BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 2423)
Project 1 - Case Study and Documentation of Building Services Systems Setia City Mall, Shah Alam
TUTOR: MR. SIVARAMAN GROUP MEMBERS: H’NG XUAN NING GOH YEE THONG TAN JIA-QI TAM JHUNG LEUNG KENNY TEH KAH KHEN TAN CHENG CHUAN
0310110 0310044 0310107 0310082 0314502 1006A79433
Abstract The purpose of having this assignment is to let us understand how does the services in a building work and the importance of building services in architecture. A commercial building with at least 4 levels is required before proceeding. After selecting the building, we are required to conduct a case study on the building services of that particular building, the fields that we covered are the air-conditioning system, electrical supply system, vertical transportation system and fire protection system. Setia City Mall is the building of our choice. The reasons behind choosing this particular building is because of its sustainability features in building services as well as passive design and the generosity of the Setia City Mall staff in providing information about its services. We are extremely grateful towards their friendliness and generosity. The case study will cover all the areas listed above with details and evidence to support it. The four listed areas are broken down into four different chapters. At the end of each chapter, a conclusion is drawn containing the summary of our analysis as well as our comments and critiques. Of course our analysis is based on our personal opinions among the group members. All of us carries the same hope which the knowledge we gained in this assignment can be helpful in our future designs.
Introduction to Case Study
Photo of Setia City Mall Setia City Mall is a shopping complex located in Setia Alam, Shah Alam. Setia City Mall is a 4 levels mall with over 7400,000 square feet of Net Lettable Area, over 2,500 car parks and over 240 retailers. It is designed to be the destination of choice for shopping, dinner, entertainment and parklife in the area. Besides local and international retailers, an alfresco dining precinct, a 10.5 acre park, a waterjet plaza and children's play facilities can also be found in Setia City Mall. The mall has also received Singapore's Building and Construction Authority (BCA) Green Mark Gold Award, Malaysian Green Building Index (GBI) Silver Award, The Edge-PAM Green Excellence Award and Fiabci Malaysia Property Award 2013.
Content Abstract Introduction to Case Study 1.0 Air-Conditioning & Mechanical Ventilation Systems 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Literature Review 1.3 Case Study 1.3.1 Air-Conditioning System 126.96.36.199 A/C Make-up Water Tank 188.8.131.52 Cooling Tower 184.108.40.206 Chilled Water Pump (CHWP) 220.127.116.11Centrifugal Chiller 18.104.22.168 Air-Handling Unit (AHU) 22.214.171.124 Fan Coil Unit (FCU) 126.96.36.199 Air Cooled Split Unit 188.8.131.52 Air Ductwork with Diffuser 1.3.2 Mechanical Ventilation System 184.108.40.206 Exhaust Fan 220.127.116.11 Fresh Air System 18.104.22.168 Smoke Spill System 1.4 Conclusion 2.0 Electrical Supply System 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Literature Review 2.2.1 Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) 2.2.2 Electric-Power Distribution 2.2.3 Generating Station 2.2.4 Substation 2.2.5 Transformer 2.2.6 Battery Room 2.2.7 Main Switch Board (MSB) 2.2.8 Capacitor Bank 2.2.9 Electric Riser 22.214.171.124 Generator Set (GENSET) 126.96.36.199 Signal Distribution Frame (SDF) 2.3 Case Study 2.3.1 TNB Station 2.3.2 33 kV TNB SSU (Consumer Switch Room) 2.3.3 11 kV Substation Room 2.3.4 Transformer 2.3.5 Main Switchboard (MSB) 2.3.6 Electrical Riser 2.3.7 Distribution Board 2.3.8 Battery Room 2.3.9 End Consumer 2.4 Maintenance 2.5 Conclusion
3.0 Vertical transport system 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Literature Review 3.3 Case Study 3.3.1 Elevator system 188.8.131.52 Regenerative Driver 184.108.40.206 Gearless machine 220.127.116.11 Polyurethane-coated steel belt 18.104.22.168 Governor 22.214.171.124 Door System 126.96.36.199 Safety System 3.3.2 Escalator System 188.8.131.52 Top and Bottom landing platform 184.108.40.206 Truss 220.127.116.11 Tracks 18.104.22.168 Steps 22.214.171.124 Railing 126.96.36.199 Safety System 3.4 Conclusion 4.0 Fire Protection System 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Literature Review 4.3 Case Study 4.3.1 Active Fire Protection 188.8.131.52 Fire Detectors and Alarm Systems 184.108.40.206.1 Signal Initiation Mechanism 220.127.116.11.2 Signal Processing Systems 18.104.22.168.3 Fire Alarm Notification Appliances 22.214.171.124 Fire Extinguisher 126.96.36.199 Water Supply and External Fire Hydrant 188.8.131.52 Dry Riser System 184.108.40.206 Hose Reel System 220.127.116.11 Sprinkler System 18.104.22.168 Argonite Extinguish System 22.214.171.124 Smoke Spill System 126.96.36.199 Pressurized Staircase System 4.3.2 Passive Fire Protection 188.8.131.52 Zoning and Compartmentalisation 184.108.40.206 Structural Fire Protection 220.127.116.11 Means of Escape 4.4 Conclusion Reference List
1.0 Air-Conditioning & Mechanical Ventilation Systems
1.1 Introduction Air Conditioning is the control of temperature, humidity, purity, and motion of air in an enclosed space, independent of outside conditions.(Merriam- Webster) Centralized air-conditioning system is one of the airconditioning system that are used in huge building. It requires one or several large mechanical spaces( often in basements or on roofs), sizable distribution trees and complex control system (Grondzik et..al,2010). There are mainly two cycles that occur in the cooling process which two of them are refrigerant cycle and air cycle. Other than treating the air through air-conditioning, mechanical ventilation in building also plays an important role. Mechanical ventilation system is to provide fresh air and as well as removing stale air with water vapor, carbon dioxide, air borne chemicals and other pollutants from the building. This can normally be achieved by using fans or blower to induce and exhaust air in order to improve indoor air quality to increase thermal comfort in the building.
1.2 Literature Review Malaysia has a hot and humid climate, so air-conditioning provides an easier way to maintain and control the indoor air quality at a comfort level in certain buildings. According to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the normal room comfort temperature is between 23oC to 27oC if mechanically cooled.(MS 1525, 2007) Besides, the mechanical ventilation can be applied to all kind of space, be it residential or commercial. Central plant system has the limitation of the same air quality being delivered throughout the building. Hence, a variety of delivery air properties are designed to suit different zoning which has different situation such as offices,workshops, canteen, etc.(Greeno, 1997). As mentioned before, there are two main cycles in the centralized air-conditioning system. Refrigerant cycle transfers heat from one space to another while the air cycle distributes treated air to the indoor spaces. Refrigerant cycle can be broken down into four major components: 1. Compressor Refrigerant vapors from evaporator is then compressed by chiller compressor to high pressure and temperature. 2. Condenser Refrigerant rejects its heat to the chilled water outside. In this way, refrigerant gets condensed and the chilled water is heated. The chiller water that was heated may be cooled by cooling tower and recycled again into condenser. 3. Evaporator Refrigerant is vaporized by absorbing heat from chilled water. Therefore, heat is added to refrigerant but is extracted from chilled water. Refrigerant and chilled water won't get mixed together as they are separated by some solid wall in between them in evaporator like shell and tube design 4. Expansion Valve Expansion Valve expands the refrigerant which in condensed from that reduced its pressure and temperature to level of evaporator. The above cycle is repeated again.
There are six components in the air cycle: 1. Air Handling Unit(AHU) AHUs are used to cool the air using chiller water from chillers and supply it to indoor spaces. The indoor air circulates back and mixed with fresh outside air to be cooled and distributed to indoor spaces again. A supply fan, usually the centrifugal type, is used to generate sufficient pressure and velocity to deliver the air to various locations through a system of ductwork to diffusers(Greeno, 1997). 2. Fan Coil Unit(FCU) Can be found above ceilings, below windows, or in corners, which is used to control the temperature of the air already in the room(Grondzik et..al,2010). 3. Filters Filter is used to clear the impurities in air before distributing to the indoor space to improve Indoor Air Quality(IAQ). Filters such as particulate filter, absorption filter, air washer and electronic air cleaners can be used to clean different particle air pollutants(Grondzik et..al,2010). 3. Blower Fan Blower Fan is used to move the treated air for distribution. It comes with an airfoil bladed wheel, it has high efficiency over a wide operating range and quieter(Grondzik et..al,2010). 4. Ductwork and Diffuser Ductwork is the path for the travelling air. Ductwork is produced in circular, square or rectangular cross-sections. Circular ductwork has less frictional resistance to air flow, thus is more efficient. Rectangular ductwork is more easily to be fitted into building fabric, hence is more convenient. Diffuser comes in different types, ranging from simple perforated plates to grilles to more complex and efficient coned air distributors. Diffusers are used to distribute the air evenly from ductwork to an indoor space(Greeno, 1997). 5.Exhaust and Intake Fan Odorous and/or excessively humid air is removed by exhaust fans before it can be spread beyond other areas. Fresh air is provided by intake fans to make-up the indoor air(Grondzik et..al,2010).
1.3 Case Study The type of the air conditioning system that Setia City Mall uses is “Centralized Air Conditioning system”.
List of System Equipment: System
Air distribution system
• • •
• • • • • • •
Centrifugal Chiller (Total capacity of 5000RT) Cooling Tower (Total capacity of 7000RT)
Air Handling Unit Fan Coil Unit Air Cooled Split Unit
63 158 19
Kitchen Exhaust Fan Kitchen Make-up Fresh Air Fan Smoke Make Up Fan Smoke Extraction Fan Pressurization Fan Toilet Exhaust Fan Fresh Air Fan
13 13 23 45 36 30 9
Chart 1.3(a) List of System Equipments Laws of Malaysia Uniform Building By-laws 1984 ACT 113 STREET, DRAINAGE AND BUILDING ACT 1974 SPACE, LIGHT AND VENTILATION Section 41 (1) Where the permanent mechanical ventilation or air conditioning is intended, the relevant building by laws relating to natural ventilation, natural lighting and height of rooms may be waived at the discretion of local authority. (2) Any application for the waiver of the relevant by-laws shall only be considered if in addition to the permanent air-conditioning system there is provided alternative approved means of ventilating the airconditioned enclosure, such that within half an hour of the air-conditioning system failing, not less than the stipulated volume of fresh air specified hereinafter shall be introduced into the enclosure during the period when the air-conditioning system is not functioning.
1.3.1 Air-Conditioning System
Figure 1.3.1(a). Schematic Diagram of Centralized Air Conditioning System in SCM.
AC Make-Up Tank Cooling Tower Chilled Water Pump Centrifugal Chiller Air Handling Units
Figure 1.3.1(b). Schematic Diagram Flow Chart of Air Conditioning System (Setia City Mall, 2014).
Figure 1.3.1(c) . Location of Air Conditioning components at roof level. (Setia City Mall, 2014).
18.104.22.168 AC Make-up Tank
Figure 22.214.171.124(a) AC Make-Up Tank located at roof top.
