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Fiction Historical  Fiction    

Genre Study   BLUE  BLOCK-­‐  SPRING  2011    

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Table of Contents Genre Overview  ...........................................................................................................  1   Fiction  .........................................................................................................................  2  

Historical Fiction  ........................................................................................................................................................  2     Adventure  Stories  .......................................................................................................................................................  4   Sports  Stories  ...............................................................................................................................................................  7   Animal  Realism  .........................................................................................................................................................  10  

Realistic Fiction  ..........................................................................................................  13   Contemporary  Realistic  Fiction  .........................................................................................................................  13   Mysteries  .....................................................................................................................................................................  16   Graphic  Novels  ..........................................................................................................................................................  19  

Fantasy ......................................................................................................................  22  

Animal Fantasy  .........................................................................................................................................................  22     Science  Fiction  ..........................................................................................................................................................  25  

Traditional Literature  and  Folktales  ...........................................................................  28  

Fairy Tales  ..................................................................................................................................................................  28     Tall  Tales  .....................................................................................................................................................................  30   Legends  ........................................................................................................................................................................  33   Myths  1  ........................................................................................................................................................................  36   Myths  2  ........................................................................................................................................................................  38   Fables  ............................................................................................................................................................................  41   Fractured  Fairy  Tales  ............................................................................................................................................  43  

Nonfiction/Personal Narratives  .................................................................................  46  

Memoirs .......................................................................................................................................................................  46     Journals  and  Diaries  ...............................................................................................................................................  49   Letters,  Postcards,  Personal  Correspondence  ............................................................................................  51   Autobiographies  1  ...................................................................................................................................................  53   Autobiographies  2  ...................................................................................................................................................  55  

Informational Books  ..................................................................................................  57   Essays  ...........................................................................................................................................................................  57     Process  Explanations  (‘how  to’  books)  ..........................................................................................................  60  

Picture Books  .............................................................................................................  63  

Alphabet Books  ........................................................................................................................................................  63     Nursery  Rhymes  ......................................................................................................................................................  65   Predictable  Books  ...................................................................................................................................................  67    


Genre Overview:  

The term  genre  applies  to  the  kind  of  writing  that  is  being  read  or  produced.  

The ability  to  categorize  a  work  by  its  genre  is  helpful  because  we  know  what   features  to  expect  and/or  look  for  when  we  come  to  something  new.  Different  skill   sets  apply  to  different  genres  and  allow  for  more  and  varied  teaching  opportunities   in  a  classroom  setting.  In  addition,  exposure  to  all  genres  influences  what  children   choose  to  write  about,  as  well  as  the  quality  of  their  writing.  One  reason  for  this  is   that  each  genre  offers  children  a  different  way  to  view  the  world.    


Fiction Historical  Fiction    

Sub-genre description:

Megan Beck

Imaginative stories with fictional characters and event in a historical setting.

Frequently found elements: • • • • • • •

May be based upon dates, people, or events that really happened. Major historical event may be an essential. Accuracy of the historical detail is evident. May include author notes on research. Categories of historical fiction are based upon the time period or historical era. Characters and time periods are lifelike. Conflict allows children to compare the past with the present in order to better understand our world.

Book Review 1: Primary Example: Author:  Marie  Bradby   Illustrator:    Chris  Soentpiet   Publisher: Scholastic Year Published: September 1, 1995 ISBN-13: 9780531094648

Summary: A fictionalized story about the life of young Booker T. Washington; he lived in a West Virginia settlement after emancipation, the nine-year-old Booker travels by lantern light to the salt works, where he labors from dawn till dusk. Although his stomach rumbles, his real hunger is his intense desire to learn to read. Back in town, the boy sees a man reading aloud from a newspaper; he envisions himself possessing this magical knowledge and passing it on to others. When his mother presents him with an alphabet book, he studies the letters and "...tries to imagine their song." Just when he is feeling frustrated, he finds the newspaper man, who explains the letters. An exuberant Booker throws his arms in the air, then settles down to learn how to write his name.

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Fiction Historical  Fiction    

Why this book fits the genre: Not only is this book a fictionalized story of Booker T. Washington, a real person, it also depicts the life of newly freed slaves and their struggle to find a place in the changing American economy. The book is based on the time period directly following slavery. This book also teaches students to not take for granted their education and ability to read, the book encourages children to compare the past and present in order to better understand the changes that have been made in America.

Multicultural aspects: The multicultural aspects covered in this book are those dealing with slavery and newly freed slaves. It relates one kind of job that was available to freed slaves, this was working in the salt works by night, and it shows the backbreaking and skin-tearing labor of this kind of job. It also talks about hunger; not only the hunger to read but also of real hunger. The child’s view of himself and his world are based around the dream of reading and being literate and the freedom it would bring him. The illustrations in this book support the ideas and messages being conveyed by the author. Overall the depiction of the way of life and the characters is accurate with the exception that the belief that through learning solely the alphabet he will be opened up to understanding the world.

Book Review : Intermediate Example: Author:  Lila  Perl   Publisher: Greenwillow Year Published: March 21, 1996 ISBN-10: 068814294X

Summary: Opening in Bergen-Belsen, the story retraces the events leading up to the Blumenthals' imprisonment there. After Marion's grandparents died, she, her brother, and parents left Germany for Holland to wait for a visa that would allow them to come to the U.S. Their papers came, but sailing was delayed and Hitler invaded Holland. The Blumenthals then applied to join a group that was to be sent to Israel in exchange for German POWs. Soon after arriving in Bergen-Belsen, however, they realized that they would not be exchanged. They survived the camp and their family remained intact. Ironically, Mr. Blumenthal died of typhus shortly after liberation. After three years as displaced persons, Marion and her mother and brother finally arrived in the U.S., where there were new adjustments to be faced

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Fiction Historical  Fiction    

Why this book fits the genre: This book fits the genre of historical fiction because it is based on the Holocaust, which is a major historical event, and the refugee family camps that existed at that time. The accuracy of the historical event is evident through the details and quotes from the main character’s actual mother. The characters and time periods are presented in a lifelike way and details are told of the family and the events that took place. The book allows for students to compare the treatment of not only Jewish people but others as well during the Holocaust and how the very same people are treated now all over the world. It is written from the child’s point of view, which helps the students relate to the story and connect how they would feel being in that very same situation in the past.

Multicultural aspects: The lifestyles and the role of the family members and characters in the book are culturally accurate for the time period. This means that the lifestyles of the characters are not oversimplified or generalized, they are an accurate account of what happened to families during the Holocaust and the desire of family members to stay together. The significance of family is portrayed accurately for the culture and the situation. During the Holocaust, many families did whatever they could to try and stay together and this book relates the daughters desire to find four perfect pebbles to represent each family member to stay together. The author doesn’t only convey a message about the Holocaust, it is also about learning tolerance and fairness in today’s world as well.

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Fiction Adventure  Stories    

Sub-genre description:

Heidi Hadler

A story that involves survival of risk and dangers the character encounters or life in the great outdoors.

Frequently found elements: • •

Characters succeed without adult assistance. Characters, often children, encounter situations that require quick thinking, problem solving, and inner strength.

Book Review 1:

Primary Example: MEANWHILE… Author & Illustrator: Jules Feiffer Publisher: Michael di Capua Books/HarperCollins Publishers Year Published: 1997 ISBN: 0-06-205155-5

Summary: Just when Raymond is in the middle of a comic book, his mother calls him. Not once but five times. “it’s not fair!” Raymond thinks. Then he thinks: “What if I had my own MEANWHILE…?” Comic Books always use MEANWHILE… to change the scene. So Raymond tries writing it on the wall behind his bed. To his astonishment, Raymond discovers that he can MEANWHILE… from on perilous adventure to another – from pirates on the high seas, to Martians in outer space, to a posse and a mountain lion out West. Then, at the worst possible moment, Raymond’s MEANWHILE… fails him, leaving him a spot that spells certain doom! Unless…

Why this book fits the genre: This book fits this genre because Raymond finds himself in situations that he must figure out a way to survive like characters in other adventure stories. Although in this book the reader takes a journey into the characters imagination it still meets elements of an

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Fiction Adventure  Stories     adventure story. For instance, in the scene where Raymond falls into an avalanche and does not see the mountain lion, he must figure out, without the help of an adult, how to survive. This book also overlaps into the comic genre in fiction. Include elements of the genre AND specific examples from this book that help it fit into this genre. What overlaps into other genre? What challenges?

Multicultural aspects: In relation to multicultural aspects, this book does not have too many. Some examples that the book uses that could potentially be stereotypes would be the portrayal of pirates and cowboys. Another portrayal that could make students or families uncomfortable would be the idea that in the beginning and end the mother is depicted as a nagging character.

Book Review 2:

Intermediate Example: Down The  Yukon   Author: Will Hobbs Publisher: HarperCollins Publishers Year Published: 2001 ISBN: 0-688-17472-8

Summary: In  the  shadow  of  the  Arctic  Circle,  Dawson  City  is  burning  down,  changing   forever  the  lives  of  thousands  in  the  Klondike  goldfields.  All  the  talk  is  of  Nome,   nearly  two  thousand  miles  away  where  gold  has  been  discovered  in  the  beach  sands.     Jason  Hawthorn  is  itching  to  join  the  new  rush.  He  and  his  brothers  have   been  cheated  out  of  their  sawmill,  and  Jason  has  vowed  to  buy  it  back.  A  race  to   Nome  has  been  announced,  with  a  $20,000  prize.  Jason’s  partner  in  his  canoe  is  the   girl  he  loves,  Jamie  Dunavant,  freshly  returned  from  the  States,  as  she  promised  she   would.    

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Fiction Adventure  Stories       The  Great  Race  across  Alaska  will  be  a  grueling  test  for  the  two  of  them  as   they  face  the  hazards  of  the  Yukon  River,  two  very  dangerous  men  Jason  has  reason   to  fear,  and  the  terrors  of  the  open  sea.  Only  their  combined  skills,  courage,  and   mutual  devotion  can  pull  them  through.    

