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Serving the Grease Industry Since 1933 – VOL. 80, NO. 6, JAN/FEB 2017

NLGI Author, Jason T. Galary (recipient of an NLGI Author Award), discusses the phenomenon of

Dynamic Particle Generation in Lubricating Greases Used in Aerospace Mechanisms read more beginning on page 14

In this issue . . . 4 President’s Podium 8 Automatic Particle Identification and Counting in Greases 12 NLGI Member Spotlight 14 The Dynamic Particle Generation of Lubricating Greases for Use in Space Mechanisms 28 Managing the Health and High Costs of Robotics Using Grease Sampling and Analysis

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David Como Dow Corning Corp. P.O. Box 0994 Midland, MI 48686

Joe Kaperick Afton Chemical Corporation 500 Spring St. Richmond, VA 23218-2158



Jim Hunt Tiarco Chemical 1300 Tiarco Drive Dalton, GA 30720

Dr. Anoop Kumar Royal Manufacturing Co., LP 516 S, 25th West Ave. Tulsa, Oklahoma 74127



Chuck Coe Grease Technology Solutions LLC 7010 Bruin Ct. Manassas, VA 20111

Kimberly Hartley NLGI Inter­national Headquarters 249 SW Noel, Suite 249 Lee’s Summit, MO 64063



Serving the Grease Industry Since 1933 – VOL. 80, NO. 6, JAN/FEB 2017

4 President’s Podium 6 CALL FOR PAPERS 8  Automatic Particle Identification and Counting in

DIRECTORS Barbara Bellanti Battenfeld Grease & Oil Corp. of NY P.O. Box 728 • 1174 Erie Ave. N. Tonawanda, NY 14120-0728 Richard Burkhalter Covenant Engineering Services 140 Corporate Place Branson, MO 65616 Faith Corbo King Industries, Inc. Science Road Norwalk, CT 06852 Gian L. Fagan Chevron Lubricants 100 Chevron Way Room 71-7338 Richmond, CA 94802-0627 Tyler Jark Lubricating Specialties Co. 8015 Paramount Blvd. Pico Rivera, CA 90660 Wayne Mackwood Chemtura 199 Benson Rd. Middlebury, CT 06749 Dwaine (Greg) Morris Shell Lubricants 526 S. Johnson Drive Odessa, MO 64076 Dennis Parks Texas Refinery Corp. One Refinery Place Ft. Worth, TX 76101

Tom Schroeder Axel Americas, LLC P.O. Box 12337 Kansas City, MO 64116 Raj Shah Koehler Instrument Co. 85 Corporate Dr. Holtsville, NY 11716-1796 Dr. Huafeng “Bill” Shen Bel-Ray Co. P.O. Box 526 Farmingdale, NJ 07727 Terry Smith Lubrication Engineers, Inc. P.O. Box 16447 Wichita, KS 67216 Thomas W. Steib The Elco Corporation 1000 Belt Line Street Cleveland, OH 44109 Lisa Tocci Lubes ’n’ Greases 6105 Arlington Blvd., Suite G Falls Church, VA 22044 Mike Washington The Lubrizol ­Corpo­ration 29400 ­Lakeland Blvd. Mail Drop 051E Wickliffe, OH 44092 Ruiming “Ray” Zhang R.T. Vanderbilt Company, Inc. 30 Winfield St. Norwalk, CT 06855



Chad Chichester Dow Corning Corporation 2200 W. Salzburg Rd., C40C00 Midland, MI 48686

Wayne Mackwood Chemtura 199 Benson Rd. Middlebury, CT 06749

David Turner CITGO 1293 Eldridge Parkway Houston, TX 77077

SERVICE INDUSTRY ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE CHAIR: J im Hunt Tiarco Chemical 1300 Tiarco Drive Dalton, GA 30720

EDITORIAL REVIEW COMMITTEE CHAIR: Joe Kaperick Afton Chemical Corporation 500 Spring St. Richmond, VA 23218-2158


Rich Wurzbach, Evan Bupp, Lisa Williams MRG Labs, York, PA, USA Tod Canty, JM Canty, Buffalo, NY, USA

12 NLGI Member Spotlight 14  The Dynamic Particle Generation of Lubricating

Greases for Use in Space Mechanisms Jason T. Galary, Nye Lubricants, Inc.

26 Ask the Expert 28 Managing the Health and High Costs of Robotics Using Grease Sampling and Analysis  Lisa Williams and Richard Wurzbach, MRG Labs

32 Industry News 34 Industry Calendar of Events 36 Advertiser’s Index ON THE COVER

Jason T. Galary discusses Dynamic Particle Generation in Lubricating Greases Used in Aerospace Mechanisms. Pg 14

Published bi-monthly by NLGI. (ISSN 0027-6782) KIMBERLY HARTLEY, Editor NLGI International Headquarters 249 SW Noel, Suite 249, Lee’s Summit, MO 64063 USA Phone (816) 524-2500, FAX: (816) 524-2504 Web site:  http://www.nlgi.org - E-mail:  nlgi@nlgi.org The NLGI Spokesman is a complimentary publication. Past issues may be found on the NLGI Website, www.nlgi.org The NLGI Spokesman is indexed by INIST for the PASCAL database, plus by Engineering Index and Chemical Abstracts Service. Microfilm copies are available through University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI. The NLGI assumes no responsibility for the statements and opinions advanced by contributors to its publications. Views expressed in the editorials are those of the editors and do not n­ ecessarily represent the official position of NLGI. Copyright 2017, NLGI. Postmaster: Send address corrections to the above address.

PRESIDENT’S PODIUM Welcomes the Awards Committee HONOR: Respect that is given to someone who is admired. One whose worth brings respect or fame. An evidence or symbol of distinction.

The above are definitions of the word HONOR. This year the word HONOR can take on added meaning, for you can play a key role in having an NLGI colleague honored at this year’s NLGI Annual Meeting in Olympic Valley, California. Each year, at the NLGI Annual Meeting, distinguished individuals are recognized for their efforts in advancing knowledge and understanding in the grease industry. The NLGI strives to recognize and honor those who have furthered themselves, their company and this industry. Most likely you know of an individual who is deserving of special recognition. This is the year that you spring into action by nominating that someone special for one of the following NLGI Awards: •N  LGI Award for Achievement – The Institute’s highest award honors the achievement of those who have made exceptional contributions to the growth and development of the Institute. •N  LGI Fellows Award – Acknowledges valuable work within the Institute, in the technical development of greases, grease tests, or the promotion of grease usage.

• J ohn A. Bellanti Sr. Memorial Award – Acknowledges meritorious service on the NLGI Board, or on Technical Committee projects or to the industry. •N  LGI Honorary Membership – Entitles lifetime honorary membership to those who, over a period of years, have served the Institute in some outstanding capacity and are not now with a member company. •A  ward for Educational Excellence – For outstanding instruction as exemplified by subject knowledge and presentation skills in NLGI educational courses. •N  LGI Author Award (Development) - For the best paper presented at our Annual Meeting that focuses on formulation, development, and manufacture of finished greases. •N  LGI Author Award (Application) - For the best paper presented at our Annual Meeting that focuses on testing, selection, application or use of greases. •C  larence E. Earle Memorial Award - For an outstanding contribution to the technical literature relating to lubricating greases during the year.


