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Driving a 24/7 Economy


Welcome Message

From Claudia Coenjarts, Director ILO Office for the Caribbean, International Labour Organization On the Occasion of the Publication of the Fourth Edition of the

Barbados Employment Compass

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s the speed at which our societies change intensifies, so does the transformation of our labour markets. There are both positive and negative interpretations of the scenarios ahead of us, but to a large extent the future of work is not what dawns on us, but rather really what we make it. The active engagement of the social partners to make decent work central in the discourse is more critical than ever. Many important questions have to be answered: 1.  What does work mean to us and how is that changing? 2.  Where will the future jobs come from; what will they look like; and how will we make them decent? 3.  What will the enterprise look like under ever-continuing fragmentation and globalization of production? 4.  How do we regulate and monitor jobs in the gig economy, in the new workspaces that emerge, under ever more flexible working arrangements as we now can work anywhere anytime? As the International Labour Organization prepares for its centenary in 2019 in a context of great uncertainty and insecurity—a context of fear that the direction of change in the world of work is away from, not towards, the achievement of social justice—its Future of Work Initiative could not be timelier. The founders of the ILO made social justice the ultimate goal of an organization whose everyday business is the world of work. That mandate remains unchanged and still relevant nearly 100 years later, but the challenges are different, more complex, and so the solutions demand greater cooperation, innovation, negotiation and dialogue. The challenge before us is not to stop the change. That is not possible. Moreover, the technological revolution has the potential of allowing us to create a better world, with greater social and economic progress and in a sustainable manner. This potential can be realized, but only if we manage the process. Managing the change is where our energies need to be concentrated. In this regard, the social partners need to come together in a climate of respect and cooperation, knowing that the objective must be a way of managing that creates “wins” for both workers and business – employment and profits. The progress that is possible is still far from our reality. Achieving the potential requires that we do away with the rising inequalities in our societies, that we promote and maintain rights at work, secure employment, safety and health at the workplace, social protection, and that we make sure conditions of work do not deteriorate. We must use the principles of the Decent Work Agenda to shape work today as well as the future of work. Change is unavoidable. The question to ponder and address is: how do we secure fair outcomes for all as we strive for a more just future?

Claudia Coenjarts

www.BarbadosEmployers.com

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BEC

editor’s letter & credits

EMPLOYMENT Journal of the Barbados Employers’ Confederation

2017 edition Publisher Miller Publishing Co. Ltd. Editor Brittany Brathwaite on our cover:

Advertising Sales Tao Howard tao@millerpublishing.net

Nigel Worme and Michael Worme of COT Holdings Ltd in Barbados. Read Brittany’s feature on page 16 of our HR Management section, to learn how this company is already involved in Driving a 24/7 Economy.

PrePress Assistant Kaylie Miller Design and Layout Tao Howard

From the desk of the Editor

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Brittany Brathwaite | brittany@barbadosemployers.com Editor, 2017 Edition | Labour Management Advisor, BEC

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BEC Employment Compass

Cover photographer

Andrew Browne Photography concept, design & layout Tao Howard

2014 edition

Employment Compass is an initiative of the Barbados Employers’ Confederation

In this Edition:

Rayside Construction Ltd. buiLds stRong with the bEC & Competency based Education

2015 Edition

ynamic and evolving are two words we often hear used to describe The Changing Nature of Work and Employment Relations. The theme for this year’s edition Driving a 24/7 Economy was inspired by one of the ILO’s upcoming centenary initiatives namely, The Future of Work. Driving and enshrining international initiatives at the national and regional level is a critical strategic aim for the BEC, as we hope to prepare our constituents and the general public alike, to meet the challenges and exciting new trends which are emerging as we approach the new century. After celebrating our 60th anniversary this year we certainly appreciate the importance of history. Nonetheless, we equally understand the need to be ever prepared for what the future holds. This edition provides comprehensive scholarly articles and case studies around the theme, regarding Industrial Relations practices and Human Resources trends. Additionally, critical reviews by international and regional contributors highlighting legal issues. Much like Employment Relations around the world, the publication continues to evolve. As our mandate at the BEC is to serve as a proactive advocate for our members, it is my hope that once again the information provided proves to be reader friendly, rouses further national discussion on all topics addressed and propels employers to consider the practical recommendations and tools offered as we aim to continuously...Make Good Employers Better...

BEC Photography Vincent Tempro

BEC_EmploymentCompass_2015.indd 1

8/7/15 11:07 AM

2015 edition

Edgehill, St. Thomas, Barbados, W.I. T: (246) 421 6700 | F: (246) 421 6707 info@millerpublishing.net MillerPublishing.net MyGuideBarbados.com ©2017 Miller Publishing Co. Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without the prior written permission of the publisher.

2016 edition

While every care has been taken in the compilation of information contained in this guide, such information is subject to change without notice. The publishers accept no responsibility for such changes.


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Go for Excellence! CALL NISE at (246) 426 4186 or info@nisebarbados.org www.BarbadosEmployers.com

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BEC from our exec

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s we approach the Centenary of the ILO in 2019, we have been challenged to address the matter of The Future of Work. Some suggest that we should be addressing Work of the Future as societies grapple with the rapidly transforming nature of work. As Barbados and the rest of the Caribbean becomes more integrated into the Global economy, the competitiveness of our products and services will require greater focus. Our various actors, Government, Business and Labour must recognise that the old paradigms which structured and governed the relationships amongst ourselves and our external environment have changed. The international environment in which we trade, driven by rapidly evolving Information and Communications Technologies, mandates that we are open for business, when the rest of the world is. While this is recognised by many in our society, there continues to be a reluctance to accept the need to make a decisive change to embrace the new realities. It is not possible to stop change! The challenge is to embrace the changes and adapt to them to build a better world which creates positive outcomes for all parties; without sustainable enterprises, there will be no sustainable employment. Recent analysis indicates that in general terms new technological changes will not necessarily or directly lead to high unemployment, but will undoubtedly require workers to learn and update skills much more quickly than in the past. The key difference compared with earlier technological revolutions is the speed of transformation enabled by the pace of new learning capacities of machines and the fact that, this time around, automation is affecting the service sector intensively. The way businesses are operating is also changing; new and innovative companies are already “operating globally without being big”. A powerful online network will make a critical difference to their development and the availability of appropriately tailored services will also be crucial. At the same time, autonomous, output/results-based, and project-oriented tasks and jobs could be increasing, allowing people to shape their own career under less rigid structures and divisions and within constantly changing teams and networks. This, together with the emergence and expansion of the on-demand economy, could mean that the classical employment relationship gives way to a more detached, mutual self-interested culture that is often more transient. In this context, workplace flexibility, both in terms of working time and location, is one of the most salient characteristics of the new world of work. With the proclamation of the Shops Act, 2015-30 in Barbados, the way has been cleared for organizations to have the flexibility to offer opening hours over longer periods and schedule staff resources accordingly. The future is now! Change is the only constant.

Anthony ‘Tony’ Walcott Executive Director, BEC

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BEC Employment Compass

From the desk of the EXEC

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he movie The Lion King made the song Circle of Life popular. The song reminds us that we are all on a journey and it would seem as though my journey has come full circle and led me to return to the BEC. On March 14, 2011 I joined the Barbados Employers’ Confederation as an Industrial Relations Officer. During the following four years, I worked alongside my colleagues to contribute to the development of the BEC and witnessed the evolution of the BEC brand and services. After I joined Unicomer Barbados Ltd. as Human Resources Manager, I observed with pride the excellent work the Council and Secretariat of the BEC continued to do: lobbying for member’s interests, forming alliances with national, regional and international stakeholders and continuously diversifying the services based on the business climate and driven by member needs. The industrial relations environment both nationally and regionally will always be dynamic and it is important to be acutely aware and well versed in the multi-faceted areas which contribute to or impact on Labour Relations. As Executive Director, I am committed to maintaining and fortifying all that has been achieved as well as building new areas that positively impact the labour market. I’ve committed to ensuring proactivity in BEC’s efforts as we embark on this journey together. I look forward to working with my vibrant and talented team, to continue serving our members, advocating for their interests and providing information and services which cumulatively lend to a sustainable environment for all enterprises. I see my return to the BEC as coming full circle and therefore this is not a “Welcome Back” rather, a “Welcome Home”. While the ‘circle of life’ moves us all, I look forward to going on this journey with you.

Sheena Mayers-Granville, BSc, MSc Incoming Executive Director, BEC


OUR PEOPLE, OUR GREATEST RESOURCE COMMITTED TO THEIR GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT AND SUCCESS THROUGH OUR PARTNERSHIP WITH THE BARBADOS EMPLOYERS CONFEDERATION.

CAVE SHEPHERD & CO. LTD AND ASSOCIATED COMPANIES

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T 629-4400

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BEC

about us & training opportunities

Advertisers Index Automotive Art Barbados Public Workers’ Co-operative Credit Union Cave Hill School of Business COT Holdings Ltd. Duty Free Caribbean FundAccess KPMG NISE Profiles Caribbean Sagicor Life Inc. SOL TVET Council University of the West Indies Williams Industries

About the BEC What is the BEC? Barbados Employers’ Confederation (BEC), founded in 1956, is a membership based private sector organization that seeks to represent its members on an array of issues. These issues include Industrial Relations, Human Resource Management and Occupational Health and Safety. We keep our employers abreast of current trends via our publications, open forums and numerous training programmes year round. Our Services Industrial Relations | Human Resource Management | Training | Research | Advocacy | Change Management | Occupational Safety & Health Mission The Barbados Employers’ Confederation promotes and maintains harmony in the employment relationship by being the employers’ primary advocate and advisor assisting in the amicable settlement of disputes, as well as facilitating social dialogue. Our wealth of expertise and research capacity, allow us to provide targeted, proactive solutions. Vision The Barbados Employers’ Confederation will emerge as the membership organization of choice, promoting the viability and success of local and regional businesses through the provision of high quality and professional human resource and industrial relations solutions. The bec by numbers (as at July 2017) 239 Direct Member Companies | 111 Indirect Member Companies 22,440 Employees covered | 8 BEC Employees (more about us on facing page) 60 years in operation; we celebrated on July 31!

5 23 25 IFC 5 27 19 3 27 BC 13 25 31 3

Training Schedule The BEC offers the following N/CVQ Qualifications: Management: Level 2 & 3 | CVQ Occupational Safety & Health: Level 2 & 3 | NVQ Human Resources Management: Level 3 | NVQ Motor Vehicle Operator: Level 2 | NVQ

Soon to be offered: Business Administration Level 1 - NVQ Industrial Relations Level 3 - NVQ 2017 Training Schedule September 12 Business Administration Level 1 - NVQ 5:30 - 7:30 pm - 8 weeks Investment: Early $800 / Late $1,050 October 3 Management Level 3 - CVQ 5:30 - 7:30 pm - 12 weeks Investment: Early $1,250 / Late $1,500 To be eligible for early registration, registration forms and payment must be received one week before the scheduled programme date. All cancellations must be communicated no later than 48 hours before the scheduled training, in order to qualify for a refund. All bookings will be deemed as confirmed and billed, unless cancelled on or before the aforementioned period. REFUNDS will not be granted to no-shows. At the BEC, customized training programmes can be provided for in-house requirements upon request.

