. The surrounding built environment is a mix type with the variety in building categories like residential and commercial.It has been built especially for the exchange of cultural amenities between Nepal and Russia. Cenral Entrance Foyer The main entrance opens into a spacious hall of double height. The double height sky-lit foyer is airy and serves as an entrance foyer, exhibition space and spill out area for auditorium. The hall has an area of 1.5 Sq.m. per seat. The central circular skylight and sources of natural lighting from the punctures in the roof creates an interesting and appealing interior environment. All the functional spaces are arranged around this central foyer space. Conference hall An audio – visual hall with capacity 50 persons is present. The hall is double height with proper acoustic treatment provisions. The hall is provided with provision for fire exit as well as fire extinguisher facility.

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Area: 84 Sq. m. (8 x 10.5 m) Auditorium The auditorium is designed for performing cultural program and for showing documentaries but not used for theatrical performances. The auditorium is fan shaped and the seats are arranged in a slightly curvilinear pattern. •The auditorium is a small one with 191 seating capacity. •There is a good provision of fire escape and fire hydrants are used for fire safety. •AC system is used for the mechanical ventilation. •There are altogether ten rows of seats. •The width of each seating step is 3’-6” and height being 1’-2”. •The distance from to first row from the stage is 7’-10”. •Width of the gangway is 3’-6”. Pathway Pavilion

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LITERATURE REVIEW

•Wide wings and backstage alley with green rooms and store. •There is an efficient circulation pattern with multiple entry and exits. •There is common entrance foyer i.e. no separate foyer for the auditorium. Acoustical Treatment •There is enough acoustical treatment done on the floor, walls and ceiling •Floor – carpeted •Wall- ceramic tiles used as a sound reflector up to the height of 1.2m •Wooden battens with the gap beneath which are layer of wire mesh and glass wool •Ceiling- undulating surface with reflective surface •Use of perforated gypsum board on the ceiling as well as on the wall of stage for sound absorption •Thick paneled door for better sound insulation.

UPPER GALLERY It is a 3m wide corridor used as a gallery space which is also used for exhibition purposes.

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LIBRARY

•Double height room hence though small but seems spacious •Windows towards east provide natural lighting in the room •Different sections accommodated in a single room of area 115 m2 •Back stacks provided along the periphery of room so no obstruction to the reading spaces •Effective library layout with pockets for individual reading area provided by offsets in plan and also there is space for group reading OFFICE SPACES

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LITERATURE REVIEW

It is located on the ground and first floors. There is provision of back entries to offices in the ground floor. CIRCULATION •There is an efficient circulation pattern with multiple entry and exits. •Multiple entry to different functions, main entry leading to entrance foyer, side entry to classrooms and also back entry to office spaces. There is a common entrance foyer i.e. no separate foyer for the auditorium.

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SPACE ANALYSIS •Entrance foyer: 10x14m • Corridor width varies according to the function it serves. •Upper floor corridor: 3m •Circulation corridor: 1.5m •Staircase to the auditorium: 2m •Staircase to the office: 1m S.N. DESCRIPTION 1. Entrance Poyer 2. Upper Gallery 3. Circulation Corridor 4. Staircase To Audiotorium 5. Floating Stairs To Office 6. Conference Hall 7. Library (5000-6000) S.N. DESCRIPTION 1. Capacity 2. Area Of Auditorium 3. Depth Of Auditorium 4. Stage 5. No. Of Seating Rows 6. Width Of Steps 7. Height Of Step 8. Distance Of First Row 9. Width Of Gangway 10. Riser Height

DIMENSION 10*14m 3m 1.5m 2m 1m 10.5*8m 2000 members DIMENSION 200 939m2 16.2m 17.75*14.4m 10 3’6” 1’2” 7’10” 3’6” 7”

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CASE STUDIES

3.5 INFERENCES FROM CASE STUDY

DENMARK PAVILION

• Curvilinear design for cultural exchange • Continuous and interconnected loop of space • Fluidity in the arrangement and movement of space • Use of water features and sculpture • Experiences of same spaces in two different speeds creating different experiences • Use of two colors for differentiating areas • Structural stability with façade design • Energy efficient INDIA PAVILION

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• Echoing culture of India in Japan • Reflection of building’s form in accordance to religious activities performed in India • Presence of central court as garden representing Surya or Sunya (emptiness) • Roof surfaces as public space • Continuous loop from internal spaces to public spaces • Level changes in pathway and public outdoor spaces PATAN DURBAR SQUARE • Multiple subspaces with unique environments • Visual complexity due to elements, façade, scale, etc • Changes in level • Accommodation of numerous activities (daily and special) • Multiple ways to access • Provisions of various forms of seating (main and secondary) Pathway Pavilion

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• Changing scenes of human activities with the women worshipping at temples, curio shops for making money, rush of people to their destination, elderly people chatting, students roaming and tourist admiring a beauty

RUSSIAN CULTURE CENTRE

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• Bridge of friendship between people of Nepal and Russia • Venue with good physical facilities for holding medium sized events • Encouraging and celebrates artistic and cultural expressions • Circulation spaces cross programmed as exhibition space • Multiple entrances minimizes congestion • Functional spaces around a multifunctional foyer • Auditorium Capacity: 200 persons Wide: 15.45 m, Height = 5.5 m, Deep = 9.14 m Width of seating = 1.06 m (steps) Height of steps = 0.304 m Distance of first row from seating = 2.28 m

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CHAPTER

4 1.