If you have thought about nominating someone in the past, then now is the time to act. The next NLGI Annual Meeting is being held June 10 – 13, 2017 at the fabulous Resort at Squaw Creek, Olympic Valley, California. Imagine the pride you will feel should your nominee be honored, amongst their peers, with an NLGI Award.

For a nomination form click here. Please request a nomination form today by contacting the NLGI office via email at nlgi@nlgi.org or by calling 816-524-2500. Thank you in advance for your participation. We hope to welcome you to the Resort at Squaw Creek in June!

Dennis Parks, Chair Chuck Coe, Joe Kaperick, Jim Hunt, David Turner

CALL FOR PAPERS NLGI 84th Annual Meeting Going for Gold ~ ‘The Science Behind Superior Grease Technology’ Squaw Creek, CA

A call is hereby issued for technical papers for presentation at the NLGI 84th Annual Meeting, which will be held at The Resort at Squaw Creek, Olympic Valley, CA, USA from June 10th -13th, 2017. You do not need to be an NLGI member in order to present a technical paper at our Annual Meeting.

Submission deadline is February 17, 2017. We are seeking papers that define breakthroughs in the lubricating grease industry:

• Grease formulations to solve industry challenges

• New additives and fluids, or unique use of current systems, to enhance grease performance

• Test method development or improvement to better evaluate grease performance

• Reducing environmental impact of lubrication through technology and chemistry

• Improved grease manufacturing techniques

• Adapting technology to meet changing regulatory environments

Papers covering any other success stories of superior application, or improvement of technology are also welcomed. Technical papers approved for presentation at the Annual Meeting may be published in the NLGI Spokesman, after evaluation by the NLGI Editorial Review Committee.


NLGI will also accept up to 4 papers of a commercial nature which will be offered at the beginning of each of our 4 Technical Sessions, therefore will not conflict with any other presentations or events. Acceptance on a first come, first served basis. (A fee of $1,000 will be charged for all commercial papers accepted for presentation.) You may download the Author Information and Author Instructions/Deadlines forms for your technical presentation, as well as the Commercial Presentation Application form, on our website: https://www.nlgi.org/call-for-papers If you are interested in submitting a technical or commercial paper for presentation, please send your name, contact information and abstract to:



NLGI INTERNATIONAL OFFICE 249 SW Noel St. Suite 249 Lee’s Summit, MO 64063 USA

Phone 816-524-2500 • FAX 816-524-2504

We’re Lubes’n’Greases.

WE GET TO THE HEART OF A COMPLEX INDUSTRY. www.LubeReportAsia.com A critical weekly roundup of the lubricant industry in Asia. Featuring breaking news and base oil price reports in English and Simplified Chinese.

www.LubeReport.com The weekly e-newsletter containing late-breaking and trending industry news; base oil price reports for North America, Europe, Middle East and Africa; and regional shipping report.

Lubes’n’Greases Magazine Covering the global issues, trends and news that affect your success.

Lubes’n’Greases EMEA Magazine Offering a focused look at Europe, Middle East, Africa, Russia and more.



Automatic Particle Identification and Counting in Greases Rich Wurzbach, Evan Bupp, Lisa Williams MRG Labs, York, PA, USA Tod Canty, JM Canty, Buffalo, NY, USA ABSTRACT

Particle counting is a well-established and important consideration in the quality control of new oils and hydraulic fluids. Particle counting is used to monitor the effectiveness of equipment cleanliness protection and particle removal equipment.  For greases, the limited ability to filter once obtained by the end-user customer has generally resulted in this focus on particle counting and cleanliness to be overlooked.  Additionally, the flow limitations of greases have prevented the use of typical oil particle counting tools from being applied in like manner to grease as a cleanliness verification and evaluation tool.  Methods utilizing the preparation of a thin-film of grease for inspection, coupled with new imaging, identification and measurement tools are being developed to automate and standardize an approach to particle counting.  Since the impact of abrasive contaminants can be equally destructive in grease lubricated components, tools that enable the monitoring of particulate may allow intervention to minimize abrasive and fatigue wear due to particulate initiated damage.


Metal spectroscopy and ferrous debris monitoring techniques are typically used to evaluate wear and contaminant ingress in greases. There are many ways to determine the elemental content of in-service greases – including Rotating Disc Electrode spectroscopy, Inductively Coupled Plasma spectroscopy, Atomic Absorption spectroscopy, and X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy. These metal spectroscopy techniques are used to detect mixing of different thickeners, wear metals, and anti-oxidant elements remaining by determining the elemental make up of the samples. Ferro-magnetic material is detected using ferrous debris monitoring instrumentation. A sensor is used to measure

disturbances in the electromagnetic field caused by ferro-magnetic particles – allowing a quick and nondestructive way to analyze the total ferro-magnetic content in a sample. Microscopic techniques, including analytical ferrography, can be used to look at the wear particle surfaces and determine nature and origin of the wear particle. Most of these methods is well-known and proven in the industry as effective ways to look at wear particles. However there have been limited techniques to test total particulate in grease, or reliably evaluate new greases for dirt and other contaminant particles. Methods that have been used include “Federal Standard 791D, Method 3005.4, Dirt Content of Grease”, which is a microscopic evaluation using glass plates, and the Hegman gage. The Hegman gage is a sloped channel in a metal block, where a scraper is used to drag the particles to the narrow end. Another method is ASTM D1404 “Deleterious Particles”, which involves placing grease between two plastic plates and rotating them under load. The resulting scratches are counted as an indication of the destructive potential of the grease. These manual methods for grease particulate evaluation are time consuming and subjective. New technology has been developed using particle imaging as a screening tool for potential damaging wear and contaminant particles present in the grease. This new method allows for a nonsubjective, quantitative and qualitative evaluation of new and used greases to help address the destructive potential of particles in greases.


The Grease Thief Analyzer is a device used to measure the consistency of greases using the die extrusion


method. This method is outlined in ASTM D7918 [2], the standard method for testing inservice greases by integrated tester. The analyzer uses a 1 gram sample and extrudes it as a thin film on a plastic substrate. The plastic substrate is typically then divided into sections for subsequent analysis. In this new method, a source of high intensity light is placed below the substrate, and a high-resolution microscopic camera is place at the opposite side. Additionally, a modification is made to the substrate positioning table, with a cut-out hole to allow the backlight to access the substrate. The images produced are evaluated by a software algorithm to distinguish discrete particles from other optical artifacts. Additionally, the shapes and characteristics of the particles are evaluated to identify the types of particles present, for those particles larger than 20 microns. The ability to uniformly present the grease as a thinfilm for optical evaluation presents a new opportunity to use proven methods of particle counting and classification that have been utilized for liquid oil samples, such as the methods outlined in ASTM D7596. Using successful lighting methods and software algorithms, with adjustments to both to account for difference in the grease thin-film medium, particle counting of greases becomes feasible. Particle counting would not be quite the same as the methods used for oil analysis, nor the standard ISO 4406 reporting format for particle counts. Instead, a new scale is proposed that identifies particles down to 10 micron, and provides for three size ranges of >10 micron, >25 micron, and >75 micron. The selection of this scale is consistent with methods used by ASTM

proposed standards, including the Hegman gage method. The software is designed to identify the particles, size the particles and then ultimately provide a cleanliness code for the grease. This process could serve as a screening tool for additional wear tests that may need to be performed such as metal spectroscopy or analytical ferrography.


