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LTC 4211, Essentials of Literacy: Reading Spring 12

GENRE Overview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

Fiction Historical Fiction Adventure Stories Sports Stories Animal Realism Realistic Fiction Contemporary Realistic Fiction Mysteries Graphic Novels Fantasy Animal Fantasy Science Fiction Traditional Literature and Folktales Fairy Tales Tall Tales Legends Myths Fables

Fractured Fairy tales NonFiction Memoirs Journals and Diaries Letters, Postcards, Personal Correspondence Autobiographies Biographies Informational Books 驶All About始 books (topics) Process Explanations (or 驶how to始 books) Magazines Poetry POETRY-intermediate grades (3-6) POETRY-primary grades (K-2) Picture Books Alphabet books Nursery rhymes Predictable books

Historical Fiction By: Julia Biales

Definition: A story that that takes place in a historical setting but contains fictional characters and events.

Characteristics: 1. A story that is set in a definite time period in history as well as a real place. 2. The story may be based upon real dates, people, or events that happened. 3. Characters may either be fictional or real, however, all characters act in realistic ways. 4. The problem in the story allows the reader to compare what happened in the past with the present. 5. The main characters in the story are involved in some sort of problem that is real for that particular time period. 6. The author explains historical information in the story that is difficult or unfamiliar for the reader. 7. The dialogue spoken in the story shows the characters personalities, helps the story move forward, and reveals the thoughts and knowledge of the people living in that time period.

Common Themes: 1. The clash of cultures 2. The human cost of war 3. The quest for freedom 4. Overcoming handicaps

For more information please visit: 1. characteristics.htm

2. uctor/social1.htm

3. okTopic=1838

4. es/lesson404/HistoricalFictionDefn.pdf

Examples of Historical Fiction Number the Stars By: Lois Lowry Grade Level: 3-5

Jump Ship to Freedom

Children of the Longhouse

By: James Collier and Christopher Collier Grade level: 4-6

By: Joseph Bruchae Grade level: 3-5

Fiction: Adventure Stories A fictional, or made up story, in which an adventure takes

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Spring 2012

place. Katie Gardner

What to Consider When Choosing a Fictional Adventure Story When choosing a Fictional Adventure story to read to your future class, it is very important that you try to choose stories that are culturally diverse. Children should be exposed to literature from all around the world. If you have a student whom you know the cultural background of, you should include stories that are important to their culture- this will help them feel welcomed as well as important. When choosing an adventure story in particular it is also important to consider the

content of the story. Some cultures/ religions may be offended from the subject matter in a Fictional Adventure story, and this could create problems with the student. If you are concerned about these issues, you might want to look at some of the books that have received state or national awards. These books usually tend to be less controversial. It is important to make these considerations prior to choosing a story to read. Always remember, every student wants to be

When/ How to use Fictional Adventure Stories that are geared towards upper elementary grades, that could be great read alouds for the younger elementary students. This way, all the students can get the wonderful content, and great class discussions can be made

Some of the most inspiring and meaningful stories are Fictional Adventure Stories. These stories can really get children to reflect on their life, as well as their views on society. That being said, there are a lot of fictional adventure stories





Frog and Toad are Friends: Arnold Lobel

Pauloâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Strange Adventure: Barbara Kimenye

Harry Potter Series: J.K. Rowling

Danny and the Dinosaur: Syd Hoff

Liza Lou and the Yeller Belly Swamp: Mercer Mayer

Hachet: Gary Paulsen

Amelia Bedelia: Peggy Parish

Island of the Blue Dolphins: Scott Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Dell

The Advetures of Bongwe: Esnat Phiri The Adventures of Captain Underpants: Dav Pilkey

The Invention of Hugo Cabaret: Brian Selznick

Holes: Louis Sachar

Diary of a Wimpy Kid: Jeff Kinney

Because of Winn Dixie: Kate Dicamillo

James and the Giant Peach: Beth Carswell

Sports Fiction

Kelsey Monroe Definition: Events and activities

ean Hughes D y b y h p o r • The T by Leonard n u R d n a , s • Kick, Pas Kessler e Lupica ik M y b l il r ut e D • Two-Min aseball by B d e v a S o h W • The Boy John Ritter Hammerlock y m in l ir G • There’s a inelli by Jerry Sp t Sue Corbet y b ll a b e s a • Free B tt Field by Ma ft e L in m r A • No r Christophe rbra Parks a B y b s e n o • Skinnyb ohn Thorn J y b h c it P • First y s Baseball b y la P e g r o e • Curious G . Shallack J n la A d n a Margret cer by Anne c o S s y la P n • Morga Rockwell

within the story deal with the characters’ participations in sports. Often these books can be a metaphor for “the game of life”.