PROGRAMME FORMULATION

Performance Pavilion:

This programme is determined by the case studies. Generally on case study of the Patan Durbar Square, many programmes are being held by different communities or organization in raised platform called dabali. Programs organized in Patan durbar square can be social programmes or exhibition programmes or political programmes. Similarly in Jawalakhel many special programmes like concert, or social programmes are being held. So in that sense performance pavilion is introduced in Pathway Pavilion to provide the platform for those who organizes such programme to engage, invite and exchange the culture or others to audience or observers. Hall (200 persons @ 1.5 sq. m. per person) = 300 Sq. m. Stage and Green Rooms (30% of seating) = 162 Sq. m. Projector Room = 10 Sq. m. Mechanical Room = 30 Sq. m. Restrooms = 8 Sq. m. Workshops/ Rehearsal Room = 180 Sq. m. Store room = 30 Sq. m. Great Lobby = 200 Sq. m. 2.

Art Pavilion:

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This Pavilion is determined by the demand of site. In site there is use of the wall as raising awareness about the health, education, etc to public and there is other wall in which youth people express their dissatisfaction on any current issues. So many people use the art as medium for expressing their downed thoughts. In case of Patan Durbar Square many people and tourist can observed the small scale to large scale art crafted in wood or others. Gallery (150 persons @ 1.5 Sq. m. per person) Studio ( 5 artists @ 10 sq. m.) = 50 Sq. m . Utility = 50 Sq. m. Office = 10 Sq. m. 3.

= 225 Sq. m.

Exhibition Pavilion:

It is an exhibition hall where many people can put the stalls or exhibition places for organizing expo. Pavilions are usually used for the expo so that they can make a promotion of product or country. Exhibition space (1000 persons @ 0.6 Sq. m. / person) = 600 Sq. m. Stalls = 2 m x 2 m and 3 m x 3 m Meeting Rooms (20 persons @1.5 Sq. m. per person) = 30 Sq. m. Discussion Rooms (15 @ 3 Sq. m. per person) = 45 Sq. m. Restrooms = 8 Sq. m. Pathway Pavilion

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PROGRAMME FORMULATION

Learning Pavilion

Pavilions are the public space where people interact each other in different degree of interaction in which observer feels or learns from something to express himself or herself. In case of Russian Culture Centre it uses not only the auditorium as space for cultural exchange but also as sharing information culture by introducing library. Reading space (150 persons @ 3 Sq. m. per person) = 300 Sq. m. Stacking Areas (10, 000 books @ 200 Sq. m. per person) = 50 Sq. m. Miscellaneous (Store, Journals, Lobby, Washroom) = 160 Sq. m. 5. Restaurant Dining area (100 persons @ 1.5 Sq. m. per person) = 150 Sq. m. Kitchen area (20 % of dining space) = 30 Sq. m. Store (50% of Kitchen) = 15 Sq. m. Bar (10 persons @ 2 Sq. m.) = 20 Sq. m. Counter (2 persons @ 2 Sq. m. per person) = 4 Sq. m. Restrooms = 6 Sq. m.

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6. Administration Reception = 15 Sq. m. Staff Workspace (10 persons @ 4.5 Sq. m. per persons) = 15 Sq. m. Director’s Office = 40 Sq. m. Staff Rooms (10 persons @ 3.5 Sq. m. per persons) = 35 Sq. m. Accounts = 20 Sq. m. Event Management = 30 Sq. m. Machinery/Equipments = 10 Sq. m. Store = 5 Sq. m. Meeting Room = 20 Sq. m. Toilets = 6 Sq. m. Waiting = 5 Sq. m. 7. Parking 4 – Wheeler (30 vehicles @ 12.5 Sq. m. per vehicle) = 375 Sq. m. 2 – Wheeler (60 vehicles @ 4.5 Sq. m. per vehicle) = 270 Sq. m. Staff Parking: 4 – wheeler (5) = 62.5 Sq. m. 2 – wheeler (10) = 45 Sq. m.

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8. Other spaces Amphitheatre Skateboard Plaza Social Message Wall Dabali

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Total Carpet area = 3064 Sq. m. Total Built up area = Total carpet area + Area for circulation and wall (35% of Total area) = 3064 + 1072.4 = 4136 Sq. m.

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CHAPTER 5

SITE ANALYSIS


CHAPTER

5

SITE ANALYSIS

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5.1 SITE INFORMATION • Total area: 112720sq.m (220 ropani approx.) • Location: Kamerotaar • Site surroundings : elevated landform amidst open areas giving a landmark potential to the site separating it from residential area in north west and commercial development in south o North : residential area of thimi o South : 6 lane highway o East : residential area of thimi o West : historic town of Bhaktapur • Ownership: Kamerotaar land pooling project • Topography: elevation ranges from 1300 to 1324m • with sloppy landscape and a plateau like space • Vegetation : number of trees and bushes on site • Hydrology : small ditches of water • Geology : white clay found abundantly • Shape : The site is irregular in shape • Visibility : The raised landforms gives clear visibility • Access : 6 lane highway & Purano thimi road Several arterial under construction works • Circulation: The site is accessible from every corner. • Dimensions: 248.5m long on south & 538.7m long on north • Status: currently unused • Services : basic services like electricity , water supply , telecommunication , drainage are present