Braemar Court, Deighton Road, Brittons Hill, P.O. Box 33B, St. Michael T: (246) 435-4753 or 271-5257/58 | F: (246) 435-2907 becon@barbadosemployers.com | barbadosemployers.com

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BEC Employment Compass

For our 2018 schedule or for more information visit barbadosemployers.com or email training@barbadosemployers.com


BEC

about us & contents

Our Team

SECTION

Table of Contents

THE EXECUTIVE

Human Resource Management Industrial Relations Law & Guidance Welcome Letter from the International Labour Organization From the desk of the Editor & Credits From the desk of the Exec About the BEC/BEC Training Schedule Advertisers Index Our Team BEC Greening Initiative What’s Trending in HR? Help! I’ve Never Done This Before! To Quote a Minister Barbados Labour Statistics Feature Articles Essentials of Collective Bargaining: Finding the Best Balance COT Holdings: Pioneering the Future of Work Adapting Employment Regulation to the Modern Economy Trendsetter in Focus Beep Cab/ Beep Bus: Building a Business for the Future Guest Submissions Technology As Our Way Forward: A Minister’s Perspective Understanding the Future of Work Rise of the Humans Selecting a Value Fit The Benefits of Smart Cities for Small States and the Role of the University BEC Submissions Types of Flexible Working Arrangements Performance Management: A Productivity Driver Building Human Capacity: The Secret to Corporate Success Complexities in Driving Change Employee vs Independent Contractor New Culture Paradigm: Safety as a Value Discrimination and its Impact on Health & Safety in the Workplace BEC Guidance Notes Sexual Harassment

Tony Walcott

1 2 4 6 6 7 IBC 35 35 35 37

Sheena Mayers-Granville

Executive Director

Incoming Executive Director

Charismatic and calm in the most chaotic situation

Ability to organize anything and anyone. A touch of OCD? Maybe…

LABOUR MANAGEMENT ADVISORS

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Occupational Safety & Health Specialist

Melony James

Brittany Brathwaite Human Resources Specialist

Change Management Specialist

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BEC’s in-house chef; the ability to make a meal with any ingredients

The youngest in the office and blessed with the gift of the gab

The ability to sell ice to an eskimo, her sale skills are second to none

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Kara Sealy

TRAINING COORDINATOR 29

This year we wish to highlight our team’s areas of expertise and reveal their secret superpowers

10 12 19 22

Shanika Best

30

Training and Development A certified lay preacher and BEC’s unofficial counsellor

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ADMINISTRATIVE TEAM

24 26 28 32 34

Yvonne Cheltenham 38

Shirley Ellis

Latoya Russell

Secretary Treasurer

Office Assistant

Administrative Assistant

The employee with the busiest social calendar

33yrs of tenure, she is a repository of knowledge for all things BEC

The newest member to the team and a stickler for details

www.BarbadosEmployers.com

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Essentials of Collective Bargaining: Finding the Best Balance Robert ‘Bobby’ Morris

Barbados Ambassador to CARICOM caricom@foreign.gov.bb

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ollective bargaining, grievance handling, organizing and advocacy, are some of the most significant strategies used by industrial relations practitioners. Collective Bargaining is probably the most complex of the strategies, as it calls for competence in several areas including economics, accounting, law, logic, emotional intelligence, psychology, among others. As experts have pointed out, individual bargaining is significantly different from collective bargaining. In the exercise of individual bargaining between two parties over salaries/wages, and terms and conditions, one party to the resulting contract agrees to “work”, the other agrees to “pay”; thus the “pay-work nexus” is firmly established. The parties to the collective agreement, the trade union and the employer, do not establish the same “pay-work nexus”. The union does not agree to provide work: that is left to the individual members of the union; nor does the union derive a monetary benefit from the employer as a result of the transaction. The major output of collective bargaining is the collective agreement, or the “Web of Rules”, as has been so clearly articulated by the late great scholar of Industrial Relations, Professor John Dunlop. The demands for economic and non-economic terms and conditions submitted by the trade union or the employer will normally include a mixture of “interest proposals”, and an upward adjustment or improvement of “rights” already in existence. For those who see collective bargaining as a problem-solving exercise, the bargaining table represents a place where efforts are made to engage in “win-win” approaches, along

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BEC Employment Compass

In circumstances of a depressed economic situation, there is often a call for more emphasis on gain-sharing, productivity bargaining, performance related pay, including non-monetary rewards, but there has been no concerted push to institute these highly acclaimed strategies into our collective bargaining practice. This type of collective bargaining emphasizes problem-solving approaches. above: A view of the 2017 protest in Barbados in response to the NSRL levy

Photo compliments Loop Barbados News


Industrial Relations social partnership

the “getting to yes” methodology exemplified by the “Harvard negotiation” school. On the other hand, the bargaining table may be seen as a field of battle, where instead of using ‘weapons of destruction’, strategies designed to frustrate peaceful cooperation, and compromise, are constantly engaged. At its best, collective bargaining can be a magnificent exercise of intellectual sophistication, where well-tuned minds employ social dialogue in the furtherance of a common goal; at its worst, it can be a cacophony of conflicting interests, expectations and results. It would appear to be axiomatic that the ‘contestants’ sitting across the table to engage in collective bargaining will have differences, but there will be commonalities that they share. The logical assumption is that the workplace must be capable of managing for growth, sustainability and continuity; that it is imperative that the financial health of the enterprise is the major consideration in any collective bargaining exercise. The enterprise has to satisfy an array of internal and external customers, and other business relationships, many of whom have no seat at the bargaining table, but for whom consideration has to be given. In countries like Barbados, there is no law requiring the sharing of financial information of enterprises with trade unions; but in my experience as a practitioner of industrial relations, there is easy access to information to financial information on the government, and while parastatal enterprises are often delinquent, or very far behind in providing financial reports, there is no ban to obtaining their information. It is very difficult to gain financial reports from private limited liability companies. In the case of public companies, information is available, but sometimes the hierarchical structure of companies which have regional and international reach can be very complicated and it is often difficult to establish the true financial status of the local branch or division of the enterprise. Bargaining is not the central focus of collective bargaining; negotiation is. The main problematique in negotiation is seldom in the sphere of non-economic issues. The reality is that, with few exceptions, trade unions negotiate for conditions that are already established in law, custom or practice. Sometimes trade unions may negotiate on new variants. For instance: Holiday Leave and Maternity Leave are provided in law. The trade union can use negotiating to improve on legal provisions, or trade unions may request paternity, or bereavement leave, not legally provided for, but clearly standing in familial relationship to other types of leave. The main problem in collective bargaining which engages the mental agility of skilled negotiators, is determining the optimum wage/employment fund in an enterprise, and reaching an agreement on how that fund is to be maintained over the years. Is 30% of the employer’s gross revenue to comprise the wages/employment fund? Or is it 40%, 50% or 60%. The answer will depend on the nature of the business, depending on whether it is labor intensive, capital intensive or mixed, as well as other factors. Familiarity with the accounting history of the enterprise can provide the answers to the fund applied to the wage/employment mix. As a young supervisor of negotiations I witnessed some of my older subordinates thumping their chests on reaching what seemed to them to be settlement figures for which they could be proud. A few months later, lay off and dismissal letters would follow before the ink on the agreement had settled. They had negatively disturbed the employer’s provision for the wages fund, and corrective action was taken, to the chagrin of the union, which lost members. The current impasse in collective bargaining in the public sector of Barbados is a case in point. The evidence that government has reached a stage where the provision for wages, salaries, allowances, pensions and other emoluments for the public service, which is directly related to the employed members in their various locations, in job evaluated scales or wage bands, has reached a critical point, based on government revenues. In any collective bargaining with government the starting point has to be the tax revenue which government derives. Wages/salaries should be paid out of those revenues, but they compete with other expenses, some like debt repayments which have grown disproportionately in recent time but must be paid. Wages/salaries can be reduced by staff reductions but this is not something that is easily broached, because of several implications and complications. Since 2010, there has not been a negotiated collective agreement between the government and the various unions representing government employees. As

negotiating cycles shifted from two years to three years, two cycles have passed without new agreements being reached. The world recession from 2007 to the present, resulting in fiscal crisis for small Caribbean states besieged by debt, and deficit financing has hampered the usual voluntaristic collective bargaining. Trade unions may believe that their value to their members, and their respect in the community is compromise because they cannot get salary increases. Indeed, “saving jobs” may be more highly valued than “getting increases”. Perhaps there is need for unions to shift their focus on “what do trade unions do?” In circumstances of a depressed economic situation, there is often a call for more emphasis on gain-sharing, productivity bargaining, and performance related pay, including non-monetary rewards, but there has been no concerted push to institute these highly acclaimed strategies into our collective bargaining practice. This type of collective bargaining emphasizes problem-solving approaches. The reality is that there is still a prevailing antagonism and adversarialism innate to collective bargaining. The intention is often to end negotiations, not at the table, but in the street, in one way or other— either the traditional progression of claiming an interest dispute, proceeding to conciliation—except in the public sector where the necessary institutional arrangements do not exist, and thence to legally protected industrial, withdrawal of labour and to more political strategies such as marches and demonstrations. The collective bargaining system which currently exists is a throw back to the arrangements of the 1940’s with slight modifications. It does not serve us well at this time where the Social Partnership has been institutionalized. Interest Based Bargaining is far more appropriate given the type of economy and society in which we live. It provides the best balance to deal with our problems in collective bargaining. This may mean a serious training and retraining thrust for the practitioners of collective bargaining, for whom Interest Based Bargaining, may be a wholly new phenomenon, but we are at a time where change from outmoded practices needs urgent consideration.

www.BarbadosEmployers.com

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Industrial Relations trendsetting

Technology as Our Way Forward:

A Minister’s Perspective The Hon. Donville Inniss, M.P.