Characteristics of sport fiction •

Often these books can be a metaphor for “the game of life”.

Plot and characterization often emphasizes team play and sportsmanship

Characters struggle with issues related to sports.

Main Character is often an athlete

Other main characters include motivational figures that drive the protagonist to use their talents.

Generally, the main character is a physical or emotional challenge.

cally i s p e y t p y e lot ar ainst ereot t p S d r n a e g s Gend goes a racter . It

he cha a book that Fitzgerald t s k o ed bo ave found es by Dawn m e from h t m h l t a r I u e o R . t en i ck cer st sp In mo d towards m led Soccer Ch save her soc hip game. geare eotype cal pions ng to i m y a r h t c r s i this ste on girl that g to with the s n focuse t while tryi cu being


Animal Realism Animal realism is a form of fiction writing where animals have characteristics that they would typically have in real life. The key to writing with animal realism is to make the animal characters as realistic as possible to their counterpart in nature. Some characteristics that animals would have that would disqualify a text from falling into this realm of writing would be talking, doing unbelievable tasks, or any form of anthropomorphism. One example of animal realism that is popularly known from television would be Lassie, though that characters intelligence may exceed that of a real dog. Another popular example of this genre is Benji,

which is similar to Lassie

wonderful thing about

in many ways.

animals is that they do not

Multiculturalism Multicultural aspects are almost always observed in animal realism writing because if written

judge by race, religion, age, or gender so they are great examples in stories.

Examples There are so many

correctly the animals are

great books that fall under

no different than they are

this category for youth,

in the wild. Animals are

elementary and upper level

not prejudice by race, age,

education. Some of the

or gender so unless the

youth and elementary

writing crosses the border

books would include: Mr.

out of this genre then there

Popperâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Penguins, The

should never be a problem

Trouble with Cats,

with the actual animal

Morganâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Zoo, Moose

character in the story. That

Tracks, and Hotel for

is not to say that the

Dogs. Some of the upper

interactions of human

level texts examples are:

characters with the animals

Because of Winn-Dixie,

are going to be perfectly

Marley: a Dog Like No

multicultural. There are

Other, Stone Fox, Where

several animal realism

the Red Fern Grows,

books that are great for

Lassie Come Home,

teaching multiculturalism

Midnight Fox.

acceptance because the


Realistic Fiction Genre Study Realistic fiction has as real children with real problems solved in a realistic manner in a real world setting. These stories can have more than one character and can have humor, a sense of adventure, and sometimes danger. All realistic fiction stories have real kids, real problems, real settings, and real solutions.

The characters usually are engaging and believable while the dialogue is also authentic. Children will be able to compare their own lives with the settings from the story.

The point of view is from the perspective of the storyteller. A List of Children’s Literature Dear Mr. Henshaw by Beverly Cleary Subjects: Divorce, parent and child, school, letter. Grade level- Third Walk Two Moons by Sharon Creech Subjects: Death, grandparents, family life, friendship. Grade level- Fourth or Fifth The Watsons Go to Birmingham by Christopher Paul Curtis Subjects: African Americans, family life, prejudice, brothers and sisters. Grade level- Fifth Maniac Magee by Jerry Spinelli Subjects: death, family life, prejudice. Grade level- third. The Hundred Dresses by Eleanor Estes Subjects: Family life. Grades- Second – Sixth Because of Winn- Dixie by Kate DiCamillo Subjects: love, friendship, and tolerance. Grade level- fourth- seventh Freckle Juice by Judy Blume Subejcts: Humor. Grades- Second- Third. Harriet the Spy by Louise Fitzhugh Subjects: Memorable character, friendship. Grade Level- fourth- seventh. Hoot by Carl Hiaasen Subjects: School life, Animals Grade Level- fifth Anne of Green Gables by Lucy Maud Montgomery and Scott Mckowen Subjects: Family, Friendship Grade levels- Third- Fifth. Teaching Connections Teachers can use these stories to introduce hard or difficult topics in the classroom. Realistic fiction books are based on real lives and events that students can relate to. The teacher can share with the class that before reading these books you should be able to accept the characters as real people with real problems. Teachers can either read the story to the whole class or give a few recommendations to the children and let them chose one that seems interesting to them.

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Genre Definition: Form of fantasy in which the main characters are animals. Animal stories are characterized by the extent to which the animals take on human characteristics. Genre Characteristics: •

Stories are impossible.