The direct imaging camera setup took advantage of the thin film deposition and strobe backlight in order to achieve optimal transmission of light through the grease. By using strobe backlighting, the presence of shadows was removed which was the cause of false identification of particles in previous versions of testing. The use of a light equalization filter improved the contrast of particles seen within the grease. The testing demonstrated the effectiveness of the strobe LED method in providing sufficient particle illumination for detection and classification. Utilizing the opacity of the particles, as determined by the brightness of particles based on the amount of transmitted light that can pass through, differentiation is being made between metal particles and non-metals, for particles over a certain threshold dimension. Current work has established that particles with an equivalent spherical dimension of >20 microns can be classified based on this opacity characteristic as metals or nonmetals, as well as major dimensions and aspect ratio.


Figure 3 shows an oil sample that was prepared with ferrous debris particles, and introduced to a flow cell. Evaluation of these particles first works to identify all particulate larger than 4 microns, and provide a total particulate count for the sample. By applying algorithms for shape and opacity, additional designations can be made as shown in Table 1.

- 10 VOLUME 80, NUMBER 6

Applying these sample algorithms to the grease samples evaluated as a thin-film can generate a cleanliness quantification using the 10-25-75 micron designations, and classify percentages of particle types as shown in Table 1.


The direct imaging vision software and camera set up has been shown to be a useful technique in identifying particles prepared from a new or used grease sample. Future work includes integrating this technology into the extrusion die grease analyzer as described in ASTM D7918 to serve as a screening tool for particle analysis. This will automate and standardize the process for particle counting in greases, provide a method for counting and classifying particle sizes for cleanliness determination of new greases, and serve as a screening tool for identification of particles and the need to perform microscopic analysis for inservice grease samples. The data being generated by samples analyzed by the integrated system will be presented to the ASTM Integrated Tester subcommittee for technical review and consideration for future balloting as an addition to the ASTM D7918 method for grease analysis.


[1] ASTM D1404 / D1404M-99(2014), Standard Test Method for Estimation of Deleterious Particles in Lubricating Grease, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014. [2] ASTM D7596-14, Standard Test Method for Automatic Particle Counting and Particle Shape Classification of Oils Using a Direct Imaging Integrated Tester, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014. [3] ASTM D7918-15, Standard Test Method for Measurement of Flow Properties and Evaluation of Wear, Contaminants and Oxidative Properties of Lubricating Grease by Die Extrusion Method and Preparation, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015.


Grease, In-Service, Wear, Particle Count



SPOTLIGHT Royal Mfg Co. LP: A Leading Manufacturer of Lubricating Oils and Greases Royal Mfg Co. LP., with its roots going back to 1914, is one of the top leading independent manufacturers of lubricants and greases in United States. Royal provides products to private label customers as well as branded distributors and users throughout North America and is now established with customers in over 26 foreign countries worldwide. Royal manufactures almost all types of lubricating oils and lubricating greases with its main focus on industrial and heavy equipment applications. Royal has now four manufacturing facilities, two each at Tulsa, Oklahoma (22 acres) and San-Antonio, Texas (14 acres) for grease manufacturing and a lube blending with total combined capacity over 225,000 metric tons per year. Grease manufacturing capacity, Royal has 32 state of the art grease kettles, two Stratco Contactors, four APV Gaulin homogenizers, several Charlotte mills with up to date packaging equipment from bulk truck loading to tubs & cartridges, including several other specialty size containers.

Historic Background of Royal Mfg Co LP:

The involvement of the Mallory family, who currently owns Royal, began during the depression years. Bill Mallory Jr., President/CEO and spokesman for the company narrates; “In the late 1930’s, my mother, Lee, started working for Royal Manufacturing Company, then

Tulsa, OK Plant

a small specialty grease company, serving the oil patch. The company’s owners were called to serve in World War II. Subsequently the bank took over the company and my dad, Dick Mallory, was asked to run the company. He then bought it from the bank.” In 1954, the Mallory family bought Tulsa Refined Oil Co (TROCO), founded in 1914, near downtown Tulsa and merged its operations with Royal. In 1976, The Mallory’s acquired Wright Oil Company a lube marketing company based in SanAntonio, and also merged with Royal. In 1989 a fire destroyed the main plant in Tulsa. The Tulsa plant was then rebuilt and has seen two expansions since. In 1998, another strategic diversification took place when Royal started selling base oils into Mexico and The Caribbean. In 2000, another Mallory owned company, RTW Terminal, leased 10 acres from The Port of Brownsville and built a storage terminal facility for base oils in Brownsville, Texas allowing Royal to supply its base oil customers and to bring in base oil cargos worldwide. This RTW terminal has now 37 tanks with over 250,000 barrels capacity with truck, railcar, ship and barge loading/unloading capabilities.

A Legacy of Quality and History of Performance:

For decades, Royal has manufactured high performance lubricating oils and greases catering various industrial requirements. Initially, business for Royal evolved

Schertz, TX Plant

by servicing the oil patch, Troco serving farmers and industry around Tulsa, Wright Oil serving farming, contractors and heavy equipment users in South Texas and the combination of all three companies now serves all industries which include; agriculture, forestry, steel mills, paper mills, mining, construction , marine , railroad, cement and concrete mill etc in almost every continent around the world. Developing and manufacturing high performance lubricants and being ahead of the curve are not new, but an infused tradition for Royal. Some interesting stories narrated by Mr. Mallory are on product development and its nomenclature. “Royal 760 Grease” was developed in 1976 and had special advantages of anti-wear and extreme pressure that exceeded other lithium greases at that time. Another success story is on lithium complex greases, when Royal developed current lithium complex greases, its marketing team realized that we had powerful grease. Bill says when he was growing up Oldsmobile 98 reflected the power and speed in automobile industry and therefore this new powerful grease was named as “Royal 98.” Similarly, “Royal 876” lithium complex grease was developed in 1987 as a series of 6 heavy duty greases for construction and mining industry where extreme operating conditions are encountered. Royal Calcium sulfonate greases were introduced in 1986 with 5 performance goals to be achieved. Royal’s persistent efforts enabled them to achieve all 5 goals and therefore this series of high performance greases was given the name “Royal Ultra 865.”