Minister of Industry, International Business, Commerce and Small Business Development, Barbados

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hen one looks at the data with respect to access to the internet, number of mobile phones and general technology available, the question remains, is Barbados making maximum use of the technology to drive productivity upwards in our economy? Without recourse to empirical evidence, one can reasonably assume that we are not making full use of technology within our firms including Government departments. One may argue that such a situation is derived from several sources: 1. A fear of use of technology as manifested in generation gaps 2. Capital cost implication 3. Connecting the expected transformation with technology use 4. Laziness There is no disputing the point that increased deployment and utilization of technology throughout our private and public sectors will accelerate the growth of our economy. As a tool for communicating, service delivery and payment settlements, current technology can reduce unit cost of products or services, enhance customer experience, widen customer base and allow for 24/7 operations. Barbados can no longer talk about becoming a true 24/7 economy, we must become just that. Our banking system, trading arrangements in goods and services based on international agreements, and our travel to far flung places, all combine to present Barbados with a practical place in the global arena. We just need to move from a brick and mortar mentality and make use of the global marketplace the internet has created. Our response to such opportunities do mean some of our 8 – 4 practices and attitudes must be relegated to the proverbial dustbin of irrelevancy. We can start with the low hanging ones like more staggered work hours in the public service. This means that offices can now start work at 7am and perhaps stay open until 6pm to give both staff and customers greater flexibility in accessing services. When fused with more services being available online, we truly become a more accessible economy. I suspect that such may also lead to an increase in job opportunities and income earning potential. The response of some who challenge Barbados becoming a true 24/7 economy resides in calls for more day care centres, improved bus services, better security and other enhanced services. I submit that such are mere excuses to delay the transformation that can occur with a 24/7 economy. As our economy and business arrangements expand and diversify, such support services will expand as needed. Let us not fear the future, but rather embrace it.

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BEC Employment Compass

A significant challenge may lie in revamping collective bargaining arrangements that are based on the work day ending at 4pm, with all work beyond that being charged at a higher rate. The Employment Rights Act and Holidays with Pay Act do assist in reforming such in a legislative manner but may not grandfather in existing arrangements. I say that we have to be bold and disruptive to get our economy to the point where employees are paid the same rate for 40 hours of work per week, no matter which 40 hours are worked. I am deeply concerned that in our quest to address concerns of the trade union movement we may start to arrive at a point where the rights of employers are being eroded as the rights of employees are being enhanced. Such is a recipe for

The response of some who challenge Barbados becoming a true 24/7 economy resides in calls for more day care centres, improved bus services, better security and other enhanced services. I submit that such are mere excuses . . . economic decay in a modern hitherto competitive economy. Interestingly, in such a situation it is the workers who have most to lose. Our social partnership arrangement has an opportunity to guide and direct our economy towards a 24/7 system where there is increased productivity, greater opportunities for all, diversified shareholders and a real internationally competitive and oriented Barbados.


Industrial Relations trendsetting

Types of Flexible Working Arrangements Brittany Brathwaite, BSc, MSc, KM2 Labour Management Advisor, BEC

brittany@barbadosemployers.com | barbadosemployers.com

W

ith a lack of enacted legislation on the subject area, businesses seeking to extend working hours must be guided by best practice and informed by recommendations, positions and policy of international and regional bodies. In most flexible work arrangements, companies identify peak hours in the respective business, known as “core time”, when employees are expected to be present. There is a wide scope of variation on core time periods, dependent on one’s business context. The employees’ contracted hours (the total hours an employee must work according to their employment contract) is achieved by employees working the core time, plus hours of their choice, during the flexible bands over an agreed period.

The flexitime system is often viewed as a weak system especially if implemented in a large organization, as it can be difficult to manage. However the system may function well in smaller organizations where there is an efficient system of monitoring productivity. Annualised hours An annualised hours scheme operates as its name suggests - an annual total of hours are agreed, and these are worked in variable quantities over the year which should be mutually agreed upon between the employer and the employees. These kinds of systems are most common in industries that have peaks and troughs of demand, and can be a way of avoiding the need for overtime. Typically the annual hours are calculated on a 35 to 40 hour week multiplied up to an annual total, less annual leave and public holidays. Scheduling work takes a variety of forms: there may be an average monthly total to be worked, or it may take the form of periods of intense working followed by periods of rest - e.g. the two weeks on, two weeks off pattern. Compressed Hours An increasingly popular flexibility option is the “compressed work week”. This offers perhaps greater regularity and predictability than the potentially more fluid options above. Amongst the most common option is the 4 day week, also referred to as a ”4/10 schedule”. Employees on this schedule work 10-hours for 4 days, with the fifth day off.

Types of Flexible Working Hours

Flexible Approach

Optional Structures

Variable Hours

For employers, part-time work has many attractions particularly in terms of retaining the skills and experience of workers who want ∙ Flexitime or need to reduce their working time. A perceived downside is that there ∙ Annualised hours may be some difficulty with supervision.

Re-Structured Hours

Compressed Working Week

Reduced Hours

∙ Part Time ∙ Job Share ∙ Term-Time working

Flexitime A flexible hours scheme or flexi time usually entails working a set of “core hours” e.g. 10:00 am to 3:00 pm, with the ability to vary the hours on either side. This type of system requires proper monitoring of employee hours and the ability of supervisors to adequately monitor output must also be considered.

Part-Time Part time working is one of the familiar reduced hours schemes; however it can be ably clustered with new ways of working as a departure from the ‘industrial age’. For employees, there are often work-life balance attractions in working fewer hours per day or per week. There are examples of people doing part-time work because they want to, not because they’ve been forced into it by lack of opportunity or by downsizing. For employers, part-time work has many attractions particularly in terms of retaining the skills and experience of workers who want or need to reduce their working time. A perceived downside is that there may be some difficulty with supervision. In considering flexible work arrangements employers should be continuously mindful of the full range of options. Companies may assume that one scheme may be apt however, it is worthwhile to consider if a mixture of options could be applicable to one’s personal circumstance, personal preferences and most importantly the business context.

www.BarbadosEmployers.com

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Photo by Toa Heftiba on Unsplash

Understanding the Future of Work Challenges & Opportunities International Organization of Employers http://www.ioe-emp.org/

P

eople getting and retaining a good job has always been one of the most important lifelong objectives of the majority of people across diverse geographies, cultures and demographics. While the number of jobs in the economy seems to be on the decline, the future does seem to promise an abundance of work. But work may not always resemble ‘traditional’ jobs in the way in which it is organized and executed, rather it may be more taskbased.

bound to be rewarded. At the same time, individuals will increasingly need to pay more attention to their own development and training, and hence their own employability, even if this should be a shared responsibility between society, employers and workers. Public (and private) institutions will need to be much more ambitious in providing enhanced access to lifelong learning and educational opportunities. This will be key in ensuring that competencies remain up-to-date and in facilitating smooth transitions when changing jobs. Such efforts should also include the provision of appropriate access to online or digital training as a complementary tool for improving skills and competencies. More needs to be done by both public and private stakeholders in ensuring that individuals are adequately prepared for the future in terms of attitudes towards work. Innovative and fresh solutions need to be explored to prepare individuals so that they can better adapt to the new reality where individuals are already moving between different jobs and tasks.

A. Employment patterns: How to ensure that individuals are adequately prepared for a future in which there may no longer be one permanent job for life?

B. What kind of support mechanisms need to be in place to facilitate transitions between different forms of work and in-and-out of work? Who should be responsible for this – employers? individuals? the state? For many, particularly the highly skilled, changes in the world of work offer a wide variety of job opportunities with potentially higher wages and longer term career paths worldwide. For others, these changes may mean a higher risk of losing their jobs. This can have knock-on impacts for productivity and economic output, poverty and personal well-being, social mobility and the overall robustness of the national economy. As individuals transition from having more jobs to having more work, one emerging need could be more public or private support to make the transition as smooth,

Flexible and diverse forms of work will increase. For instance, a constellation of internet-enabled companies matches available workers with quick jobs, most prominently Uber…. Those that are more versatile and adaptable in this future are

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BEC Employment Compass


Industrial Relations policy questions

successful and painless as possible. Social protection and other public and private schemes need to further develop a much more supportive function especially for those who are constantly changing jobs - freelancers and the self-employed, among others. But the development of such systems will require financial resources and will need to be made taking account of the sustainability of existing systems, as well as of the whole economy. Individual responsibility could also play a more prominent role, resulting in the development of private schemes. At the same time, there will be a need for much more targeted and efficient labour market re-activation programmes (‘back-to-work’ programmes) to ensure that those needing support are better able to respond to the new demands of the workplace. Measuring the impact of existing labour market policy programmes will be more crucial than ever. C. Is the existing international regime on applicable law sufficient to deal with mobile workers? The scenario of a dispersed and mobile workforce raises questions in terms of applicable law in many work-related areas, such as working conditions, health and safety, social security regulation, as well as data protection. Individuals working at a distance using digital means are increasingly operating in different jurisdictions. The definition of mobility is changing as it includes people moving to where the jobs are (migration) as well as jobs moving to where people live (outsourcing, shared service centres, among others) and more and more tasks are moving (via digital intermediation) to people everywhere. FUTURE OF WORK It is not just that an increasing number of individuals are operating from different countries but that a single individual could also be constantly changing the country where they are providing an online service. This is already intensifying, affecting both developed and developing countries (for instance, accountants working from remote locations, teleworkers working a substantial part of their working life in a second country of residence and mobile workers working

for different employers and changing the country where they provide their service). These specific situations have arisen in the past, but the trend is growing and increasing in complexity. International private law already provides solutions regarding applicable law, such as those related to the jurisdiction where the service is provided or those referring to the employer’s permanent address or the worker’s residence. These solutions are not entirely satisfactory and it will be important to reflect on the adequacy of existing tools provided by both national and international private law to anticipate future challenges around remote workers in the gig economy and similar scenarios. Extracted from the International Organization of Employers’ Brief: Understanding the Future of Work – All rights are reserved by The International Organization of Employers The full brief is available via http://www.ioeemp.org/ 1 United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 2008 [Article 2] 2 US Department of Labor, http://www.doleta. gov/disability/htmldocs/myths.cfm.

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Industrial Relations global statistics

Understanding the Future of Work An International Review

Millennials are interested in becoming leaders — for different reasons. On average, 40% of respondents claimed that becoming a manager/leader was “very important.” This ranged from 8% in Japan to 63% in India. And the reasons (money, opportunities to coach, building career foundations, etc.) also varied across cultures. Source: https://hbr.org/2015/02/what-millennials-want-from-work-charted-across-the-world

Real cost of employee turnover (ERE) Entry-level Employees Between 30-50% of the annual salary to replace them. Mid-level Employees Upwards of 150% of their annual salary to replace them. High-level or Highly Specialized Employees 400% of their annual salary. It can cost a company six to nine months of an employee’s salary to find and train a new employee. Source: www.shrm.org

40%

of the workforce will be freelancers, temps, independent contractors and solopreneurs by 2020.