In one type the animal behaves like its species, but thinks and talks like a human.

In another type the animal acts both like its species but also like a human.

In a third type the animal behaves, speaks, and dresses totally like a human. This is very common in family stories, stories of everyday experiences, and friendship stories.

Animals possess human emotions that the reader can learn something from.

Animals appear more intelligent than the average animal(s).

Setting may be in a realistic environment, or a fantasy world.


Title: He Bear and She

Title: Catwings

Title: Watership Down


Title: Charlotte’s Web

Author: Ursula K. Le Guin

Author: E.B. White

Author: Richard Adams

Authors: Stan & Jan

RL: 2






RL: 2 -7


RL: Young Adult *Animal Fantasy books are

RL: PreK-1st

a good way to expose students to more powerful or emotional messages, because the animals as

Title: Poppy Title: Frog and Toad are

Author: Avi

Title: The Mouse and the

RL: 3rd



Author: Beverly Cleary

Author: Arnold Lobel

RL: 3rd-7th

RL: K & 1st

characters simplify the message, and make it easier for the children to comprehend. *Animal Fantasy books also commonly eliminate multicultural inequalities, because the animals are

Title: Lilly’s Purple Plastic Purse Author: Kevin Henkes RL: K & 1st

Title: Bunnicula

the characters, not

Authors: James Howe,

humans. However, the

Deborah Howe, Alan Daniel RL: 2




Title: Redwall

animals may possess life

Author: Brian Jacques

styles, clothing choices,

RL: Young Adult

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Fantasy-Science Fiction


Fantasy: Fiction with strange or otherworldly settings or characters; fiction that invites suspension of reality; fiction that depends on magic or the impossible or inexplicable. Science Fiction: Set in a future that scientific or technological advance could or might make possible

Multicultural Aspects: Fantasy, Science Fiction is comprised of many works by a variety of writers, authors, musicians, and filmmakers. Women writers have played key roles in science fiction /fantasy literature often addressing themes of gender. Gender imbalance often seen in comic books and graphic novels.

• •


• • • • • •

Characteristics: The story usually takes place in outer space where the technology of the future is predicted. If not in outer space then future societies are portrayed usually on earth with or without the presence of aliens. Themes frequently deal with good or evil using technology. Uses science to explain the existence of the world and magic. Stories involve partially true partially fictitious laws or theories of science. Science Fiction must be partially believable. Must include a human element and what effect scientific developments will have on us in the future. Science and fantasy are put together in a fictional world.

By. Maggie Mullin

• •

• • • •

• •

• • •

Exemplary Children’s literature Richie’s Rocket by Joan Anderson Man on the Moon: a day in the life of Bob by Simon Bartram Hedgie blasts off! By Jan Brett Noah and the Space Ark by Laura Cecil Cosmic Chickens by Ned Delaney Jimmy Zangwow’s Out-of-this-World Moon Pie Adventure by Tony DiTerlizzi Boing-Boing the Bionic Cat by L.L Hench Moo Cow Kaboom by Thacher Hurd Rolie Polie Olie (series) by William Joyce Moondogs by Daniel Kirk The Magic Rocket by Steven Kroll UFO Diary by Satoshi Kitamura

Teaching Insights If you are a teacher, teach science fiction using the books you love! It makes it much easier to get into the material and your students will see how much you love it and will be more willing to give it a chance. We can use science fiction books to teach real science facts to our students. Like teaching astronomy for example. Incorporating science fiction with real science facts may be tricky though because there is a fine line between what is real and not real in these stories. As a teacher, it is important to show the students how science fiction novels differ from a general fantasy novel, how a sub genre plays an important role. There are many science fiction movies that can teach students important lessons. One example being the movie “Gattaca.” What is the proper length of time to spend teaching science fiction? If a child enjoys science fiction concepts but not reading, teaching all the great things about this genre could encourage and show the student how fun reading can be!

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Aspects of Fairy Tales...

Examples of Fairy Tales…

~ Fictional stories that contain an enchantment or other supernatural element that is clearly imaginary

~Enchanted Tales Follow Your Dreams Adapted by Andrea Posner-Sanchez

~Special beginning and/or ending words…Once upon a time...and they lived happily ever after. Sometimes, there’s a surprise ending…

~The Farmer and the Moon By Anneliese Lussert ~Beauty and the Beast Retold and Illustrated by Warwick Hutton

~Fairy tales are written and adapted all over the world

~The Adventures of Pinocchio By Carlo Collodi

~Good character Generally kind and innocent

~Cinderella By Max Eilenberg ~The End By David Larochelle

~Evil character In the end the evil character usually loses ~Royalty Is there a castle? A prince? A princess? A king? A queen?