Royal Mfg Co LP: A Private Label Manufacturer to Established “Royal” Brand:

Royal is well known in the industry for its private label manufacturing for many leading marketing brands. Royal, now thru strategic planning, is promoting its “ROYAL” brand globally while retaining the interest of its private label customers. Over the last few years Royal has opened up offices in different parts of the world to promote its products directly or indirectly in the Middle East, South East Asia, Australia, Africa, India, China, the Caribbean Islands, North America, and South America. Royal’s export operations are supported by its Export Division located

in Tulsa and with offices in Mexico, Canada, China, India, Dubai and Brazil. These offices serve both private label and branded customers overseas. Royal plants have been accredited with ISO 9001 for its plant operations, ISO 17025* for its laboratories, NSF, HALAL and Kosher certifications for its food grade products and many other certifications and/or approvals with OEM’s, and industry organizations. Royal belongs to and has personnel involved in all major industry organizations, ILMA, NLGI, SAE, STLE, ASTM, PPC, and others. Royal’s current focus is to continue further development of high performance lubricating oils and greases in food grade, synthetic and biobased lubricants. Royal is one of the few companies to make food grade calcium sulfonate grease with highest performance levels. This grease is so robust it will allow food plant operations to use only one grease series for virtually all the lubricating grease requirements, both H-1 and H-2. Royal has enlarged its R & D facilities for both grease and oil and this is allowing the company to provide more customer support, enabling Royal to become one of the fastest growing grease manufactures in the World. By Dr Anoop Kumar is Director R&D and Business Development and can be reached by anoopk@royalmfg.com or 918-584-2671


The Dynamic Particle Generation of Lubricating Greases for Use in Space Mechanisms Jason T. Galary Nye Lubricants, Inc.

The purpose of this study is to examine the phenomenon of Dynamic Particle Generation in lubricating greases that are used in a variety of critical Aerospace mechanisms. Particle Generation occurs in bearings, ball screws, and other mechanical devices where dynamic conditions are present. This should not be confused with outgassing as particle generation is unrelated to the pressure effects on a system. This is a critical factor in many systems as particle generation can contaminate systems or processes causing them to fail. These failures can lead to excessive costs, production failure, and equipment damage. In this study, several greases made from Multiplyalkylated Cyclopentane and Perfluoropolyether base fluids were tested to evaluate their particle generation properties. This particle generation phenomenon was studied using a custom test rig utilizing a high precision cleanroom ball-screw to simulate true application conditions. The ball-screw was tested at speeds from 200, 1,200, and 2,400 RPM to illustrate the effect of speed on the particle generation across different applications. This paper will show the tendencies of different lubricant chemistries to generate particles and which ones present advantages of improved durability and environmental cleanliness for critical processes and applications.


Particle Generation, Outgassing, Aerospace, MAC, Pennzane, Contamination, Perfluoropolyether, PFPE


Contamination is an element of great concern in regards to mechanisms designed and planned for space flight. While there are many types of contamination including volatile outgassing, residual ions, airborne particulates, etc, the route that the contamination enters the system is just as important. Outgassing has been a well-documented method for contamination in a system and there are many ways to quantify it. Methods like ASTM E-595 and E-1559 that are used to generate control limits. The counterpart to outgassing or even the more typical volatile evaporation is called Dynamic Particle Generation which can be as significant of a problem as outgassing. The term dynamic particle generation describes what happens when contaminants are - 14 VOLUME 80, NUMBER 6

created by being forced from a lubricated ball-screw, bearing, or gear system into the operating environment. These contaminants could include base oil constituents, thickener particles, additives, etc. all of which could be volatile or non-volatile. The manner in which these contaminants are freed from the lubricant system is through dynamic mechanical action whether it be rolling, sliding, or a combination of both. This study will begin to investigate and illustrate that factors like mechanical and chemical compatibility, friction, speed, etc all have an effect on the amount of contamination generated through particle generation. I will also illustrate that physiochemical effects between lubricating fluids and thickeners play a key factor as well. Aside from the space application environment, materials can also be contaminated through the manufacturing process even if done in a clean room environment. In these environments, the focus is typically on the quality of the air in the room and it has long been known that lubricants are a source of contamination in cleanroom and vacuum environments. Historically in order to alleviate the worries of many manufacturers, the solution over the last twenty years has been to ultrafilter1 the lubricant to reduce the number of particles in the lubricant and the size of them. There are three levels for cleanliness in a grease: • Unfiltered grease – Can contain particles larger than 75 µm. • Filtered or so-called “Clean” grease – For example MIL-G-81322 Aircraft grease cannot have any particles greater than 75µm and there must be fewer than 1,000 particles/cm3 between 24µm and 74µm. • Ultrafiltered or “Ultraclean” grease – Such as MIL-G-81937 must not contain any particles greater than 35µm. In addition to this it cannot have more than 1,000 particles/cm3 between 10µm and 34µm in size. While these processes will certainly help remove or break up bulk and “hard” contaminants which will lead to smoother operation, reduced vibration, and lower noise in bearings, ball screws, and other motion applications, it may have little effect on the amount of particles “shed” or generated from a lubricant in a dynamic condition. So this leaves thoughts about what effect the lubricant truly has on this phenomenon and how does the base fluid, thickener, additive, and manufacturing processes effect this property and ultimately the application environment around it. The first step to investigate this new area of lubricant properties required the construction of a new test apparatus and creation of an accurate and repeatable test method [5].

Objective for Testing

The primary purpose of this study was to use a newly developed test method and apparatus that could be used to accurately and repeatedly measure the Dynamic Particle Generation of a lubricating grease. This study centered around two different types of lubricants, Perfluoropolyethers (PFPE), and Multiply-alkylated cyclopentanes (MAC). MAC’s are composed of one cyclopentane ring with two to five alkyl groups substituted on the ring. The synthesis is performed by reacting dicyclopentadiene with various chain length alcohols producing a lubricant with a various range of physical properties [7]. PFPE’s are produced through the oxidation of hexafluoropropylene and are fully fluorinated oligomers that contain fluorocarbon links containing oxygen atoms. Two PFPE greases from different manufacturers as well as three MAC lubricants were tested in this study.

The Key Factors of this study will be: 1. To study the particle generation tendencies of different aerospace lubricants evaluated under dynamic conditions. 2. To examine the effect that speed plays on the particle generation of a particular system 3. To examine the profile of the particle generation results plot; that is how the system behaves with respect to time and number of particles generated.

Dynamic Particle Generation Background

To compare the dynamic particle generation characteristics of various lubricating greases, a custom test apparatus was designed and built to detect, analyze, and classify the products being examined. As this is a newly created test method and fixture, a Design of Experiments (DOE) was put together to investigate repeatability, variability, and statistical significance [5]. The core of the test apparatus is a high precision ball screw assembly meant for cleanroom and low outgassing applications. This ball screw design was used due to the fact that when lubricated correctly and under light load, it experiences virtually zero wear on its components. Since a ball screw assembly utilizes a system of rolling elements, the amount of frictional wear on any components especially under no load is greatly reduced. This allows us to study the particle generation solely based on the lubricant and speed of the test. With the addition of a lubricant that provides a protective film between all surfaces, the main component of wear on the system is the lubricating grease, which then generates the particles being examined in this study. This ensures that the particles generated in the dynamic system are purely generated from the lubricating grease. Please see Figures 1 through 4 for the Dynamic Particle Generation testing apparatus. In Figure 1, the testing apparatus is illustrated showing the clean air supply that moves over the testing equipment, the ballscrew, and tunnel. To supply clean, filtered air to the system, a laminar flow clean air handler supplies clean ISO 2 Class air to the system. The air handler can deliver filtered air at a range of velocities, depending on operator input, but for the sake of repeatability and comparison, a velocity of 1m/s +/- .25 m/s was used for all testing. This value was decided on after investigating the average volume of clean air turned over in a clean air environment. This filtered air passes over the test system as the ball screw assembly operates for the length of the test.