Figure 126.96.36.199(b) Water tank sits on the plinths
AC Make-up Tank located at the roof top next to Domestic Tank refer to Figure 1.3.1(c). Domestic tank supplies water to tenant and F&B outlets whereas AC Make-up Tank supplies water to chiller only. It has a storage 240m3. To prevent corrosion, the water sits on the plinths to avoid ground contact. The reason of designing under croft space is for the efficiency of maintenance.
188.8.131.52 Cooling Tower
Figure 184.108.40.206(a). Components of Cooling Tower ( Midwest Cooling Tower, 2014) Placement of Cooling Tower Setia City Mall has 6 open circuit cooling towers with the total capacity of 7000 TR. The cooling towers are fanassisted natural-draft cooling towers. It employs mechanical draft , by placement of fan on top of the tower, to augment the buoyancy effect of air ( Cooling Technique Institute, 2014). Operating mechanical fans will draw surrounding air upward. To enhance prevailing wind to generate the draft of air, the cooling towers in Setia City Mall are located at the roof top level to capture prevailing wind as it is less obstructed (refer to figure B). The pipes are connected between cooling towers and Chillers. They transport cooling water supply (CWS) from Cooling Tower to the Chillers, and cooling water return (CWR) from the Chillers to Cooling Tower.
Figure 220.127.116.11(b) Cooling tower placed at rooftop. .
Figure 18.104.22.168(c) Grey pipes transporting CWS and CWR.
Figure 22.214.171.124(d) Schematic diagram of counter flow cooling tower ( Wikipedia, 2014) Mechanism of Cooling Tower Open circuit cooling system involves distribution system of warm water (cooling water return) through spray nozzle on labyrinth-like packing or fill material in an enclosed structure. Expanded air-water interface was created by the fill for heating and evaporation of air to take place. (Cooling Technique Institute, 2014). Distributed water on the fill is cooled via evaporation as the prevailing air enters through the louvers. The cooled water descends by gravitational force is then collected in the cold water basin. Counter flow cooling towers are applied in Setia City Mall. Therefore, the cooling process involves flow of cool air which travels upward, opposite to the downward flow of water. The cooled water (cooling water supply) in the cold water basin is then pumped into the chiller. The pipes transport cooling water return from Chiller to Cooling Tower, and cooling water supply from Cooling Tower to Chiller.
Factors affecting efficiency of Cooling Tower:
Relative Humidity Outside Temperature Wind Velocity Tower Design Water Contaminant Outside Equipment
Figure 126.96.36.199(e). Enclosed structure with corrugated metal.
188.8.131.52 Chilled Water Pump
Figure 184.108.40.206(a) : Chilled water pump connected to CHWS pipe.
Figure 220.127.116.11(b) : Photo of chilled water pump.
Chilled water pumps(CHWP) can be categorized into primary or secondary unit in Setia City Mall. It is determined by the flow of water via the pipes. Chilled water return (CWR) is received via primary CHWP and distributed to centrifugal chiller, which later passed on to cooling tower for cooling purpose. Chilled water supply(CWS) is received from the chillers via secondary unit and discharged to AHU for distribution. Serving each of 6 centrifugal chillers with remaining 2 as standby, 8 primary chilled water pumps are placed in chiller plant room, which is the same location as chillers and secondary CHWP. 5 units of secondary CHWP and 1 unit which is on standby are used for maintenance alternately. Pressure which is required to drive the flow of water through the distribution system decreases due to gravitational force and frictional force through the pipping and valves. It is impossible for water to flow without mechanical aid. Thus, to overcome gravitational force, a pump is added as an additive aid to provide energy to enhance the circulation of water through the system. Several pumps with different designated functions and capacities are required in the typical central air conditioning system. Most commonly, the pumps applied in central system are driven by electric motor.
18.104.22.168 Centrifugal Chiller
Figure 22.214.171.124(a) : Photo of Centrifugal chiller. Placement of Centrifugal Chiller. In Setia City Mall, the centrifugal chiller is located at the roof level in the chiller plant room (refer to figure 1.3.1c) which is adjacent to the AC make-up water tank. There are six centrifugal chiller with a total capacity of 5000 RT. Although there are six chillers, not all run simultaneously but run alternately for maintenance purpose. Setia City Mall only needs two chillers to supple all the air-handling units. However the additional chillers are to distribute the load to maximize the efficiency. Optimization of chiller plant system is done with chiller installation of high COP of 6.4 for 1000RT chiller and COP of 5.9 for 500RT chiller .(Setia Building Management, 2014)
Figure 126.96.36.199(b) Centrifugal chiller's schematic flow diagram
Mechanism of Centrifugal Chiller. Chillers are machines that supply chilled water needed to operate the building's air-handling units. The chilled water is produced through a vapor compression cycle. The main components of a chiller is condenser, compressor, evaporator and expansion valve. Figure 188.8.131.52(b) shows that the compression cycle consists of three fluids. At the evaporator, the refrigerant changes from a liquid to a vapor as it absorbs heat from the primary water flow .This heat absorption process enable the warm from primary water flow(red) to be cooled(blue) and then routed to air-handling unit . The refrigerant is passed through the compressor in vapor form causing its temperature and pressure increase. Then at the condenser, the refrigerant flow changes back from vapor to liquid. The heat is rejected from the refrigerant to the condenser water(purple) which travels back to cooling tower to be cooled again.
Figure 184.108.40.206(c) : Components of High Efficiency Type Centrifugal Chiller in SCM. (Hitachi, 2014). High Efficiency Type Centrifugal Chiller. The chillers in Setia City Mall are High Efficiency Type model. The difference from normal chiller is that it has a High-efficiency Compressor, High-efficiency Refrigerating Cycle and a High-performance Heat Exchanger. The function of each component is described in figure 220.127.116.11(c).
18.104.22.168 Air-handling Unit (AHU)
Figure 22.214.171.124(a): Components of a typical AHU (Electrical Knowhow,2013) The air-handling unit usually is a large metal box that contains a humidifier, a filter, a blower and a cooling or heating coil.
Figure 126.96.36.199(b): Setia City Mall AHU
Figure 188.8.131.52(c) Blower
In Setia City Mall, there is only a blower, a cooling coil in and a filter an AHU. A total number of 63 units of AHU are used in this mall. Air is drawn from outside and pass through a cooling coil then is directed in to the mall using a blower and duct. Then the indoor air is circulated back to the AHU to be cooled again together with the outdoor air. The temperature of air flow remains consistent as the system adapted for Setia City Mall is constant airflow system. The special feature of the AHU applied in SCM is that they are equipped with high efficiency motor and high performance fan with total combined efficiency is averaging at 65% (Setia Building Management Team, 2014). The AHU in Setia City Mall are separated into those for anchor tenants and general spaces in the mall. The AHU for the anchor tenants are located close to where their lots are. The other AHU are located at the roof level.
Figure 184.108.40.206(d) Cooling Coil work flow.
Figure 220.127.116.11(e) Photo of Blower
The cooling process is done by absorbing the heat from the air by inducing chilled water from the chiller through the cooling coil. The cold air is then distributed to the indoor spaces via air ducts. The warm water is then returned to the chillers.
Motorized damper with CO2 sensor
Figure 18.104.22.168(f) Photo of Motorized damper with CO2 sensor
Figure 22.214.171.124(g) Components of Motorized Damper (SCM,2014).
Setia City Mall incorporates motorized dampers and CO2 sensors to aid in the fresh air intake for the air-conditioning system. The distinction between motorized damper and manual dampers is the presence of power motor to operate the damper. In Air-Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation system, it has the ability to control specific temperature of various zones electronically. Allowing or blocking of air flow is able to control the air flow.(Michigan Precision Fabricators, Inc,2011).Thermostat is tied with motorized damper which specifically sends signals to motor.
126.96.36.199 Fan Coil Unit (FCU)
Figure 188.8.131.52(a) Fan Coil Unit.(Carrier Airconditioning & Refrigeration Ltd.,2012)
Fan Coil Unit is a simple devices consisting of a heating or cooling coil and a fan. There are 158 units of Fan Coil Unit. The function is to make the occupants in a certain space to achieve thermal comfort which is similar to AHU. The difference between AHU and FCU is the covered area. AHU are made to deliver treated air to several locations whereas FCU only serves a single zone. Majority of FCU in Setia City Mall are ceiling-mounted(horizontal) and floormounted(vertical). Chilled water is used as refrigerant.
Figure 184.108.40.206(b) Vertical cased fan coil unit..
Figure 220.127.116.11(c) Horizontal cased fan coil unit..
18.104.22.168 Air Cooled Split Unit
Figure 22.214.171.124(a) Air cooled split unit.
Figure 126.96.36.199(b) Difference in performance between conventional and inverter split unit. (Factory Direct Home Air Conditioning, 2013). Setia City Mall has a total of 19 nos. of these split air-conditioner unit. They are mainly used in isolated administrative and surveillance room. The split units installed are inverter type. It has total of 19 nos. of these split units. The units are installed in isolated administrative and surveillance rooms. The split air-conditioner consists of two parts: the outdoor unit and the indoor unit. The outdoor unit, installed outside the room, has components such as the compressor, condenser and expansion valve. The indoor unit comprises the evaporator or cooling coil and cooling fan. It can be used to cool a room or two. The significance of inverter air conditioning is that it achieves desired temperature in a much shorter time. The start up time is shortened by 30% with less noise production. It maximizes comfort level with no temperature fluctuations. There is no voltage peaks from compressor by using inverter air conditioning and in a long run, it is much cheaper than conventional air conditioning by 30% to 50%.(EcoAir, 2012).
188.8.131.52 Air Ductwork and Diffusers
Ductwork Air Handling Units Control Room Figure 184.108.40.206(a) Location of ductwork, AHU and control room. (SCM,2014).
Figure 220.127.116.11(b) Air ductwork and diffuser in maintenance room. . Connection between indoor spaces and AHU is accomplished by air ducts, refer to figure 18.104.22.168(a). The air ducts commonly used in Setia City Mall are circular and rectangular in shape. They function by pulling hot air with contaminants from the interior spaces and to be cooled. The treated cool air is then redistributed to the interior spaces. Thermal comfort is achieved by decreasing room temperature to desired temperature. Diffuser, as attached to the air ductworks, shown in figure 22.214.171.124(a), functions as the inlet by dispersing treated air into the rooms. Diffuser, commonly is the exposed component whereas ductwork is concealed in the suspended ceiling. There are two categories of ductwork system which are high velocity or low velocity. The determining factors of ductwork system are design parameters, air velocity and its static pressure. Ductworks have to operate at low velocity and pressure in standard practice. Overall pressure in the distribution system will be decreased with the unnecessary increase in length of ducts, which results in decline of efficiency. In contrary, return ductwork only requires lower pressure and is usually in low velocity.
1.3.2 Mechanical Ventilation System Mechanical Ventilation Systems circulate fresh air using air ducts and fans than to just rely on air flow through small openings on walls, windows or roof. It draws in fresh air through air “intake” vent and fan and duct system distributes the air to interior spaces. The system components comprise fans and the make-up air supply. The fans are used to create air movement while the make-up air supply is to deliver outside air into the building to make-up for the stale air to be extracted out. The air travels back to the AHU via ducting and mix with the outside air then to be directed back to the indoor spaces Benefits of Mechanical Ventilation System: • Better indoor air quality. Due to frequent activities in the mall, the level of pollution can sometimes be more polluted than outdoor air. Mechanical ventilation increases indoor air quality by removing pollutants, allergens and dehumidifies interior to prevent mold problem. • Provides more control. Ventilation relying on the openings such as doors, walls and roofs provides no control over the quality, source or volume of air that enters into interior spaces. In fact, air infiltration will happen at undesirable areas. With application of Mechanical Ventilation system, it provides fresh air from outdoor, allowing it to flow along with designated and appropriate spots for fresh air intake or exhaust. • Improved Comfort. Mechanical Ventilation filters and dehumidifies incoming outdoor air. It provides a consistent flow into the indoor spaces.