Why this book fits the genre: This book  fits  the  genre  of  adventure  stories  because  the  young  character   Jason  is  finding  a  way,  without  the  help  of  an  adult  to  buy  back  his  family’s  sawmill.   The  story  takes  place  on  the  Yukon  River  in  Alaska,  which  is  the  great  outdoors   element  of  the  book.      

Multicultural aspects: This book  has  some  historical  context  to  it  from  the  Gold  Rush  in  Alaska  in   1899.  The  book  uses  culturally  accurate  lifestyles  of  characters  in  the  book.  There   could  be  some  historical  distortions  however,  I  do  not  know  enough  about  this  topic   to  determine  that.  

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Fiction Sport  Stories    

Sub-genre description:

Shane Chinni

Sports stories focus on events and activities within the story that deal with the character’s participation in sports.

Frequently found elements: § § §

Characters struggle with issues related to sports. Team sports are usually emphasized.

Plot and characterization often emphasize theses such as team play and sportsmanship.

Book Review 1: Intermediate Example: Heat Author:  Mike  Lupica   Illustrator:    n/a   Publisher: Puffin Year Published: 2007 ISBN: 0142407577

Summary: Twelve-year-old Michael Arroyo lives in the shadows of Yankee Stadium, home of his heroes, but a place that might as well be on a different continent since he can't afford to see the inside. He also lives in the shadows of his Bronx neighborhood, hiding from the bill collectors and the officials who would separate him from his seventeen-year-old brother if they knew the two boys were living on their own. Baseball is Michael's only salvation, along with his dream of playing in the Little League World Series-until a rival accuses Michael of being older than the league limit. With no parents and a birth certificate that is stuck in his native Cuba, the shadows in Michael's life grow darker. But that is when heroes emerge, and for Michael, heroes don't come any bigger than the Yankees.

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Fiction Sport  Stories    

Why this book fits the genre: This story fits the fundamental element of the sports stories genre because team sports are a major focus of this story, baseball in this particular book. Also, Michael is struggling with the importance of baseball when he has a lot of personal things going on.

Multicultural aspects: This book has several multicultural aspects; with the first being the story is centered on people from Cuba and then focuses on aspects of that culture. It also centers a lot on children who grow up with parents and come from a low SES background too.

Book Review 2: Primary Example: Teammates Author:  Tiki  &  Ronde  Barber,  Robert  Burleigh     Illustrator:  Barry  Root   Publisher: Simon & Schuster Year Published: 2006 ISBN: 1416924892

Summary: When young Tiki fumbles the football in a preseason practice game, his teammates begin to question his ability as a ball carrier. Coach Mike shows him a better way to hold it and reminds him that Practice makes perfect. Ronde creates a secret Morning Practice Club so his twin can perfect his technique during tackles. When the boys' team plays its archrivals, Tiki holds on to the ball in a pileup, bringing the Vikings to victory. While the text is a little long, there is enough action to keep the plot moving along. Tiki and Ronde have a warm, supportive relationship, rare in tales featuring siblings. Root's watercolorand-gouache full-page paintings in autumn tones, while stiff in some of the action scenes, are warm and accessible. Sports fans will welcome this addition

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Fiction Sport  Stories    

Why this book fits the genre: This story focuses on a lot on the sportsmanship and teamwork aspects of the genre especially when a teammate struggles and others have to help them out.

Multicultural aspects: This story does not play on stereotypes, but is centered on two African American students who are from a home with a single mother who works a lot.

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Fiction Animal  Realism    

Sub-genre description:

Erica Bussell

An imaginative story in which an animal is a central character that behaves in a manner true to the breed; usually realistic.

Frequently found elements: • • •

Realistic animal stories may be difficult to write because the author must have extensive knowledge of the species. The central character behaves in a manner true to the breed. Problems are realistic for an animal.

Book Review 1: Primary Example:

Jigsaw Pony

Author: Jessie  Haas   Illustrator:  Ying-­‐Hwa  Hu   Publisher: New York: Greenwillow Books Year Published: 2005 ISBN: 9780060782504

Summary: Twins Fran and Kiera have always wanted a pony. When their father brings home a Shetland pony named Jigsaw, they must learn to cooperate and share for the sake of their new pet.

Why this book fits the genre: This book focuses on the relationship between two twin girls, Fran and Kiera, and their pony, Jigsaw. Throughout the book, Jigsaw behaves in a manner true to the Shetland pony breed. The problems posed are also realistic for a pet pony. For example, when Jigsaw becomes old and tired, he is unable to run as fast or jump as high as he did at a younger age.

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Fiction Animal  Realism    

Multicultural aspects: Multicultural aspects are largely lacking in Jigsaw Pony. It is difficult to discuss whether or not relationships, standards of success, or the general portrayal of cultures is consistent or authentic because the books only involves a white, middle class family. Because of the young target age group, the dialogue used is simple and easy to read. The one elderly woman in the book is portrayed as having difficulties because of her age. She is unable to walk without an electric cart and has trouble taking care of the pony. The only issue I see as being controversial is that of stereotypes. People who own ponies or ride horses are often pictured as upper class, white families. The simple fact that the main characters in this book are Caucasian may be seen as stereotypical.

Book Review 2: Intermediate Example:

My Dog Skip

Author: Willie  Morris   Illustrator:     Publisher: Random House Publishers Year Published: 1995 ISBN: 0679-76722-3

Summary: My Dog Skip is a story about author Willie Morris as a nine year old boy growing up in Yazoo City, Mississippi. As an only child, Morris builds a strong friendship with his own Jack Russell Terrier, Skip. He recounts adventures they shared and how the dog became a hero to both him and the town of Yazoo City.

Why this book fits the genre: Narrated by the book’s author, Willie Morris, the book revolves around his childhood pet, a Jack Russell Terrier named Skip. In his stories, Skip behaves just as not only Jack Russell Terriers typically do, but as a young boy’s pet typically would. He is playful, loyal, and overcome with love for his young friend.

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Fiction Animal  Realism    

Multicultural aspects: Many multicultural aspects can be taken into consideration when discussing My Dog Skip. Being an autobiography set in the 1940s, some of the aspects may seem stereotypical, but are actually accurate for the time period and southern town setting. African American families are portrayed as deprived and lower class, white, elderly women meet for bridge clubs, and young boys run around the town playing without much fear. It is obvious in the story thought, that Skip often bridges the gap between cultures and sees people for who they are, not the color of their skin or the amount of money they have. Certain iconic events are in accordance with the time period as well. For example, Willie’s neighbor and friend, Dink, who is in his twenties, is shipped overseas to World War II.

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Realistic Fiction   Contemporary  Realistic  Fiction      

Sub-genre description:

Laura Valere

These are stories that can accurately depict life as how it could be lived today. It is known as contemporary fiction because these life issues are connected with events in today’s world.

Frequently found elements: •

Themes in these stories are modern

The themes are usually controversial in some form

Current political and social issues may be explored

Issues and problems that children deal with may also be explored

“Contemporary” means that the genre is always changing

No fantasy elements

Book Review 1: Primary Example:

The Tulip Touch

Author:  Anne  Fine   Publisher: Laurel  Leaf Year Published: 1999 ISBN: 978-­‐0440227854

Summary: Natalie moves to a new school and falls under the spell of psychologically

disturbed classmate Tulip. Drawn further and further into a world of small but

delicious cruelties she manages to save herself and break from Tulip before it is too late, causing Tulip to seek revenge. With too much strength of character to succumb to despair, Tulip is determined to take away from everyone else what she cannot have herself.

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Realistic Fiction   Contemporary  Realistic  Fiction    

Why this book fits the genre: There is an obvious social issue explored through this book with the relationship that Tulip and Natalie share while growing up. Many contemporary realistic

fiction stories focus on dysfunctional family life or ineffectual parenting. In this story, Tulip comes from a totally unloving and abusive family and is a

troublemaker. Gradually, Tulip's behavior begins to influence Natalie’s, which evolves into a social dispute.

Multicultural aspects: Students who come from unfit or unstable families could easily be affected by

this story. Children who are adopted or live under inadequate parenting could also feel repercussions from a story like this one. It is common for people to stereotype troublemakers with bad parenting and this book show just that.

Book Review 2: Intermediate Example:

Frindle

Author:  Andrew  Clements   Illustrator:  Brian  Selznick   Publisher: Aladdin Paperbacks Year Published: 1996 ISBN: 0-689-81876-9

Summary: A fifth grader, Nick Allen, decides to start using a new word for ‘pens’ that

quickly catches on to his peers that surround him. It becomes obvious that this new word is very much disliked by his teacher, Mrs. Granger..

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Realistic Fiction   Contemporary  Realistic  Fiction    

Why this book fits the genre: Realistic fiction constantly relates and connects to children’s lives and issues that they commonly encounter. In this story, the protagonist, Nick, is a fun-loving, energetic and clever child that most fifth graders can relate to. These are

characteristics of many children especially those in the fifth grade. The teacher and the student engage in a quarrel over this new word and its popularity.

Disputes among students and teachers are common issues that can be seen among young students in school.

Multicultural aspects: The book tends to leave out stereotypes other than how it depicts the teacher. Teachers are commonly thought of as old, female and strict. Mrs. Granger’s

character is seen as a cruel and cold woman; a teacher that most students would not want to have.

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Realistic Fiction   Mysteries      

Sub-genre description:

Ashley Bonine

Imaginative stories dealing with the solution of a secret, problem, or crime, and involving suspense or intrigue.

Frequently found elements: • • • • •

Suspense Cliffhangers Foreshadowing Detective stories and spy novels Often are available in series

Book Review 1: Primary Example:

The Boxcar Children Series.