According to a 2010 study by Intuit, 40% of America’s workforce will be freelancers by 2020 due to the sharing economythe proliferation of internet access and enterprise cloud technologies becoming commonplace. Source: http://httpdownload.intuit.com/ http.intuit/CMO/intuit/ futureofsmallbusiness/ intuit_2020_report.pdf

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BEC Employment Compass


Industrial Relations global statistics

New research, commissioned by Virgin and carried out by YouGov, has discovered that more than three quarters of office workers are not allowed to work remotely as often as they would like to. With only 7% of those asked saying they were allowed to do so on a regular basis... So, is the apparent change in our working culture not all it’s cracked up to be? This latest research tells us that in reality 42% of office based workers have never been given the opportunity to work from home. Source: https://www.virgin.com/entrepreneur/in-focus-therise-of-flexible-working

DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DRIVERS OF CHANGE Driver of change Changing work environments and flexible working arrangements Rated as top trend 44% Expected timeframe Impact felt already Definition New technologies are enabling workplace innovations such as remote working, coworking spaces and teleconferencing. Organizations are likely to have an eversmaller pool of core full-time employees for fixed functions, backed up by colleagues in other countries and external consultants and contractors for specific projects. Source: http://www.ioe-emp.org/fileadmin/ioe_ documents/publications/Policy%20Areas/future_ of_Work/EN/_2016-01__Future_of_Jobs_-_World_ Economic_Forum_Publication__January_2016_.pdf Thousands

The number of UK workers on zero-hours contracts has leapt 20% in a year to more than 900,000, indicating that insecure employment has become a permanent and growing feature of the jobs market. The Office for National Statistics said 903,000, or 2.9%, of the employed workforce were on zero-hours contracts – which do not offer guaranteed hours or sick pay – in their main job, up from 747,000 last year. Source: https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/ sep/08/uk-workers-zero-hours-contracts-rise-tuc

800 600 400 200 0 2000

2003

2006

2009

2012

2015

Guardian graphic | Source ONS Labout Force Survey Note 2016 figure is from April to June

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COT Holdings: Pioneering the Future of Work Brittany Brathwaite, BSc, MSc, KM2 Labour Management Advisor, BEC

brittany@barbadosemployers.com | barbadosemployers.com

C

OT Printery has been in operation for 40 years, its business model is best described as multi-solution, with a portfolio of four different product areas. While its office and production facility are under one roof, the latter operates on a 24 hour schedule for five out of seven days. In devising the plan to move towards such a schedule the Managing Director conveyed the importance of giving equal consideration and investment, to the treatment and management of people as to the quality and efficiency of the outcome of their products. Enshrining the consideration of people in their strategic goals, has served to be an extremely advantageous tool for the business. The company’s strategic goals (Figure 1) have served as a plateau for the organization to inculcate this mentality across all spheres. While change is a definite constant within COT, the utilization of some key principles and modern HR techniques have led to the successful running of this 24 hour operation for over 40 years.

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BEC Employment Compass

How have they done it? In today’s digital world, the COT family; as Mr. Worme refers to his team, understands that “business hours” is a thing of the past. This is not to say that some components of the business do not close, however, production and client access and/or engagement are constants. Simply put, the organization embodies the mantra of “Always paying attention” to the consumer, the market place, and employees.


Human Resource Management business development

Scheduling The areas that necessitate 24 hour coverage are primarily driven by client needs. Existing shifts are as follows: • 8:00 am – 4:30 pm • 4:00 pm – 12:00 am • 12:00 – 8:00 pm Persons who work these shifts have employee contracts per the Employment Rights Act and are entitled to full benefits. Additionally, special consideration is given to fatigue management and the security of those working “graveyard” shifts. Further, rostering is undertaken via the streamlined system which considers employee’s needs and preferences and skill sects, whilst balancing the business efficiency and ensuring transparency in the assignment of shifts. In analyzing the business model an HR practitioner could make the recommendation for the utilization of independent contractors, particularly for those shifts where more investment is required to ensure the safety of employees amongst other things However, Mr. Worme Snr stated the loyalty and dedication of his staff, as a result of the predominant age range, has been developed by job security. He is cognizant nonetheless, of the changing perspective of other generations and conveys the company’s willingness to be flexible with working arrangements where staff are desirous of such in the coming years. Building Long-Term Partnerships With Employees Mr. Worme Snr. shared the secret to the business’ success: the culture. As the BEC recently concluded a training and development program with members of the Management team, it was entirely thrilling to be exposed to an environment where commitment to excellence and team spirit was clearly emitted. This is hard enough to find in most 8:00 am – 4:30 pm environments, so imagine my surprise in the organization’s ability to create and maintain such a culture within a “round-the-clock” environment. These are some of the simple but effective methods used: Training and Development Utilizing technology and modern mechanisms has thrust the company

Figure 1

forward. What has been equally essential is up-skilling, re-training and re-tooling staff to efficiently and effectively operate said machinery. Where companies seek to compete on a regional or global scale, they need not only to transform their business model to meet the market demands. Additionally, they need to ensure there is an adequate skills match internally to ensure continuity in the delivery of quality service and products to clients. Focus on Employee Morale The personal and emotional elements are imperative in a 24 hour environment, while it may not be possible to keep ALL employees happy, COT understands that in its quest to maintain high levels of productivity, people’s happiness at work matters. One key question the company uses to assist in benchmarking and streamlining their processes is, whether they are providing comparable opportunities and advantages to all workers; or, where necessary taking precautionary steps dependent on the shift, for example: free transport home is provided for employees on the 2nd shift which ends at midnight. With a well established succession plan in place, Mr. Worme Jnr., is acutely aware of the complexities of managing the business. They are both committed to ensuring the continued longevity and success of the business in the extremely dynamic market place. Whether this requires a continuous 24 hour model, or the introduction of more flexible arrangements, these leaders are steadfast about being prepared, by being aware of what the future of work necessitates. All to achieve their ultimate goal of providing: Innovative Solutions, sharply focused on client success!

www.BarbadosEmployers.com

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Human Resource Management labour management

Performance Management – A Productivity Driver Sheena Mayers-Granville, BSc, MSc Incoming Executive Director, BEC

sheena@barbadosemployers.com

B

usinesses who are interested in not only surviving but thriving, are constantly searching for ways to improve productivity. To do more with less; more sales, increased production, and better service with less financing, in reduced time and with fewer resources. While it is common knowledge that people are the greatest asset of any company, one opportunity for improved productivity that is often overlooked is revealed through performance management. Rather than confine performance management to the end of year appraisal process an approach to performance management that is all encompassing and weaved through the management approach of an entire organization has the ability to drive greater productivity. I have read that employees can be placed into four (4) areas: 1. Champions 2. Stable majority 3. Marginals 4. Chronic Underachievers It was then explained that the Champions will make your company grow. The stable majority will make your company go, the marginal will make your company slow and the chronic – underachievers will cost your company dough! I’m sure that as you read those classifications you thought of at least 1 person in your team or organization that fit under each heading. The fundamental goal of performance management is to promote and improve employee effectiveness and not classifications or ratings. It’s very easy to check the completed box at end of year performance appraisals and have scores; scores that could very well be linked to the descriptors above. But what’s the value in that? The real value in ratings and classifications is discovered when you ask

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BEC Employment Compass

the question of what next? In devising strategies for improvement! Improvement that can be translated into measurable results which can be tracked month on month or year on year. Performance management is a continuous process of planning, monitoring and reviewing employee performance. In order to be successful, managers and employees must work together. Managers and supervisors must invest time and energy into supporting the growth of their team members through coaching, mentoring and on-thejob training. Employees are also a crucial element in the process, as they can also identify improvement in work processes as well as their own personal areas for improvement, and they should seek assistance in strengthening those areas.

The ultimate goal of performance management is to move persons from your stable majority; the ones that do their job well enough but don’t stretch themselves, into being one of your Champions, who are willing to do whatever is necessary to get the job done. You want your marginal employees, the ones who are not enough but not bad enough to become a part of the stable majority that do their job well. The first step in translating performance assessments into productivity gains is to identify an area for performance improvement, which can have the greatest impact on the departmental and/or organizational objectives. Once identified, you must determine what performance indicator will be measured and then seek to implement an action plan geared towards helping the employee improve.

Remember, what gets measured gets done, or at least you know it’s being done. This may seem to be a well-known process however the execution may not be as vibrant as initially thought. In reality, it assumes that managers, supervisors and team leaders are aware of the company and departmental objectives and able to focus employee efforts towards the attainment of these objectives. Besides considering the process of performance management to drive productivity, one must also equally consider the scoring system used in performance appraisals. If you are committed towards improved productivity, how are you measuring productivity gains in your performance management system? Is there a way to capture improved process? The ultimate goal of performance management is to move persons from your stable majority; the ones that do their job well enough but don’t stretch themselves, into being one of your Champions, who are willing to do whatever is necessary to get the job done. You want your marginal employees, the ones who are not enough but not bad enough to become a part of the stable majority that do their job well. A successful performance management programme is targeted towards these goals. The programme will also aim to align persons with their best job fit and if someone is chronically underachieving then the aim is to re-tool the person to allow them to succeed or allow them to find alternative employment in a better suited capacity whether in company or on the outside. Fortifying human resource strategies, competencies and resources is the aim of a well-executed performance management system which will always result in improved productivity.


Human Resource Management labour management

Rise of the Humans Melanie Greenidge

Director, KPMG in Barbados | Head of People and Change, KPMG Islands Group melaniegreenidge@kpmg.bb | kpmg.bb

Most management, business, and finance occupations are at low risk for computerization because they involve intensive generalist tasks requiring social intelligence. As technology races ahead . . . low-skilled workers will be most at risk . . .

H

ardly a day goes by, it seems, without apocalyptic warnings that robots in the workplace will create a terrible destiny. The convergence of artificial intelligence, robotic process automation (RPA), machine learning, and cognitive platforms is potentially so disruptive that Klaus Schwab, founder of the World Economic Forum, calls it the “Fourth Industrial Revolution.” As both the private and public sectors seek to streamline processes and reduce operating costs, cognitive technologies are rapidly creating a new class of digital labor. Many jobs will be reconfigured and redesigned, resulting in employee dislocation and the need to learn new skills. But all is not doom and gloom as there are some potentially positive outcomes. Cognitive technologies can spur a growth in jobs overall and enhance human skills and expertise. Ultimately, they can make every employee an innovator and transform the enterprise into an engine of unconstrained innovation.

This article is based on a KPMG White Paper entitled ‘Rise of the humans: The integration of digital and human labor”

Perhaps the most salient feature of today’s Fourth Industrial Revolution is the widespread impact of computerization on all kinds of jobs. According to Frey and Osborne’s touchstone research, cognitive automation or augmentation can replace almost anyone whose job does not require one or some of these characteristics: • Perception and manipulation of things requiring high manual dexterity and discrimination between different objects in a cluttered environment; for example, a hairdresser (because you don’t want your ear to be cut off by mistake) • Creativity, particularly fine art creativity and high-order originality; for example, a landscape photographer and classical musician • Social interaction and social intelligence; for example, a social worker, a primary school teacher, and a mental health nurse. The challenge for leaders Jobs least susceptible to computerization, they wrote, are “generalist occupations requiring knowledge of human heuristics, and specialist occupations involving the development of novel ideas and artifacts.” From this perspective, most management, business, and finance occupations are at low risk for computerization because they involve intensive generalist tasks requiring social intelligence. As technology races ahead, they conclude, low-skilled workers will be most at risk and will need to find jobs that require creative and social intelligence. This therefore means that human and digital labour will increasingly coexist in organizations thus posing a challenge for leaders and HR professionals – how to integrate and make the most of both kinds of labour. This challenge raises three sets of pertinent questions which must be proactively tackled by organizational leaders, governments and society (Figure 1):

Figure 1

Organizations

Organizations and Society

Society and Government

• What will our workforce look like in the future? • How do we integrate digital and human labour? • How do we retain and grow employee commitment in an environment where job security is seen as increasingly threatened?