~Three Tales of Trickery By Marilyn Helmer ~The Tinderbox By Hans Christian Anderson ~The Red Pyramid By Rick Riordan

~Poverty Do you see a poor working girl, a poor family? ~Magic and Enchantments Do you see magical things happening? Do you see talking animals/objects? You might see

~Yeh Shen: A Cinderella Story from China By Ai-Ling Louie ~The True Story of the Three Little Pigs By Jon Scieszka ~Cinderella By Marcia Brown

fairies, trolls, elves, and


Teaching Fairy Tales… • • •

Fairy tales can be used to teach children ethics and morals Fairy tales are natural springboards for reading and writing development as well as for the study of other cultures. Fairy tales share common themes and address such larger questions as these for young people to consider: What is truth and why should anyone fight for it? What role does unselfishness play in our relationships with others?


Fairy Tales Fairy Tales are a genre of literature many students will come into your classroom having prior experience with. This makes for a wonderful opportunity to build on their background knowledge and explore their imaginations.

Characteristics of Fairy Tales: • • • • • • •

Stories often begin with “Once upon a time!” and end with “!happily ever after.” Good always conquers over evil and these sides are always clearly identified. Events and characters often come in groups of three or seven. Driven by fantasy and make believe. Characters may be make believe creatures like witches, monsters, or unicorns. Magical items often play a pivotal role in the plot like a magic mirror. Most times stories are geared towards children and used to teach ethics and morals.

Questions to Consider: How can students from many different backgrounds identify with the broad-reaching themes within fairy tales? How can they be related to courage, bravery, and the obligation to do what is right in today’s society? How can fractured fairy tales (classic fairy tales that are rewritten in a slightly new way) be used in a writing lesson? Best wishes for the New Year! The Smith Family

Multicultural Aspects: Fairy tales are a part of cultures all over the world. Though you may not see more than one culture represented in a single fairy tale, using fairy tales from around the world can help incorporate diversity in the classroom and show connections between cultures. Many of them include princes and princesses. One may think fairy tales give women a bad image by always having to be rescued by a man, but in fact there are many fairy tales where the female character is quite cunning and resolves her own problems. The standard of success in almost every fairy tale is for good to overcome evil.

Literature List: • • • • • • • • • •

How Janet Fought Against the Queen of Elves (Scotland) Starlight Princess (India) The Egg Prince (Africa) Neem the Half Boy (Persia) The Princess on the Glass Hill (Norway) Frog Princess (Italy) Mei Ling and the Dragon (China) Constantes and the Dragon (Greece) Liam Donn (Ireland) The Tongue-Cut Sparrow (Japan)


Best wishes for the New Year! The Smith Family

Genre Characteristic:

!"""""""Narrative story handed down within a culture " Stories were created by adults for the entertainment of other adults Stories often involve trickery Typically about a past legacy Handed down orally before they were ever written down They are usually quick and to the point The story is possible but far-fetched Characters are usually flat, not dynamic The hero of the story is typically young


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. "

The Gingerbread Man Babe and the Blue Ox Davey Crockett Johnny James Paul Bunyan Yankee Doddle

7. Robin Hood- fictional 8. Beowulf 9. King Author 10. Bier Rabbit 11. Dragon- Chinese legend

Meaningful teaching connections/questions/insights/considerations given - Folktales could be used to help students learn to tell and share stories - Would be good to help students understand fiction and non-fiction - Could teach a lesson on why these stories are fictional why these stories are fictional - Helps students learn about a different time period than the one they live in now - It is important to consider the stereotypes that may exist in older legends- if there is a stereotype it doesn't make that story unusable, it allows for a discussion about different time periods, and what was acceptable then and how times have changed


- How much is too much when it comes to very fictional "tall tale" type literature - What age is this appropriate to teach? - Probably any age as long as you choose stories that are appropriate for that age group. I.E no scary legends for younger grades that would be upset by it

Sources: nts.html

Traditional Literature and Folktales Fractured Fairy Tales

Fractured Fairy Tales Fairy tales are stories with fantasy characters or magical creatures. In fractured fairy tales the original tale is changed in some way, whether it is the point of view, plot, character(s), sequel, setting, or combing tales.