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SITE ANALYSIS

5.2 Site Introduction The site chosen for my thesis project called ‘Pathway Pavilion’ is Kamerota, Madhyapur Thimi, Bhaktapur, Nepal. This site has a great potential to emerge as a vibrant public space. Site has generally three influences which are as follows: Bhaktapur Valley as cultural heritage of Nepal Araniko Highway Kamerotar Landpooling Bhaktapur as commonly known as the traditional town or living museum in Nepal, has some certain architectural characteristics and other physical and abstract characteristics. Bhaktapur settlement has many public square arranged together form different spaces that are interconnected with each other by different street networks and each street networks end to the offices called the fields which is commonly known as the job of local people. It means they form settlement on hill region and streets are radially distributed with open spaces which may be temple square or palace square or residential square or chwoks, etc and each streets connect to the fields. So Madhyapur thimi and Bhaktapur Durbar Square is main point of attraction to the site which we commonly called them as public spaces which are still running as successful public square having subsets of different numerous activities.

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Araniko Highway has great influence upon this site which is prominently seen after the conversion to 6 lane highway that connect to the China. Due to such influence, different development occurs like commercial activities, residential development, health facilities development, entertainment facilities, housing development, industrial development. Due to such developments, many lifestyle is changing. Attractors to the site • • • • • • •

Bhaktapur Durbar Square Madhyapur Thimi 6 lane Araniko Highway Financial Activities Civic Activities Educational Buildings Vendors and Open Markets

Kamerotar Landpooling Project is running on this site which was launched by Madhyapur Municipality for systematic development of settlement in the Bhaktapur. Due to such development it can be great influence in near future. Development of residential on this pooling is not good, it also requires the public square or spaces or common spaces to humanize the cities.

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5.3 Swot analysis strength • accessibility from two main roads and other arterial roads • landmark potential & 6 lane highway weakness • infrastructure installation is underway • steep slope land becomes useless • distance from core city area opportunities • potentials for future expansion • area being a new development threat • some areas do have threat of landslides • if not managed well the development can affect the nearby historic town

5.4 Site justification Potential to become a vibrant public space with the pathway pavilion as the central focal point • location • attractors to the site • activities in and around the site • connections to major areas such as bhaktapur, madhyapur thimi, kathmandu and new devlopment areas on south of the site Pathway Pavilion

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5.5 SITE INFERENCES Layout : orientation with east west axis Openings : large openings 40-80% to allow light Spacing : open space for breezing peneteration Rainfall : protection of heavy rainfall needed Vegetation: trees and vegetation needed to be maintain

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5.6 BYE LAWS: According to the byelaws of Madhyapur Thimi Municipality , the site lies in the new residential zone. The site is surrounded by recently developing commercial zone in south, and residential zone in north. Following are the regulations for the project as per the bye-laws. R.O.W. + Set back: 10 + 1 m from the center of the road F.A.R.: 2.5 Ground Coverage: 50% .The ceiling height should not be less than 9’-6�. Openings in wall should be 3m away from the boundary line.

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CHAPTER 6

DESIGN CONCEPT AND DEVELOPMENT


CHAPTER

6

DESIGN

6.1 DESIGN APPROACH During this project “Pathway Pavilion”, the intention of this project is to introduce the function relatd to recreation or relaxation that can be experienced through out the buildings. Considering one of the major successful public square in traditional malla architecture, they are still continuing nowadays which is because of different factors. So objective of this project is to create the public space so that they can gather, relax, sit, eat and play for their inert freedom. So, the main goal of this project is to engae, to inform and to inspire the people through the creation of public space. To fulfill the project functions and others, ideas from different studies, cases and site are drawn to fulfill the goal of this project.

6.1.1 IDEAS FROM STUDY “......buffer spaces in a city they create a gathering place for prople, humanizing them by mutual contact, providing them with shelter against the haphazard traffic and freeing them for the tension” - spreigen(public spaces) • human needs and values • a key to establishing lively and safe public spaces • concept of traingulation • activities in public spaces

self realization

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phsycological needs

need to belong

Human needs and values

security

Physiological needs

Observer Performer

Concept of Traingulation

Stranger

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6.1.2 IDEAS FROM CASES DENMARK PAVILION • cultural exchanges in curvilinear design of building • water features and sculptures • open nature of building with fluidity movement • perforation to facade -light penetration -ventilation -interactive light illumination -structural stability • allow visitors to experience the exhibition while moving through the spaces on bicycles

INDIA PAVILION

• • • •

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cultural exchanges of india in japan expo roof surface of building as public space level changes on pathway void throughout the buiilding -natural ventilation

Fig. Section through India Pavilion

-degree of interaction

-sustainability in energy

PATAN DURBAR SQUARE

Fig. Section through Manihiti • • • •

sculptures on public spaces interaction due to level changes, sub spaces, visual complexity due to facade, scales, etc. different degree of human activities multiple access Pathway Pavilion

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6.2 DESIGN CONCEPT 1. Site Research identification of nodes node 1: entry to the traditional thimi contain of pati, shiv temple, dhungedhara node 2: flow from main pathway influences of araniko highway node 3: linkage developed to the future urban development Axis determined : 1 - 1 (main axis): existed road running through site Site have already contains the existing road which directly connects to the new road called Highway. Along these road there is an entry gate to the Sano Thimi, which also one of the traditional malla settlement of Bhaktapur. So, this axis act as major pathway of project while designing, where this axis turns out into three dimensional form but con tinuing the pathway through plaza to roof and again roof to plaza.