Author:  Gertrude  Chandler  Warner  but  after   she  died  other  authors  wrote  the  stories.   Illustrator:    Kate  Deal   Publisher: Rand McNally Year Published: 1942 – present day

Summary: The first book tells the story of the four Alden children, Henry, Jessie, Violet, and Benny, who are orphans. One night, they take shelter in a bakery after buying some bread with the very little money they have and in exchange for allowing them to spend the night, they agree to help around the bakery. However, when they overhear the plans for the baker to take Benny to a boys' home because he is too little, they flee. Finding an

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Realistic Fiction   Mysteries     abandoned boxcar, they start a new life of independence. They furnish their boxcar with items retrieved from a local dump and come across a dog with a hurt paw. They later name the dog "Watch" after it growls and scares away someone they heard outside late at night. Henry ends up working various odd jobs for a young doctor, Dr. Moore, in order to earn money for food in a nearby city. He also does gardening for Mrs. Moore. (In one case, Mrs. Moore let him take home some parsnips and carrots he had picked because they were too small) The children's lives are pleasant and hard until Violet becomes very ill and they must go to Dr. Moore for assistance. Earlier in the novel, Dr. Moore read the newspaper that a man named James Alden was offering a $5,000 reward for anyone who located his four lost grandchildren (The children had run away because they thought their grandfather was cruel). After Violet is brought to Dr. Moore, he finally contacts James Alden. James arrives just after the children bring in Violet for treatment. Not wanting to frighten the children into running away again, their grandfather referred to himself as Mr. Henry (Henry being his middle name). Not knowing that the man was their "cruel" grandfather, the children warm to his kindness and are surprised but delighted when Dr. Moore reveals to them that he is their grandfather. After moving in with their grandfather, Mr. Alden moves the boxcar to his backyard for their enjoyment.

Why this book fits the genre: This series involves the children solving mysteries and occasionally travelling to other locations as they do so. The children are amateur detectives and seem to stumble upon mysteries no matter where they are.

Multicultural aspects: This series was originally written in 1942 and so that is where the original books are set. A first grade teacher wrote the books and she intentionally made it easy to read for a diverse group of students. From my knowledge there are no cultural stereotypes of ethnic groups and the lifestyles of the characters are accurate. The newer books are set in present day and will have more references to current events but are still culturally acceptable. I would feel comfortable sharing these books with my class.

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Realistic Fiction   Mysteries    

Book Review 2: Intermediate Example:

Missing Persons Series

Author:  M.  E.  Rabb   Publisher: Speak Year Published: 2004 ISBN: 0-14-250041-0

Summary: When their father dies, teen sisters Sophie and Sam Shattenberg run away from their Queens, New York, home to escape their evil stepmother, Enid Gutmyre. The girls change their names, dye their hair, and try to create new lives for themselves in the tiny town of Venice, Indiana. They also take up a new hobby--solving missing persons cases. At the same time, they're working hard to make sure that they stay missing themselves...

Why this book fits the genre: This series fits the genre because it includes the mystery of a missing person that is solved by the amateur detectives in the book who are the main characters.

Multicultural aspects: The main characters in this book are Jewish but they are not portrayed stereotypically. I would feel comfortable sharing this book with a diverse group of students. The dialogue is modern English as well as some terms that relate to their Jewish roots.

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Realistic Fiction   Graphic  Novels        

Sub-genre description:

Katelyn Wheat

A Graphic Novel is similar to a comic, or comic strip, but it has a beginning, middle, and end and is published as a book.

Frequently found elements: •

Generally novel length

Can be a set of collected comic books all in one

A grand Hero

Combination of art and writing to get point across

Series of pictures connected by dialogue between characters

“Sequential art”

Book Review 1:

Primary Example:

Owly: The Way Home

Author:  Andy  Runton   Illustrator:    Andy  Runton   Publisher: Simon and Schuster Year Published: 2010 ISBN: 978-1-891830-62-4

Summary: Owly is a kind, yet lonely, little owl that's always on the search for new friends and adventure. Owly discovers the meaning of friendship, and that saying goodbye doesn't always mean forever.

Why this book fits the genre: This book relies on a mixture of symbols, icons, and expression for Owly to tell his story. Owly always learns a lesson in the end, and is usually the hero with his friends. There is also a beginning, a conflict, and a way to solve it in the end. This is characteristic of a novel, and the fact that it is done through pictures makes it graphic.

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Realistic Fiction   Graphic  Novels    

Multicultural aspects: This book does not address many multicultural aspects, it deals with an owl and other woodland creatures, thus not creating any stereotypes. His little worm friend generally would be the sidekick role, aiding him in some of the ideas. All illustrations look similar to comic style drawing, and all the characters have the same features, for example the smile. The adventures the characters go on are generally pretty simple and out of character for animals, but they provide good life lessons that younger students should be exposed to, like sharing, helping friends, etc.

Book Review 2: Intermediate Example:

Spider-Man Loves Mary Jane

Author:  Sean  McKeever   Illustrator:  Takeshi  Miyazawa  and  Christina  Strain   Publisher: Marvel Comics Year Published: 2006 ISBN: 078511954X

Summary: An American comic book series focusing on a teenage Mary Jane, the love interest of superhero Spider-Man. The series, published by Marvel Comics, is a teen drama set outside the regular Marvel continuity and aimed at teenage girls.

Why this book fits the genre: The story has a beginning, middle and end. It is published in book form but told through series of pictures of characters expression, and dialogue between them.

Multicultural aspects: The story follows your typical white suburban high school students. There is a jock, pretty cheerleader, rich playboy and the bullied boy that turns out to be the hero in the end. There is a transfer student as well, but we don’t know if she comes from another

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Realistic Fiction   Graphic  Novels     country or not. I would expect that the book weren’t so stereotypical of these students, since it was written within the last five years, but it is. It does accurately portray high school issues. Many students this age struggle with figuring out whom they like and don’t like. This graphic novel is geared more towards girls, as it is more romantic. This is why I chose it for an example, because graphic novels geared toward guys are more prevalent even though many girls enjoy reading the novels as well.

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Fantasy Animal  Fantasy      

Sub-genre description:

Kate Roszell

This sub-genre is a form of fantasy in which the main characters are animals. Animal stories are characterized by the extent to which the animals take on human characteristics.

Frequently found elements: • • •

In one type, the animal behaves like its species, but thinks and talks like a human. In another type, the animal acts both like its species but also like a human. In a third type, the animal behaves, speaks, and dresses totally like a human. This is very common in family stories, stories of everyday experiences, and friendship stories.

Book Review 1: Primary Example:

Don’t Let the Pigeon Drive the Bus!

Author: Mo  Willems       Illustrator:    Mo  Willems   Publisher: Hyperion Books for Children Year Published: 2003 ISBN: 078681988-X

Summary: When a bus driver takes a break from his route and asks the reader to keep an eye on things until he gets back, a pigeon volunteers to take his place. This pigeon begs and pleads the reader to let him drive the bus, throwing a tantrum throughout the entire book. This is an interactive story in which the reader can answer the pigeon’s pleas as they come and decide his fate.

Why this book fits the genre: This story includes elements of the Animal Fantasy genre and is specifically formatted as the type in which the animal acts both like its species, but also like a human. The pigeon in this story speaks like a human when he is begging to drive the bus, a human-like action, while still behaving like a bird.

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Fantasy Animal  Fantasy    

Multicultural aspects: Because there are only two characters in this story, one being a white male and one being a pigeon, few multicultural aspects are addressed. Most students and families would feel comfortable with this text and pictures. Perhaps one way to make each and every family more comfortable would be to portray the white, male bus-driver as a minority or as a woman.

Book Review 2: Intermediate Example: Charlotte’s Web Author: E.B.  White   Illustrator:  Garth  Williams   Publisher: HarperTrophy Year Published: 1952 ISBN: 0-673-80129-2

Summary: This is the story of a little girl named Fern who loved a little pig named Wilbur—and of Wilbur’s dear friend Charlotte A. Cavatica, a beautiful large grey spider who lived with Wilbur in the barn. With the help of Templeton, the rat who never did anything for anybody unless there was something in it for him, and by a wonderfully clever plan of her own, Charlotte saved the life of Wilbur, who by this time had grown up to be quite a pig.

Why this book fits the genre: This story includes elements of the Animal Fantasy genre and is specifically formatted as the type in which the animal acts both like its species, but also like a human. This book is considered as this specific type of Animal Fantasy because Charlotte writes words in her web (a human-like action) while all of the animals still behave like animals but are able to speak amongst themselves (not animal-to-human conversation).

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Fantasy Animal  Fantasy    

Multicultural aspects: Few multicultural aspects are addressed in this story, as the majority of the characters are animals. Students or families who may feel uncomfortable with this story would be those of a minority background due to the fact that the characters in this story are either animals or white, middle-class humans. Possible stereotyping that could be evident in this story is that of the Templeton, the gluttonous rat who only helps people if he himself benefits from that action. However, due to the fact that Templeton is an animal with no cultural connection, stereotyping is not entirely applicable.

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Fantasy Science  Fiction      

Sub-genre description:

Jill Holley

Set in a future that scientific or technological advance could or might make possible.

Frequently found elements: • In  one  approach  the  story  usually  takes  place  in  outer  space  where  the  technology   of  the  future  is  predicted.   •  In  the  other  approach  future  societies  are  portrayed,  usually  on  earth,  with  or   without  the  presence  of  aliens.   •  Themes  frequently  deal  with  good  or  evil,  often  involving  technology.   •  Science  Fantasy  uses  science  “to  explain  the  existence  of  the  world  and  magic  is   used  thereafter.”  

Book Review 1 Primary Example: Guys from Space Author: Daniel  Pinkwater     Illustrator:    Daniel  Pinkwater   Publisher: Macmillan Publishing Company Year Published: 1989 ISBN: 0-02-774672-0

Summary: The story of a boy who is visited by Space Guys, and is taken on their ship to visit other planets in the universe.

Why this book fits the genre: Because the book deals with the presence of aliens and their technology, it fits the thematic structure of a science-fiction book. Similarly, it deals with the aliens’ presence here on earth, as well as in outer space. Despite this, it deals little with the idea of good and evil, leaving the book with a light-hearted, kid friendly piece.

Multicultural aspects: Daniel Pinkwater reveals the stereotypical ideals of an alien through his writing and illustrations. Drawing them as small, green creatures, he feeds off of the idea that all aliens are that way. Despite this, Pinkwater does a great job writing the dialogue of a small boy. With simple wording, it is a believable story, told from a small child’s perspective.