Examples of Fractured Fairy Tales o The True Story of the Three Little Pigs by Jon Sciezka o Bigfoot Cinderrrrrella by Tony Johnston o Goldilocks & the Three Hares by Heidi Petach o Petite Rouge: A Cajun Red Riding Hood by Mike Artell o The Three Little Javelinas by Susan Lowell o Kate and the Beanstalk by Mary Pope Osborne o Little Red Cowboy Hat by Susan Lowell o Cinderella Skeleton by Robert D. San Souci o Prince Cinders by Babette Cole o The Three Little Wolves & the Big Bad Pig by Eugene Trivizas o Dusty Locks and the Three Bears by Susan Lowell o Dinorella by Pamela Duncan Edwards and Henry Cole


MARCH 19,2012

Nonfiction memoirs are experiences or has on a certain event.


Nonfiction memoirs are experiences or observations the author has on a certain event. Characteristics: • May cover one event or specific aspect of the author’s life.

• Can be fictionalized for children. • It is a retrospective account of a memorable event.

Memoirs can be multicultural based on who the author is. The text could be written by an African American that was one of the nine students who integrate Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957 or be written by a student that was already attending the high school. Different authors have their own personal experiences and viewpoints, which allows for the reader to learn about those experiences through someone else’s eyes. Readers get the opportunity to read memoirs by authors from different cultures and countries.

Book Examples: • Survivors: True Stories of Children in the Holocaust by Mara Bovsun • The Hidden Children by Howard Greenfield • When I Was Little: A Four-Year-Old’s Memoir of Her Youth by Jamie Lee Curtis • Waiting to Waltz, a Childhood: Poems by Cynthia Rylant • Don’t You Know There’s a War On? by James Stevenson • Flora and Tiger by Eric Carle • My Own Two Feet by Beverly Cleary



- Tips for guiding students to write their own memoirs: -- List of memoirs for students to read :


- Tips for guiding students to write their own memoirs: PAGE 1 -- List of memoirs for students to read :

Journals and Diaries: ! !"#$$%&'#&'"%()*+"'#&$%",+*-'./'+&' +)$01"' ! 2&$"#%-'+"%'-13%$#3%-'4+$%4' ! 5-%6)*'61"'-0+"#&('0#-$1"#7+*'%,%&$-' 8)-)+**/'9).*#-0%4'#&'+'-%"#%-:' ! ;#7$#1&+*'4#+"#%-'7+&'.%'<"#$$%&'./' +&#3+*-' ! It is important to read each book from a multicultural aspect. Some journal and diaries are written to inform us about the culture; however, some or all information given is not true of a particular culture.

Book Suggestions: ! Diary of a Wimpy Kid By Jeff Kinney ! Ameliaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Notebook By Marissa Moss ! Diary of a Spider By Doreen Cornin ! Psychose By Patrick Carman ! Maxâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Logbook By Marissa Moss

! Dear America Series Each book is by a different author to have a unique prospective for each story

Letters, Postcards, Personal Correspondence Genre Study

Genre Characteristics• •

Children’s Literature: • The Jolly Postman or Other People’s Letters By: Janet and Allan Ahlberg • Toot and Puddle By: Hollie Hobbie • Meerkat Mail By: Emily Gravett • Click, Clack, Moo: Cows That Type By: Doreen Cronin • Dear Mr. Henshaw By: Beverly Cleary • Letters From Felix: A Little Rabbit On A World Tour By: Annette Langen • Dear Mr. Blueberry By: Simon James • Letters To A Soldier By: David Falvey • P.S. Longer Letter Later By: Paula Danzinger • First Year Letters By: Julie Danneberg • Flat Stanley By: Jeff Brown

• •

Letters provide authentic ways for communication Letters, postcards, and emails are all personal written communications with different conventions and elements Postcards are abbreviated forms of letters and have abbreviated elements Emails have become even more abbreviated forms of communication and have developed an extensive short-cut and very informal style

Multicultural Aspects of Toot and Puddle• • •

All cultures involved are represented accurately: Toot visits Africa, Italy, Egypt, India, and Paris Dialogue is culturally accurate: Toot says, “Au revoir,” in French when he’s in Paris Pictures are accurate of culture: Mona Lisa in Paris when Toot visits the museum, Camels in Egypt when Toot sees the pyramids, hippopotamuses in Africa (depicts wildlife)

Toot and Puddle shows the meaning of friendship by Toot sending postcards to Puddle from every place he visits around the world and keeping in touch with his dear friend at home

You could share this book with a mixed-race group because many children could relate to the different cultures represented

Multicultural Aspects of Meerkat Mail-

Different lifestyles are represented by Sunny staying with different family members who live in different environments then he’s used to