2

1

1

3

Legends 1-1 2-2 3-3

2 - 2 (heritage axis): connection of madhyapur thimi and bhaktapur As above mentioned in 1 - 1 (main axis)[existed road running through site], site has existing road that link to the malla settlement of Bhaktapur called Thimi Town valley. Sin- ce,settlement of thimi is also one of the important part of malla settlement or Malla Architecture and apart from that it is also rich in culture and heritage.

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So, this axis struggles to remain the connection of malla architecture of main Bhaktapur settlement and Thimi settlement. It turns into three dimensional shape with common character of both settlement of Temple structure i.e. mentioned in

3-3 (influence axis): that appeared in the site through developmental influcence of araniko highway This axis is termed as the influence axis because site is just beside the Araniko Highway. This Highway has been making great influence around this highway which is prominently seen after changing this highway into 6 lane. So, influence of this highway is great. For example: Establishement of the different industries and factories, development of commercial activities, civic activities, changes in architectural features on existing build ings, etc.

So, this axis responds to the highway or busy street life or movement of people or vehicles or others for their destiny.

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2. Analysis of activities Activities in public space or public square can be an alysed into different ways as activities are taken in morning or in afternoon or in evening are different. At the same time activities are also dependent on the seasons of the year. So, activities can be concluded into four keywords such as: - engage -experience -inform

Fig: Section @ Patan Durbar Square -interpret. Engage refers to activities that when people enter into the public spaces and observes the different activities that occuring which can be passive or active engagement. Experience refers to the real observation and something that activities that inspire the observers or make pshycological satisfaction to the observation.

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Inform is the activities that people got much more information through activities like activities through social programmes, observing the architectural features, observing the social messages wall, information stored on mind through experience. Interpret is one of the important activities that occur after the above activities where all the information or experience are concluded with sharing and interpertating with each other. Interpretation occur through gathering or meeting in plinth level or dabali or seating spaces or cafeteria, or pati, etc.

3. Analysis Of Public Spaces: Spaces of Traditional Malla Settlement architecture especially public spaces or public squares can be interpret and analysed in various ways. Spaces in past settlement

PERFORMING SPACE

PUBLIC SPACE

EXPRESSION SPACE

Plan of Taumadhi Square, Bhaktapur

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is still continuing on this present settlement which may be different reasons. Spaces can be divided into three parts: a. Performing spaces: Refers to the dabali, etc. b. Public spaces: Refers to the street that run through the public squares. Main spaces where different festivals or activities are held on this spaces. c. Temple structure: Structure having great architectural features along with the grand public steps or plinth of temple for obseving jatras, etc. 4. Analysis of TEMPLE STRUCTURE Temples structure is a representation of public power relationship which can be analysed into three phases:

-plinths: public space(public plaza) -idol/shrine:representation of power -struts:artistic expresssion(art pavilion)

Struts Shrine

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Plinth

PUBLIC SPACE

PLAZA

Grand steps for continuiation of plaza to public space on roof

Continous Flow Of Space

Fig: Conceptual Section for Project

Gallery

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6.3 CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT After design approach, desogn concept is further developed to give the direciton of progress of development of project considering all above factors. 1 3 2

2

3

1 Axis converted to plane Main axis act as public space - that cut the site daigonally Planning in accordance to public square Exhibition/event space Public space Performming space

Different axis are converted into two dimensional plane and finally into the three dimensional shape to govern the shape of building.

5

1

2 6 3

4

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1. ZONING

2.. MASSING AND FUNCTIONS 1. Business Events Area/Exhibition Pavilion 2. Performing Pavilion-Auditorium 3. Art Pavilion-Gallery 4. Learning Pavilion-Library 5. Cafeteria 6. Public Space - Dabali/Oat

As well as the zoning is done in accordance to the refrence from the Malla architectural settlement of Public Square in such a way that main pathway run alongs the site that cut diagonally the site into two part as exhibtion space or event space and Performance shape so that any event or performance that occur within the site can be observed from the public space or main pathway. Also pathway occurs different obstacles while achieving the destiny, such obstacles are art gallery, exhibition hall, auditorium, dabali, library. They can be termed as attractor to the project or subspaces of public spaces and also factors of gaining experience, information and interpretation.

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Exhibition Pavilion: It functions for the organizing the business events like temporary exhibition, etc. Performing Pavilion: It mainly functions for organizing the formal and informal programme. It consists of public amphitheatre and main auditorium hall. Public amphitheatre is generally conceptuallized for the local participation or informal programme where as main auditorium hall is for the formal programme like conference, dance, etc. Art Pavilion: This pavilion is for displaying the arts and others and it is perforated as related to Denmark Pavilion. Learning Pavilion: This pavilion is for informing the visitors and community participation through square plaza. Cafeteria: It is placed between the performing pavilion and exhibition pavilion and directed toward the main pathway. It is isolated but designed according to the initial concept of that main pathway i.e. access through ramps. Public Space: Main pathway is called as public space. It consists of in situ seating spaces as well as different voids and dabali spaces for different live performance on this spaces. There is also viewing deck to observe the water garden, sunken court, etc. Different voids are introduced into the buildings for air circulation and light as well. Also needed to mention, voids represents the emptiness(sunya) which helps in visual interaction.