• How do we best prepare workers for the future? • How do we better plan and forecast in a volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous world?

• What do we do with surplus human capacity? • How do we exploit these technologies for the greater good?

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Human Resource Management labour management

1. Translate

Photo by Alex Knight on Unsplash

Translate business strategy into people implications. How will cognitive technologies help you to execute strategy? How will this ipact people and jobs?

2. Shape Shape the size and make-up of the workforce and how it may evolve over time. In particular, explore supply, demand and gap closing strategies for key skills and notes.

3. Design Design the future workforce. Create a detailed blueprint of how human and digital labour can be optimally integrated.

4. Change Change by embarking on the journey towards the new shape and size of the workforce. This involves strategic workforce planning, implementing a talent strategy and change management.

4. Monitor Monitor progress. Be alert to alternative scenarios that might arise and adopt an agile approach to exploit new business opportunities, as well as continuous learning and development to support reskilling and career relevance.

Figure 2

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BEC Employment Compass

How to change the shape and size of the workforce A five-stage process of inquiry can help leaders systematically think through how the shape and size of their workforce should change (see Figure 2). Is the jury still out? For decision-makers concerned with the role of people in organizations the key question seems to be, “should we be pessimistic or optimistic?” Realistically, while there will be job losses, there are also some causes for hope. For example, increasing productivity means that more can be created for less. The resulting increase in capital that is generated can be put into new investments thereby creating demand for new labour. Also, in organizations such as banks, there will be less need for employees to undertake basic cash transaction activities and this frees them up to carry out more value added activities such as selling products and services. Disruption has been part of business for decades. Despite all the bleak views of the rising role of robots in the workplace, automation could not be occurring at a better time. Cognitive technologies are rapidly becoming more intelligent and affordable at a time when the global supply of talent is getting smaller and more expensive, making the use of digital labor necessary to drive growth. As we use more robots, they become cheaper. And as we use more of them, worker productivity rises and ultimately, so do wages. These are some of the reasons a counter-balancing dynamic will take hold and job creation will be on the agenda after all. Consequently, it is imperative for agility and innovation to be present in the workplace. Using these technologies, new products and services can be conceived, limited only by the scope of one’s imagination. As new businesses and offerings are developed, people will be needed to build, lead, maintain and market them. It will be incumbent on these organizations to grow their agility — and the agility of their workforce — to take on these new challenges. After all, financial capital will still need to be put to productive use. Continuous organization renewal and learning will be a key feature of work in the future — learning both for the known future needs and for positioning for unknown and emergent needs. This is the reason that how we learn and what we learn in the workplace is set for a revolution. It is a call to arms for business leaders and HR functions alike to take principled and proactive stands. Rather than be reactionary first responders, they should lead the conversation and preempt, understand, and manage the changes. If organizations excel at this, there is every reason to believe organizations can improve the world of work. Fourth Industrial Revolution: The transformation in the way that humans and machines connect and relate. In the view of Klaus Schwab the fourth revolution is in its early stages and brings machine intelligence together with all other digital technologies that have become incredibly fast and inexpensive. Cognitive technologies are products of the field of artificial intelligence. They are able to perform tasks that only humans used to be able to do.


People and Change (P&C): What we do

KPMG’s P&C team can help you with:

How do you get at the intangibles of your organization and drive the hidden value in your team? At KPMG, we believe that capability follows strategy. Capabilities (combinations of skilled people, focused assets, work decisionmaking processes & technologies) can become, over time, sources of competitive advantage.

• Top team alignment on strategy that ensures the senior management team is on the same page when it comes to the critical strategic decisions and how they can be implemented. • Talent management strategies that take a holistic view of the important connections between business goals, team skills and capabilities, critical behaviours and cultural attributes.

Whether your source of competitive advantage is “innovation” or “convenience”: those strategic choices have profound implications for managing the intangibles of your organization.

• Organization design and development strategies that ensure the right jobs and the right structure are in place as the building blocks for performance.

Who you hire, how you organize work, how you develop people, and how you support their interactions with stakeholders — all of these factors can either undermine or drive your success.

• People policies and programs to help create the capabilities that lead to competitive advantage. Best practice organizations globally are leveraging their HR programs, their HR team and their employee talent by linking the priorities of HR to the priorities of the business.

The unique strategy of your organization will define specific capability requirements. Organizations need to start by: • Understanding the diverse talent needs of the businesses and the diverse needs of the labour contingents and employee groups. • Attracting the right people with value propositions tailored to the organization. • Engaging diverse workforce groups and aligning their interests with organizational success. • Developing talents and skills and reinforcing high-performance behaviours. • Continuously enhancing productivity by focusing on collaboration and team success in their work settings.

• Leadership alignment and change strategies that ensure you have the leadership talent you need focused on the key strategic levers for your success. • Performance optimisation programs that go beyond mere cost cutting to ensure that all of the organization’s capabilities are aligned to deliver on business priorities. Contact us: Brenda Pope Partner Management Consulting E: bpope@kpmg.bb T: 246 434 3904

Melanie Greenidge Director People and Change E: melaniegreenidge@kpmg.bb T: 246 434 3919

HR Technology and Tools

Workforce Cost Optimisation Performance management (scorecards, resource planning, measurement and reporting)

Sage HRMS and payroll solution

Compensation (basic pay, bonus incentives and retention incentives)

Workforce analytic software

People management software

Employment proposition (Terms & Conditions and employment policies) Workforce Cost Optimisation

On-line remuneration survey HR Technology and Tools

Talent Development

Behavioural Change Management Vision and case for change Engaging stakeholders Involvement strategies HR and resource alignment

Behavioural Change Management

People & Change

Learning and development strategies Talent Development

Sustaining change Measuring benefit

HR Optimisation

Organisation Design

People strategy/employer brand

Organisational strategy, vision and objectives

HR service delivery model development

HR value add measures

Performance management

Organisation Design

HR strategy and score card

HR team effectiveness and efficiency

Succession planning Retaining top talent

HR Optimisation

HR process redesign

Identifying/developing high potentials

Culture Assessment

Our Service Offerings

Reward and recognition Management structures and processes


Human Resource Management recruitment

Selecting a Value Fit Nicola Harris - Chief Human Resource Officer

Barbados Public Workers’ Co-Operative Credit Union Limited nicola.harris@bpwccul.bb | publicworkers.bb

W

hen first presented with the opportunity to share my views on the topic of Selecting a Value Fit, I immediately focused on what I could offer, that had not been previously penned on numerous occasions. I believe that most of the professionals reading this article would have at some point been exposed to the pontifications regarding the necessity of making the “right” hiring decisions. We could probably fill this publication with the articles written around this subject. I want us to, however, challenge ourselves. Do not disregard the literature or what we might from experience have learnt, sometimes the hard way. Let us expand on what we now know to be indisputable – The success of our organization is determined by the success of our employees. If you hire mediocrity, you will get mediocre results. Sounds simple and obvious, but is it? How often have we, when faced with hiring decisions, ignored that small, still voice that suggests caution, even though on paper, and based on the performance of the candidate, all looks to be in order? Let’s challenge ourselves to listen to that voice with revised parameters. What criteria do we use when we hire? What most strongly influences our hiring decisions? Are we more partial to qualifications? Do you agree with Brain Tracy, Motivational Public Speaker and Self Development Author, that, “The smartest business decision you can make is to hire qualified people,” or are your hiring practices more strongly influenced by the candidates displaying “integrity, intelligence and energy? Do you “hire character and train skill?” Whether we hire based on attributes or competencies, or even combined approaches, let us consider expanding our definition of the word “fit.” We all say that we hire, among other criteria for “fit.” What does that mean? Traditionally, it has meant the following:

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BEC Employment Compass

• That the hire must have a compatible value system with that of those already within the organization • That the hire should be viewed as being able to blend in with the organization’s culture • That the hire brings similar experience, qualifications to the organizations when compared to other employees at his or her level, and is therefore accordingly compensated. Should this be our approach to hiring, then be warned - Our organizations are in great danger of stagnation and later regression. The most positive outlook would be mediocrity. Sounds harsh? Think about it. When we hire persons, who think like our other employees, behave like our other employees, we will get the same results we have always got. What does any of the above have to do with “fit?” You would recall that I challenged you to redefine “fit.” It is only by looking beyond the traditional and making bold yet strategic hires that we can prepare our organizations to conquer our uncertain futures. How do we ensure that the hires are a valued fit? Let’s look at the below suggestions:

The success of our organization is determined by the success of our employees. If you hire mediocrity, you will get mediocre results. Sounds simple and obvious, but is it? • Always hire persons who know more than you do about the job, he/she is hired to do. As David Ogilvy, Advertising Tycoon states, “If each of us hires people who are smaller than we are, we shall become a company of dwarfs. But if each of us hires people who are bigger than we are, we shall become a company of giants.” That way, different perspectives can be brought to the table and richer decisions made.

• Always hire persons for the future and not the present. We already have employees who take care of “today”. What we need are employees who will take our organizations into its next phase of growth. • Hire persons who are not afraid to make mistakes and have demonstrated that they learn from them. These are the innovators that will drive your organization forward. Thomas John Watson Snr, an American Businessman recounted an incident where he was asked if he “was going to fire an employee who made a mistake that cost the company $600,000.00.” “No,” he replied. “I just spent $600,000.00 training him. Why would I want somebody to hire his experience?” Our appetites for innovation must mirror our tolerance for less than perfect outcomes. • Hire persons who are knowledgeable and driven enough to question the status quo. The greatest reason to change is because you never have before. Doing things the same way will guarantee you the same or declining marginal returns on results. The suggestion is not that we totally disregard all that has worked for us in the past, but we have to be open to different perspectives and the fact that we may not have been optimizing our opportunities. So in closing, I hope that I have brought a fresh perspective to the hiring process, or at least have provided some food for thought. I liken the complexity of a hiring decision to that of a person making the decision to propose marriage, as the consequences of a bad decision in both are far reaching and dare I say, can be quite expensive. As Jim Collins, Business Consultant, Author and Lecturer reminds us, “People are not your most important asset. The right people are.”