The significance of family is a main theme, the Meerkat moto is, “Stay safe, stay together!” The family works, plays, eats, learns, and sleeps together-the portrayal of a close family

Teaching Connections: • •

• •

You can formulate a lesson about how to write a letter for your students including parts of a letter. Have them practice writing letters to another class. After reading Flat Stanley to your class you could put up a bulletin board specifically for postcards your students get from the places they travel to and collage them altogether so students can see where everyone has been in the world. Have students take a picture with Flat Stanley and put it next to their postcard with writing on what they did in that certain place. Start finding pen pals for your class so they can write letters and send them to students around the world and have them write back and forth for the school year. (Website that lists all the many different children’s books with letters, postcards, and mail) Helpful teacher/parent tool! Postcards and letters are personal communication to encourage instead of texting and emailing in today’s society. Post cards and letters can be both formal and informal means of language.

Fiction: *prose that deal with real events and people *can be in the form of novels, essays, short stories *characters, settings, and events must correspond to what is true !

!! Autobiography: *highly personalized *first person account *chronological narrative account of a person’s life \ *author relates personal experiences to events in history *based on true facts *based on memories from the author *may be supported by authentic pictures and newspaper articles !

!! Multicultural Aspects: *Lifestyles of the characters are culturally accurate *The author and/or illustrator’s background is relevant to the culture portrayed !

Suggested Readings: *In My Family by Carmen Lomas Garza *From Slave Ship to Freedom Road by Julius Lester *Ogbo Sharing Life in an African Village by Ifeoma Onyefulu *Through My Eyes by Ruby Bridges *A Girl from Yamhill : A Memoir by Beverly Cleary *My Own Two Feet: A Memoir by Beverly Cleary *It Came From Ohio: My Life As A Writer by R.L. Stine *Bill Peet: An Autobiography by Bill Peet *Children of the Storm: The Autobiography of Natasha Vins *The Abracadabra Kid: a Writer’s Life by Sid Fleischman !

! ! !

A biography… •

-Is a story about an individual’s life, written by someone other than the individual

o -The author has done extensive research and knows a lot about the individual

• •

-Is usually written in chronological order -Includes details such as: o -Birth date and place o -Date of death (if applicable)

• • •

individual had to overcome •

-Is authentic, which means that it address the individual’s strengths as well as weaknesses

-Accurately portrays the individual’s life, making sure to avoid biases and stereotypes (gender, culture, religious background, and ethnicity)

Tips for Teachers

Elizabeth Leads the Way: Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the Right to Vote by Tonya Lee Stone

She Touched the World: Laura Bridgeman, Deaf-

Blind Pioneer by Sally Hobart Alexander & Robert Alexander •

We Are One: The Story of Bayard Rustin by Larry Dane Brimmer

The Watcher: Jane Goodall’s Life with the Chimps by Jeanette Winter

Louisa: The Life of Louisa May Alcott by Yona Zeldis McDonough

Martin’s Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther

Snowflake Bentley by Jacqueline Briggs Martin &

-Make sure to select biographies that avoid biases and stereotypes -Make sure the biographies include the individual’s strengths AND

Yours for Justice, Ida B. Wells: The Daring Life of a Crusading Journalist by Philip Dray

-Tells about the major historical or cultural

-Tells about any problems or obstacles the

Something Out of Nothing: Marie Curie and Radium by Carla Kilough McClafferty

-Tells about the individual’s influences

Jesse Owens: Fastest Man Alive by Carole Boston Weatherford

contributions the individual has made •

A Picture Book of Abraham Lincoln by David A. Adler

-Is grounded in the historical context of the time period in which the individual lived

Children’s Literature

King, Jr.

Mary Azarian -For students who are not interested in biographies, try to select biographies that they can connect to


-Biographies can be a great way to teach students that

-Select a wide range of biographies to introduce to students

they can do anything they put their minds to and that

-For students who are not interested in reading biographies, try

“heroes” are just like ordinary people

introducing them to biographies that have more of a story line (this can help make biographies more exciting)

-Biographies can be a great resource to use to make learning history more fun

4/8/12 1:18 PM

Magazines: Informational Text Amanda Timmerman

Characteristics of this genre: • • •

Magazines help students gain more access to informational text Use informational text for authentic purposes Document knowledge of factual


presentations Informational text deals with an reallife subject Information is descriptive Information can be presented in time sequenced Informational texts represent cause and effects Magazines can compare and contrast

Informational texts such as magazines

• • • •

What are examples of this kind of genre? •

Kids Discover (includes: history, nature, science, & geography)