Figures 2, 3, and 4 shows a more detailed view of the particle generation test unit and components.


Particles are collected via an inlet tube mounted at the end of the ball screw assembly (Figure 4.). The location of the pick-up tube is key, as it captures only particles generated by the grease on the ball screw, and none generated by the servo motor, bearings, linear guides, or flex coupling. The pickup tube leads to a Lightscattering Airborne Particle Counter. The particle counter features simultaneous particle measurement of sizes from 0.1Âľm and above all the way to 5Âľm and above via the use of a transverse light-scattering system which provides the most accurate and repeatable measurements available. During the test a particle count profile is then constructed, plotting the count of each category vs. test duration. This profile chart is an important asset to have in order to understand the behavior of the grease being run as two greases may share the same cleanliness value (ISO, JIS, or FED), but may have completely different particle distribution profiles over the duration of the test. The dynamic particle generation test apparatus has the ability to run at speeds from 200 to 2,400 RPM but in this study, we looked at 200, 1,200, and 2,400 RPM respectively. This translates to 0.02, 0.1, and 0.21 m/s of linear velocity, respectively. Comparison between greases should only be conducted at like rotational speeds, as particle generation typically increases as RPM increases. Grease is applied to the ball screw assembly at 200RPM with a sample volume of 2cc being applied via syringe and a 10 cycle run-in to evenly distribute the grease. The test begins with the motor stationary while the particle counter takes a series of background readings. The number of readings taken is user defined. The average of these background readings are subtracted from the particle count under dynamic conditions before ISO, JIS, or Federal Classes are calculated. This ensures that the particles being counted are only those produced by the grease and not the filtered air passing over the system. At the conclusion of the test, the collected data is compared against the particle classification tables and the ISO, Federal, and JIS classifications are determined. The ISO cleanliness levels are determined by the following formula and table.

Where Cn = represents the maximum permitted concentration (in particle/m3of air) of airborne particles that are equal to or larger than the considered particle size; Cn is rounded to the nearest whole number N = ISO class number, which must be a multiple of 0.1 and be 9 or less D = the particle size in microns

- 18 VOLUME 80, NUMBER 6

Repeatability and Statistical Significance:

To validate this new experimental test method, materials were tested with a minimum of three replications. Afterwards a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the sample sets to look for any statistically significant differences. Different lots of the same material and different sections of a specific batch were also tested. The results of this statistical analysis can be found in the technical paper entitled “Investigation into the Dynamic Particle Generation of Lubricating Greases� [5].

Results and Discussion:

Table 4 and 5 summarizes the ISO and Federal classifications for the five greases that were studied in this experiment at 200, 1,200, and 2,400 RPM respectively.


It is apparent from Tables 4 and 5 that at the lowest rotational speeds, all of the lubricants performed equivalently. As the speeds increased as well as friction between the lubricants and the bearings, the materials started performing differently. The two PFPE greases received identical ISO and Federal ratings so they appear to be equivalent from the perspective of how much particle contamination they generate into the environment. Looking at the particle generation graphs in Figures 5 and 6, a different story is told as the curves are dramatically different at 2,400 RPM. While both of these greases are PTFE thickened and made from similar viscosity linear structured PFPE fluids, their tendency to generate particles less than 1Âľ is very different. It is well know that PTFE and PFPE chemistries have weak bonding strengths (Van Der Waals) between the molecules and surfaces during sliding motion [6]. However the difference seen here between these two materials is most likely the effect of the difference in PTFE used in the material. There are many different grades of PTFE as well as manufacturing processes ranging from emulsion formed polymers to irradiated polymers. These differences in manufacturing processes as well as residuals of surfactants and other chemical processing aids can possibly have a significant effect on the ability of the PFPE and PTFE to bind into a strong lubricant system. This combined with differences in the particle size distribution of the PTFE polymers creates factors that generate more environmental contamination through particle generation.

- 20 VOLUME 80, NUMBER 6


The results for the MAC based greases showed some potential performance benefits compared to the PFPE lubricants but it did depend greatly on thickener. The MAC-A and MAC-B greases share the same base fluid while the MAC-C utilizes a version of the MAC fluid which is processed additionally to reduce its outgassing. The sodium thickener used in the 2000 grease is apparently sensitive to the shear as the material generates more particles as the rotational speed and sliding friction increases. In Figure 7, the particle generation trend can be seen to continually increase over time. The majority of these particles were small (less than 1µ) and the continual increase in the amount detected per cubic cm of air is most likely attributed to the processing of the thickener/grease and the bonding strength of the sodium thickener resulting in the ultimate shear stability of the thickener.

As the MAC-A and the MAC-B greases both share the MAC base oil and similar additive packages, we can see the direct effect of the thickener of the particle generation. It is well known that the MAC’s possess superior film strength and adhesion to metal surfaces when compared to PFPE’s so we would expect low particle generation as the probability of particles being shed to the air would be lower. With the thickener of the MAC-B grease having strong covalent bonding within the PTFE molecules [6] combined with the strong film strength of the MAC, it showed to be the superior lubricant in this study for particle generation. - 22 VOLUME 80, NUMBER 6

The results in Figure 9 for the MAC-C grease which is made from the further refined MAC fluid and PTFE are very interesting as the amount of particle generation trends higher throughout the entire test than the MAC-B grease and is classified one order of magnitude higher in both the 1,200 and 2,400 RPM tests. Beyond this difference, the 6200 generated ten times the amount of particles less than 1Âľ when compared to the MAC-B grease. Although this is within the allowed error for the Federal Cleanliness standards, it is a significant difference when it comes to space critical applications. The issue is certainly not created by volatility as the refined MAC fluid has lower ASTM E-595 results as well as Knudsen Vapor Pressures compared to the traditional X-2000 fluids. Since the manufacturing process, additives, and PTFE polymer type are all the same, this leads us to conclude there must be some effect from the refining process of the MAC on the particle generation of the MAC-C grease. While the highly refined MAC fluid contains less volatiles and has demonstrated that it has superior outgassing properties to the standard grade, the particle generation is negatively affected. The reasons for this could be as simple as the refinement of the MAC fluid has caused a change in the tribological properties of the fluid which has led increased friction between the fluid, PTFE polymer, and bearing surface. This additional friction could lead to degradation of the lubricant which then leads to shedding of particles from the lubricant system. Another possible cause for this particle generation could also be the removal of something from the MAC fluid that helped with the film strength or the compatibility with the PTFE polymer and its removal has promoted the increase in particle generation. - 23 NLGI SPOKESMAN, JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2017

In figure 10, all of the samples tested in this study have been graphically plotted on the same axis to visually illustrate the differences in the particle generation between different materials. The MAC-B grease clearly has the best performance of any of the materials tested. - 24 VOLUME 80, NUMBER 6


will also be placed on the difference of PTFE polymers, the refined MAC fluid, manufacturing techniques, etc. and how this relates to bonding strength and in turn particle generation. We will also investigate the particle generation of a rolling element bearing system in atmospheric and vacuum conditions. The main goal of this work is to create a model and methodology to be able to predict the failure probability of a mechanism due to contamination when a certain lubricant is used.