126.96.36.199 Exhaust Fan Exhaust fan is an important component in Mechanical Ventilation system which functions by venting out polluted air, particulates, smokes, moisture and undesirable odour in the interior air. Easy installation enables them to be installed quickly at wide variety of spaces. Bathrooms and kitchens which have higher amount of pollutants are the common places for installation of exhaust fan. High moisture content of air creates a conducive living environment for molds which causes health issues. Exhaust fans are installed to vent out warm and polluted air effectively (Conjecture Corporation,2014). In Setia City Mall, 13 units of kitchen exhaust fans and 45 units of smoke extraction fans are installed in Food and Beverage tenants to prevent contaminants such as cooking odors to affect indoor air quality of other spaces. It also removes grease in air which lingers in the kitchen to keep the indoor air clean. To replace the air exhausted by these fan, make up fans are installed to make up fresh air in the spaces. Figure 188.8.131.52(a) shows the number of units of exhaust fans present in Setia City Mall.(Setia Building Management, 2014) System
• • • • • • •
Kitchen Exhaust Fan Kitchen Make-up Fresh Air Fan Smoke Make Up Fan Smoke Extraction Fan Pressurization Fan Toilet Exhaust Fan Fresh Air Fan
13 13 23 45 36 30 9
Figure 184.108.40.206(a) Air ductwork and diffuser in maintenance room. .
Laws of Malaysia Uniform Building By-laws 1984 ACT 113 STREET, DRAINAGE AND BUILDING ACT 1974 SPACE, LIGHT AND VENTILATION Section 41 (4) Where permanent mechanical ventilation in respect of lavatories, water closets, bathrooms or corridors is provided for and maintained with accordance with the requirement of the Third Schedule to the By-Laws. The provision of the By-Laws relating to natural ventilation and natural lighting shall not apply to such lavatories, water closets, bathrooms and corridors.
220.127.116.11 Fresh Air System Fresh air is introduced into the building by fresh air fans. The system is to mix the outside air with higher oxygen level with the indoor air that circulates within the indoor spaces. It has components such as the filter and temperature sensors. The temperature sensors will determine the outside temperature and take in less air as the temperature rises.
Figure 18.104.22.168(a) Fresh Air System schematic diagram (Setia City Mall,2014).
22.214.171.124 Smoke Spill System
Figure 126.96.36.199(a). Photo of Smoke Spill Vent on roof top
Figure 188.8.131.52(b). Photo of Smoke Spill Vent on roof top
Smoke Spill System is created to extract smoke from an enclosed building to allow safe passage of the occupants to outside in a fire emergency case. On normal day, the system runs once a month to remove the indoor air and replace it with fresh air from the outside in Setia City Mall. The extracted air is made-up by the incoming air from AHU and through the main entrances of Setia City Mall refer to figure 184.108.40.206(c).
Stale air to outdoor
Incoming fresh air from outdoor
Figure 220.127.116.11(c). Mechanical ventilation operated by Smoke Extraction Fan.
Figure 18.104.22.168(d). Location of Smoke Extraction Fan on roof top.
1.4 Conclusion After conducting detailed case study, Setia City Mall has really lived up to its reputation of being a sustainable shopping mall in terms of both design and operation. Its ACMV system is well equipped to operate at highest efficiency. It is achieved by well-thought planning and zoning. In terms of planning, SCM developer, project management and building management staff decided to get the building to be cost-effective in long-run and maintaining the highest efficiency too. In terms of zoning, the respective components are closely placed to avoid energy wastage and the risk of malfunction, for example, the general AHUs, chiller plants and cooling towers are place in close proximity. Besides, SCM has done a excellent job in maintaining the cleanliness and condition of the equipment. The equipment room is clean and all the pipes and ducts are clearly labelled for ease of maintenance. The maintenance covers every aspects to ensure the condition of the equipment is at tip-top performance. The maintenance routine can be separated by daily, weekly, monthly and annually. Overall, the Air-conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation system in Setia City Mall is good as it incorporates many features to provide a comfortable indoor environment such as fresh air intake, CO2 sensors and motorized dampers. Furthermore, the chilled water in cooling towers is all cooled without any aid from chemical agents. As a result, the detailing from design to services has made it the most sustainable mall in Malaysia.
2.0 Electrical Supply System
2.0 Electric Supply System 24
2.1 Introduction Electricity is a necessity that is virtually impossible to be separated from life, period. Electricity powers our world. It is a set of physical phenomena associated with presence and flow of electric charge. Electricity is generally produced by electromechanical generators in power plants, depending on the type of power plant, they are generated using chemical combustion or nuclear fission. The latter is yet to be implemented in Malaysia. However, a more sustainable approach to generate electricity is through the use of natural kinetic energy from wind or flow of water. Electric distribution to buildings in Malaysia are subjected to local by-laws. There are several codes and standards needed to be followed by building services in order to be approved by respective authorities and run appropriately and effortlessly. In this chapter, it discusses the electrical power distribution systems applied in Setia City Mall, Shah Alam, Malaysia and introduces the application of the Uniform Building By-Laws (UBBL) of Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB). It also describes the apparatus, application principles and procedures for the operation of electric power distribution systems. An understanding of the basic design is essential in the operation of electric power systems.
2.2 Literature Review 2.2.1 Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) In Malaysia, electrical power is distributed by Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) in a nationwide scale. TNB is the main body to approach for new buildings to be built, as permission is needed for new lines of supply to be connected to new developments. Without, it will be impossible to proceed as electricity is needed to run these buildings. TNB Group has a complete power supply system that includes the National Grid. TNB, through its subsidiaries also involved in the manufacturing of transformers, high voltage switchgears and cables, architectural, civil and electrical engineering works and other related services.
Figure 2.2.1(a) Tenaga Nasional Berhad, Malaysia.
2.2.2 Electric-Power Distribution The first phase of electric-power distribution is the generation of electrical energy in power plants. Electricity produced is passed through a step-up transformer to significantly increase the voltage before it leaves the power station. It is then routed onto a network of high-voltage transmission line capable to efficiently transport electricity over long distances.
Figure 2.2.2(a) Transmission line that carries electricity of high voltages over long distances. Features can be distinguished by having physically higher towers. Then, electricity is removed from the transmission system and passed through a step-down transformer that lowers the voltage at the electric distribution substation. Electricity is later distributed via distribution lines accordingly. Only large consumers are fed directly from distribution voltages. Meanwhile, most utility consumers are connected to another distribution transformer (step-down) which reduces the distribution voltage to the relatively low voltage appropriate to the consumer. The system also requires customer to have a service drop connection that has a scale variable for respective customers and a meter for billing purposes.
Figure 2.2.2(b) Distribution line that carries electricity of low voltages that acts as the final stage in delivery of electricity to end users.
2.2.3 Generating Station A generating station is an industrial facility that generates electric power. Generators found convert mechanical power to electrical power by creating relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor. The energy source harnessed to turn the generator usually consume fossil fuels and natural gases. Cleaner renewable sources is also adopted in Malaysia through the use of hydroelectric, biomass, wind and solar.
Figure 2.2.3(a) The Temenggor Power Station in Grik, Perak that is hydroelectrically-powered and operated by TNB. (Source : olivejourney.blogspot.com)
2.2.4 Substation Substation is part of an electrical generation, transmission and distribution system. These units are generally owned by TNB. It is equipped with transformers that transform voltage from high to low or vice versa depending on the requirements and may pass through numerous substations before reaching the consumer.
2.2.5 Transformer A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction. It functions as either to increase or decrease the input voltage in a system. This unit found inside substations can installed by TNB or the respective owner depending on the needs. Transformer can be classified into two types, step-up transformer and step-down transformer and further classified to oil-based and dry type transformer. However, the transformer identified in Setia City Mall is a dry resin, step-down transformer as smaller voltages are required.
2.2.6 Battery Room Battery room house batteries for backup or uninterruptible power systems in the case of failure in the main system. It provides standby power to operate computing equipment during emergency.
2.2.7 Main Switch Board (MSB) The U.S. National Electrical Code (NEC) defines a switchboard as "a large single panel, frame or assembly of panels on which are mounted on the face, back or both, switches, over-current and other protective devices, buses, and usually instruments". It enables division of the current supplied to the switchboard into smaller currents for further distribution. It is also used to provide switching, current protection and metering
2.2.8 Capacitor Bank A capacitor bank composes of a group of capacitors that functions as to correct power lags and fluctuations of electricity supply into the building through the temporary increase of stored energy.
2.2.9 Electric Riser Prior to the construction of a building, spaces that are required for electrical rooms have to be allocated during the early planning and design process. This component consists of a set of electrical wiring placed in an area and vertically distributed to the floors above and later, distributed radially on each floor. Different components are also present alongside the main electrical supply. This unit acts as starting point from which electricians get directions to how the system is put together.
22.214.171.124 Generator Set (GENSET) Gensets are usually equipped in industries that require a constant and steady source of power. The generators can be classified into portable and stationary. The identified generators in Setia City Mall is a stationary type that runs on diesel.
126.96.36.199 Signal Distribution Frame (SDF) This component is a platform for signal distribution, processing and optical conversion tasks. This frame includes a built-in motherboard that provides module interconnections and a power distribution board for distributing power from the AC inputs to the power supplies. The most common kind of large main distribution frame (MDF) in relation to SDF is a long steel rack accessible from both sides. Termination blocks are arranged horizontally at the front of rack shelves on one side. Jumpers lie on the shelves and go through a steel hoop to run vertically to other termination blocks that are arranged vertically.
2.3 Case Study With reference to Setia City Mall, this chapter will cover the electrical system applied in this multi-storey building It will discuss the systems through analytical diagrams and photos to give an insight of the application of each electrical component used in the distribution system as well as the connections of electrical load. The codes and standards under the Uniform Building ByLaws of Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) is also included to highlight the response to the bylaws. Application principles and procedures for the operation of electric power distribution systems and associated major apparatus are presented. Figure 2.3(b) is a flow chart representing the electrical system found in this building. The components are to be discussed in order.
Figure 2.3(a) Electrical distribution block diagram of Setia City Mall from source to end consumer.
Figure 2.3(b) Electricity flow chart of Setia City Mall.
2.3.1 TNB Station Electricity generated from power station is often passed through a step-up transformer that increases the input voltage of 11 kV to 132 kV and distributed via transmission lines. The reason of hiking the input voltage is to compensate the loss of voltage during the transmission over a long distance. Electricity is directed to substations for further alterations. The electrical system of Setia City Mall is divided into two transfers; top and bottom. The bottom entry first passes through a TNB Metering Panel [figure 2.3.1(b) ]located at the meeting room before being transferred to the Consumer 33 kV Room. This panel is usually installed on the components found in the substation. In this case, an agreement have to be obtained from TNB for the installation of this unit prior to receiving the electrical load. It functions as to track the accuracy and other data collection purposes.