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Fantasy Science  Fiction    

Book Review 2:

A Wrinkle in Time

Intermediate Example: Author: Madeleine  L’Engle     Publisher: Yearling Books ISBN: 0440498058

Summary: The story of three kids, traveling through time and Space to save their dad who is being held as a prisoner in another world.

Why this book fits the genre: With the themes of space and time travel, this book follows the structure of a science fiction book. Similarly, it deals greatly with the idea of good versus evil when the kids must save their father from evil forces.

Multicultural aspects: The author takes readers through a fantasy land, completely original and separate from anything readers might know. Despite these stark differences, readers can identify with the authors draw to good and evil and how love can overcome many things.

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Traditional Literature  and  Folktales   Fairy  Tales      

Sub-genre description: Stories with fairies or other magical creatures, usually for children. A modern fairytale is written in a traditional style with the elements of folklore but with a contemporary twist.

Frequently found elements: • • • • • • • • •

Stories include fantasy, make believe, and often magic Stories often begin, “Once upon a time…” or “Long, long, ago…” Characters include royalty or a kingdom setting Stories end “happily ever after.” Incidents may come in threes Characters or events may be found in sevens (or fives or threes) Characters are clearly defined as good and evil Magical devices such as wands, swords, or horses assist the resolution of the story Picture book “fractured” fairy tales are published in abundance

Book Review 1: Primary Example:

Cinderella

Author:  Retold  by  Ruth  Sanderson   Illustrator:    Ruth  Sanderson   Publisher: Little, Brown Books for Young Readers Year Published: 2002 ISBN: 0-316-77965-2

Summary: Although mistreated by her stepsisters and stepmother, a kindhearted young woman manages to attend the palace ball with the help of her fairy godmother.

Why this book fits the genre: This tale includes nearly all the elements of fairytale listed above, including beginning with “once upon a time...” and ending with the traditional, “…and she lived happily ever after.” The magic number of ‘three’ appears with the number of step family members, and the characters fit the ‘good versus evil’ element (evil stepsisters and mother, good

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Traditional Literature  and  Folktales   Fairy  Tales     Cinderella, fairy godmother, etc.). There is a magic device in the glass slipper and the carriage and footmen which were created from a pumpkin and mice.

Multicultural aspects: Stereotyping occurs in that the wealthy stepsisters and stepmother are portrayed as evil and elitist, although in the context of the story’s timeframe, this may have been somewhat typical behavior for those holding wealth and power.

Book Review 2: Intermediate Example:

Just Ella

Author:  Margaret  Peterson  Haddix   Publisher: Simon and Schuster Books for Young Readers Year Published: 1999 ISBN: 0-689-82186-7

Summary: In this continuation of the Cinderella story, fifteen-year-old Ella finds that accepting Prince Charming’s proposal ensnares her in a suffocating tangle of palace rules and royal etiquette, so she plots to escape.

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Traditional Literature  and  Folktales   Tall  Tales      

Sub-genre description:

Kaitie Harris

Tall tales are stories with a definite setting in fairly modern times that exaggerate or are based on the traits of a person who may have actually existed.

Frequently found elements:

• Stories are humorous with blatant exaggerations.

• Characters are swaggering heroes who do the impossible with nonchalance. • Problems and solutions may involve trickery.

Book Review 1: Primary Example:

Pecos Bill

Author: Terry  Small     Illustrator:    Terry  Small   Publisher: Bantam Books Year Published: 1992 ISBN: 0-553-07583-7

Summary: This story retells in verse the tale of the extraordinary cowboy who was raised by coyotes, married Slue-foot Sue, and rode the wild rapscallion mustang stallion named Widow-maker.

Why this book fits the genre: The story of Pecos Bill fits two of the three elements of a tall tale, which is characters who are swaggering heroes, who do the impossible with nonchalance and stories are humorous with blatant exaggerations. When Pecos Bill was very young, he fell out of his parents’ wagon as they were crossing the Pecos River

and was swept away by the current. Rescued by coyotes, Pecos Bill was raised by the wild animals. When Pecos Bill turned it to an amazing cowboy and

developed skills that made him a swaggering hero such as such as riding a

cyclone, roping an entire herd at one time, using a rattlesnake as a whip, and

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Traditional Literature  and  Folktales   Tall  Tales     harnessing the Rio Grande River to water his ranch. He was so tough that he often rode a mountain lion rather than his favorite horse, the Widow-Maker.

Multicultural aspects: The book doesn’t address too many cultural aspects other than showing other ways children could be raised. This topic might be relatable to students who

aren’t raised by immediate family. Also in the beginning of the book there are a few pictures of Bill when he was younger not properly clothed because he was being raised by coyotes. The pictures could offend families of other cultures.

Book Review 2:

Intermediate Example: The Bunyans Author:  Audrey  Wood   Illustrator:  David  Shannon   Publisher: Blue Sky Press Year Published: 1996 ISBN: 0-590-48089-8

Summary: You may know that Paul Bunyan was taller than a redwood tree and stronger than fifty grizzly bears--but you may NOT know that he also had a wife

and two kids who helped him create some of the most striking natural wonders of North America! With warmth, humor, and dazzling landscapes, award-winning writer Audrey Wood and acclaimed illustrator David Shannon team up to

present the tall-tale beginnings of Niagara Falls, the Rocky Mountains, Old Faithful, and more. The Bunyans are a family you will never forget!

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Traditional Literature  and  Folktales   Tall  Tales    

Why this book fits the genre: This tall tale fits its gene because Paul Bunyan, and his giant wife Carrie, and

their two king-sized children, Little Jean and Teeny. As they explore through

early America, their footprints and adventures carve out such famous sites as Niagara Falls. All of the family members have very powerful qualities because of their size. The story is very humorous and informs the reader of tales the

Bunyans are responsible for about the beautiful landscapes around North America.

Multicultural aspects: There was one multicultural aspect that I felt really stuck out to me as a reader. This aspect is the role of a female in a household, as well of having the

stereotypical all-American family. The book talks about Pa Bunyan doing all of the work outside of the home and work traveling, while Ma Bunyan stays home

and cooks and cleans for the giant family. Also, this book portrays a perfect all-

American family of a boy and a girl child, who grow up to both be very successful. This stereotype could be tough when explaining old ways of life to modern-living children who don’t have the “all-American” lifestyle.

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Traditional Literature  and  Folktales   Legends      

Sub-genre description:

Megan Parrett

Stories, sometimes of a national or folk hero, which have a basis in fact but also include imaginative material.

Frequently found elements: • • •

Legends often explain the reason for a natural occurrence. Native American legends are available in picture book format. Pour quoi stories explain why natural events occur.

Book Review 1: Primary Example: The Legend of The Lady Slipper Author:  Lise  Lunge-­‐Larsen  &  Margi  Preus   Illustrator:    Andrea  Arroyo   Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Company Year Published: 1999 ISBN: 0-395-90512-5

Summary: Never pick a lady slipper. If any part is picked, the entire flower dies. And it grows there, in the northern woods, to mark the courage and strength of a small girl who lived long ago—a girl who saved all of her people from a terrible disease by listening carefully to the elements, to the whispering snow, the rumbling ice, and the dancing northern lights. Illustrated with paintings as graceful and delicate as the lady slipper itself, this unforgettable retelling shows how a child’s lost slippers became one of nature’s most lovely spring flowers.

Why this book fits the genre: This book, like many legends, explains a natural occurrence. The story is of a girl who was walking through the snow to retrieve medicine to save people in her tribe when her moccasins got stuck in the snow. When the spring came, there were flowers shaped like little lady slippers in the same place that she’d lost her shoes.

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Traditional Literature  and  Folktales   Legends    

Multicultural aspects: This story is written about the Ojibwe people and does not address any other people group. It is interesting that the main character who “saves the day” is a female, this would be very important for female students who often feel inadequate to male students. I am not sure how well the pictures portray this people group but it could cause discomfort for students who are from this people group who do not look like the characters in the book.

Book Review 2: Intermediate Example: The Story of Jumping Mouse Author:  John  Steptoe   Illustrator:    John  Steptoe   Publisher: William Morrow & Company, Inc. Year Published: 1984 ISBN: 0-688-01902-1  

Summary: The smallest and humblest of creatures can dream of greatness and, if faithful to himself and the dream, can become the noblest of creatures. In simple words and poignant pictures, John Steptoe gives us his personal interpretation of a moral tale that originated among the Native American peoples of the northern plains. A small, humble mouse years to know the mysteries that lie beyond the familiarities of home and journeys out into the world to meet the challenges to be found there. He finds pain, and responds to it with compassion. He knows fear, but his fear turns to joy with the discovery that the shadow in the sky is his own.

Why this book fits the genre: This book fits excellently into the “legend” genre because it matches up with many of the qualities found in other legends. It is a Native American folktale that is shown in picture book format. The story explains where the “shadow in the sky” comes from. It challenges other legends in that it includes ethical challenges for the main character to overcome, which is not a common theme of legends.

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Traditional Literature  and  Folktales   Legends    

Multicultural aspects: While the text does not address any specific multicultural aspects, the undertones of it simply being a Native American tale have a lot to include and consider. The author does not come from a Native American background so the text could be swayed in that consideration. All of the creatures the main character (mouse) encounters are males, which could cause female students to feel disconnect to the characters. All of the pictures are black and white and portray animals rather than humans so it is hard to make a connection between these two things.

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Traditional Literature  and  Folktales   Myths      

Sub-genre description:

Melissa Brobst

Legend or traditional narrative, often based in part on historical events, that reveal human behavior and natural phenomena by its symbolism.

Frequently found elements: • • •

Creation myths depict the struggle to form the earth. Hero myths describe how people who begin life at a low status are elevated to high status through a good deed. Myths often pertain to the actions of the gods.