This study has also shown that the MAC-B grease which is a PTFE thickened MAC grease produced the least amount of contamination due to particle generation as well as the least amount of change in particle generation over speed. It was also illustrated that while MAC lubricants have an advantage over PFPE base ones, it certainly depends on other factors like the thickener, additives, processing, etc. This dependency was clearly seen in the sodium thickened MAC-A grease. The organic soap thickener forms a strong matrix of entanglements but at higher speeds it generated more particles as a result of the shear stability of the sodium soap vs. the PTFE thickened greases. This is due to the fact that PTFE is a very stable molecule with Carbon-Fluorine bonds being one the strongest known. This combined with the higher RPM creating higher shear on the thickener at the metal surface causing more particles to generate over time.  This leads to the conclusion that PTFE is the superior to sodium soap in particle generation and based on the differences in thickener stability under the shear conditions of the test. 

I would like to thank my colleagues in the Application Development and Validation Testing (ADVT) Lab at Nye Lubricants Inc. who conducted the Dynamic Particle Generation testing, specifically Mason Wood. I would also like to thank William Galary for all of his support and consultation about the Clean Room Industry and its technologies. Finally I would like to thank Gus Flaherty for his work with me on designing and constructing the Dynamic Particle Generation testing equipment.

Determining the volume of contamination generated from a lubricant through particle generation in dynamic conditions is a new area just starting to be explored. As presented in this study, many factors play into the behavior of a grease in respect to particle generation characteristics. Variables such as run speed, base oil chemistry, and thickening agent properties all play into how much contamination a lubricant will generate through particle generation.

The ability to plot particle generation over time and see differences in the distributions of various materials, will help us to form hypothesis about particle generation over time using normalized probability. Utilizing this type of analysis can also be used to predict lubricant service life. From these estimations, we could also look into ways to predict saturation by contamination in a space mechanism or the probability for success/failure when using a certain lubricant.

Future Work

The expansion of this work will include using Residual Gas Analysis (RGA) to determine the molecular weight and chemical species of all contamination materials being generated in the particle generation test. Further research



[1] Galary, William: Ultraclean Grease. Journal of Advancing Applications in Contamination Control 1999; Volume 2, No. 7:23-27 [2] Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments Part 1 : Classification of air cleanliness. ISO 14644-1 1999; [3] Classification of air cleanliness for cleanrooms. JIS B 9920 2002; [4] Cleanroom and Work Station Requirements, Controlled Environments. Federal Standard 209 1963; [5] Galary, Jason and Flaherty, Gus: Investigation into the Dynamic Particle Generation of Lubricating Greases. NLGI Annual Journal, 2016 [6] Lince, Jeffrey and Fleischauer: Solid Lubricants. Space Vehicle Mechanisms, 1997 [7] C.G. Venier, E.W. Casserly, Lubricants comprising novel cyclopentanes, cyclopentadienes, cyclopentenes, and mixtures thereof and methods of manufacture, US 4,929,782 (1990).


the Expert Q: I s the STARFIRE HI-TEMP RED grease USDA approved? A: A listing of USDA Registered Lubricants can be

found at the following link http://info.nsf.org/USDA/Listings.asp

Q: I need a way to loosen up the pivot arms on a ASV skid loader. Tried heat and penetrating oil. Didn’t work. What liquid lubricant do you use to loosen up the shaft? Can you use a grease gun with it?  What method do you think we should try? What is the material called and where can you get it?  

A: If the pivot arms are fitted with grease fittings,

Q: H  ow is oil separation from grease measured? Is it ASTM D6184 or ASTM D1742? Is this test of nay significance to NLGI 0 grease? A: Oil separation from lubricating grease is

measured in different ways. D1742 measures the separation at ambient temperature with slight air pressure above the grease.  D6184 uses elevated temperature at atmospheric pressure.  IP 121 uses static weight at elevated temperature.  All of the tests use a screen (flat or conical) onto which the grease is loaded before being subjected to the test conditions.  All of the tests are limited to NLGI 1 grade or stiffer greases.  Softer greases have been run, and the tests used successfully, but there is no official precision statement for the softer products’ nay significance to NLGI 0 grease?

we recommend applying a multi-purpose grease through the fittings. Be sure to clean the fittings before attaching the grease gun.  If no grease fittings are available, we suggest you continue to apply penetrating oil to the joints where the arm components connect.

- 26 VOLUME 80, NUMBER 6

Q: I am a Chemical Engineer by profession and classic car hobbyist (currently in possession of a 1967 Dodge Coronet 500). I am currently in the process of replacing the automatic transmission with a 4 speed manual transmission behind the 440. In the Mopar service manual for the 1967 Coronet, under sections 21 and 6 related to 4 SPEED and CLUTCH installation respectively there is reference to this grease. The CLUTCH section calls it “special long-life chassis grease or Multi-Mileage Lubricant, Part Number 2525035”. This grease is evidently no longer available and I am looking for a substitute. What do you recommend? a side note your website is very informative and interesting. The answer to this question is eagerly awaited by many other hobbyists who can no longer find the soda soap type short fibre greases in the marketplace. A: We agree that the short-fibered sodium based

grease originally specified as Chrysler/Dodge Part No. 2525035 is no longer readily available. For chassis lubrication points, we recommend a product carrying the NLGI LB or GC-LB service mark.  The LB service category indicates grease that is suitable for chassis lubrication.  We recommend purging any old grease from the chassis points when lubricating with a modern chassis grease by pumping grease until all of the old product is displaced.

Q: D  escribe the purpose and application of A Grease (NLGI 2)? giving examples A: L ubricating grease is a type of lubricant that is

designed to stay in place. It is similar to fluid lubricants (gear oil, engine oil, etc.) except that grease contains a component called the thickener that gives the grease a property called consistency.  Consistency is basically how stiff the grease is, ranging from NLGI 000 (fluid) to NLGI 6 (block).  NLGI 2 grade consistency is the most common and popular grade; it is described as medium consistency.  Grease is used to provide lubrication in applications where an oil would not stay in place.  It is estimated that greater that 80% of rolling element bearings are lubricated with grease.  Common applications for grease include automotive wheel bearings, the bearings in electric motors, pin and bushing contacts in heavy equipment, open gears on construction and mining equipment, etc.

Managing the Health and High Costs of Robotics Using Grease Sampling and Analysis Lisa Williams and Richard Wurzbach MRG Labs Automotive, food production and other manufacturers have sought to develop methods to evaluate the condition of grease in robots. Periodic sampling and analysis of the grease from these components can provide robot owners a clearer picture of robot joint health, determine grease condition for optimal changeout periods and pinpoint latent issues that can be addressed prior to failure. Monitoring a few key data points, such as wear, consistency and color, may allow the owner to transition from calendar-based to condition-based change outs. This has the potential to save hundreds of thousands of dollars per year for an owner of a large fleet of robots. This paper will discuss grease sampling and analysis as a solution to optimize grease life, identify emerging problems and intervene to correct potential problems before significant damage or failure occurs.