Figure 2.3.1(a)TNB Station (Source : ACG Organization, 2013)
Figure 2.3.1(b) TNB Metering (Electrical Works 6 - TNB seal, 2006)
2.3.2 33 Kv TNB SSU (Consumer Switch Room) In Setia City Mall, electricity from external source is channeled to a TNB substation unit to a bulk output of 33 kV in which half of this amount is used by the chiller system of the building. As opposed to most conventional electric supply of 11 kV, Setia City Mall has opted for a greater supply of 33 kV due to less interruption during transmission. The substation is part of an electrical generation, transmission and distribution system. During this process, electricity from existing PPU/PMU is redirected to the 33 kV TNB SSU located at the lower ground of this building as identified in the figure below. The location of SSU in this building can be explained in terms of practicality. Placement on the lower ground eases the access by technicians. It is also lifted up from the ground to prevent rain water or puddle from damaging the unit.
Figure 2.3.2(a) Location of TNB 33 kV SSU.(Setia City Mall, 2014)
Figure 2.3.2(b) TNB 33 kV Consumer Switch Room. The Consumer Switch Room (figure 2.3.2c) houses two TNB SSU units but only one is put to use. The reason being the other is reserved for emergency purposes such as shortage or leakage of electrical supply. During the case of emergency whereby one unit is no longer capable to supply the proper amount of load for the building, the charge man will activate the TNB SSU No. 2 that is connected to the No. 1 via an open-circuit bus coupler (figure 2.3.2d). The operation is aided using a remote control (figure 2.3.2e) or manually on by the charge man armed with Fire Rated Suit (FHS). The bus coupler functions as to balance the electrical load in these two units before being distributed to the other components. A DC supply is also installed on the SSU unit that provides protection for situations like current overflow which it breaks the circuit if so. A share unit is also provided in the consumer switch room that serves for future expansion needs. 32
Figure 2.3.2(c) Consumer 33 kV switch room that houses the TNB SSU which accepts the bulk voltage of 33 kV.
Figure 2.3.2(d) Bus coupler in between two TNB SSU. For safety purposes, high voltage insulating rubber / switchboard mat is placed at the ground to cut off the connection between human and ground during voltage leakage.
Figure 2.3.2(e) The open circuit bus coupler can be activated manually by a charge-man using a remote control.
The TNB SSU unit is equipped with a step-down transformer that converts the greater input voltage to manageable output voltages. From 33 kV received by an incoming feeder, the load is reduced to 11 kV aided by the transformer and sent to an outgoing feeder whereby the electricity is ready to be distributed to the next component. In between the process, electrical supply passes through the Neutral Earthing Resistor (NER) (figure 2.3.2g) that detects any fault and leakage of current in the transmission and the presence of unwanted current is transmitted back to earth. This is an important component in the system as it also limits the fault current to a value that does not cause any further damage to switchgear, generators or the transformer itself.
Figure 2.3.2(f) Feeder; incoming and outgoing (33 kV/11 kV) â€˘ Incoming feeder : accepts â€˘ Outgoing feeder : transmits
Figure 2.3.2(g) Part of the line of the Neutral Earthing Resistor (NER).
The system is also fitted with a circuit breaker and in this case, 33 kV breaker is present. It functions as to provide protection to the electrical circuit by detecting any fault condition and interrupt the current flow during events like short circuit or overload. Again, a bus coupler is connected to both circuit breakers that enable the functionality of both units through balancing during the case of emergency.
2.3.3 11 kV Substation Room The output load of 11 kV received by an incoming feeder in the 11 kV substation room is then transferred to another feeder and similarly, it passes through another step-down transformer that produces an output of 415 V. This amount is then directed via an outgoing feeder to provide energy for the main chiller board, chiller board, chiller tower system, water pump system, AHU switchboard and sprinkler system.
Figure 2.3.3(a) 11 kV substation room located at the rooftop that is locked out from public (only ranked charge man is allowed to enter and handle the components.)
Figure 2.3.3(b) 11 kV/415 V transformer inside the substation.
Incoming feeder in the substation room atop of the building receives a bulk load of 11 kV.
Switchgear installed on the system panel to functions as a double protection for the overall system. It can be manually operated (on/off) using the switch by a certified charge man.
The 11 kV load is transferred to this stepdown transformer that reduces the load to an output voltage of 415 kV. Labeled as 11 kV/0.433 kV was due to the older system provided by TNB. However, the system has been charged as per now to 11 kV/0.415 kV. 415 V load is then passed to the outgoing feeder before being distributed to other components or use.
DC supply unit that detects any unstable electricity during transmission and subsequently cuts the circuit of the system.
NER 11 kV Breaker
Panel for incoming supply of 415 V. AHU room that utilizes the 415 V load. Summary of the flow of electricity in the 11 kV substation room : 36
However, the output of 415 V to 240 V is not aided by a transformer but through the use of wiring phase system before making it available to end consumers. The 240 V load is usually supplied to electrical appliances in this building. Every electrical transmission to tenants of this building passes through individual kWH meter panel that records the use of energy throughout a monthly basis for billing purposes. Apart from that, energy sub-meters, digital power meters (DPM) are also provided for all major energy-use equipment such as chiller, pump, cooling towers, AHUs, FCUs, lifts and escalators and car park appliances. Separate sub-metering is also provided for lighting and small power in common areas on each floor. All these digital power meters are linked to a Central Management System (CEMS) that monitor, record and control the use of energy.
Figure 2.3.3(c) Left digital power meters (DPM) and right Central Energy Management System (CEMS).
2.3.4 Transformer Transformer unit of this building is found indoor inside substations located at the lower ground of the building (figure 2.3.4a). The location is prioritized to allow sufficient ventilation to cool down the transformer units. The type of transformer is a dry type (air-filled transformer). The transformer room is separated from the Main Switch Board (MSB). Besides, metering equipment must not be installed within the distribution transformer room (figure 2.3.4b). It is highlighted that all access to the electrical room should be restricted to authorized personnel only but exceptions are made depending on the nature of the facility and may include items such as security, central or remote controls and interconnection with other facilities.
Figure 2.3.4(a) Location of 33 kV transformer room which houses several units of transformers.
Figure 2.3.4(b) Transformer unit found inside the room (step-down transformer).
Related Regulation Ts-108-technical Standard For Distribution Equipment And Transformers Room 8.5 Avoidance of Services and Encroachments The distribution transformer room enclosure must be free of encroachment into required floor and trench areas. Columns, beams, footpads and walls may occupy certain areas specifically shown on the distribution transformer room plans, providing it does not interfere with the location of consumer mains, conduits, trenches, ventilation ducts and distribution transformer room equipment. Ensure that the location of the distribution transformer room does not allow services such as drains, sewers and piping to pass through the : • Distribution transformer room space, Access passageways, • Ventilation ducts, Distribution transformer room walls, • Distribution transformer room floors, Distribution transformer room ceiling. The space next to all distribution transformer room access doors must be kept clear at all times.
The codes when designing for the electrical system typically for multi-storey buildings can be identified after studying the components found in this building. The design rationale varies depending on the scope of the equipment to be installed, is as below : 1. Floors may be reinforced to support heavy transformers and switchgear. 2. Walls and ceilings may have to support heavy cable tray system or busbars. 3. Sufficient ventilation or air-conditioning in the space to compensate the heat produced by operating equipment so that the heat generated does not rise beyond the tolerance level of the equipment. 4. Double doors may be installed to allow maintenance of large equipment. 5. Special provisions may be made for access by utility personnel if presence of utility service entrance equipment and metering. 6. Fire detection and suppression systems such as carbon dioxide, argon gas (as found inside TNB SSU) or water sprinklers may be installed. 7. Every completely enclosed switchgear room, emergency generator room or transformer vault should be equipped with an emergency light source for illumination.
2.3.5 Main Switchboard (MSB) The switchboard room is Setia City Mall is a low-voltage type. This room is located at the lower ground and segregated from other electrical rooms (figure 2.3.5a). This room houses the main switchboard which is a large, free standing assembly of switches, fuses and circuit breakers. The role of a switchboard is to allow the division of the current supplied to the switchboard into smaller currents for further distribution. It also enables switching of the system, current protection and metering instruments (figure 2.3.5b) to track and collect the data of the various currents. It also distributes bulk power into smaller packages that is securely protected.
Figure 2.3.5(a) Location of MSB.
Figure 2.3.5(b) Main switch board panel.
Figure 2.3.5(c) Components on the main switchboard panel : [left] Control equipment [middle] Main circuit breaker with adjustable trip [right] Metering unit
The codes when designing for the electrical system typically for multi-storey buildings can be identified after studying the components found in this building. The design rationale is as below : 1. Shape of the space housing the MSB can be in accordance to the architectâ€™s intention but should provide one or more locking doors and vertical stacking, above and below other electric closets so that it does not block conduits entering or leaving horizontally. 2. Electrical spaces should be free of other utilities such as piping or ducts passing through the closet, either horizontally or vertically. 3. Sufficient wall space is needed to mount for all requisite and future panels, switches, transformers, telephone cabinets and communication equipment. 4. Wall cabinet space must be coordinated with raceway connections to be under floor ducts and over the ceiling raceway systems. 5. Provision of sufficient floor space for electrician to work safely and comfortably. 6. Space should have adequate illumination and ventilation.
2.3.6 Electrical Riser
Figure 2.3.6(a) Schematic drawing of the electrical distribution of Setia City Mall.
Figure 2.3.6(b) [left] Location of the electric riser in Setia City Mall. [right] Electric riser. Cables are fire resistant and mounted on a cable tray. (Source : Electrical Installation Wiring Pictures blog, 2010)
With reference to (figure 2.3.6a), it is identified that a total of six electrical risers were found on each floor of the building. Each unit of electrical riser is located in an electrical closet (figure 2.3.6c) next to the AHU system and chiller of the building. The 415 V load is transferred to each floor via the riser and towards the motor which can be identified based on (figure 2.3.6b). `
Figure 2.3.6(c) Electrical closet that is located at the same place on each floor of the building. It can only be attended by authorized personnel. Laws of Malaysia Uniform Building By-laws 1984 ACT 113 STREET, DRAINAGE AND BUILDING ACT 1974 FIRE ALARMS, FIRE DETECTION, FIRE EXTINGUISHEMENT AND FIRE FIGHTING ACCESS. Section 240. Electrical Isolating Switch 1. 2.
Every floor or zone of any floor with a net area exceeding 929 square meters shall be provided with an electrical isolation switch located within a staircase enclosure to permit the disconnection of electrical power supply to the relevant floor or zone served. The switch shall be of a type similar to the firemanâ€™s switch specified in the Institution of Electrical Engineers Regulations then in force.
2.3.7 Distribution Board Also known as panel board or breaker panel, this component functions as to divide an electrical power fed into subsidiary circuits. Each circuit is accompanied by a protective fuse or circuit breaker in a common enclosure as protective features. The placement of a distribution board depends on the specific type, number and the availability of space. In this building, the distribution boards are found in electric closet which also housed the electrical riser conduits. The primary aim of this component is to limit the voltage drop on the branch circuit in accordance with code requirements. Therefore, the board is placed appropriately that the circuit does not exceed 30 m (100 feet) in length. However, in special cases like 15-A or 20-A branch circuit that requires longer span, a different apparatus is used instead. In that case, No. 10 American Wire Gauge (AWG) wire is replaced to be used for runs exceeding 30 m (30 â€“ 46 m/100 â€“ 150 feet) and No. 8 AWG for even longer circuits. In most cases, the circuit is normally wired with No. 12 AWG wire.