Book Review 1: Primary Example:

Moontellers: Myths of the Moon from Around the World

Author: Lynn  Moroney       Illustrator:    Greg  Shed   Publisher: Northland Publishing Year Published: 1995 ISBN: 0-87358-601-8

Summary: Each page has the story of what each indigenous group believes they see in the moon. There is also a description of how the moon is beneficial to each group.

Why this book fits the genre: This book fits into the genre of Myths because it contains stories of the creation of the moon. It also contains narrative stories that are handed down within a culture. There are stories from Australia, China, North American Iroquois Indians, Aztecs, Bolivia, Canada, Scandinavia, India, Cowboys from the United States, and Astronomers Worldwide.

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Traditional Literature  and  Folktales   Myths    

Multicultural aspects: All cultures are represented accurately and the characters of the same ethnic group are portrayed as individuals and do not look alike. There is nothing in the story that would embarrass or offend a child whose culture is being portrayed and I would be willing to share this book with my future class of mixed-race children.

Book Review 2: Intermediate Example:

Mythical Birds & Beasts from Many Lands

Author:  Margaret  Mayo   Illustrator:  Jane  Ray   Publisher: Dutton Children’s Books Year Published: 1996 ISBN: 0-525-45788-7

Summary: A worldwide collection of stories about birds and beasts that people have believed exist for thousands of years. These stories demonstrate the animals’ special power, appearance, and realms.

Why this book fits the genre: This book fits the genre of Myths because there are stories of the actions of the gods, such as the story of Pegasus and the Minotaur. This book also fits in with the fables genre because there are also stories of animals that speak to humans, such as the story of The Phoenix. There are also tales included in this book because there are stories of characters who are swaggering heroes who do the impossible with nonchalance such as in the story of the Green-Clawed Thunderbird.

Multicultural aspects: There is no stereotyping in the text of the ethnic group being portrayed. The characters use speech that accurately represents the tradition from which they come and are genuine and accurate.

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Traditional Literature  and  Folktales   Myths    

Sub-genre description:

Erica Meyer  

Legend or  traditional  narrative,  often  based  in  part  on  historical  events,  revealing   human  behavior  and  natural  phenomena  by  its  symbolism.  

Frequently found elements: • • •

Stories of  gods,  goddesses,  and  heroes  of  a  given  culture.   Explain  the  origins  of  customs  and  social  beliefs.   Examples:  Greek  myths,  Norse,  Native  American,  African  and  Asian.  

Book Review 1: Primary Example:

The First  Strawberries-­‐A  Cherokee  Story

Retold by:  Joseph  Bruchac   Pictures  by:  Anna  Vojtech     Publisher:  Dial  books  for  young  readers   Year  Published:  1993     ISBN:  0-­‐8037-­‐1331-­‐2  

Summary: “How was  it  that  strawberries  came  into  the  world?  Their  creation  is  explained  in   this  captivating  Cherokee  tale,  lyrically  retold  by  renowned  Native  American   storyteller  Joseph  Bruchac.”  

Why this book fits the genre: The First Strawberries includes a “historical account” of the creation of man and woman from the bible. It reveals “human behaviors” by the woman’s discovery of strawberries. The strawberries portray a similar symbolism as they do presently. The last paragraph in the book states, “When the Cherokee people eat strawberries, they remember that friendship and respect are as sweet as the taste of ripe, red berries.” The first woman and man who discover the strawberries are considered heroes of their tribe. The author who retells the story labels them “heroes of our world.” For without them, we would not have discovered strawberries. This was a legendary narrative told and retold to tribe after tribe that reveals the combination of possible true historical events (the creation of man and woman) and a myth (the discovery of strawberries). This book overlaps with the sub-genre-legend or a legendary story. This is because a lot of Native American stories are categorized as legends. Though, these often

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Traditional Literature  and  Folktales   Myths     explain the reason for a natural occurrence, which makes the book a myth because it is based in part on historical events and the untrue natural occurrence (the discovery of strawberries).

Multicultural aspects: The story exemplifies the fact that the Native Americans discovered a very well known and popular fruit, which brings a multicultural aspect to the story. There is the stereotype that women are more domestic than men and are less powerful than men. The Native Americans in the book are depicted as all looking the same as one another. There is not an accurate form of dialogue in this book either. Students and families may feel uncomfortable with the biblical related reference used at the beginning of the book.

Book Review 2: Intermediate Example:

D’Aulaires’ Book  of  Greek  Myths      

Author: Ingri  and  Edgar  d’Aulaire     Illustrator:  Ingri  and  Edgar  d’Aulaire   Publisher: Random House Children’s books Year Published: 1962 ISBN: 0440406943

Summary: A well-­‐known  book  containing  Greek  myths  that  have  been  adapted  for   children.  The  stories  are  organized  around  Zeus  and  his  family,  minor  Gods,  and   their  mortal  descendants.  This  children’s  classic  traces  the  Greek  creation  myth.   Each  character  interacts  with  the  others,  creating  and  solving  problems,  coming  to   compromises,  and  remembering  past  misdeeds.

Why this book fits the genre:

This book  fits  the  genre  because  it  depicts  the  Greek  god,  goddesses  and   mythical  heroes’  struggle  to  form  the  Earth.  Hero  myths  such  as  Zeus  and  Mother    

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Traditional Literature  and  Folktales   Myths     Nature  discover  ways  to  form  the  Earth  and  receive  a  higher  status  through  their   good  deeds.  Symbolism  that  is  exemplified  in  the  illustrations  effectively  and   beautifully  portrays  the  actions  of  the  Gods/Goddesses/heroes.    

Multicultural aspects: The multicultural  aspect  portrays  all  forms  and  varieties  of  life.  It  may  make   families  of  Greek  decent  uncomfortable  because  of  its  mythical  tale  and  the  mythical   figures  that  may  inaccurately  depict  beliefs  about  their  descendants  or  religions.    

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Traditional Literature  and  Folktales   Fables      

Sub-genre description:

Brenna Coglan

Fables are fictional narratives that are meant to teach some sort of moral lesson.

Frequently found elements: -The characters are usually animals. -The animals act like humans. -They tend to be short. -They tend to have no more than two or three characters. -The moral is usually stated in one sentence at the very end.

Book Review 1: Primary Example:

The True Story of the 3 Little Pigs!

Author:  Jon  Scieszka   Illustrator:    Lane  Smith   Publisher: Scholastic Inc. Year Published: 1989 ISBN: 0-590-44357-7

Summary: The True Story of the 3 Little Pigs! is the story of The Three Little Pigs from the wolf’s point of view. In this book he explains his side of the story and explains that it was all a misunderstanding and that he was framed.

Why this book fits the genre: This book is a fable because the story is about animals and these animals act like humans. This book also has a moral to it. The moral is that there are always two sides to every story.

Multicultural aspects: There isn’t much culture in this book because it’s about a wolf and pigs. There is a little stereotyping that the pig in the biggest house (AKA a rich person) was the snobbiest person. Other than that I don’t see much multicultural aspects.

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Traditional Literature  and  Folktales   Fables    

Book Review 2: Intermediate Example:

Animal Farm

Author:  George  Orwell   Illustrator:  N/A   Publisher: New York – Signet Classic Year Published: 1945 ISBN: 0-451-52634-1

Summary: “The story begins on a quiet English farm whose dissolute human master (representing the tsar) mistreats his farm animals so badly that they eventually go against him and set up a new order under the leadership of two brilliant pigs (i.e., Stalin and Trotsky). As in the history of the Soviet Union, their workers' paradise is steadily perverted until the animal farm becomes an even more oppressive state than its predecessor.”

Why this book fits the genre: This book fits this genre because its main characters are animals and they act like humans. It also has a moral lesson to be learned.

Multicultural aspects: This story might offend some Germans because they know it’s about Germans. Hopefully it wouldn’t be though because it’s about World War II, not just Germans in general.

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Traditional Literature  and  Folktales   Fractured  Fairy  Tales    

Sub-genre description:

Kelsie Greenlee

Fractured fairy  tales  are  traditional  fairy  tales,  rearranged  to  create  new  plots  with   fundamentally  different  meanings  or  messages.  Fractured  fairy  tales  are  closely   related  to  fairy-­‐tale  parodies,  but  the  two  serve  different  purposes:  parodies  mock   individual  tales  and  the  genre  as  a  whole;  fractured  fairy  tales,  with  a  reforming   intent,  seek  to  impart  updated  social  and  moral  messages.

Frequently found elements: Common Elements of Fairy Tales: • • • • • • • •

Uses familiar fairy tale characters Uses familiar fairy tale setting, plot, and elements Alters a fairy tale story’s point of view or setting Mixes up characters from different stores to make new Usually humorous Royalty is sometimes present as a princess or prince Uses similar fairy tale language Twists events in a fairy tale

Book Review 1: Primary Example:

Falling for Rapunzel

Author:  Leah  Wilcox   Illustrator:    Lydia  Monks   Publisher: G.P. Putnam’s Sons Year Published: 2005 ISBN: 1-4155-0141-6

Summary: The prince  is  hoping  to  fall  for  Rapunzel,  but  since  she  can't  quite  hear  what  he  asks   for,  everything  but  her  hair  gets  tossed  out  her  window.  Instead  of  her  curly  locks,   she  throws  her  dirty  socks.  Instead  of  silky  tresses,  out  go  lacey  dresses.  And  you   can  predict  the  guaranteed-­‐to-­‐crack-­‐kids-­‐up  clothing  she  sends  down  when  the   prince  simply  says  hair.  .  .  .  

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Traditional Literature  and  Folktales   Fractured  Fairy  Tales    

Why this book fits the genre: This tale fits the genre of fractured fairy tale because it includes several of the elements listed above including use similar fairy tale language, for example, starting the story with “Once upon a bad hair day,” The story is a twisted version of Rapunzel, so the characters fit the element of using familiar fairy tale characters and includes royalty such as a princess and prince. The element of humor is used throughout the story for example, instead of throwing down her curly locks, she thinks the prince says dirty socks.

Multicultural aspects: The role of women in this story is portrayed as a beautiful princess who lives in a castle. This is not true of all women, it may be stereotyping of women portraying that they are beautiful and wear fancy clothes.