Ranger Rick (includes: nature &

Primary purpose to convey information

Address children’s interests and questions

Has several possible organization

Other examples of information text •

Picture books

Some chapter books


Multi-cultural Aspects: •

The pictures in informational text are authentic

All cultures in the magazines are represented accurately

Magazines are written and are appropriate of dates reflected

Magazines are constantly re-written

A strategy for students to read informational text:

animals) •

Scholastic News (includes news and

3-2-1 Strategy Chart Title of article: ____________ Source: ________ 3 things you discovered_______


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Varieties: ! Rhyme: “close similarity on the final sounds of two or more words or lines of verse” ! Ballads: “a poem that tells a story of adventure, of romance, or of a hero, that is suitable for singing, and that usually has stanzas of four lines with a rhyme on the second and fourth lines” ! Lyrics: “a lyric poem or song” ! Narratives: “something (as a story) that is told or written” ! Free verse: “verse whose rhythm is not regular or smooth and even” ! Haiku: ”a verse form of Japanese origin having three lines containing five, seven, and five syllables respectively” ! Limericks: “a humorous poem five lines long in which the first, second, and fifth lines have one rhyme and the third and fourth another” ! Concrete poetry: “poetry in which the poet’s intent is conveyed by the graphic patterns of letters, words, or symbols rather than by the conventional arrangement of words” ! Cinquain: “a 5-line stanza” ! Diamanté: written poems that may or may not rhyme and resemble a diamond shape, using adjectives and words ending with –ing. !

Other Characteristics of Poetry: Uses rhythmic or figurative language: ! Alliteration: ! metaphor: ! Simile: ! Symbolism: ! Personification: ! Assonance: ! consonance: ! Allusion: ! Onomatopoeia: ! internal rhyme: ! rhyme scheme:

Resources: e/ !

! !


Other Poetry Terms:! Stanza: “a division of a poem consisting of a series of lines arranged together in a usually recurring pattern of meter and rhyme. Ballad Stanza: “a stanza consisting of four lines with the first and third lines unrhymed iambic tetrameters and the second and forth lines rhymed iambic trimeters. ! iambic: a metrical foot consisting of one short syllable followed by one long syllable or of one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable (as in above)” ! tetrameters: “a line of verse consisting either of four dipodies (as in classical iambic, trochaic, and anapestic verse) or four metrical feet (as in modern English verse)” ! trimeters: “a line of verse consisting of three metrical feet” ! meter: “a systematic rhythm in poetry that is usually repeated”

Poetry ! metrical: “of, relating to, or arranged in meter” Uses imagery, compactness, and shape. For example: a diamanté poem Available in anthologies:

Poetry (K-2nd)

Megan Stevens Genre Study

Poetry Examples • • • • • • • • • •


Where the Sidewalk Ends It’s Raining Pigs & Noodles Leap Into Poetry A Light in the Attic Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening Falling Up Runny Babbitt Fancy Nancy The Lorax Ubiquitous

• • • • • •


Multicultural Aspects

Culturally Diverse Text • •

My People by: Langston Hughes Hip Hop Speaks to Children by: Nikki Giovanni

• •

Developmental Levels

Kids’ Poems Teaching Children to Love Writing Poetry (K-2nd) by: Reggie Routman

• • •

The illustrations do not generalize about the culture being portrayed Poetry was written within the past decade Various perspectives are represented Speech represents oral tradition Ethnic characters aren’t portrayed as helpless Be willing to share with mixed-race group of kids Author/Illustrator are qualified

Creates emotional intensity Varieties include rhyme, ballads, lyrics, etc. Use rhythmic or figurative language Use imagery Use compact Use shape Anthologies Brief Create ideas and feelings Patterned

Teaching Connections • • • • • • • •

Relate to personal experiences Poetry doesn’t always have to rhyme Poetry can integrate with teaching content areas Capture emotions that are easy for kids to remember Every reader responds to a poem in a different way What elements of poetry do you enjoy? Allow for discussion after students read a poem Avoid confining poems to specific age groups