3. OPEN SPACES AND USAGES

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1

4 3

2

1. Event Plaza 2. Square Plaza 3. Auditorium Plaza 4. Communal Plaza

As already mentioned that main pathway in the project or design cut site diagonally into two and other axis collides to main pathway. In this way there is formation of four plaza with their distinct function. In every plaza, plaza is continued to the main pathway through the grand steps and similarlt main common or interpretation hall called installation hall can be accessed through plaza which again distributed to public space. Similarly, from the main pathway called public spaces can be accessed to different functions or block. Event plaza: This plaza is mainly concerned for business event or outdoor echibtiion of art pavilion and exhibition hall. Pathway Pavilion

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Square Plaxa: This plaza is dedicated to the community or society. Initially, there is consists of pati, dhungedhara, shiva temple and surrounded by residences, traditional gateway to the Thimi which already forms a public square. So, this square is mainly concerned to the activities of community like worshipping, community gathering, political forum, etc. Auditorium Plaza: This plaza is mainy concerned to the spill out area of visitors to the site. Communal Plaza: This plaza is designed for communal gathering of both exhibtion hall and performance pavilion(auditorium)

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4 . ACCESS AND LINKAGES It can be accessed form all direction of the site since Pathway Pavilion is public spaces which should be accessible to all gender with no dress code, free entrance, etc as stated by definition of Wikipedia.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY


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BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY

(2013). Retrieved from wikipedia: www.wikipedia.com Efroymson, D., Ha, T. T., & Ha, P. T. (2009). Public Spaces:How they humanize the cities. Dhaka: HealthBridge - WBB Trust. Kangur, K., & Traks, M. (2011). The Square in Space and time. Talin: Toolbox Press. Korn, W. (2006). Traditional Architecture of Kathmandu Valley. Imperial press. Reihaneh Sadat Hajmirsadeghi, S. S. (2012). The Impact of Physical Design Factors on the Effective Use. International Journals of Fundamental psychological and social sciences , 52. Sunuwar, J. D. (2011). Peti, Chwok, Dalan. Business architecture , 14. Tonnelat, S. (2010). The sociology of Urban Public Spaces. Paris: Atlantis Press. Peñalosa, E, Speech at International Mayors’ Forum, 10-11, November 2004. Jacobs, J, The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Random House, 1989. Gehl, J, Life Between Buildings, Using Public Space. The Danish Architectural Press, 2001. Engwicht, D, Street Reclaiming, Creating Livable Streets and Vibrant Communities. Pluto Press 1999. Media Transasia Group, Architecture + Design Vol. XXVIII and XXV, 2011 Vaidya Selma, A Thesis on Urban Square: A Recreation Center, 2011 Khakurel, Sarita. A Thesis on Centre of Arts, 2004

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Pun, Himal. Forum For Political Consiousness, 2007

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FINAL DESIGN AND DRAWINGS


CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER

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PROGRAMME FORMULATION PROGRAMME FORMULATION

1. Performance Pavilion: 1. Performance Pavilion: 8. Other spaces 1. Performance Pavilion: by the case studies. Generally on case study of the Patan Durbar This programme is determined Amphitheatre This programme is determined case studies. Generally ononcase Durbar This programme is determined bythe theheld case studies. Generally case studyofofthethePatan Durbar Square, many programmes areby being by different communities orstudy organization inPatan raised platSkateboard Plaza Square, many programmes are being by different communities or organization in raised platSquare, many programmes are held by different communities or organization in raised platform form dabali. Programs organized in Patan durbar square can be social programmes or exhibiSocialcalled Message Wall form called dabali. Programs organized in Patan durbar canbebesocial socialprogrammes programmes orexhibition exhibicalled dabali. Programs organized in Patan durbar square can or tion programmes or political programmes. Similarly insquare Jawalakhel many special programmes like Dabali tion programmes or political programmes. Similarly in Jawalakhel many special programmes like programmes or political programmes. Similarly in Jawalakhel many special programmes like concert, concert, or social programmes are being held. So in that sense performance pavilion is introduced concert, orprogrammes social programmes arethe being in that senseorganizes performance pavilion is introduced or social areprovide being So held. in thatSo sense performance pavilion introduced inengage, Pathway in Pathway Pavilion to platform for those who suchis programme to Total Carpet area = 3064 Sq. m.held. inPavilion Pathway Pavilion to provide the platform for organizes those or who organizes such programmeinvite to engage, to exchange provide platform for those such programme invite and culture or others towho audience observers. Total Built up area the =the Total carpet area + Area for circulation and wall (35%toofengage, Total area) and exinvite and theothers culture or others to audience or observers. change theexchange culture or to + audience = 3064 1072.4 or observers. Hall (200 persons @ 1.5 sq. m.Sq. perm. person) = 300 Sq. m. = 4136 Hall (200 persons @ 1.5 sq. person) = 162 300 Sq. m. m. Hall (250 persons @ 1.5 m. per 375 Sq. Sq. Stage and Green Rooms (30% of seating) = m. Stage and (30% Sq. m. m. Stage andGreen Green Rooms (30% of seating) = 162 Sq. Projector RoomRooms = 10 Sq. m. of Projector Room ==10 m. Projector Room 10 Sq.Sq. m. m. Mechanical Room =Sq. 30 Mechanical 30 Mechanical 30Sq. Sq. m. m. Restrooms Room =Room 8 Sq.==m. Restrooms ==8Rehearsal Sq.Sq.m.m. Room = 180 Sq. m. Restrooms 70 Workshops/ Workshops/ Room Workshops/ Room==180 180Sq. Sq. m. m. Store roomRehearsal =Rehearsal 30 Sq. m. Store ==30 Sq. Store room 30200 Sq. m. m. m. Greatroom Lobby = Sq. Great GreatLobby Lobby==200 220 Sq. Sq. m.