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Traditional Literature  and  Folktales   Fractured  Fairy  Tales    

Book Review 2: Intermediate Example:

Sleeping Ugly

Author:  Jane  Yolen   Publisher: Coward, McCann & Geogheagan, Inc. Year Published: 1981 ISBN: 0-698-30721-6

Summary: When beautiful Princess Miserella, Plain Jane, and a fairy fall under a sleeping spell, a prince undoes the spell in a surprising way.

Why this book fits the genre: This book fits the genre of a fractured fairy tale because it uses a similar character, Sleeping Beauty to Sleeping Ugly. The characters match that of fractured fairy tales for example there is a princess, fairy, and orphan.

Multicultural aspects: This fractured fairy tale is stereotypical in that the princess is beautiful and not very nice and the poor orphan was ugly but nice to everyone.

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NON Fiction/Personal  Narrative   Memoirs    

Sub-genre description:

Meredith Erikson  

A record of events based on the writer’s own observation

Frequently found elements: • Memoirs may cover only one event or aspect of the author’s life. • Memoir is a retrospective account of a memorable event. • Memoirs for children can be fictionalized.

Book Review 1: Primary Example:

She Sang Promise, The Story of Betty Mae Jumper, Seminole

Tribal Leader Author: Jan  Godown  Annino   Illustrator:  Lisa  Desimini   Publisher: National Geographic Year Published: 2010 ISBN:978-1-4263-0592

Summary: Betty Mae Jumper goes on the journey of life as she lives in Florida being apart of the Seminole Tribe. She sang her own story and when being elected tribal leader in modern times and the voice of the people. With respect from the past, she sang a vision for the future. She sang song.

Why this book fits the genre: The non-fiction story includes almost all the aspects of the genre, including “may cover only one event or aspect of the author’s life....” at the end where the author further explains purpose and history of learning about Betty, as well as meeting her. Also, the

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NON Fiction/Personal  Narrative   Memoirs     “retrospective account of a memorable event....” throughout the book the timeline of her life is colorfully guided by illustrations and stories on how she went from being a young girl to a strong women tribal leader.

Multicultural aspects: The illustrations are authentic as the families and the communities do not all look alike. There is a variety of physical attributes and diversity in the classroom, the doctor’s, and Jungle Queen boat landing story throughout the book. The lifestyle of Betty Mae Jumper is culturally accurate and genuine as the end of the story explains in details the timeline of her life.

Book Review 2: Intermediate Example:

A Picture Book of Benjamin Franklin

Author: David A. Adler Illustrator: John & Alexandra Wallner Publisher: Holiday House Year Published: 1990 ISBN: 0-8234-0792-6

Summary: Benjamin Franklin was not only an inventor, but a writer, scientists, and statesman. He helped write the Declaration of Independence as well as work for the government. The timeline goes from the day he was born, to the day he died, as he was considered one of the greatest Americans.

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NON Fiction/Personal  Narrative   Memoirs    

Why this book fits the genre: The tale includes nearly all the elements of a memoir listed above, including “a retrospective account of a memorable event....” with the memoir about Benjamin Franklin’s life. In a biography, which exists beyond the author’s personal experience, this book does not meet the criteria as he discusses a picture book, “for children can be fictionalized...” The books illustrations show a fun picturesque way for children to comprehend the history of Benjamin Franklin, but is non-fiction.

Multicultural aspects: The lifestyles of the characters are culturally accurate. The author does not oversimplify or generalize. The illustrations are accurate. One way it does not meet the aspects is at the end of the book is mentions the kite and key may be a misconception. The minority characters are not leaders in the community and do solve their own problem. The characters in the book are white males holding wealth and power.

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NON Fiction/Personal  Narrative   Journals  and  Diaries      

Sub-genre description:

Lauren Specker

A log written by an author at regular intervals.

Frequently found elements: • • •

Entries are usually dated Diaries and journals in series have been published as a way of sharing historical fiction Fictional diaries can be animal fantasies when animals write them

Book Review 1: Primary Example: Diary of a Worm Author:    Doreen  Cronin   Illustrator:  Harry  Bliss   Publisher: Joanna Cotler Books Year Published: 2003 ISBN: 0-06-000151-8

Summary: A young worm discovers, day by day, that there are some very good and some not so good things about being a worm in this great big world.

Why this book fits the genre: This diary includes nearly all the elements of a journal or diary listed above, including having dated entries. Starting with an entry on March 20th, the diary continues until August 1st. This fictional diary is also an animal fantasy, where animals write the entries. In this case this is a diary of a worm, including all of its daily routines. An example includes, on April 4th “Fishing season started today. We all dug deeper.”

Multicultural aspects: One multicultural aspect seen in this diary is the illustration of grandpa sleeping. This stereotypes the fact that elders are always sleeping and not doing anything. However, there are many multicultural aspects that are not addressed in this diary including, the use of heroes or heroines, omissions of history, and many others.

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NON Fiction/Personal  Narrative   Journals  and  Diaries    

Book Review 2: Intermediate Example:

Only Opal: The Diary of a Young Girl

Author:  Opal  Whiteley,  selected  and  adapted  by  Jane  Boulton Illustrator:    Barbara  Cooney   Publisher: Paperstar Year Published: 1997 ISBN: 0-399-21990-0

Summary: A lyrical adaption of the writings of Opal Whiteley, in which she describes her love of nature and her life in an Oregon lumber camp at the turn of the century.

Why this book fits the genre: This book fits this genre because it is a diary that has been published as a way of sharing historical information as well as the experiences and adventures of a 6 year old. Although the entries are not dated they are written in a sequential order. This diary shares her feelings about her current life, describing the hardships she has encountered. Journals and diaries are often written to talk about daily activities or life events.

Multicultural aspects: Multicultural aspects occur with the culture Opal was brought up in. This is portrayed when the wife is always cleaning the house and baking food for her family. The role of the female is stereotypical, proving that woman should only do housework while the men provide for their family. The lifestyle that Opal writes about makes sense with the time frame that she lived. She is always playing outdoors and helping out around the house, as well as the jargon she uses. The dialect is representative of the time and culture.

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NON Fiction/Personal  Narrative   Letters,  Postcards,  Personal  Correspondence      

Sub-genre description:

Kileen Casey

Personal written communications.

Frequently found elements: • Letters provide authentic ways for communication. • Letters, postcards, and emails are all personal written communications with different conventions and elements. • Postcards are abbreviated forms of letters and have abbreviated elements. • Emails have become even more abbreviated forms of communication and have developed an extensive short cut and very informal style.

Book Review 1: Primary Example: Flat Stanley   By:    Jeff  Brown   Illustrator:  Scott  Nash   Publisher: Harper Collins Year Published: 1964 ISBN: 978006112904

Summary: Stanley and  his  little  brother  Arthur  a  given  a  bulletin  board  from  their  dad  so  they   can  hang  pictures  in  their  room.  However,  while  Stanley  is  sleeping,  Stanley  is   flattened  by  the  board  falling  on  top  of  him.  The  story  continues  with  his  telling  of     all  of  his  travels  and  coping  with  his  new  state  of  being.

Why this book fits the genre: This book works because it is a personal correspondence of Stanley’s life after he is put in such a rough predicament. It also talks about letters that he writes back to his family when he goes on trips to other places.

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NON Fiction/Personal  Narrative   Letters,  Postcards,  Personal  Correspondence    

Multicultural aspects: All type of families would be comfortable in reading this type of story because it helps to relate students to a child with a problem and how he copes. It also shows some family aspects that are present in the home.

Book Review 2: Intermediate Example: The Music  of  the  Dolophins   By:  Karen  Hesse       Publisher: Scholastic Press Year Published: 1996 ISBN: 0590897977

Summary:

This book  is    about  a  young  girl  names  Mila  that  was  raised  by  a  family  of  dolphins   and  is  then  found  playing  in  the  water  off  a  beach  by  a  group  of  humans.  The  stories   tells  all  bout  her  struggles  to  become  a  human  while  she  misses  her  life  in  the  water   and  the  family  she  has  known  all  her  life.

Why this book fits the genre: This book provides students with the opportunity to relate to a child that is going through a very difficult time in her life. One of the most interesting things about this novel is the fact that it is written in many different sized fonts throughout the different phases that Mila, the main character goes through. Talking to her family of dolphins as well as other humans.

Multicultural aspects: This is  a  great  book  for  students  trying  to  adjust  to  life  in  a  new  place  that  they  are   completely  unfamiliar  with.  It  really  helps  to  show  the  hardships  that  a  young  girl   can  go  through  at  a  time  like  this  being  in  a  “new  world”.

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NON Fiction/Personal  Narrative   Autobiographies    

Sub-genre description:

Cori Patterson

A story of a person’s life written by that person.

Frequently found elements: -First-person account. -Often highly personalized. -May be supported by authentic pictures and newspaper articles.

Book Review 1: Primary Example:

Through My Eyes

Author:  Ruby  Bridges   Illustrator:    None  (uses  authentic  photographs)   Publisher: Scholastic Press Year Published: 1999 ISBN: 0-590-18923-9

Summary: Ruby Bridges recounts the story of her involvement, as a six-year-old, in the integration of her school in New Orleans in 1960.

Why this book fits the genre: This book includes all of the elements of an autobiography listed above, including being a first-person account, being often highly personalized, and is supported by authentic pictures. Bridges writes about her childhood during the 1960’s and includes quotes from her teacher, parents, and neighbors at the time. There are also newspaper article and magazine quotes from the 1960’s as well.

Multicultural aspects: Stereotyping occurs in the book when all Southern white people are portrayed as racist and violent, although during the 1960’s when this story took place, most Southern whites were somewhat racist and against integration. This book is an autobiography, so there is only one primary perspective being represented, which is Ruby’s. But, she also includes several others’ perspectives by using side quotes and stories from her family, friends, teacher, and other people involved in integration in New Orleans at the time she was in school.