Human Resource Management training & development

Building Human Capacity— The Secret to Corporate Success Shanika Best, PSD Training Coordinator | Mgmt & OSH Lv 2 & Assessment Lv 4CVQ, BEC shanika@barbadosemployers.com | barbadosemployers.com

T

he purpose of most businesses is to generate revenue and offer value, to their consumers through products and/or services. To achieve the former, it is necessary for employers to equip their employees with the capacities needed to secure deliverables. This rhetoric has long been discussed and is extremely relevant in an era where knowledge or services drive most economies. Capacity development is the process through which an organization obtains, strengthens and maintains the capabilities to set and achieve their objectives. Human capacity therefore, is about growth, it is the growth of the employee in knowledge, skills, experience, training and professional development. I mentioned the purpose of a business in the opening paragraph, I am inclined to mention it as it relates to individuals. Work is a fundamental part of the life of individuals, it is not only a form of income for basic needs rather, represents the means through which individuals develop a sense of purpose in relation to society. The fixed and current assets of a business are easily recognized; what about the intangible assets? I echo the sentiments of Mr. Alex Edmans in his contribution to Forbes where he stated “The most important assets to 21st century firms are intangible – a company’s corporate culture, innovative capability or environmental sustainability.” How then do we build human capacity to support these constructs? The process For a car to run smoothly, it requires the necessary parts coupled with the simultaneous and cohesive functioning of them, to reach the ultimate goal of moving from one place to the next. The same concept applies for corporate success. In an effort to reach the company’s

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BEC Employment Compass

destination; the attainment of its strategic goals, employees must have the necessary skills, tools, equipment, opportunities and essentials to function adequately; each employee must therefore me supported in being able to supply their full value.

For a car to run smoothly, it requires the necessary parts coupled with the simultaneous and cohesive functioning of them, to reach the ultimate goal of moving from one place to the next. The same concept applies for corporate success. Some considerations Education and training lie at the heart of any development efforts, the absence of strategic human resources management however, can result in ineffective development interventions. Building human capacity focuses on a series of actions which are targeted to assist employees in increasing their knowledge, skills, and experience, all of which are essential in achieving any projected developmental efforts of the organization. To build human capacity, employers must therefore conduct training needs analyses to identify and fill knowledge gaps and deficits. The analyses will assist in the compilation of an effective training schedule for your employees. Technology also plays a critical role in corporate success. To remain relevant in human capacity building, one must remain current with trends. This will ensure that your human capacity building efforts are relevant to the organizational needs as well as relevant external factors. Social media platforms provide this advantage, through Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and Linked-in to name a few. Strategic planning is another key component in human capacity building. While budget planning, annual goal setting and projects are very important; planning your human capacity building is equally important. The other side of the coin in planning your training, is allowing your employees to attend the training and making provisions to utilize their skills. We are cognizant of the challenges one may face in having to sacrifice a critical team member for a full day, far less an entire week. However, the likelihood of return on that invest is high, so support it! Motivate employees and develop positive work cultures. Every employee will be motivated in varying ways. For some, money may be a motivating factor, for others it may not. Employers must therefore, assess their employee needs. To build human capacity, one must know what he/she is building on. Additionally, developing a positive work culture will create a good platform for capacity building. A bonus could be, that your organization becomes attractive to quality employees. Vocational training is also important in human capacity building. As the world evolves, so do skills and knowledge. To marry the two, vocational training is necessary. A trained employee will assist the organization in meeting its goals in comparison to an unskilled one. As employers, the employability and continuous development of the human resource is as important as the generation of revenue, value added services and products and business sustainability. Building human capacity must therefore remain our mandate, this will ensure our survival in the dynamic corporate world and eventual success.


The Sagicor Cave Hill School of Business and Management (SCHSBM) offers a range of programmes and initiatives to propel the development of professionals and organisations throughout the region.

Academic Programmes • Doctorate in Business Administration • Masters in Business Administration • Executive Diploma in Management • Executive Diploma in Real Estate Development, Project and Construction Management • Certificate Courses

Strategic Business Services • Training and Development Initiatives - Customized and Open Enrolment programmes • Conferences and Seminars

Research and Consultancies

Make the choice to succeed! For more information, contact us today! www.uwichsb.org; chsb@cavehill.uwi.edu; (246) 424-7731

The TVET Council, through WorldSkills Barbados (WSB), is sending a team of young skilled professionals to the WorldSkills Abu Dhabi 2017 competition. A four-member team, comprising winners in the Hairdressing, Garment Making, Automotive Technology and Culinary Arts categories from last year’s WorldSkills Barbados competition, will represent the country at the upcoming global “skills Olympics”. This is the first time that Barbados’ technical and vocational skills will be

represented at this unique, live biennial competition hosted by WorldSkills International, the global hub for skills excellence and development, from October 14 to 19. The Barbados delegation will also include four (4) skills experts who will serve as judges and three (3) team officials. Additionally, the delegation will include two representatives, Keanndra Marshall and Akel Bailey, to the first ever International TVET Youth Forum being held during the same period.

www.BarbadosEmployers.com

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Human Resource Management change management

Complexities in Driving Change Kara Sealy, BA, MSc

Labour Management Advisor, BEC

kara@barbadosemployers.com | barbadosemployers.com

T

he general maxim surrounding change today is that people are resistant, or even, ‘change is inevitable’. Have we stopped to consider the new phenomenon, ‘change is necessary’? Mark Sanborn said, “success in life isn’t based on your ability to simply change. It is based on your ability to change faster than your competition, customers, and business.” The world today, particularly the business landscape, is characterized by rapid turnover due in most part to outmoded thinking and anachronistic strategies. Research provides an example within the mobile industry, where we have seen the Apple versus Blackberry story unfold. These companies are examples of the manifestation of complexities in change or a changing environment. There are numerous reasons why change occurs. In fact, some of the key forces of change include: markets, conflict, technology, development, and ideas, to mention a few. Additionally, some of these forces present various complexities on their own. On the issue of technology, research suggests that the global economy is in the process of becoming digitized; technology is taking over industry by industry, plainly stated, technology is waiting for no one. It is an urgent, day-today issue. This need to update processes or systems to be compatible is proving challenging for varied reasons including cost, as well as job security. Such changes present another complexity, that being the spill-over effect on the markets with a prime example being Amazon. A company that has emerged as a dominant digital player, transitioning the retail market for books from local to online. This paradigm shift has dethroned local book stores forcing them to either get creative or get out of the game.

26

BEC Employment Compass

Another complexity that exists in business and the world at large, is people. People represent a constant variable as they have minds of their own. One may almost guarantee that when you expose ten people to the same environment there will be varying experiences or perceptions. Our individuality is what makes people unique, but it is also what makes management or change so challenging. Peter Senge said, “People don’t resist change. They resist being changed!”

Our individuality is what makes people unique, but it is also what makes management or change so challenging. Peter Senge said, “People don’t resist change. They resist being changed!” It is therefore important that we recognize another complexity, that being, resistance to change is individualistic. Different persons resist change for different reasons. It may be due to fear; fear of incompetence, or fear of an ending to something, for example a job or project. It may also be due to inadequate motivation, amongst other things. Cameron and Green (2012) identified five factors likely to influence an individual’s response to change: the nature of the change, the consequences of the change, the organization’s history, the type of individual (their personality and what motivates them) and the individual’s history. In effectively managing these varying responses, we must be reminded that great things in businesses are never done by one person, but by a team of people. There must therefore be a compelling vision. When we assess the various complexities that exist when driving change, it explains why persons may be resistant or reluctant. However, to deal with these complexities, there must be a shift in how we view the business landscape as well as change management. Change must be made according to the situation rather than according to an established long-term strategy. Customers behaviours and expectations are changing, employee expectations are changing, and businesses must therefore find quicker solutions to remain competitive and viable. We need not succumb to these complexities identified, or any complexity for that matter rather, use such complexities to drive a lasting and beneficial outcome. Therefore, the questions we must ask ourselves are, are we following the trends in the global economy? And when change comes knocking at our door, are we prepared to answer?


www.BarbadosEmployers.com

27


Human Resource Management labour law

Employee vs

Independent Contractor Brittany Brathwaite, BSc, MSc, KM2 Labour Management Advisor, BEC

brittany@barbadosemployers.com | barbadosemployers.com

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he Employment Rights Act has been gradually entwined into the working equation of most employers in Barbados. However what remains a major point of concern for that the Act specifically governs the employment relationship and therefore is applicable to employees and employers. Thus, independent contractors are not covered under this legislation. The Act defines an employee as “an individual who has entered into or works under, or, where the employment has ended, worked under a contract of employment.” The Act further identifies factors to be taken into consideration in determining the existence of a contract of employment; these are found in the First Schedule (Section 3). These points of reference can aid in determining whether a worker can be categorized as an employee or a contractor. Some factors to be considered: a) There is an obligation on the part of the employee to give personal and exclusive service; b) The work is done according to the instructions of the employer, and the manner in which the work is carried out is subject to the control and direction of the employer; c) The work is carried out within fixed hours or at a workplace or workplaces specified or agreed by the employer; d) The employee is subject to the procedures of the business for addressing grievances and disciplinary matters. Please note however the Act states that the list is not exhaustive and the factors outlined are elements to be considered in determining the nature of the contract. Despite the aforementioned schedule, grey areas remain present for employers and employees. These gray areas often arise as a result of how the contract of employment is compiled. Both parties to

28

BEC Employment Compass

the relationship should be reminded that common law principles have generally been adopted in an effort to define an independent contractor. These principles focus primarily on the level of control an employer has over a service or product, meaning, whether or not the employer actually defines what is being done and how it will be accomplished. Other considerations when identifying someone as an independent contractor may include: • If the worker supplies his or her own equipment, materials and tools • If all necessary materials are not supplied by the employer • If the worker can be discharged at anytime and can choose whether or not to come to work without fear of losing employment • If the worker controls the hours of employment thus indicating they are acting as an independent contractor • Whether the work is temporary or permanent Again, the nature of the work will help define the relationship. When work is considered integral to the business, it is more likely that the person is an employee. On the other hand, work that is temporary and non integral may imply independent contractor status. Khalil Goodman (Cofounder/Bus. Dev. Lead) and Veronica Millington (Marketing Lead) of Caribbean Transit Solutions reviewing their Beep Cab and Beep Bus apps. Their unique business model utilises registered drivers as subcontractors with express terms conveying the conditions of contractual obligations. As mentioned in schedule 1 in the ERA, with reference to the Factors to be considered in determining the existence of a contract of employment, “…the factors outlined are all elements in a balancing exercise to determine the nature of the contract. No one factor, therefore, is by itself conclusive, and the weight to be attached to any one of the factors is a matter for adjudication. In the event that a case does have to be adjudicated by the tribunal, the actual relationship and its operation will be evaluated, along with any written agreement. All contributing factors will be used to determine the category under which the worker will fall. Employers are reminded that we at the BEC can assist and/or offer full services for contract and/or agreement compilation as well as Human Resources Consultancy services. We implore persons who are unsure when writing contracts, to contact us or any other professional who may be able to guide you accordingly and aid in clarifying the usual grey areas.