066/BAE/218 KIRAN BASUKALA 066/BAE/218 KIRAN BASUKALA

2. Art Pavilion: 2.2. Art ArtPavilion: Pavilion: This raising awareness ThisPavilion Pavilionisisdetermined determinedby bythe thedemand demandof ofsite. site.InInsite sitethere thereisisuse useofofthe thewall wallasas raising awareThis Pavilion is determined by the demand of site. In site there is use of the wall as raising awareabout the health, education, etc to public and there is other wall in which youth people express their ness about the health, education, etc to public and there is other wall in which youth people express ness about the health, education, etc to public and there is other wall in which youth people express dissatisfaction on any issues.issues. So many people use the for expressing their their dissatisfaction oncurrent any current So many people useart theasartmedium as medium for expressing their oncase any current issues. So many people usepeople the as medium for observed expressing downed thoughts. In Patan Durbar Square many people andarttourist can observed the small theirdissatisfaction downed thoughts. In of case of Patan Durbar Square many and tourist can the their downed thoughts. In case of Patan Durbar Square many people and tourist can observed the scale to large scale art crafted in wood or others. small scale to large scale art crafted in wood or others. small scale to large scale art crafted in wood or others. Elliptical Gallery (500 @ persons 1.5per Sq.person) m. per person) = 750 Gallery (150 persons 1.5 Sq.@m. = 225 Sq. m. Sq. m. Gallery (150 persons @ 1.5 Sq. m. person) 225Sq. Sq.m. m. Box Gallery (500 @ persons 1.5= Sq. m. per ==750 Studio ( 5 artists 10 sq.@m.) 50per Sq. m person) . Studio 5 artists @ 10 sq. m.) = 50 Sq. m . Restrooms: Utility( = 5050 Sq.Sq. m.m. Utility Studio 10 artists Office=(=50 10Sq. Sq.m. m.@ 15 sq. m.) = 150 Sq. m . Office Utility==10 50Sq. Sq.m. m. Office =Exhibition 40 Sq. m. Pavilion: 3. 3. Exhibition Pavilion: 3. Exhibitionhall Pavilion: It is an exhibition where many people can put the stalls or exhibition places for organizing expo. ItItPavilions isisananexhibition hall where many can put thethe stalls or or exhibition places organizing expo. exhibition hall where many people can put places for organizing expo. are usually used for thepeople expo so that they canstalls make aexhibition promotion of for product or country. Pavilions Pavilionsare areusually usually used used for for the the expo expo so so that that they they can can make make aa promotion promotionof of product productor orcountry. country. Exhibition space (1000 persons @ 0.6 Sq. m. / person) = 600 Sq. m. Exhibition Sq. m. m. // person) person) = 900 600 Sq. Sq.m. m. Exhibition space (1500 persons @ Stalls = 2 space m x 2 (1000 m andpersons 3 m x 3@ m 0.6 Sq. Stalls ==22m and 33 m m Sq. m. per person) = 30 Sq. m. Stalls mxx 22 m m(20 andpersons m xx 33@1.5 Meeting Rooms Meeting Rooms (20 = 30m.Sq. Sq. m. m. Meeting Rooms (20persons persons @1.5m.Sq. per person) Discussion Rooms (15 @ 3@1.5 Sq. perm.person) = 45 Sq. Discussion Sq. m. m. Discussion Rooms (15 @ 3 Sq. m. per person) = 45 Sq. RestroomsRooms = 8 Sq.(15 m. @ Restrooms Sq.Sq.m.m. Restrooms==880 Pathway Pavilion Pathway Pavilion

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KIRAN BASUKALA BASUKALA 066/BAE/218 066/BAE/218KIRAN