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NON Fiction/Personal  Narrative   Autobiographies    

Book Review 2: Intermediate Example: I Am Nujood, Age 10 and Divorced

Author: Nujood  Ali     Illustrator:  None   Publisher: Three Rivers Press Year Published: 2010 ISBN: 978-0-307-58967-5

Summary: Nujood Ali tells her story about being one of 16 children and being married off by her father at the age of 9 to a 30 year-old man. She is the first child bride in Yemen to be granted a divorce.

Why this book fits the genre: This book includes almost all of the elements of an autobiography listed above, including being a first-person account and being often highly personalized. Although, it does not use any authentic photographs or newspaper articles because there are not many photographs of Nujood when she was a child because of her rural home setting and newspapers are not as common in Yemen as they are in the US. Nujood recounts her experience being married at the age of 9 and divorced with personal stories and dialogue.

Multicultural aspects: Because this is an autobiography, only Nujood’s perspective is represented. She does not offer various perspectives of her story. Also, women are all stereotyped as being useless and insignificant except for having babies for their husbands, although in Yemen culture, women are supposed to be somewhat compliant and are taught to never have an opinion.

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NON Fiction/Personal  Narrative   Autobiographies      

Sub-genre description:

Kelly Lahr

A story of a person’s life written by that person.

Frequently found elements: • • •

First-person account Often highly personalized May be supported by authentic pictures and newspaper articles

Book Review 1: Primary Example: I Am ROSA PARKS Author:  Rosa  Parks  with  Jim  Haskins   Illustrator:    Wil  Clay   Publisher: Dial Books for Young Readers Year Published: 1997 ISBN: 0-8037-1207-3

Summary: Rosa Parks always wanted fair treatment for everyone, even when she was young. When she grew up, she helped start the civil rights movement with an act of great courage. This is her own story.

Why this book fits the genre: This book encompasses nearly all of the frequently found elements of an autobiography including a first-person account. Additionally, the book is highly personalized as it examines the struggles Rosa Parks encountered. The book highlights personal encounters of Rosa Park’s experiences in school, for example she describes white children throwing trash out of the bus window at her.

Multicultural aspects: The multicultural aspect of race is addressed. Ethnic characters are referred to as “black people,” which could be uncomfortable for students or families. While many autobiographies incorporate authentic pictures, this book utilizes illustrations; the illustrations show a variety of physical attributes.

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NON Fiction/Personal  Narrative   Autobiographies    

Book Review 2: Intermediate Example: Through My Eyes: [the Autobiography of] Ruby Bridges Author:  Ruby  Bridges   Illustrator:  Not  Applicable   Publisher: New York: Scholastic Press Year Published: 1999 ISBN: 0-590-18923-9

Summary: Ruby Bridges became a pioneer in school integration at the age of six, when she was chosen to spend her first-grade year in what had formerly been an all-white elementary school. This is the story of a pivotal event in history as Ruby Bridges saw it unfold around her.

Why this book fits the genre: This book encompasses all of the frequently found elements of an autobiography. The first-person narrative is supported by authentic pictures and newspaper articles including The New York Times. The book is highly personalized as Ruby Bridges vividly describes her thoughts, feeling, and actions. For example, Ruby Bridges stated, “As I sat quietly huddled with Mrs. Henry, mobs of protestors roamed the streets.”

Multicultural aspects: In this book, the lifestyles of characters are not over simplified or generalized; characters are accurately displayed and supported through the use of pictures as well as newspaper articles. Newspaper articles also contribute numerous perspectives to the book. Students may feel uncomfortable with the issue of race or the harsh actions endured by Ruby Bridges.

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Informational Books   Essays      

Essay Description:                                                                                                                                                                      Lauren  Murry  

A short  literary  composition  that  reflects  the  author’s  outlook  or  point  of  view.    

Frequently found elements:

• Often  of  a  persuasive  nature.   •  May  be  found  in  collections.   •  Frequently  found  in  magazines  and  periodicals.    

Book Review 1:

Primary Example:    Vote!                                                                                         Author:    Eileen  Christelow   Illustrator:    “   Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Books Year Published: 2003 ISBN: 0-618-24754-8  

       

Summary: Using a  campaign  for  mayor  as  an  example  shows  the  steps  involved  in  an  election,  from   the  candidate’s  speeches  and  rallies,  to  the  voting  booth  where  every  vote  counts,  to   the  announcement  of  the  winner.    

Why this book fits the genre: This book  shows  the  authors  perspective  on  the  importance  of  voting.  For  a  children’s   book  it  is  a  simpler  version  of  an  essay.  This  book,  since  it  is  geared  toward  the  younger   grades,  demonstrates  qualities  of  a  picture  book  as  well.  There  are  many  visuals   included  to  aid  in  the  comprehension  of  an  otherwise  difficult  content  matter.  This  book   could  be  found  in  collections  including  other  subjects  such  as  the  constitution,  founding   fathers,  how  a  bill  is  made,  etc.  Although  with  this  book  in  particular  there  are  no  other   books  to  complete  a  “collection”  there  certainly  could  be  other  books,  which  could   accompany  it  fitting  the  political  theme.  Essays  typically  are  non-­‐fiction  works  explaining   multiple  components  of  a  particular  topic.  For  Vote!  The  author  tries  to  make  this  non-­‐ fiction  piece  more  easily  understood  by  using  kid  friendly  language.  For  example,   “before  an  election,  everyone  tries  to  guess  who  will  win.”  This  approach  allows  children   to  have  a  basic  foundational  knowledge  of  the  subject,  which  later  can  be  built  upon.      

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Informational Books   Essays      

Multicultural aspects: Vote! Does  a  very  good  job  at  incorporating  multicultural  aspects.  All  of  the  imagery   includes  a  variety  of  races.  I  feel  that  this  is  especially  important  with  the  content  of  this   book  because  it  portrays  who  the  voters  are  that  are  making  such  important  decision.   The  book  also  incorporates  socio  economic  status.  One  part  in  particular  discusses  the   influence  of  money  on  candidate’s  campaigns.  For  example,  “if  you  donate  lots  of   money  maybe  the  candidate  will  listen  to  you  more  that  to  other  voters.  Is  that  fair?”       This  may  or  may  not  make  both  wealthy  and  non-­‐wealthy  families  uncomfortable.  I   believe  overall  that  the  book  is  created  however  to  address  the  importance  of  everyone   being  equal.       Book Review 2:         Intermediate  Example:    It’s  a  Free  Country               Author:    Cynthia  K.  Samuels   Illustrator:  none   Publisher: Macmillan Publishing Co. Year Published: 1988 ISBN: 0-689-31416-7

Summary:

                                                     

An enthusiastic  behind  the  scenes  look  at  how  our  political  system  works-­‐from  choosing   candidates  and  the  day-­‐to-­‐day  drudgery  and  the  final  excitement  of  a  state  or  national   campaign.    

Why this book fits the genre:

This book  serves  as  a  better  example  from  the  first  of  what  a  typical  essay  book  might   look  like.  Unlike  a  chapter  book,  you  can  access  any  chapter  of  an  essay  book  without   having  previous  knowledge  of  the  prior  chapters.  Chapters  are  objective.  For  example,   Chapter  1:  What  is  Politics,  Anyway?  Chapter  2:  Who  Runs  and  Why?  Etc.  Every  chapter   provides  different  information  on  a  particular  subject.  Again,  more  informational  essay   books  are  non-­‐fiction.  This  book  serves  are  a  “Young  Person’s  Guide  to  Politics  and   Elections”  and  therefore  could  also  fit  in  with  a  wide  variety  of  other  political  themes.      

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Informational Books   Essays    

Multicultural aspects: This  book  did  not  include  as  many  multicultural  aspects   as  the  first.  Due  to  the  time  period  of  the  book,  there  was  less  diversity  seen  in  politics.   Most  of  the  pictures  are  of  white  males.  This  could  be  concerning  for  parents  who  do   not  want  their  students  to  adopt  stereotypes  of  white  male  figures  being  dominate  in   politics.  However,  there  was  a  focus  in  this  book  made  on  women  in  politics.  The  book   explains  the  accomplishments  of  a  woman  named  Margret  Chase  Smith  whose   opponent  used  the  slogan  “the  senate  is  no  place  for  a  women”  and  how  she  overcame   those  hardships.  

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Informational Books   Process  Explanation      

Julie Zender Sub-genre description: A non-fiction story or essay that specifically explains how to do something.

Frequently found elements: • • • • • • •

Provides a step by step process on how to do something Steps or procedures are written in sequential order The steps are usually enumerated Clearly explains the procedures for accomplishing a task Typically has “how to” in the title Non-fiction, using factual information Accompanied with diagrams or pictures with captions

Book Review 1: Primary Example: My First Computer Guide Author: Chris Oxlade Illustrator: Tower Designs (UK) Ltd. Publisher: Heinemann Library Year Published: 2007 ISBN: 978-1-4329-0022-9

Summary: Computers have many different uses. My First Computer Guide will help you find out how computers work and how you can use them safely. It's a great introductory book with useful information that will get you using a computer with ease in no time!

Why this book fits the genre: This book includes many, but not all, elements of an informational book previously listed. It very clearly describes procedures one must make in order to accomplish a task. In this case, the task at hand is using a computer properly. Numbers are not used in order to provide a step by step layout of how to use a computer. Instead of using numbers, there are headings provided for each new topic to be talked about. For example, one of the first

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Informational Books   Process  Explanation     headings is “On and Off.” Also, it is written in a sequential order. It begins describing the basic things you need to know such as turning on and off a computer and then dives into more specifics such as how to save and print documents. It provides many useful pictures and captions explaining the parts of a computer. Lastly, this particular book doesn't overlap with any other genre. It is a non-fiction and informational book with unique characteristics.

Multicultural aspects: This is an informational book; therefore there are no characters involved. For the most part this book does a good job omitting stereotypes and can be applicable to all. It is very useful because computers are becoming a prevalent tool to use throughout the U.S. culture today. The book includes pictures of both Macs and PCs, ensuring that users know how to use both types of computers. Also, the language used is very basic for younger students who are first learning to read. In addition, this book can benefit ESL students because important words are bolded and a glossary is provided in the back. This way, students have one reference sheet that they can quickly refer to for help along with many pictures throughout the book.