Figure 2.3.7(a) Distribution board (415 V).
Figure 2.3.7(b) Common wire sizes. ( Source : CarsonDunlop.com, 2011)
The codes when designing for the electrical system typically for multi-storey buildings can be identified after studying the components found in this building. The design rationale varies depending on the design and nature of the building, is as below : 1. Sufficient working spaces around major pieces of electrical switch gear and transformers. 2. Electric closets are provided to house all electrical supply equipment (usually for large building). 3. Power panels and distribution panels are located as required by the loads fed through them. 4. Generally, branch circuit panels, distribution panels and switchboards are best located near the electrical load center to minimize feeder length and reduce voltage drop to achieve an economical arrangement.
2.3.8 Battery Room The battery room is located beside the Consumer 33 kV Switch Room (TNB Substation) at the lower ground of the building as shown in (figure 2.3.8a). The placement of this room is often fixed next to the main substation room whereby reliable power is require to run the systems and components of the substation such as switchgear, critical standby systems and possibly black start of the station. The battery room provides energy during emergency cases for the operation of electrical systems to run the building. Often batteries for large switchgear line-ups are 125 V or 250 V nominal systems and features redundant battery chargers with independent power sources. However, additional battery room may be provided for added advantage during cases of loss of the station due to a fire in the battery bank. Stations that are capable of black start (process of restoring the operation of a substation without relying on the external power transmission network, TNB) takes energy from the batteries. It can also be used for switchgear operations and to provide energy for illumination during generator repairs in the event of generator failure or power shortage.
Figure 2.3.8(a) Location of battery room.
Figure 2.29 Battery units found inside the room. 45
Laws of Malaysia Uniform Building By-laws 1984 ACT 113 STREET, DRAINAGE AND BUILDING ACT 1974 FIRE ALARMS, FIRE DETECTION, FIRE EXTINGUISHEMENT AND FIRE FIGHTING ACCESS. Section 253 Emergency Power System 1. Emergency power system shall be provided to supply illumination and power automatically in the event of failure of the normal supply or in the event of accident to elements of the system supplying power and illumination essential for safety to life and property. 2. Emergency power systems shall provide power for smoke control systems, illumination, fire alarm systems, fire pumps, public address systems, fire lifts and other emergency systems. 3. Emergency systems shall have adequate capacity and rating for the emergency operation of all equipment connected to the system including the simultaneous operation of all fire lifts and one other lift. 4. All wiring for the emergency systems shall be in metal conduit or of fire resisting mineral insulated cables, laid along areas of least fire risk. 5. Current supply shall be such that in the event of failure of the normal supply to, or within the building or group of buildings concerned, the emergency lighting or emergency power, or both emergency lighting and power will be available within 10 seconds of interruption of the normal supply. The supply system for emergency purposes shall comprise one or more of the following approved types : a) Storage Battery Storage battery of suitable rating and capacity to supply and maintain at not less than 871/2 percent of the system voltage the total load of the circuits supplying emergency lighting and emergency power for a period of at least 11/2 hours; b) Generator Set A generator set driven by some form of prime mover and of sufficient capacity and proper rating to supply circuit carrying emergency lighting or lighting and power with suitable means for automatically starting the primer mover on failure.
2.3.9 End Consumer The end consumer of Setia City Mall can be divided into two major categories which are the 415 V users and the 240 V users (chiller system utilizes 11 kV load). The 415 V users are discussed earlier. In this last section, it will discuss on the usage of 240 V electrical load in this building. In Setia City Mall, most of the 240 V electrical load is distributed for the usage of electrical appliances found throughout the building. The most common appliance is the downlight which is found spreading on the ceilings of each floor. The electricity connected to this equipment provides power for the bulb that illuminates the spaces. In the attempt to save energy since this building highlights the green features, lux sensors are also installed in main spaces such as the main entrance and corridors of the building. This helps to save unnecessary energy by automatically turning the lights off when the lighting level goes beyond 50 lux. In addition, motion sensors were fitted at the entry way of corridors, lift lobbies, toilets and staircases that detects motion and relatively cuts the circuit to the lightings when the space is not occupied, usually after operation hours. The extent of passive day lighting and efficiency of artificial lighting is achieved through painting the ceiling of the building to a light tone; white. It optimizes the reflective luminosity and reduces heat gain into the building.
Figure 2.3.9(a) Lightings inside the SSU room.
Figure 2.3.9(b) Down light and other electrical appliances.
Figure 2.3.9(c) Sensors (Source : SCM, 2014)
Figure 2.3.9(d) Lightings in car park space. (Source : SCM, 2014) 47
Laws of Malaysia Electrical By-laws Electricity Supply Act 1997 [Act 447] Apparatus, Conductor, Accessory Etc. Regulation 15 Any conductor or apparatus that is exposed to the weather, water, corrosion, undue heating or used in inflammable surroundings or in an explosive atmosphere shall be constructed or protected in such a manner as to prevent danger. Switch, Switch Fuse, Fuse Switch, Circuit Breaker, Contractor, Fuse Etc. Regulation 16 3. Any fuse or circuit breaker shall be : a) Constructed and arranged in such a manner so as to break the current when it exceed a given value for a sufficient time to prevent danger and b) Constructed guarded or placed in a manner as to prevent danger of overheating, arcing or from the scattering of hot metal or other substances.
2.4 Maintenance Emergency Procedure 2.4.1 Power Failure – Low Voltage • Check the probable cause of the power failure. The power failure may due to HT side or other technical problem. • Charge man on duty to ensure that the genset is able to run after the changeover period as programmed. • Charge man to ensure that the genset is run automatically and the fuel is sufficient to cater for such failure. • Charge man to energize coupler system. • An announcement or circular to tenants may be necessary if the period of power failure is prolonged after notification to General Manager of Centre Management.
2.4.2 Power Failure – High Voltage • Check the probable cause of the power failure. The power failure may due to TNB or other technical problem. • Charge man on duty to ensure that the genset is able to run after the changeover period as programmed. • Charge man to ensure that the genset is run automatically and the fuel is sufficient to cater for such failure. • Charge man to notify TNB on such power failure. Kindly contact 15454 (TNB Careline). • An announcement or circular to tenants may be necessary if the period of power failure is prolonged after notification to General Manager of Centre Management.
2.5 Conclusion To sum up the research of this section, the electrical distribution of Setia City Mall go hand-tohand with laws and code requirements in order to create a system that runs smoothly as intended and also ensure the operation of the building. Multiple site visits were conducted as well as interviews done with the personnel together with photographs collected provides the information to this research. Photographs and notes were examined and compiled to get an understanding of the electrical system in this building. In can be concluded that this research gives an overview of the system and the relationship with the requirements such as by-laws by TNB and UBBL.
3.0 Vertical Transport System
3.1 Introduction This chapter investigates the transport system in Setia City Mall, divided into escalator and elevator. Each component in both elevator and escalator is explained and analyzed with the aid of diagram and pictures.
3.2 Literature Review 3.2.1 Escalator An escalator is a â€œmoving staircaseâ€? that is power-driven, and continuously moving to transport passengers up and down with no waiting interval. It consists of a motor-driven chain of individual, linked steps that constantly moving up or down on tracks, allowing the step treads to remain horizontal. Escalators have the capacity to move large numbers of people without wasting much space, because they can be placed in the same space as the install of a staircase. Escalators have three typical configuration options: parallel, crisscross and multiple parallel. Setia City Mall has escalators in few strategic locations with parallel and multiple parallel arrangements.
3.2.2 Elevator An elevator has a higher efficiency that moves people or goods between floors in a building, thatâ€™s powered by electric motor. The elevator can be divided into 3 main types, which are hydraulic system elevator, traction system elevator and motor room-less system. The system used for the case studying building Setia City Mall is motor room- less elevator (MRL) system. This system can eliminate the need of fixed machine room.
3.3 Case Study Laws of Malaysia Uniform Building By-laws 1984 ACT 113 STREET, DRAINAGE AND BUILDING ACT 1974 CONSTRUCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS Section 124 For all non-residential buildings exceeding 4 stores above or below the main access level at least one lift shall be provided. FIRE REQUIREMENTS Section 152 Clause 152(1) every opening in a lift shaft or lift entrance shall open into a protected lobby unless other suitable means of protection to the opening to the satisfaction of the local authority is provided. These requirements shall not apply to open type industrial and other special buildings as may be approved by the D.G.F.S
Machine Room-less Elevator Machine room-less elevator employs a smaller shaft than conventional geared and gearless elevators. They do not have dedicated machine room above the elevator shaft. The shaft size is reduced together with a redesigned machine, allows the machine to be mounted within the hoistway and eliminating the space needed for a bulky machine room on the elevator cab. Besides, it also saves energy compared to geared elevators, with the usage of powerful permanent magnet gearless machines that â€œsticks the to the motor permanently.
Figure 3.3(a). Elevator Components (Setia City Mall, 2014)
Double scissors and side by side Escalator This arrangement of escalators allows continuous flow of users with the need of segregation of space to another escalator. Besides, this fastens the movement of passengers to multiple levels at a point instead of constraining it to specific one direction flow of traffic.
Figure 3.3(b). Escalator Arrangement
Parallel Escalator Space needed for a pair of parallel escalator is less compared to double scissors arrangement of staircase.
Figure 3.3(c). Escalator Arrangement
3.3.1 Elevator Gearless Machine Governor Regenerative Driver Polyurethanecoated steel belt Door System
Figure 3.3.1(a). Location of elevators. (Setia City Mall, 2014)
Figure 3.3.1 (b). Components of elevator. (Setia City Mall, 2014)
188.8.131.52 Regenerative driver System used is energy-efficient elevator technology that uses regenerative driver to regenerate energy and feeding it to the buildingâ€™s system. Energy is recycled rather than wasting it. This is so because electrical motors are reversible machines, they can function as motors or as generator. A motor behaves as motor and as generator at the same time. While a motor is doing mechanical work, it generates a force acting as generator, but the force is lower than the battery voltage. However, in certain cases the force produced may overcome the battery, the motor act as a generator.
Figure 184.108.40.206(a). Regenerative Driver. (OTIS,2014)
220.127.116.11 Gearless Machine It used in high-rise applications whereby the drive motor and drive sheave are connected in line on a common shaft. It requires minimal space requirement by eliminating the traction machine gearbox. Unlike traditional induction motors that lose efficiency at lower speeds, this machine is equipped with a highly efficient permanent magnet synchronous motor. The innovative design for gearless machine lead to the refinement and highefficiency, building space saving.