1. Grease Sampling

In most circumstances, procedures for obtaining grease samples from bearing housings and gears are not consistent and likely do not represent the true condition of the “active� grease near the lubricated surface. Therefore the challenge in optimizing a grease analysis

program is the development of test methodologies to measure in-service grease conditions utilizing a smaller amount of grease and a sampling process that enables representative grease samples be taken without disassembling of the component. In this new design, the sampling fitting is also optimized for the subsequent laboratory analysis found in ASTM D7918. Robotics applications provide an excellent opportunity for the passive grease sampling device described in ASTM D7718 to be used. Due to the low consistency (high penetration value) of the grease in these applications, the passive grease sampling device can be threaded into the joint locations and used as a syringe to pull the grease from the location and send to the lab for routine analysis. In other cases, a syringe and tubing may compliment the passive grease sampling device and enable a standard grease volume to be obtained even from the difficult J1 position.

2. Grease Analysis

The following tests make up a streamlined grease analysis evaluation for robotics per ASTM D7918. 2.1. Ferrous Debris Monitoring This method utilizes a faraday-effect sensor to minimize data scatter due to particle distribution issues and improves trendability and sensitivity of results. The ferrous particles detected in this device are particle

- 28 VOLUME 80, NUMBER 6

size independent. The gear contents in the robotics are steel, making this instrument a very useful tool in the trending of wear particles. Per EPRI published research report 102-0247 Effective Grease Practices, the fdm+ test showed the lowest standard deviation when compared to other comparable wear measurement tests. 2.2. Grease Colorimetry Appearance changes in grease including darkening and unexpected or mixed colors are often the first condition noted that may indicate unusual lubrication conditions or mixing. The grease colorimetry optical cell is designed to create an optical path for the i-Lab visible light spectrometer, and includes a sliding drawer that presents the extruded grease on a thin film substrate for introduction into the optical light path of the i-Lab spectrometer. Vigo and Moly White greases are the two most common greases used in robotics applications. Each have unique signatures and additive packages, allowing them to be differentiated and identified if mixed. 2.3. Additional Testing If concerns arise during the above trending and screening process, follow-up analysis can be performed using advanced test methods such as grease consistency, FT-IR, anti-oxidants, metals spectroscopy, analytical ferrography, patch microscopy and advanced rheology. 2.3.1. Grease Consistency As outlined in D7918, the grease is measured under varying load conditions during the extraction of the grease through the extrusion die, the consistency of the grease can be compared to the new grease consistency. Changes in this value, whether indicating a thinning or thickening of the grease, can be used to flag this property. Mixtures of grease can be identified by changes in grease consistency. Followup detailed analysis with a rheometer can further classify the condition of the grease and relate to such parameters as dropping point and cone penetrometer, based on earlier studies by Nolan and Sivik [1] and Johnson [2] 2.3.2. FTIR Spectroscopy FTIR spectra are created from new grease samples for all greases in a facility’s program. Then the sampled in-service greases are tested and compared to the spectra of new grease. In particular, for different families of greases, the FTIR spectra are quite different and can be compared to see if significant mixing has occurred.

2.3.3. Anti-Oxidants The RULER instrument works on the principle of linear sweep voltammetry. By applying this test method, in which a variable voltage is applied to the sample while measuring the current flow, the presence and concentration of various antioxidant additives (including, but not limited to ZDDP) can be determined based on their unique electrochemical oxidation potential and the magnitude of the induced current. Monitoring residual anti-oxidants in purge greases can provide feedback on the effectiveness of grease relubrication frequencies. Vigo and Moly White greases contain different additive packages which are detectable with the RULER technology. Different additive packages in greases often are not compatible and can lead to the grease not functioning optimally at that location. 2.3.4. Metal Spectroscopy The grease is weighed out and added to a glass vial where it is diluted and dissolved with a filtered mixture of grease solvent. This liquid mixture is then analyzed by RDE (Rotating Disc Electrode) or ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) spectroscopy, and the results are ppm normalized to 1 gram of grease based on the measured weight of grease that was dissolved. The concentration of metals in the grease can be compared to the new grease for the purpose of identifying significant differences in additive metals that could point toward grease mixing. Also, the presence of wear metals can be deduced.

3. Application

Robots have, in recent years, been playing an ever expanding role in manufacturing, ranging from small, precise parts placement and assembly, to larger payloads and activities, including automotive applications. Some automotive manufacturers have sought to develop methods to evaluate grease sampling and analysis methods for suitability of monitoring these robots that can have a significant impact on reliability. Periodic sampling and analysis of the grease from these components can provide the robot owner with a clearer picture of robot joint health, and pinpoint latent issues that can be planned and addressed prior to failure. In Figure 2, an automotive manufacturer evaluated a fleet of robots for ferrous wear levels. Charting the ppm Fe and comparing to the averages, the robot owners were able to identify areas of excessive wear as compared to the entire fleet and initiate grease changes or additional maintenance activities in those areas.


Cost Savings

Grease sampling and analysis may be a solution to address greased component reliability, to avoid unexpected failures, identify emerging problems, and even intervene to correct potential problems before significant damage occurs. This is especially important for manufacturing applications where unexpected downtime has a significant economic impact. Looking at a typical facility containing 500 robots, the cost savings by implementing grease analysis on the 500 robots is significant. A typical 5 gallon bucket of grease can range between $400-$500. Each robot requires one new 5 gallon bucket of grease each year. In a plant containing 500 robots, the cost to replace the grease alone is $200,000 per year. What if we could extend the life the grease for 1 year through grease analysis? A typical grease sampling kit per ASTM D7718 costs $125. One kit can evaluate all 6 joint locations on the robot. Using routine analysis, the robot owner can assess the condition of the robots for $62,500 and potentially extend the grease life for one year or longer, saving the company $137,500 in grease costs in one year.

Optimizing Re-Lubrication Frequency

Figures 3 and 4 show how anti-oxidants and consistency

can be used to further evaluate the condition of the grease. The RULER graph shows a significant amount of anti-oxidant protection remains in the grease and the consistency of the grease remains satisfactory. Since the wear levels are low and the physical properties of the grease are sufficient, it is recommended the grease stay in service. Relubrication is not necessary at this time. By evaluating the grease using basic analysis tests and demonstrating it is still in optimal condition, a costly grease purge and replace was avoided and the life of the current grease was extended.

4. Conclusion

Grease analysis presents a significant opportunity to expand machinery diagnostic capabilities. The historical challenges of obtaining representative and trendable samples are being addressed through technological developments and new approaches. The further development of repeatable analysis methods that utilize smaller quantities of grease will produce greater value, and encourage the sampling of greases from locations where reliability is important. By designing grease sampling equipment appropriately, the matter of optimal grease replenishment may also be addressed through the establishment of sampling programs. Wherever there is a critical machine, regardless of lubricant type, the demand for reliability drives the development of

improved sampling methods and analysis techniques to produce the valuable information present in lubricant analysis. The integration of multiple diagnositic technologies, such as Infrared, Vibration Analysis, Motor Circuit Monitoring, and Lubricant analysis (both oil and grease) is a proven best practice approach to improving machinery reliability and getting the most from investment in diagnostic monitoring.