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Chelsea Reich

Nursery Rhymes Genre: Picture Books: “Books with many pictures where the story depends upon the pictures. There can be picture books of almost any genre.” (subgenres: alphabet books, counting books, concept books, cumulative stories) Sub-Genre: Nursery Rhyme: a short rhyme for children that often tells a story Characteristics of Picture Books: • Pair narrative format with illustrations and pictures • Illustrations as much a part as the written text • Wide variety of themes Characteristics of Nursery Rhymes: • Originated in Britain in 19th century, English language and cultural reference • Traditional poems for young children, oral tradition (lullabies are examples of nursery rhymes) • Simple rhyme scheme, rhythm pattern • Basic language • Usually based off of historical events, • Often nonsensical or humorous Multicultural Characteristics to Consider with Picture Books and Nursery Rhymes: • Because of British cultural origin, not all cultures are involved, or represented accurately • Based off drinking songs, 18th and 19th century ideals, some include derogatory language or overtones (i.e., Baa Baa Black Sheep, which is said to be racially dubious.) • Many newer and/or re-illustrated picture books of nursery rhymes do not generalize aspects of cultures being portrayed, yet many with original illustrations a variety of cultures are not represented and do generalize aspects of the culture(s) included. • Because the more commonly known nursery rhymes are rooted in English tradition and language, the speech accurately represents the oral tradition from its origin. However, most African American nursery rhymes have had dialect altered to reflect English language structure/grammar. • Nursery Rhyme picture books are culturally competent if the author/illustrator(s) are members of the cultural/ethnic group they are portraying.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Hey Diddle Diddle and Other Nursery Rhymes- Jane Chapman My Very First Mother Goose-Iona Opie Jack and Jill- Daniel Kirk Las Nanas de Abuelita/ Grandmother’s Nursery Rhymes- Elvia, Nelly Palacio Jaramillo Old Mother Hubbard- Jane Carera Humpty Dumpty and Friends: Nursery Rhymes for the Young at Heart- Oleg Lipchenko Michael Foreman’s Mother Goose- Michael Foreman Las Nanas de Abuelita/ Grandmother’s Nursery Rhymes- Elvia, Nelly Palacio Jaramillo The Neighborhood of Mother Goose- Nina Crews Pio Peep- Traditional Spanish Nursery Rhymes- Harper Collins Street Rhymes Around the World- Jane Yolen Skip Across the Ocean: Nursery Rhymes from Around the World- Floella Benjamin Mura Migi Kazika: For us Little Mob- Alick Tipoti I See the Moon, and the Moon Sees Me- Helen Craig Little Miss Muffet and Other Nursery Rhymes- Lucy Cousins

PICTURE BOOKS Predictable Books

“Engagement with picture books while we are young forms the basis for becoming a literate adult, one who not only decodes words accurately but also enjoys reading and takes the time to read. Teachers who share quality picture books with young children are promoting literacy in the fullest sense of the word.” -Mary Jalongo Picture Books vs. Illustrated Books Characteristics of Picture Books •Books with many pictures, so that the story depends A useful distinction can be made between an on them (50% of the book’s meaning is through illustrated book and a picture pictures) book. As children’s literature textbook author • Presents the story line in a brief and straightforward Donna Norton points out, “most m.manner, simple plot children’s books are illustrated, but not all • Contains a limited number of concepts illustrated children’s books are • Includes concepts that children can comprehend picture books,” because to be a picture book, • Provides text that is written in a direct, simple style the work must provide “a balance • Provides illustrations that complement the text between the pictures and text so that neither • There can be picture books of almost any genre of them is completely effective • Average of 200 words without the other”. Examples of Predictable Picture Books Brown Bear, Brown Bear Bill Martin Jr. and Eric Carle How Do I Put It On? (pictures alone) Shigeo Watanabe The Cat Sat on the Mat (increasing size) Simms Tabak Example Using Repetition In predictable picture books, patterns often repeat themselves, for example the story of The Three Little Pigs. By the time the wolf gets to the third little pig's brick house a child is quite eager to chime in with, "Little Pig, little pig let me come in", "Not by the hair of my chinny chin chin" , and "Then I'll huff and I'll puff and I'll blow your house in".

• • • • • • • •

The illustrations in a picture book should be authentic and nonstereotyped. The illustrations should not generalize about aspects of the culture being portrayed. Characters of the same ethnic group should be depicted as individuals and do not all look alike; they should show a variety of physical attributes.

Predictable Picture Books: Help children learn how to read by the use of: • repetition of language • story patterns • sequences Are excellent models for teaching about writing patterns Invite the listener into the text The rhymes, patterns, and repetitions make it easy for the listener/reader to remember and recall Allows for students to make the text their own Use of repetitive numbers, or a countdown (Ex. Five Little Ducks Went Out One Day) Stories that are familiar to students (can be in a personal nature) Can be in a question/answer format Can follow a sequence of increasing size What makes a text predictable? The sounds, rhythms, and patterns of the language

Genre Handouts