Figure 18.104.22.168(a). Gearless Machine. (http://www.fujielevator.com.my, N/D)
22.214.171.124 Polyurethane-coated steel belt Machine room-less system uses flat polyurethane-coated steel belts that replace the heavy woven steel cables. There are several advantages to using these belts, the belts make the smaller sheave possible, they are only 3mm thick, yet they are as strong as woven steel cables and far more durable, flexible, and space-saving. In terms of space saving, the flexible flat belt enables a more compact, energy-efficient machine, which can be contained in the hoistway. Lying beneath the polyurethane coating of the belt are 588 high-tensile strength steel wires with zinc plating to minimize corrosion. Besides, the polyurethane coating avoids metal-to-metal contact that reduces noise and vibration. Moreover, flat polyurethane-coated steel belts last longer compared to conventional steel ropes, two to three times longer life span.
Figure 126.96.36.199(a). Polyurethane-coated steel belt (OTIS, 2014) 55
188.8.131.52 Governor A governor is an elevator device acting as a stop device in case the elevator runs beyond the rated speed, an overspeed governor must be installed in the traction elevators. When an elevator reaches a predetermined overspeed, the switch located in a governor opens and power is removed from the machine motor and brake. The braking mechanism that operates in response to movement of the elevator by motion transmission means, delays or impedes the elevator car. However, the switch remains open and the elevator remains disable until the switch is manually re-set. In machine room-less elevators, the governor is located in the hoistway, therefore accessing the resetting a governor overspeed switch is time consuming, complicated and costly.
Figure 184.108.40.206 (a). Speed Governor (OTIS, 2014)
220.127.116.11 Door System Automatic doors in an elevator are essential to keep people from falling down an open shaft. A typical elevators use two different sets of doors: doors on the cars and doors opening into the elevator shaft. The doors on the cabs are operated by an electric motor, which is hooked up to the elevator computer. The electric motor turns a wheel that is attached to the door and therefore the door can slide back and forth on a metal rail. The computer turns the motor to open the doors when the car arrives at a floor and close the doors before the car starts moving again. Almost all elevators have a motion sensor system that keeps the doors from closing whenever somebody is between them.
Figure 18.104.22.168 (a). Two Panels Side Opening landing Door (http://www.weiku.com, N/D)
22.214.171.124 Safety System
(a) Building Management System
Setia City Mall is equipped with the latest building management system that provides centralized monitoring and control of all major M & E services in the building. Whenever thereâ€™s problem in the elevator system, control room will be notify and rectify immediately.
Figure 126.96.36.199(a). Building Management System (Setia City Mall, 2014)
Figure188.8.131.52(b). Buffer (http://www.escalator-elevator.com, N/D)
A buffer is designed to stop a descending car or counterweight beyond its normal limit and to soften the force with which the elevator runs into the pit during emergency occasion. Oil Buffer is more commonly found on traction elevators with speeds higher than 200 feet per minute. This type of buffer uses a combination of oil and springs to cushion a descending car or counterweight that is located in the elevator pit.
(c) Overspeed Governor Over-speed governor functions to actuate the safety gear if the car speed exceeds 115% of its rated value. Usually a cable is attached to the governor. When over-speeding is detected, the governor grips the cable and stops the car.
Figure 3.3.2(a). Location of escalators. (Setia City Mall, 2014)
Figure 3.3.2(b). Escalator Components (http://www.mitsubishielectric.com, N/D) 58
184.108.40.206 Top and Landing Platform These two platforms are located at the curved sections of the tracks, the gears and motors that drive the stairs are situated below the platforms. The top platform contains the motor assembly and the main drive gear, while the bottom holds the step return idler sprockets. Both platforms contain a floor plate that provides a place for the users to stand before stepping onto the moving stairs. Besides, at the ending of the platform places a combplate, between the stationary floor plate and the moving step. The design of the combplate is designed to be like a comb, minimize the gap between the stairs and the landing, also to prevent objects from getting caught in the gap. The plate is removable to allow access to the machinery below during maintenance and servicing.
Figure 220.127.116.11(a). Placement of combplate (http://www.electrical-knowhow.com, N/D)
Figure 18.104.22.168(a). Hollow Truss (http://www.electrical-knowhow.com, N/D)
22.214.171.124 Truss This is a hollow structure that connects the lower and upper landings which is composed of two side sections joined together with cross braces across the bottom and the top. The trusses are attached to the top and bottom landing platforms usually with steel or concrete supports. The truss carries all the straight track sections connecting the upper and lower sections. The structural steel truss members are designed to carry the entire load of the escalator equipment and the steel covering with live load on top. The entire structure must be rigid enough to maintain loads from users and machineries.
126.96.36.199 Tracks The track system is built into the truss to guide the step chain, which continuously pulls the steps from the bottom platform and back to the top in an endless loop. There are two tracks; one for the front wheels of the steps and one for the back wheels of the steps. The continuous positions of these tracks cause the steps to form a staircase as they move out from under the combplate. At the top and bottom of the escalator, the two tracks converge so that the front and back wheels of the steps are almost in a straight line. This causes the stairs to lay in a flat sheet-like arrangement, one after another, so they can easily travel around the bend in the curved section of track. The tracks carry the steps down along the underside of the truss until they reach the bottom landing, where they pass through another curved section of track before exiting the bottom landing. At this point, the tracks separate and the steps once again assume a staircase configuration. This cycle is repeated continually as the steps are pulled from bottom to top and back to the bottom again.
Figure 188.8.131.52(a). Major Track Components (http://www.electrical-knowhow.com, N/D)
184.108.40.206 Steps Each step in the escalator has two sets of wheels, which roll along two separate tracks linked by a continuous metal chain that forms a closed loop. The upper set (the wheels near the top of the step) are connected to the rotating chains, and so are pulled by the drive gear at the top of the escalator. The other set of wheels simply glides along its track, following the first set.
Figure 220.127.116.11(a). Steps Component (http://www.electrical-knowhow.com, N/D) 60
18.104.22.168 Handrail & Balustrade The handrail is pulled along its track by a chain that is connected to the main drive gear by a series of pulleys. It moves along on top of the balustrade in synchronized with the step. The balustrade consists of the handrail and the supporting structure of the escalator that is usually made out of glass. It is the escalator exterior components extending above the steps and it supports the handrail.
Figure 22.214.171.124(a). Escalator Railings and Balustrade.
126.96.36.199 Safety System
Figure 188.8.131.52(a). Balustrade. (Setia City Mall, 2014)
Figure 184.108.40.206(b). Foot indication. (Setia City Mall, 2014)
(a) Additional barricade
(b) Foot indication & Yellow boundary
The use of an additional deck barricade prevents children from climbing over the escalatorâ€™s balustrade.
Feet marking were added for children to make sure they stand inside the yellow boundary and on top of the markings. 61
Figure 220.127.116.11(c). Foot indication. (ThyssenKrupp Elevator Americas, 2014) (c) Skirt Brushes Skirt brushes are intended to prevent passenger foot entrapment within the gap between the moving steps.
3.4 Conclusion Setia City Mall uses the new technology of elevators, the motor room-less elevator. It consumes comparative fewer amounts of the building energy and space. Using this elevator system saved spaces. Besides, it consumes less energy and come of the energy generated were returned to the buildingâ€™s usage. Lift and escalator bring convenience to the passenger to travel between different floor levels, for safety reason, vertical transport system should be safe and comfortable. After this thorough research on Setia City Mall, it can be concluded that the construction and the design of the vertical transportation system has achieve the requirement of UBBL (Uniform Building By Law) and some parts were designed more than required.
4.0 Fire Protection System
4.0 Fire Protection Systems 4.1 Introduction This chapter will review the fire protection systems in Setia City Mall. Divided into active and passive systems, each feature and the components will be discussed in detail with the functions, purposes and locations explained with the aid of diagram and pictures.
4.2 Literature Review Fire is a kind of oxidation known as combustion which has a triangle of needs: fuel, high temperature, and oxygen. If any of these needs are deprived, building fires can be extinguished. Common sources of ignition are chemical, electrical, and mechanical. Products of combustion like the flame and heat are extremely dangerous which can cause serious burns, dehydration, heat exhaustion, and fluid blockage of the respiratory tract. But the most abundant and deadly product of combustion is the smoke and gases such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, which causes most of the fire deaths in buildings. Besides that, fire is also divided into few types, classified by the types of fuel they burn.
Class A Fire that result from in ordinary combustible such as wood, paper, fabric and other ordinary materials.
Class B For fire involving flammable liquids such as petrol, oil, diesel, paint and etc.
Class C Suitable for use on fire cuased by flammable gases such as butane, Methane and etc
Class D Designed for use on flammable metals and are often specific for the type of metal in question. e.g. sodium, titanium, magnesium & potassium
Class E Suitable for use on electrically energized fires. Combustion of circuit breaker, wires, outlets, and other electrical equipment
To prevent and reduce the damage of properties and harm towards the occupants of a building from fire, a lawgoverned fire protection system is essential. Four common design intents of building fire safety, in order of importance, are protection of life, protection of building, protection of components and lastly protection of operation.
4.3 Case Study The fire protection of Setia City Malls features both passive and active systems for fire detection, evacuation, and extinguishing.
4.3.1 Active Fire Protection The active fire protection is a system that protects the building and its occupants from fire with methods that use the action of moving parts. These systems can be either automatic or operated manually, but they require some sort of mechanism to detect and extinguish fire.
18.104.22.168 Fire Detectors and Alarm Systems
Figure 22.214.171.124(a) Single Line Diagram (Setia City Mall, 2014)
126.96.36.199.1 Signal Initiation Mechanism Laws of Malaysia Uniform Building By-laws 1984 ACT 113 STREET, DRAINAGE AND BUILDING ACT 1974 FIRE ALARMS, FIRE DETECTION, FIRE EXTINGUISHEMENT AND FIRE FIGHTING ACCESS Section 225 (1) Every building shall be provided with means of detecting and extinguishing fire and with fire alarms together with illuminated exit signs in accordance with the requirements as specified in the Tenth Schedule to these Bylaws. Smoke and Heat Detectors Smoke detectors are devices that are designed to detect smoke from a fire in early flame stages.
Figure 188.8.131.52.1 (a) Smoke Detector
Figure 184.108.40.206.1(b) Heat Detector
The type of smoke detectors that can be found in Setia City Mall are the spot type units, which are placed along ceilings. When smoke is detected, these detectors function by signaling the control panel in the Fire Control Room and trigger the fire alarm to alert the occupants.
Besides that, heat detectors can also be found in Setia City Mall. These heat detectors detect fire when the temperature reaches around 117째C or when there is a sudden rapid rise of temperature. Like smoke detectors, they send signal to the control panel and trigger alarm to alert occupants.
Other than the conventional smoke detectors, Beam Smoke Detectors can also be found in Setia City Mall. These detectors are placed near the roof level and function by projecting a beam of light to detect smoke. When a certain amount of light is blocked by smoke, the detectors signal the Fire Control Room and trigger the fire alarm.
Break Glass / Manual Call Points Besides automatic systems, manual systems are also provided in Setia City Mall so that when a fire is discovered, occupants can activate the fire alarm at instance.
Figure 220.127.116.11.1 (c) Break Glass A break glass is a device with a frangible element, typically glass that can be broken by occupants of the building to signal the Fire Control Panel. In Setia City Mall, these break glasses are located at several places such as on the escape route, near staircases, lift lobbies, corridors which leads to toilets and back of house and so on. These break glasses are placed within 30 meters from the nearby call points to ensure that they are easily accessible by occupants of the building. Break glasses are also placed at a height of 1.4m above floor so that it is reachable.