Book Review 2: Intermediate Example: How to Do Successful Science Projects Author: Norman F. Smith Illustrator: (Design) Malle N. Whitaker Publisher: Julian Messner Year Published: 1982 ISBN: 0-671-70685-3

Summary: A successful science project helps you to see how real scientists work. Their approach is to investigate and discover the facts on which they can base conclusions. You can use the same technique on your next science project. This book by an experienced researcher will show you how to choose a topic to investigate, plan the investigation, choose equipment and test procedures, record and graph data, and draw conclusions and report the results.

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Informational Books   Process  Explanation    

Why this book fits the genre: Again, this book includes many, but not all, elements of an informational book listed above. It is divided into chapters occurring in a sequential order. For example, the book begins with Chapter 1 “What is an Investigative Science Project?” This is a good place to start. As one reads further through the book, the chapters progress in order of how to complete a science investigation. For instance, it proceeds toward how to choose a topic, how to plan the investigation, choosing equipment, recording data, and so on in an order that makes logical sense. It is evident that the procedure is explained thoroughly because each step has a chapter dedicated to it. In addition, “how to” is included in the title of this book, allowing readers to know right away that this is an informational book. Lastly, there are not as many pictures provided in this book because it is an intermediate level. Nevertheless, there are still diagrams with captions provided in each chapter.

Multicultural aspects: Once again, this is an informational book; therefore there are no characters evident throughout the book. This book represents a few different perspectives. It reaches students who are unfamiliar with science and students who want to improve on science. It is applicable to any student no matter the race or gender. This text is more difficult to read because there are not as many pictures. Therefore, this may be difficult for ESL students to understand. In addition, the language is geared toward a more advanced reading level. Students and families who don't have the time or energy to improve science projects will not give this book a second glance. It may seem like a school textbook, which are often times boring for students and parents. There is no stereotyping being addressed. Rather, the author provides various examples of experiments that are applicable to all sorts of students. The examples can relate to students real life situations no matter what background they come from. For example, there are examples that include the stock market and others that mention tree rings. This book clearly tries to reach all kinds of students who are knowledgeable on a variety of different subjects.

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Picture Books   Alphabet  Books    

Sub-genre description:

Jenny Gilpin

Books primarily for young children that present the letters of the alphabet with corresponding words and pictures.

Frequently found elements: • • • • •

Capital and lowercase letter forms Keywords beginning with specific letters Sentences, paragraphs, or entire pages highlighting the letters and corresponding words Images representing the featured letter May have a common topic throughout the book (such as animals)

Book Review 1:

Primary Example:

Dr. Seuss’s ABC

Author: Dr.  Seuss     Illustrator:  Dr.  Seuss     Publisher: Random House Books for Young Readers Year Published: 1963 ISBN: 9780394800301

Summary: An alphabet book with zany drawings and nonsensical verse provides an entertaining way for small children to learn the letters and their sounds.

Why this book fits the genre: This book includes nearly all the elements of an alphabet book listed above. It has many different keywords for each letter as well as pictures to go along with the keywords; for example, a picture of a camel on the ceiling for the letter C. There are multiple sentences and even pages to illustrate each letter. It also includes both capital and lowercase forms of each letter. This is alphabet book is an example without a common topic throughout.

Multicultural aspects: For the most part, this book could be read to any type of child without problem because it is entertaining and sparks their imagination. The characters are mostly animals or made

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Picture Books   Alphabet  Books     up characters but there are a few characters who are white people. The fact that there are no other races represented may cause other ethnicities to feel inferior or offended.

Book Review 2: Intermediate Example: The Disappearing Alphabet Author:  Richard  Wilbur   Illustrator:  David  Diaz   Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Year Published: 2001 ISBN: 015216362X

Summary: A collection of twenty-six short poems pondering what the world would be like if any letter of the alphabet should disappear.

Why this book fits the genre: This book also includes nearly all the elements of an alphabet book listed above, such as having pages dedicated to each letter with images to represent the words. This is an unusual example since it is about what would happen if we didn’t have each letter. The book gives examples of words that start with the letters as well as words that only contain the letter. The theme in this book is about the letters of the alphabet disappearing. This book could also be in the poetry genre because each page includes rhyming couplets.

Multicultural aspects: This book could be read to a mixed-race group of children because the illustrations are colorful images of animals and other objects that are described in the book. There are also a few pictures of people but they are outlined and colored in with many different colors. I don’t believe that children would be offended by this book because the pictures are unrealistic colors and images; for example, there is a red cow and a purple bird.

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Picture Books   Nursery  Rhymes    

Sub-genre description:

Maria Koppen

A short rhyme for children that often tells a story

Frequently found elements: • Alphabet and counting books are presented in alphabetical or numeric order often linked by an identifying theme. These make excellent participation stories and patterns for writing. They may be located in the nonfiction area of a library. • Concept books attempt to define an abstract idea. • Mother Goose, nursery rhymes, and books written in rhyme present traditional rhymes as well as modern short rhymes. Most are located in the nonfiction area of a library. • Wordless picture books contain few or no words as the pictures tell the story. Many teachers have students write narratives for these models. • Predictable books are designed to help children learn to read by use of repetition of language, story patterns, or sequences. They often are excellent models for writing patterns. • Cumulative Stories are imaginative narratives that have a series of additions. After each addition the previous phrases are then repeated in reverse order.

Book Review 1: Primary Example:

Bark, George

Author/Illustrator:  Jules  Feiffer   Publisher: HarperCollins Year Published: 1999 ISBN: 301000000129931

Summary: George is a dog, but is having trouble barking like a normal dog would. Instead he meows, quacks, and even moos. What’s going on with George? Find out in this fast, foolish, and funny farce from Jules Feiffer.

Why this book fits the genre: “Bark, George” includes repetition with story patterns and sequences that go along with the pictures to help children learn to read. The story line is predictable, making it an easy read with primary vocabulary.

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Picture Books   Nursery  Rhymes    

Multicultural aspects: The dialogues as well as the illustrations in this book are authentic and not stereotyped.

Book Review 2 Intermediate Example: Mother Goose and the Sly Fox Author:  Retold  with  pictures  by  Chris  Conover   Publisher: Collins Publishers Year Published: 1989 ISBN: 30100000118804

Summary: Once there was a mother goose that lived in a house with her 7 tiny goslings. When mother goose is away at the market one day, Fox tricks himself into the house and carries off six of the seven poor little goslings. Luckily, one gosling hides from the wily fox and is able to tell his mother what happened. Mother goose comes to the rescue with a few tricks of her own. Watch out Fox!

Why this book fits the genre: Mother Goose, nursery rhymes, and books written in rhyme present traditional rhymes as well as modern short rhymes. Most are located in the nonfiction area of a library. Mother goose is also a cumulative story that has a series of additions. There are 2 page layouts that include detailed pictures where students can connect what they just read with what is going on in the illustration.

Multicultural aspects: The dialogues as well as the illustrations in this book are authentic and not stereotyped.

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Picture Books   Predictable  Books    

Sub-genre description:

Kristin Anderson

Predictable books are designed to help children learn to read by use of repetition of language, story patterns, or sequences. They often are excellent models for writing patterns. In predictable picture books, the ending of the story is easy to predict because of repetitions and patterns in the story.

Frequently found elements: • • •

Repetition in events, sentence structuring, wording or phrases Many pictures showing events taking place in the book Patterns are seen throughout the book

Book Review 1: Primary Example:

The Right Number of Elephants

Author:  Jeff  Sheppard     Illustrator:    Felicia  Bond   Publisher: HarperCollins Publishers Year Published: 1990 ISBN: 0-06-443299-8

Summary: A counting book in which a little girl relies on the help of some eager elephants.

Why this book fits the genre: This book fits the genre because its pictures portray the events that take place on each page. It also fits because it has repetition of a phrase that is seen on almost every page, which is ‘then the right number of elephants is (# of elephants needed)’. A pattern is seen in that the number of elephants needed starts at 10 and decreases to 1. Another genre this could fit under is animal fantasy; since the elephants in the story are doing things that they could not do in real life; for example, playing cards or riding a skateboard.

Multicultural aspects: There aren’t really any multicultural aspects in the book as a whole. It shows elephants doing things they would not normally do, which is a distortion of reality. On one page specifically it calls a bright red headed child unpleasant, and this could make other red headed children reading the book feel singled-out as being mean. Overall, the book does a good job of not stereotyping other cultures.

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Picture Books   Predictable  Books   Book Review 2: Intermediate Example:

In the Middle of the Puddle

Author:  Mike  Thaler   Illustrator:    Bruce  Degen   Publisher: Harper & Row, Publishers Year Published: 1988 ISBN: 0-06-026054-8

Summary: A frog and a turtle watch the rain turn their puddle into an ocean before the sun comes along and returns things to normal.

Why this book fits the genre: This book fits the genre because it has predictable events. The events are made predictable because of the repetition of phrases in the book and because there is a pattern in the events taking place. The events that repeated were that the puddle the two friends were sharing got bigger as it rained more. The rain swelled the puddle until it became a pool, then a pond, then a lake, and eventually a sea. Then, when the sun came up it evaporated the water until it went from a sea all the way back through different bodies of water until it was once again a puddle. The phrases repeated in the book were “it rained and rained” and “got bigger and bigger”, which tells the reader that the water was making the puddle, pool, pond, lake, or sea grow. Later in the book, it repeated that the sun was shining, and that the water got “smaller and smaller”. Another genre this book fits is animal fantasy because the animals are doing unrealistic things like talking and paddling a boat.

Multicultural aspects: All of the characters in this book are animals, and so I believe that it would not necessarily offend anyone since it does not portray any cultures specifically. Symbolically, the frog and turtle have mostly positive meanings, and so I cannot see how their friendship would be culturally offensive. There are also no messages in the book that seem to stick out as culturally offensive.

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Genre Study  

A genre exploration

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