Human Resource Management trendsetting: a case study

Beep Cab/Beep Bus CAB

Building a Business for the Future with Khalil Goodman and Veronica Millington of Caribbean Transit Solutions

Though our app works similar to 'Uber' and 'Lyft' in terms of the technology and lay out, our company structure is quite different. We do not use everyday citizens to act as taxis or offer rides within our system. In Barbados we exclusively use registered taxi drivers who we vet based on local registration criteria. Considering we utilize registered taxi drivers only, we cannot speak to "job security" specifically, however, the level of security for the customer is enhanced as all rides are recorded with start and stop locations. The app facilitates a much more seamless process and also includes security features not typically offered in traditional taxi hailing.

We've found that drivers who are familar with technology and comfortable using it are 'thirsty' to make their mark in the taxi business and that has been the biggest "demographic" that we've seen. Drivers who are tech-savvy and wish to use this to improve their businesses are the first interested. These persons are generally between 30-50 years old - men and women. However we also have drivers with 10 to 15 years industry experience. With customers, the main app users are tourists, with repeat local customers also utilising the system.

www.beepcab.com

Your current company structure reflects that of an “Uber” or “Lyft” using labour primarily on a “contract for service” basis. Are you finding Barbadians or Caricom nationals who are interested in this type of work, which offers very little security?

Are those expressing interest within a specific demographic?

A recent ruling in the UK determined that Uber drivers were deemed employees, how are you prepared from a Human Resources perspective to wrangle with the We're very pleased to have followed a model that focuses on using registered taxi existing Labour legislation and drivers as opposed to private individuals (other similar companies myTaxi and the possibilities for accruing EasyTaxi). In this vein, the taxis are already operating as their own business entities “employee” liabilities? where they manage their liabilities (insurance) and we can simply be a conduit to drive more business to them. In this way we act as a facilitator to enable their businesses, with the understanding that we are not "employing them" or "subcontracting" them during a ride. Since we are operating within the bounds of the Taxi Code /For Hire Vehicle Code we do not expect that our labour laws would place taxi drivers (professionals) as being employees.

BeepCab and businesses similar to it, for example AirBnB; are all part of the 'Sharing Economy'. This type of activity actually benefits locals of a destination much better linkages and economic benefits versus the high leakages in other sectors (and specifically within the tourism sector). It also allows more people to participate in the industry and access customers in different ways. For instance, with the BeepCab app, existing taxi drivers use our service to better access customers, eliminate or at least minimize down trips, get additional rides they would not have previously, as well as accept credit cards and provide email receipts to customers. Approximately 85% of the revenue earned per trip goes directly to the driver, thereby being retained within the local economy. Similarly, with AirBnb their research has shown that up to 90% of each dollar spent is retained by hosts, who generally will recommend other local businesses within the community which also encourages greater 'trickle down' effect. Our aim is to enable and modernize the taxi industry, thereby improving the national tourism product by offering services tourists utilise within their originating countries.

With many companies embracing the “gig”* economy how do you foresee “BeepCab” contributing to the positive aspects?

*”Gig” economy A labour market characterised by short-term contracts or freelance work, as opposed to permanent jobs.

www.BarbadosEmployers.com

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Human Resource Management trendsetting

The Benefits of Smart Cities for Small States and the Role of the University Professor Winston Moore

Head & Professor of Economics, Department of Economics, UWI - Cave Hill Campus winston.moore@cavehill.uwi.edu

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ithin the Caribbean, cities tend to have both important business and important cultural importance. They are the hubs for private business activity in the areas of tourism, yachting, manufacturing, transport as well as wholesale and retail. As a result, many supporting activities usually develop around the area such as finance, government ministries, schools, among others. Many cities in the region also serve as important cultural hubs. In Kingston, Jamaica, the parks accommodate various national events and festivities while in Barbados, Bridgetown is home to Kensington Oval cricket stadium and Georgetown in Guyana is the home to the Caribbean Community Secretariat, the entity in charge of supporting the regional integration movement. Building on the importance of Caribbean cities, one of the next logical stages in the growth and the development of these and other cities in the Caribbean is the transition to so-called smart cities. While there are varying definitions of this concept, generally we use the term Smart to indicate that the city is utilising data (collected through the use of Information and Communication Technologies) to enhance sustainability (social, economic and environmental) and improve the well-being of citizens living within the city. A smart city, for example, would attempt to use real world data that is monitored to address issues related to public transportation, monitor security, the environment, waste, water, power, among other areas. The collected data is then analysed to identify ways in which to respond to identified challenges. Strategically utilising and developing smart cities, however, needs to move beyond just solving challenges and into the realm of developing and enhancing the fundamental characteristics of Caribbean cities. This means connecting with the cultural and human dimensions of Caribbean cities. Nam and Pardo present a model of a smart city of the future which utilises technology, governance as well as learning, to develop: • • • • • • • •

Smart transportation; Smart environment; Smart energy; Smart education; Smart health care; Smart culture; Smart safety; and Other policy domains.

Tokyo, Japan is set to undergo extensive smart city development in preparation for the 2020 Olympics. Photo: Tokyo Infinity by Pawel Nolbert; Source: www.unsplash.com

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BEC Employment Compass

At the heart of the smart city is a smart educational system, a smart campus. A smart campus would be connected with businesses in the city to identify areas where there is a need for training and possible employment opportunities.

Strategically utilising and developing smart cities, however, needs to move beyond just solving challenges and into the realm of developing and enhancing the fundamental characteristics of Caribbean cities. This means connecting with the cultural and human dimensions of Caribbean cities. Educational institutions would also interface with business and society by providing the analysis and research needed to expand the smart transportation, environment and energy frameworks for example. The students and academics at the smart campus could support the development of smart cultural spaces in the city as well as at the university, providing spaces for artists to interface in new and innovative ways with the community (e.g. pop-up poetry reading or plays in the various parks of the city). Smart cities therefore seem to be a useful next stage in the development of Caribbean cities. When linked with our educational institutions, many of the current challenges can be addressed using smart concepts as well as expand opportunities for new areas of activity.


THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES

CAVE HILL CAMPUS, BARBADOS, WEST INDIES

8

8/

TAUGHT PROGRAMMES OFFERED FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR

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Human Resource Management occupational safety & health

New Culture Paradigm: Safety as a Value Melony James., BSc, MSc, Tech IOSH

Labour Management Advisor/OSH Coordinator, BEC melony@barbadosemployers.com | barbadosemployers.com

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BEC Employment Compass

1. Management must demonstrate their commitment to improving safety This speaks to making adequate resource allowances for the proactive management of occupational safety and health. Additionally, the commitment must also include the strategic management of facilities and inclusion of health and safety discussions at the level of senior management or board of directors. Too often we are only concerned with the dollar and cents linked to health and safety and fail to see the investment and the intangible rewards gained, 2. The workforce and management talking to each other about safety Consultation on health and safety quickly allows employees and management to deal with safety matters, it also serves to solidify the usefulness of employees in making decisions. Further, it lends positively to employee engagement and involvement with succession planning. Once communication channels are open it fosters a transparent and efficacious relationship between employees and management. 3. Increased profile of health and safety The company must create and monitor their safety and health profile. The OSH profile is compiled with all data pertaining to health and safety against which progress can be measured. When a company pledges to monitoring and analysing their success it engenders the cooperative nature and displays their commitment to safety success.

Mission/Vision Values Strategy

Culture

Goals

Values

Objectives

Practices

Activities

Behaviours

D R I V I N G PAT H

32

While the written statements of value are the start for the shift in culture, the real success will only occur when the following strategies are implemented.

G U I D I N G PAT H

ith increases in the number of accident claims and sickness benefits paid each year, many employers are evaluating the impact of lost days and the use and effectiveness of behavioural safety. While behavioural safety is designed to reduce the risky behaviours of employees that may expose them to accidents and possible ill-health, the only true way to improve employee behaviour is reconciling their care values with that as the organizational values. A company’s success is dependent on the culture they foster and the values that drive that culture. Like an iceberg, our values are deep rooted in our character and is manifested in our behaviours. Therefore, when an employee exemplifies risky behaviour, it stems from their value system and their personal beliefs. If a company is unable to foster positive values and critical thinking, employee values takeover organizational values as opposed to organizational values persuading personal beliefs and values. As depicted in the illustration (Fig. 1), the reconciliation of these values starts with the organization having a clear mission and vision which incorporates the safe and healthy way in which success can be attained. The vision and mission must be accompanied by core values and objectives. These create the guiding path which must be reinforced with practices and leadership behaviours which are the drivers of success. How does this take shape practically? If a company professes to have safety and health at the core of their operations a core value such as safety consciousness would be listed. Additionally, managers and supervisors will assign tasks that are conceived with safety in mind and not only to reach maximum outputs. Managers and supervisors must remember that employees will only be as safe as they build the task to be.

Results Figure 1: Alignment of organizational strategy to organizational culture


Human Resource Management occupational safety & health

4. Increased visibility of management in the workplace The is a very useful slogan in politics that can be used for OSH within the workplace. Management is leadership for the people, who should be seen among the people. The best way to display how genuine management is as it relates to health and safety is to observe the conditions under which the employees execute their task. Not only will management see a clearer picture of the effectiveness of policies and procedures but it allows the employees to know that management values their input into the organization. 5. Managers/supervisors must act promptly on unsafe acts Like all personal values, organizational values must be reinforced both positively and negatively. Employees must be praised for fulfilling and going beyond expectations to meet their responsibility and equally disciplined for negative behaviours. Companies must establish proper and efficient mediums for administering discipline within organizations. An employee should be made aware of the disciplinary actions for various infractions to the company’s safety and health policy. 6. Managers/supervisors may improve their safety leadership Management must understand their employees and determine the best leadership style to ensure it can reap maximum uptake of safety and health behaviours. If the organization moves towards a process driven operation, the leadership style must be commensurate and allow for firm but understanding techniques of guidance. Leadership must bear in mind the humanistic approach as well as, emotional intelligence, balanced with organizational operatives. Establishing health and safety as a core value of the organization is fundamental to reducing accidents. Both management and employees must pledge to the commitment of developing a strong safety culture. While management will lead by example, employees are to be held responsible for their involvement and contribution to the success of any safety plan. This accountability must be accompanied by proactive and comprehensive measurement to assist employees with the entrenchment of values. Just as a child and the establishment of their value system, the company must constantly reiterate, practice, and assist in developing the values they expect their employees to gain.