List of References

[1] N  olan, S., Sivik, M., “The Use of Controlled Stress Rheology to Study the High Temperature Structural Properties of Lubricating Greases,” NLGI 71st Annual Meeting, Dana Point, CA, 2004. [2] J ohnson, B., “The Use of a Stress Rheometer in Lieu of Cone Penetration,” NLGI 74th Annual Meeting, Scottsdale, AZ, 2007. [3] W  urzbach, R., “Streamlined Grease Sampling and Analysis for Detection of Wear,Oxidation and Mixed Greases”, NLGI Annual Meeting, Williamsburg, VA, USA, June 2008. [4] W  urzbach, R., Williams, L., Doherty, W., “Methods for Trending Wear Levels in Grease Lubricated Equipment”, Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers (STLE) Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, USA, May 2010. - 31 -

[5] E  lectric Power Research Institute, “Effective Grease Practices”, Report #1020247, Palo Alto, CA, USA, October 2010. [6] Wurzbach, R., Bupp, E., Hart, J., “New methods of grease sampling and analysis for motor operated valves”, Motor Operated Valve Users Group Conference, San Antonio, TX, USA, January 2011. [7] Wurzbach, R., Williams, L., Bupp, E., “Grease Sampling and Analysis for Wind Turbines and other Bearing and Gear Applications”, ReliablePlant Conference, Indianapolis, IN, USA, May 2012.


NLGI Industry News Please send all industry news, events, employment news and press releases to Kim Hartley at kim@nlgi.org (Your company does not have to be an NLGI member to post items.)

John Schaeffer Shields

We are deeply saddened to announce John Schaeffer Shields, chairman of Schaeffer Manufacturing Co., passed away on Dec. 5, 2016 in St. Louis, MO, at the age of 91. Described as being the spirit of the company, John was known for his love of the Schaeffer’s history and for keeping the company family owned for future generations. John’s business career began in 1951 when he was a top sales person for IBM. Later he became one of the top estate planning and life insurance sales professionals in St. Louis joining Projected Planning Co., and later as vice president of W. Alfred Hayes & Company. In 1981, his career took an abrupt turn. That year, his family’s company, Schaeffer Mfg. Co., suffered the tragic loss of its three principals: brother Tom Shields, president; brother Gwynne Shields, vice president and production manager; and Marty Schwab, vice president and national sales manager. Rather than sell the company, John and his sister, Jacqueline Shields Herrmann, restructured the company so it could never be sold. The company would stay within the family to provide for future generations of Schaeffer family and associates. John became chairman in 1981, and this began Schaeffer Mfg. Co.’s extended period of growth from $14 million in sales to approximately $140 million today. Schaeffer Mfg. Co. boasts over 600 associates and sells nationally, as well as internationally in 40 different countries.

- 32 VOLUME 80, NUMBER 6

Croda Announces the Latest in Base Stock

NEW CASTLE, DE (January 4, 2017) Please join us in congratulating Scott Davis on his promotion to Manager Strategic Accounts – Lubricants and Polymer Additives. Scott joined the sales team at Croda in January 2003 and has been a Key Account Manager since 2010, overseeing the accounts in the Midwest. He represents Croda with key OEMs and Industry Associations as well as focusing on delivering growth in the Lubricants market from the new investment in New Castle, DE on lubricant esters. More information about Croda’s innovative technologies, unique product offerings and its ongoing commitment to sustainability can be found at www.crodalubricants.com.

About Croda – www.croda.com

Croda is a speciality chemical manufacturer who, through the imaginative and practical use of science, creates ingredients and technologies that improve people’s lives by enhancing everyday products. They are the name behind the high-performance ingredients in some of the biggest, most successful brands in the world, creating products that are relied on by industries and consumers worldwide. Croda has more than 4,000 employees working across manufacturing sites and in offices in over 34 countries. In the wide ranging business sectors that they serve, its focus is on developing and delivering innovative ingredients for: Coatings and Polymers, Crop Care, Geo Technologies, Health Care, Home Care, Industrial Chemicals, Lubricants, Personal Care and Polymer Additives.


Industry Calendar of Events Please contact Kim if there are meetings/conventions you’d like to add to our Industry Calendar. kim@nlgi.org (Your company does not have to be an NLGI member to post calendar items.)

February 15-17, 2017 21st ICIS World Base Oils & Lubricants Conference Park Plaza Westminster Bridge, London, UK http://www.icisconference.com/worldbaseoils2017

April 20-22, 2017 ILMA Management Forum Park Hyatt Aviara Carlsbad, CA

May 6-9, 2017 29th ELGI AGM Hilton Kalastajatorppa Helsinki, Finland Visit Website

March 7 – 10, 2017 F+L Week 2017 Four Seasons Hotel, Singapore Call for Papers until Sept. 9, 2016 submit to: conference@fuelsandlubes.com More Information: http://fuelsandlubes.com/

May 21-25, 2017 72nd STLE Annual Meeting & Exhibition Hyatt Regency Atlanta, Georgia (USA) More Information April 5 & 6, 2017 5th ICIS Indian Base Oils & Lubricants Conference Mumbai, India http://www.icisconference.com/indianbaseoils2017

June 10th – 13th, 2017 NLGI 84th Annual Meeting Olympic Valley, CA Resort at Squaw Creek

- 34 VOLUME 80, NUMBER 6

October 10 – 14, 2017 CLGI Biannual National Conference China Location and more information to come

October 6-9, 2018 ILMA Annual Meeting JW Marriott Desert Springs Resort & Spa Palm Desert, CA

October 14-17, 2017 ILMA Annual Meeting Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress Orlando, FL

October 31 – November 2, 2017 2017 Chem Show The Event for Processing Technology Javits Center New York City, New York www.chemshow.com

June 8 – 11, 2019 NLGI 86th Annual Meeting JW Marriott Las Vegas Resort Las Vegas, NV

April 19-21, 2018 ILMA Management Forum Fort Lauderdale Marriott Harbor Beach Resort & Spa Fort Lauderdale, FL

June 9 – 12, 2018 NLGI 85th Annual Meeting The Coeur d’Alene Resort Coeur d’Alene, ID


The Right GREASE for Every INDUSTRY




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Tulsa, OK 74127 - 918-584-2671


Advertiser’s Index Covenant Engineering, page 27 Lubes ‘n’ Greases, page 7 Patterson Industries Canada, A Division of All-Weld, Co. Ltd, page 5 Royal High Performance Oils & Greases, page 36 Vanderbilt Chemicals LLC, Inside Cover


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NLGI SPOKESMAN Be featured in NLGI Member Spotlight!

All NLGI members may take advantage of this opportunity to highlight your company’s history, global reach, vision, employees or whatever you’d like our readership to know about your company. You may talk about products & services, however, no competitor trade names may be used, nor mention of product pricing. There is no limit on words and we welcome many photos of your headquarters, offices, plant & employee photos. We will accept articles for publication on a first received, first published basis. Contact Kim Hartley kim@nlgi.org at NLGI if you would like to submit an article for possible publication in an upcoming issue. There is absolutely no charge to have your article appear in the NLGI Member Spotlight.

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