4. Learning Pavilion 4. Learning Pavilion 8. Other spaces 4. Learning Pavilions are the Pavilion public space where people interact each other in different degree of interaction Amphitheatre Pavilions are the public space where people interact eachother other different degree of interaction Pavilions space where people interact inindifferent degree interaction in in which observer feels or learns from something to each express himself or herself. In of case of Russian Skateboard Plaza public in which observer feels or learns from something to express himself or herself. In case of Russian which Message observer feels learns something to himself or herself. In case of Russian CulCulture Centre itWall usesornot onlyfrom the auditorium as express space for cultural exchange but also as sharing Social Culture Centre it uses thelibrary. auditorium as space for cultural exchange butasalso as sharing ture Centre it uses not onlyonly the auditorium as space for cultural exchange but also sharing inforinformation culture by not introducing Dabali information culture by introducing library. mation culture by introducing library. Reading space (150 persons Total Carpet area = 3064 Sq.@ m.3 Sq. m. per person) = 300 Sq. m. Reading space (150 persons @@ Sq. m. perm. person) 300=Sq. Sq. m. Reading space (150 persons 33 Sq. m. per person) == 450 m. Stacking Areas (10,=000 books 200 Sq. per person) 50 Sq.wall m. (35% of Total area) Total Built up area Total carpet area + Area for circulation and Stacking Areas (10, 000 @ 200 Sq. m. per person) = 50 Sq. Stacking Areas (20, books @ 200 Sq. m. per person) = 95 Sq. m. Miscellaneous (Store, Journals, = 3064 + Lobby, 1072.4 Washroom) = 160 Sq. m. m. Miscellaneous Lobby, Washroom) = 160 160 Sq. Sq.m. m. Miscellaneous (Store, (Store, Journals, Lobby, = 4136 Sq. m. Washroom) Hall = 200 Sq.m. 5.Conference Restaurant 5. Restaurant 5. Restaurant Dining area (100 persons @ 1.5 Sq. m. per person) = 150 Sq. m. Dining persons @ Sq. m. m. perSq. person) 150 Sq. Sq.m. m. Diningarea area (100 persons @ 1.5 Sq. per person) Kitchen area(100 (20 % of dining space) = 30 m. = 150 Kitchen area % space) Sq.m. m. Kitchen area (20 % of dining Store (50% of(20 Kitchen) = 15 Sq. m. = 30 Sq. Store (50% of Kitchen) 15 Sq. Sq.20m. m. Store (50% 15 Bar (10 persons @ 2 Sq.=m.) = Sq. m. Bar @ Sq. m.)m. 20 Sq. m. = 4 Sq. m. Bar (10 (10 persons persons @ 2@Sq. m.) == 20 m. Counter (2 persons 2 Sq. perSq. person) Counter persons @ Counter(2(2= persons @ 22 Sq. Sq. m. per person) person) == 4 Sq. m. Restrooms 6 Sq. m. Restrooms Restrooms==66 Sq. Sq. m. 6. Administration 6.6. Administration Administration Reception==15 15 Sq. Sq. m. Reception Reception = 15 Sq. Staff Workspace (10m. @ 4.5 Staff persons @ 4.5Sq. Sq.m. m.per perpersons) persons)==15 15Sq. Sq.m. m. Staff Workspace (10 persons @ 4.5 Sq. m. per persons) = 15 Sq. m. Director’s Office = 40 Director’s 40 Sq. Sq.m. m. Director’s Office = 40 Sq.@ Staff Rooms @m. 3.5 Staff (10 persons 3.5Sq. Sq.m. m.per perpersons) persons)==35 35Sq. Sq.m. m. Staff Rooms (10 persons Accounts 20 Sq. Accounts == 20 Sq. m. @ 3.5 Sq. m. per persons) = 35 Sq. m. Accounts = 20 Sq. m. Event Management Management 30 Sq. m. Event == 30 Event Management = 30==Sq. Machinery/Equipments 10m. Sq. m. m. Machinery/Equipments 10 Sq. Machinery/Equipments = 10 Sq. m. Store == 55 Sq. Sq. m. Store Store = 5Room Sq. m.== 20 Meeting Room 20 Sq. Sq. m. Meeting Meeting = 20 Sq. m. Toilets ==Room Sq. m. Toilets 66 Sq. Toilets Waiting===655Sq. Sq.m. Waiting Sq. m. Waiting = 5 Sq. m. 7.7. Parking Parking 7.4 – Wheeler Parking (30 vehicles @ 12.5 Sq. m. per vehicle) = 375 Sq. m. Wheeler(30 (60 vehicles vehicles @ Sq.Sq. m.m.per == 270 Sq.Sq. m.m. 42––Wheeler @ 4.5 12.5 pervehicle) vehicle) 375 42Staff –– Wheeler Sq.m. m.per pervehicle) vehicle)==270 375Sq. Sq.m. m. Parking:(30 Wheeler (60 vehicles vehicles @ @ 12.5 4.5 Sq. 2Staff (60 vehicles 4.5Sq.Sq. – Wheeler 4 – wheeler (5) = @ 62.5 m.m. per vehicle) = 270 Sq. m. Parking: Staff Parking: wheeler (5) (10)= =62.5 45 Sq. 42––wheeler Sq.m. m. 42 –– wheeler (5) = 62.5 Sq. m. wheeler (10) = 45 Sq. m. 2 – wheeler (10) = 45 Sq. m. Pathway Pavilion Pathway Pavilion

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4. Learning Pavilion 8. Other 8. Other spaces spaces Amphitheatre Amphitheatre Pavilions are the public space where people interact each other in different degree of interaction Skateboard Plaza Skateboard Plaza feels or learns from something to express himself or herself. In case of Russian in which observer Social Message Wall Culture Centre itWall uses not only the auditorium as space for cultural exchange but also as sharing Social Message Dabali information culture by introducing library. Dabali Total Carpet area = 3064 Sq. m. Reading space (150 persons @ 3 Sq. m. per person) = 300 Sq. m. Total Built Carpet m. area + Area for circulation and wall (35% of Total area) Total uparea area==5253 TotalSq. carpet Stacking Areas (10, 000 books @ 200 Sq. m. per person) = 50 Sq. m. = 3064 + 1072.4 Total Built up area = Total carpet area + Area for circulation and wall (35% of Total area) Miscellaneous (Store, Journals, Lobby, Washroom) = 160 Sq. m. == 4136 Sq. m. 5253 + 1839 5. Restaurant

= 7092 Sq. m.