18.104.22.168.2 Signal Processing Systems Laws of Malaysia Uniform Building By-laws 1984 ACT 113 STREET, DRAINAGE AND BUILDING ACT 1974 FIRE ALARMS, FIRE DETECTION, FIRE EXTINGUISHEMENT AND FIRE FIGHTING ACCESS Section 238 Every large premises or building exceeding 30.5 metres in height shall be provided with a command and control centre located on the designated floor and shall contain a panel to monitor the public address, fire brigade communication, sprinkler, waterflow detectors, fire detection and alarm systems and with a direct telephone connection to the appropriate fire station bypassing the switchboard. Fire Control Room and Equipment
Figure 22.214.171.124.2 (a) Fire Control Room (Setia City Mall, 2014)
Figure 126.96.36.199.2 (b) Fire Mimic Panel
When signal is sent from either automatic smoke detectors or manual call points, the fire control room and equipment acts as the middle verification mechanisms. The fire control panel, located in the control room is connected to all automatic and manual signal initiation mechanism. Other mimic panels connected to the main panel is located in the building management office and outside of the cinema. Once fire is detected, the fire panel is able to identify the location where the signal is sent, allowing action to be taken almost immediately. Besides that, there is also a direct telephone connecting to the fire station which allows the building managers to contact the fire brigade at instance. The fire control room in Setia City Mall is located at the back of the mall on the ground level, only accessible by staffs and building managers. The control room is also monitored 24 hours by several trained guards which have the knowledge of all the building management systems used in the building.
188.8.131.52.3 Fire Alarm Notification Appliances Laws of Malaysia Uniform Building By-laws 1984 ACT 113 STREET, DRAINAGE AND BUILDING ACT 1974 FIRE ALARMS, FIRE DETECTION, FIRE EXTINGUISHEMENT AND FIRE FIGHTING ACCESS Section 237 (2) All the premises and buildings with gross floor area excluding car park and storage areas exceeding 9290 square metres or exceeding 30.5 metres in height shall be provided with a two-stage alarm system with evacuation (continuous signal) to be given immediately in the affected section of the premises while an alert (intermittent signal) be given in adjoining section. Fire Alarm Buzzer and Strobe For manual call points, after the break glass has been broken, the fire buzzer above that particular call point will be activated and the strobe will flash signal lights. After that, the person in charge in the control room will then only activate the other buzzers once the signal is verified.
Figure 184.108.40.206.3 (a) Fire Alarm Buzzer and Strobe
Whereas for automatic fire detecting systems, such as the smoke detectors and water flow detectors in sprinkler systems, alarms are triggered automatically when smoke is detected, or when water movement is detected in the sprinkler systems.
The fire buzzers are also placed with the frequency such that if there is a fire, the alarm can be distinctively heard by occupants apart from background noises. Besides that, the requirement for the volume of fire buzzer is between 15dBA to 120dBA.
220.127.116.11 Fire Extinguisher Laws of Malaysia Uniform Building By-laws 1984 ACT 113 STREET, DRAINAGE AND BUILDING ACT 1974 FIRE ALARMS, FIRE DETECTION, FIRE EXTINGUISHEMENT AND FIRE FIGHTING ACCESS Section 227 Portable extinguisher shall be provided in accordance with the relevant codes of practice and shall be sited in prominent positions on exit routes to be visible from all directions and similar extinguishers in a building shall be of same method of operation. Portable Fire Extinguishers Portable fire extinguishers are device to control or extinguish small fires with firefighting substances in emergency situations. In Setia City Mall, fire extinguishers can be found in many prominent places such as the entrances, exits, lift lobbies, corridors that leads to toilet, and so on.
EMERGENCY ESCAPE ROUTE EMERGENCY STAIRCASE
Figure 18.104.22.168 (a) Example of placement of fire extinguishers along emergency escape routes (Setia City Mall, 2014)
Figure 22.214.171.124 (b) Dry Powder Extinguisher
Figure126.96.36.199 (c) Corbon Dioxide Extinguisher
Types There are two common types of fire extinguisher available in the mall. The most used type of extinguisher in the building is the dry powder type (also known as ABC powder) because of its ability to control fire of classes A, B, C and E (solids, liquids, flammable gasses and electrical equipment). The other type is the carbon dioxide extinguisher which is suitable for classes B and E (liquids and electrical equipment).
188.8.131.52 Water Supply and External Fire Hydrant Laws of Malaysia Uniform Building By-laws 1984 ACT 113 STREET, DRAINAGE AND BUILDING ACT 1974 FIRE ALARMS, FIRE DETECTION, FIRE EXTINGUISHEMENT AND FIRE FIGHTING ACCESS Section 225 (2) Every building shall be served by at least one fire hydrant located not more than 91.5 metres from the nearest point of fire brigade access.
Figure 184.108.40.206 (a) Typical external fire hydrant system with water supply. (Fire Control Engineering Sdn.Bhd.,2008)
Figure 220.127.116.11 (b) Water Supply Pump
Figure 18.104.22.168 (c) External Fire Hydrant with Hose Reel
Water for firefighting is supplied directly from water supplying department with its own pump, red in colour, separately from water for domestic uses. Fire hydrants are outlets that are placed at strategic locations to supply water with sufficient pressure and flow to the fire engine. They enable firefighting with immediate and sufficient water supply during emergency. A fire hose is also provided right beside the external hydrant.
22.214.171.124 Dry Riser System Laws of Malaysia Uniform Building By-laws 1984 ACT 113 STREET, DRAINAGE AND BUILDING ACT 1974 FIRE ALARMS, FIRE DETECTION, FIRE EXTINGUISHEMENT AND FIRE FIGHTING ACCESS Section 230 (1) Dry rising systems shall be provided in every building in which the topmost floor is more than 18.3 metres but less than 30.5 metres above fire appliance access level.
Figure 126.96.36.199 (a) Diagrammatic Layout of Dry Riser System in Setia City Mall (Setia City Mall, 2014)
Fulfilling the UBBL requirements, the Setia City Mall uses dry riser system in the building. The dry riser system is a type of fire extinguishing system which functions as the main vertical pipe for internal water distribution. The pipe is usually maintained empty of water under normal circumstances.
Figure 188.8.131.52 (b) Breeching Inlet concealed in locked cabinet
Figure 184.108.40.206 (c) Landing Valve(Champion Fire Safety,n/d) As seen in figure above, the dry riser system consists of pipe work and landing valves that enable water to be distributed to all levels of the building. When there is a fire, dry riser inlet, which is located on the ground floor, is accessed by fire engine to pump water into the system for firefighting purposes. Landing valves on each level are fitted into the vertical pipe as an outlet for water. They are usually concealed in a locked cabinet. 74
220.127.116.11 Hose Reel System
Figure 18.104.22.168 (a) Diagrammatic Layout of Hose Reel System (Setia City Mall, 2014)
The hose reel system is a firefighting system which consists of hose reel tank, pump, pipe work, valves and hose reels to be used during early stages of fire. Hose reels are mainly placed near lift lobbies, escape routes, major fire risk areas and access points. Some of them are placed in recessed closets.
FIRE TANK ROOM
Figure 22.214.171.124 (b) Location of the Fire Tank Room (Setia City Mall, 2014)
Figure 126.96.36.199 (c) Hose Reel Tank
Figure 188.8.131.52 (d) Hose Reel Pump
Hose Reel Tank and Pump The hose reel tank is located in the fire tank room at the back of the mall on ground level. It serves as the water storage for hose reels. The hose reel tank in Setia City mall has a nominal capacity of 14.5m3 and a effective capacity of 9.5 m3. Water is pumped to each hose reels by two sets of pumps at a running pressure of 120 litres per minute on average.
Hose Reels SHOPPING MALL
EMERGENCY ESCAPE ROUTE EMERGENCY STAIRCASE
Figure 184.108.40.206 (e) Typical placement of hose reel nearby lift lobbies and emergency escape routes (Setia City Mall, 2014)
Figure 220.127.116.11 (f) Hose Reel
Figure 18.104.22.168 (g) Instructions explained on Hose Reel
Hose reels in Setia City Mall are placed at most 30 metres away from the next. Each hose reel discharges water at a maximum working pressure of 1.2MPa in a 30 metre length rubber hose. The hose reels used in Setia City Mall are SRI hose reels that are SIRIM approved.
22.214.171.124 Sprinkler System Laws of Malaysia Uniform Building By-laws 1984 ACT 113 STREET, DRAINAGE AND BUILDING ACT 1974 FIRE ALARMS, FIRE DETECTION, FIRE EXTINGUISHEMENT AND FIRE FIGHTING ACCESS Section 228 (1) Sprinkler valves shall be located in a safe and enclosed position on the exterior wall and shall be readily accessible to the Fire Authority. (2) All sprinkler systems shall be electricity connected to the nearest fire station to provide immediate and automatic relay of the alarm when activated.
Figure 126.96.36.199 (a) Diagrammatic Layout of Sprinkler System in Setia City Mall (Setia City Mall, 2014)
The sprinkler system functions to detect, control and extinguish fire. It comprises of sprinkler tank, pump, pipework, valves and sprinkler heads. Setia City Mall uses the wet pipe system where pipework is filled with water and is ready to discharge water once the bulb breaks. 78
Sprinkler Tank and Pump SHOPPING MALL
FIRE TANK ROOM
Figure 188.8.131.52 (b) Location of the Fire Tank Room (Setia City Mall, 2014)
Figure 184.108.40.206 (c) Sprinkler Tank
Figure 220.127.116.11(d) Sprinkler Pump
Together with hose reel tank and pump, the sprinkler tank and pump are also located in the fire tank room. The tank is made of reinforced concrete and has a nominal capacity of 344.4 m3 and effective capacity of 218 m3. The water level is also displayed through an indicator outside of the tank. The water from sprinkler tank is also pumped by two sets of electric motor driven pumps. Besides that, a jockey pump is also used to maintain pressure in piping system at a high level so that a pressure drop can be sensed automatically when fire sprinkler is activated, then activating fire pumps.
Sprinkler Pipes and Heads Laws of Malaysia Uniform Building By-laws 1984 ACT 113 STREET, DRAINAGE AND BUILDING ACT 1974 FIRE ALARMS, FIRE DETECTION, FIRE EXTINGUISHEMENT AND FIRE FIGHTING ACCESS Section 248 (1) Wet riser, dry riser, sprinkler and other fire installation pipes and fittings shall be painted red.
(e) Pendant Sprinkler Head
(f) Concealed Sprinkler Head
(g) Upright Sprinkler Head
In Setia City Mall, sprinkler pipes are made of galvanized iron to prevent corrosion and are painted in red gloss as required in the UBBL. As for sprinkler heads, several types of different heads can be found, including the pendant, upright and concealed sprinkler heads. The pendant and upright sprinkler heads are normally found in less public spaces like the operating rooms whereas in public areas in the mall, the sprinkler heads are concealed. Besides that, these sprinkler heads are also placed 2-2.5 meter apart from one another, to ensure that there is at least a single sprinkler for every 12 square meters.