Dining area (100 persons @ 1.5 Sq. m. per person) = 150 Sq. m. Kitchen area (20 % of dining space) = 30 Sq. m. Store (50% of Kitchen) = 15 Sq. m. Bar (10 persons @ 2 Sq. m.) = 20 Sq. m. Counter (2 persons @ 2 Sq. m. per person) = 4 Sq. m. Restrooms = 6 Sq. m.

066/BAE/218 KIRANBASUKALA BASUKALA 066/BAE/218KIRAN

6.

Administration

Reception = 15 Sq. m. Staff Workspace (10 persons @ 4.5 Sq. m. per persons) = 15 Sq. m. Director’s Office = 40 Sq. m. Staff Rooms (10 persons @ 3.5 Sq. m. per persons) = 35 Sq. m. Accounts = 20 Sq. m. Event Management = 30 Sq. m. Machinery/Equipments = 10 Sq. m. Store = 5 Sq. m. Meeting Room = 20 Sq. m. Toilets = 6 Sq. m. Waiting = 5 Sq. m. 7.

Parking

4 – Wheeler (30 vehicles @ 12.5 Sq. m. per vehicle) = 375 Sq. m. 2 – Wheeler (60 vehicles @ 4.5 Sq. m. per vehicle) = 270 Sq. m. Staff Parking: 4 – wheeler (5) = 62.5 Sq. m. 2 – wheeler (10) = 45 Sq. m. Pathway Pavilion Pathway Pavilion

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

(2013). Retrieved from wikipedia: www.wikipedia.com Efroymson, D., Ha, T. T., & Ha, P. T. (2009). Public Spaces:How they humanize the cities. Dhaka: HealthBridge - WBB Trust. Kangur, K., & Traks, M. (2011). The Square in Space and time. Talin: Toolbox Press. Korn, W. (2006). Traditional Architecture of Kathmandu Valley. Imperial press. Reihaneh Sadat Hajmirsadeghi, S. S. (2012). The Impact of Physical Design Factors on the Effective Use. International Journals of Fundamental psychological and social sciences , 52. Sunuwar, J. D. (2011). Peti, Chwok, Dalan. Business architecture , 14. Tonnelat, S. (2010). The sociology of Urban Public Spaces. Paris: Atlantis Press. Peñalosa, E, Speech at International Mayors’ Forum, 10-11, November 2004. Jacobs, J, The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Random House, 1989. Gehl, J, Life Between Buildings, Using Public Space. The Danish Architectural Press, 2001. Engwicht, D, Street Reclaiming, Creating Livable Streets and Vibrant Communities. Pluto Press 1999. Media Transasia Group, Architecture + Design Vol. XXVIII and XXV, 2011 Vaidya Selma, A Thesis on Urban Square: A Recreation Center, 2011 Khakurel, Sarita. A Thesis on Centre of Arts, 2004

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Pun, Himal. Forum For Political Consiousness, 2007

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SECTION THROUGH SQUARE PLAZA SECTION THROUGH EVENT PLAZA SQUARE PLAZA DEDICATED TO THE COMMUNITY GROUPS OF THAT SITE

PLAZA DESIGNED IN DIFFERENT LEVEL RAISING TOWARDS THE PUBLIC SPACE

CONSISTS OF PATI, SHIVA TEMPLE, DABALI, SEATING SPACE

MAIN PATHWAY AS HEIRARCHY IN LEVEL

SECTION THROUGH EVENT PLAZA PLAZA DESIGNED FOR COMMUNICATING THE SIMULTANEOUS PROGRAMME OF EXHIBITION HALL AND PERFORMANCE PAVILION AN ACCSS TO PUBLIC SPACE THAT CAN VIEW ART PAVILION

TRIBHUWAN UNIVERSITY

INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING PULCHOWK CAMPUS

THESIS BACHELOR OF ARCHITECTURE SEPTEMBER 2014

DETAILS: PLAZA DETAIL 1:400

KIRAN BASUKALA 066/B.ARCH/218

17


AERIAL VIEW OF PATHWAY PAVILION

LIBRARY HALL WITH SQUARE PLAZA

VIEW OF ART PAVILION FROM EVENT PLAZA

INTERIOR OF INSTALLATION HALL


Thesis on pathway pavilion @ kamerotar, bhaktapur, nepal  

an thesis on pathway pavilion at kamerotar, bkt, nepal is an thesis related to public space or square where people can gather, eat, react, i...

Thesis on pathway pavilion @ kamerotar, bhaktapur, nepal  

an thesis on pathway pavilion at kamerotar, bkt, nepal is an thesis related to public space or square where people can gather, eat, react, i...

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