Figure 18.104.22.168 (h) Diagram of Concealed Sprinkler (Senju Sprinkler Company Limited,n.d.) All the sprinkler heads detects heat with a red, heat-detecting liquid filled glass bulb. When the temperature reaches 68째C or 73째C in kitchen areas, the bulb which acts as a valve bursts, allowing water in the pipe to be released and sprayed over fire to extinguish fire. As for the concealed sprinkler type, all mechanisms are the same, except that these sprinkler heads has a cover which automatically drops when heat is detected to allow the sprinkler head to function. 80
22.214.171.124 Argonite Extinguish System In crucial and important spaces such as the electricity and computer system rooms, water sprinkler is not applicable as water can cause severe damage to important appliances and documents. Therefore, the argon nitrogen extinguish system is used.
Figure 126.96.36.199 (a) Argonite Cylinders
Figure 188.8.131.52 (b) Nozzle
Argon nitrogen systems consist of the cylinder, steel piping, discharge nozzles, heat and smoke detectors. Argonite is a clean agent, consisting of 50% argon and 50% nitrogen. Like normal sprinklers, the detectors detect heat and smoke and then activate the system. Once activated, argonite will be discharge through a nozzle to extinguish fire by reducing oxygen content in the air. Although argonite does not reduce oxygen from air completely like CO2 systems does, it is still important to make sure that no occupants are in the room when the gas is discharged for safety reasons.
Figure 184.108.40.206 (c) Indicator
Figure 220.127.116.11 (d) Panel and Manual Activating Device
An indicator and a panel are normally placed outside of the room where argonite system is used. When the light turns red, it means that argonite gas is being discharged. Placed under the panel is a manual activating device, where the system can be activated manually by turning the key.
18.104.22.168 Smoke Spill System
Figure 22.214.171.124 (a) Diagram of a typical Smoke Spill System (C2D Solutions Pte Ltd.,2012) A smoke spill system is designed to remove smoke from an occupied building to allow occupants to escape the building safely. It usually consist of large fans to draw smoke from the building, dampers and vents that open in a fire to allow the smoke to exit the building with the aid of smoke barriers
Figure 126.96.36.199 (b), (c) Axial Exhaust Fans connected to the building
The exhaust ventilators in Setia City Mall are located on the rooftop. Their function is to mechanically remove smoke from the atrium of the building with large axial fans. When a certain amount of smoke is detected in the mall, these axial exhaust fans will start operating by sucking out the smoke to the rooftop, allowing smoke and harmful gasses to exit the building while occupants escape.
Figure 188.8.131.52 (d) Smoke Curtain in the Mall
Figure 184.108.40.206 (e) Smoke Curtain in Substation Room
Smoke curtains are used to help by channeling the smoke to appropriate areas in the building to limit the spread of smoke while it is still within indoors. These barriers also help to control the flow of smoke to the open areas. In Setia City Mall, automatic smoke curtains are used in the indoor areas of the malls and in fire risk areas such as the electricity room. Linked to the fire alarm and detectors, once smoke or heat is detected, these smoke curtains are rolled down automatically to prevent the movement of smoke and heat from one area to another in a fire by channeling or containing the smoke and heat. The curtains are made out of fire rated fabric, which are capable of withstanding hot air and smoke at temperatures up to around 600 ยบC for maximum 120 minutes.
220.127.116.11 Pressurized Staircase System
Figure 18.104.22.168 (a) Diagram of Pressurized Staircase System (Setia City Mall, 2014)
Figure 22.214.171.124(b) Pressurized Stairwell
Pressurizing systems are designed to protect the fire staircase against smoke in the event of a fire. The system is activated when the fire alarm is triggered. When the fans start to operate, the fire escape stairs will be gently pressurized with fresh air, which prevents hazardous smoke and gasses from entering.
4.3.2 Passive Fire Protection Passive fire protection is an important part of the fire protection system in a building to contain and slow the spread of fire with proven fire performance properties built into the structure to provide stability and separate the building into areas of manageable risk. These are designed to restrict the growth and spread of fire allowing the occupants to escape or the fire fighters to do their job. Such protection is either provided by the materials from which the building is constructed, or is added to the construction materials to enhance their fire resistance.
126.96.36.199 Zoning and Compartmentalisation The Setia City Mall is a large building which consists of a mixture of large stores, small retail shops and other mixed used public spaces such as the car park. Each of these spaces has a different level of potential fire hazard. Since fire normally poses danger to only the area where it is started, it is important to compartmentalize and zone the indoor spaces to avoid fire from spreading.
Red Zone Car Park
Figure 188.8.131.52 (a) Zoning of areas in Setia City Mall (Setia City Mall, 2014) Setia City Mall itself is divided into three zones, which are the green, blue and red zones, each with access to the car park areas and entrances. The zoning of the spaces allows the fire control room manager to recognize the location of the area with fire detected easily. Fire compartmentalisation is also another vital part of any fire safety design. Compartmentalisation is referred in many different ways such as fire walls (and floors); fire separation; protected corridors / stairs etc. It is basically the division of a building into cells, using construction materials that will prevent the passage of fire from one cell to another for a given period of time. The most common feature of compartmentalisation that we all use and see on a day to day basis is a fire door.
184.108.40.206 Structural Fire Protection Fire Proofing
Figure 220.127.116.11 (a) Spraying of insulation layer
Figure 18.104.22.168 (b) Insulation as seen in Seta City Mall
One of the basic measures of passive fire protection is by fire proofing. To ensure the building structure is able the withstand heat during excavation, these safety measures must be taken into consideration in early stages of design and construction, especially the choice materials used. In Setia City Mall, the structural fire protection includes the usage of gypsum based plaster spray as fireproofing of steel beams and other structural components. By applying endothermic material like this plaster to the structure, it will make the structure possess fire resistance rating. As for wall, ceilings and floor, cementitious products are used to provide fire proofing. Besides that, ductworks attached to the ceiling are also protected by fire proof light weight duct wrap.
Fire Wall and Floor Laws of Malaysia Uniform Building By-laws 1984 ACT 113 STREET, DRAINAGE AND BUILDING ACT 1974 FIRE REQUIREMENTS Section 222 (2) Any compartment wall or separating wall shall, if each side of the wall is separately exposed to test by fire, have fire resistance for not less than the minimum period of not less than fifteen minutes.
Figure 22.214.171.124 (c) Components of a Fire Wall (National Gypsum Company, 2007) Fire wall is a partition made of fireproof material to prevent the spread of a fire from one part of a building to another or to isolate an important space compartment. These walls are designed to resist fire for up to approximately 2 hours before failure. Fire-rated floor and ceiling in Setia City Mall is also built in the way that it can resist the fire for some time before failure..
Figure 126.96.36.199 (d) Components of fire rated floor (Imperial Building Products, n.d.) 87
Fire Door Laws of Malaysia Uniform Building By-laws 1984 ACT 113 STREET, DRAINAGE AND BUILDING ACT 1974 FIRE REQUIREMENTS Section 164 (1) All fire doors shall be fitted with automatic door closers of the hydraulically spring operated type in the case of swing doors and of wire rope and weight type in the case of sliding doors. Buildings are compartmentalized to delay the spread of fire from one area to another. These compartments are usually linked by fire doors to allow the flow of traffic around the building. Basically, fire doors have two main functions in a fire which is when closed they form a barrier to stop the spread of fire and when opened they provide a means of escape. These doors are also designed to provide resistance for up to 2 hours.
Figure 188.8.131.52 (e) Fire Door Fire door has an automatic door closer such that in the event of evacuation the door will remain shut when no one is entering. This is to prevent fire from spreading into the area when occupants are escaping through the escape routes such as the staircase.
Figure 184.108.40.206 (f) Automatic Door Closer (Connevans Limited.,2014) 88
220.127.116.11 Means of Escape Laws of Malaysia Uniform Building By-laws 1984 ACT 113 STREET, DRAINAGE AND BUILDING ACT 1974 FIRE REQUIREMENTS Section 167 (1) Except as provided for in-law 194 every compartment shall be provided with at least two storey exits located as far as practical from each other and in no case closer than 4.5 metres and in such position that the travel distances specified in the Seventh Schedule to these By-laws are not exceeded. Means of escape is the structural means or design whereby a safe route is provided for person to travel from any point in a building to a place of safety beyond the building without outside assistance.
Figure 18.104.22.168 (a) Distribution of Fire Escape Stairs (Setia City Mall, 2014)
A fire escape route of a building consists of a number of horizontal escapes platform at each floor of a building with the connection to the staircase. To ensure occupants are able to escape within a short amount of time, the exits and fire escape stairs are located at most 45 meters from each other as required by UBBL. 89
Figure 22.214.171.124 (b) Vertical Escape
Figure 126.96.36.199 (c) Fire escape Staircase
Fire escape staircase is the most important element of the fire escape route. This is because it allows occupants run from the upper levels to get to the safe open air in the ground floor. Besides that, the stairs shall be protected by fire resisting construction and be able to prevent fire from entering because once the occupants have entered the exit staircase, they shall be protected (from exposure to fire risk and obstacles) during running down the staircase to the final exit at ground level. Pitch lines, riser and thread dimensions are designed to be as consistent as possible as people tend to find a rhythm ascending or descending stairs.
These are the requirement of an escape staircase: •Flights of stairs have more than 3 risers • Tread- not less than 255mm and risers- not more than 180mm • Depth of landing cannot be less than the width • Tread and riser dimensions must be constant to prevent users from tripping and falling in the event of a fire. • Width of staircase cannot reduce along its path • Winders are not used in fire staircases
Emergency Light and ‘Keluar’ Sign Laws of Malaysia Uniform Building By-laws 1984 ACT 113 STREET, DRAINAGE AND BUILDING ACT 1974 FIRE REQUIREMENTS Section 172 (1) Storey exits and access to such exits shall be marked by readily visible signs and shall not be obscured by any decorations, furnishing or other equipment. (4) All exit signs shall be illuminated continuously during periods of occupancy.
Figure 188.8.131.52 (d) Keluar Sign
Figure 184.108.40.206 (e) Emergency Light
When there is a fire, normally the electric supply of a building will be cut down to prevent the leakage of electric and explosion. The cut down of the electric supply will lead to failure of the lighting system in the building. At this moment, emergency light will automatically switched on with high level of illumination to lead the occupants to the exits. It is powered by batteries. Besides that, during the cut down of electric, the ‘Keluar’ sign will also be lighten up to show the way to the nearest exits. Every ‘Keluar’ sign is designed as a pictogram of a man running through a door is used, with the ‘KELUAR’ word, and it is all in capital and in white to make it clear from the bright green background of the board.
Figure 220.127.116.11 (f),(g) Assembly Area Assembly area is a safety place that emergency routes and exits will lead to. During the evacuation, the final destination will be the assembly area. It is a location that comprised of open space, easy access from the building, and capable of holding all of your structure's occupants safely. It is an outside location at least 50 feet from the building, away from roads and walkways used by emergency vehicles.
4.4 Conclusion In conclusion, Setia City Mall has a very sufficient fire protection system. Systems such as smoke spill systems and argonite extinguish systems are rare and expensive. Therefore from the choice of systems used in the building, we can see that Setia City Mall puts the safety of occupants and the mall as its top consideration when it comes to fire protection. Besides that, the system also strictly follows and fulfills the requirements by Uniform Building By-laws, ensuring the sufficiency and efficiency of the system. Inspections are also done yearly by the official Fire & Rescue Department of Malaysia. After rectifying issues suggested by the officials, the license will then be renewed. This is to make sure that the systems and their components are functioning properly at all times.
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