BEC Business Box The Barbados Employers’ Confederation in following its mandate to provide targeted, proactive solutions presents the BEC Business Box. This app allows users to request data and to chat live with the BEC personnel. In an effort to increase the speed of doing business the contact details for all Labour Management Advisors are available. The app includes the following features: • Live chat with the BEC personnel • Contact details for our members of staff • Template request • Receive updated statistics on work stoppages • Updated national accident data • For members only you can see updated wage settlement information per industry • Direct links to our strategic partners • Upload success stories regarding policy implementation • Give suggestions on our service offerings For more information: 435-4753; 271-5257; 271-5258 becon@barbadosemployers.com www.barbadosemployers.com

we love to come get to know us

“social -ize” barbadosemployers @becbusiness Barbados Employers’ Confederation Barbados Employers’ Confederation

www.BarbadosEmployers.com

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Human Resource Management occupational safety & health

Discrimination and its Impact on Health & Safety in the Workplace Melony James., BSc, MSc, Tech IOSH

Labour Management Advisor/OSH Coordinator, BEC melony@barbadosemployers.com | barbadosemployers.com

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hile the employment laws of Barbados are currently silent on the issue of discrimination and the outright expression of such has been significantly reduced in recent decades, the impact remains the same. Perceived discrimination in the case of health and safety can be equated to outright discrimination. What exists today are more subtle and chronic forms of discrimination in certain groups of our society. In an era where there is enlightenment on the various facets of mental ill-health as well as, general health and safety concerns in the workplace, there is no doubt that discrimination can severely impact the safety, security and health of the offended and the onlookers. Discrimination is defined under ILO Convention No. 111 as any distinction, exclusion or preference made on the basis of race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin; among other characteristics, which has the effect of nullifying or impairing equality of opportunity and treatment in employment or occupation. One way to understand the experience of discrimination is that it is a stressor that can broadly impact health. Although most stressful experiences do not increase vulnerability to illness, certain kinds of stressors—those that are uncontrollable and unpredictable— are particularly harmful to health, and these characteristics are common to discriminatory experiences. Perceived discrimination has also been linked to specific types of physical health problems, such as hypertension, selfreported poor health, and breast cancer. Additionally, they serve as potential risk factors for disease, such as obesity, high

34

BEC Employment Compass

blood pressure, and substance use (D. R. Williams & Mohammed, 2009). Under the Safety and Health at Work Act, it is the responsibility of every employer to ensure the safety, health and welfare of all employees whether it is their physical being or their mental faculties. Discrimination in the workplace can be classified as a psychological hazard bearing further fruit through physical risks. Not only will employees be exposed to harm but the organization may observe noticeable changes to their profit and loss stemming from reduced productivity. The level of productivity of an employee is closely correlated to the way said employee views their organization and the gains that can be derived personally from the work executed. Often, we give the most consideration to the impact on the person who was the victim of discrimination, however the most impactful damage can be evidenced

Although most stressful experiences do not increase vulnerability to illness, certain kinds of stressors—those that are uncontrollable and unpredictable—are particularly harmful to health, and these characteristics are common to discriminatory experiences. through the onlookers and their changed view of the organization or employer. The employees may also try other factors to limit discrimination such as resorting to taking absent days or showing up to work late. The impact of discrimination can first be evidenced through behavioural changes and mental irritability. The interactions of some employees may undergo noticeable changes. For example: they may go from speaking freely with others to displaying timid and less interpersonal behaviour. Such signs demonstrate that the employee is internalizing the discrimination and can cause the employee to move from a state of mental health to mental ill-health. However, for other employees it may result in them resorting to anger and violence in the workplace. Such behaviour can result in further damage to the entire workforce through tactics such as bullying or even physical fighting. Continued mental irritability often has the outcome of employees being less attentive and more complacent leading to risk such as: 1. Slip, trips and falls from reduced physical health; 2. Equipment damage stemming from frustration or lackadaisical behaviour; 3. Musculoskeletal Disorders from handling themselves or loads inadequately; 4. Cuts and Bruises from inappropriately handling equipment and resources. It would be remiss of me to write this article without concluding on ways we can reduce discrimination and in turn reduce its negative effects. It is our hope that the Discrimination in Employment Bill will be enacted in the coming years and once policed and administered efficiently will offer some recourse for the affected parties. I made reference earlier to perceived discrimination being as detrimental as outright discrimination, therefore each employer, due to the disproportionate power relationship between the organization and their employee, must be mindful of the decisions they make and the way they verbalise the basis for their decisions.


Help!

What’s trending in HR? This means the hurdles associated with integrating Xers into the workforce are almost over. However, organizations must prepare these millennials to manage the oldest members of generation Z, who will be between 21- 23 by the end of 2017. Generation Zers are creeping into the workforce as interns and in entry-level positions; their perspectives, desires and their expectations in many ways are fundamentally different from that of the Xers. How then do you prepare? Foster the leadership capacities of those Generation Xers in your environment. Unbelievably the twenty-seven-year-old in the cubicle outside your office will be managing the intern you just brought on for summer. Is he or she ready? If the answer is no, then there’s work to be done.

Creating spaces to promote bolster employee engagement It’s all the rave and its proven to work! Research executed by Steelcase1 conducted with a global sample of 12,480 employees across 17 countries stated workers who have control over where and how they work, and are free to choose a work space to fit their task at hand…are 88% more engaged at work. “The decision is not whether or not to design an open space, but rather how to give employees choice in where to work based upon the activity they are working on.” We spend most of our time awake at work, therefore part of HR’s agenda must not ensure workspaces are not simply a structure but an excellent way to spread the company’s culture and allow engagement or…maybe a little alone time for those who require it. Meister, Jeanne (2017) The Employee Experience is the Future of Work

1

“The world is not waiting on Barbados. If we are to truly become a much more productive society; if we are truly to become a society that fully engages in a dynamic world; if we are truly to become significant exporters of goods and services; if we are to benefit from the transfer of technology; if we are really serious about helping our young people to achieve their full potential, then Barbados and Barbadians must stop believing that work ends at four in the afternoon.”

“To move Barbados in that direction would also require more State entities to get on board, and become more flexible in their hours of work. In fact, he maintained that there some Government departments that are suited to open 12 hours daily from 7:30 a.m. to 7:30 p.m. Moreover, he said the country needs to not only focus on the “brick and mortar solutions”, but also giving persons access to businesses and Government entities through the use of technology.”

“A 24/7 society also means that we have rapid deployment on a sustainable basis of technology. Much more in Barbados needs to be done online, real time.”

Minister Donville Inniss, Minister of Industry, International Business, Commerce and Small Business Development, Statements made during the debate on the Holiday with Pay Bill, January 17, 2017

Image courtesy BIBA

The exit of Generation X, time to welcome Generation Z. Are you ready?

I’ve Never Done This Before . . . Q. Where an employee has resigned and neglects to provide the notice stipulated per the Employment Rights Act, can an employer deduct the said notice amount from the employee’s exit package?

A. Yes. The employee in this case will be in breach of the conditions of the legislation (as well as the contract of employment where so stipulated). Therefore, the employer is within his/her right to make the requisite deductions. Q. Where an employee absents his/ herself from work submitting the reason for absence as being “ill” however is witnessed at a social event can an employer proceed with disciplinary action? A 1. – Certified Sick Leave If the illness is certified the employer is cautioned not to proceed with disciplinary action. Nonetheless, where a trend is established and occurrences of this nature are frequent, an employer can request that the employee visit a medical doctor of the employer’s choosing to determine the person’s fitness for work. A 2. – Uncertified Sick Leave Where an employer can substantiate; through pictorial or first-hand evidence that an employee who has submitted to be too ill to attend work has attended on the said day a social event. N.B Where an employee submits to his/ her employer his inability to attend work as a result of illness on a given day example Friday and may be witnessed at a social event on a Saturday (which is not the scheduled work day) the employer will have no grounds to proceed with discipline.

www.BarbadosEmployers.com

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Adapting Employment Regulation to the Modern Economy Alana Matheson, Attorney-at-Law, LLB

Deputy Director of Workplace Relations Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry alana.matheson@acci.asn.au

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he Australian workplace relations framework has its origins in the 1890s, when Australia’s economy and society were very different. A century later, digital technologies emerged and since the 1990s change has been rapid. ‘Smart’ phones and devices, wireless internet, online shopping and social media are now rapidly changing how we live, work and shop. The nature of work is changing in response to these trends, and the 9am-5pm, Monday to Friday paradigm that shaped how we regulate work is now a thing of the past for many as we increasingly live in a 24/7 economy. While many will always need to work in fixed locations, for others, the traditional ‘corporate office’ will become a workspace for collaboration, and part of a wider mix of working from home and in other remote locations. New technologies are allowing more Australians to work anywhere and at any time, blurring the line between work and personal activities. Greater value is increasingly placed on what a person produces or delivers, rather than how long they are physically present in a workplace. The ability to build networks and connect to work opportunities online and new approaches to management have seen newer generations of Australians take greater

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BEC Employment Compass

While many will always need to work in fixed locations, for others, the traditional ‘corporate office’ will become a workspace for collaboration, and part of a wider mix of working from home and in other remote locations.


Law & Guidance international outlook

control over how they work and shape their careers. Traditional work processes are being replaced or reinvented, a heightened focus on innovation and adaptability, and new sources of capital, mean individuals can translate their ideas into products, services and opportunities more than ever before. Traditional learning is being challenged as adaptive learning and employability come into focus. In the modern economy, it seems that it is not what a person knows that is most important but their ability to learn new things, to apply those learnings and to stay adaptable in a rapidly changing environment. This is generating a broader range of options for where and how work is performed, providing opportunities for a wider range of people in our community to pursue work and business opportunities that complement their personal needs, including students, parents and carers. However lingering assumptions that work must take place within four walls, between 9am and 5pm Monday to Friday remain pervasive and influential in shaping Australian employment regulation. For some time the Australian Chamber and its members have pursued changes to minimum wages for weekend and public work holiday in the retail and hospitality industries – known as ‘penalty rates’. Sunday rates were typically set at double the ordinary minimum wage and public

holidays were paid at up to 275%. For many smaller businesses in these sectors, these very high minimum wage rates have become a cost barrier to opening at the times consumers increasingly expect them to trade. In many cases business owners are forced to work on these days because of the high cost of labour.

We are increasingly confronted with the reality that we must review the way we regulate work, largely shaped by the environment existing more than 100 years ago, to adapt it to contemporary circumstances. When weekend and holiday wage penalty rates were created, the Australian workforce was comprised of mostly men working full time, Monday to Friday. Shops once shut at noon on a Saturday and reopened on a Monday. The higher wage rates were imposed for the purpose of discouraging trade on Saturday afternoons, Sundays and public holidays, hence their name “penalty rates”. Such thinking is in direct collision with the demands of a changing society and Australian employers pursued a major case before our national industrial tribunal, the Fair Work Commission, to vary penalty rates. After two years of litigation, more than

140 witnesses, and 39 days of hearing giving rise to 28,606 paragraphs of transcript, employers succeeded in having Sunday and public holiday rates in retail and hospitality set at more reasonable levels. Pay for work on Sundays and public holidays will remain higher than both Monday to Friday work and Saturday work, but will be progressively brought back to more sensible and sustainable levels. We are increasingly confronted with the reality that we must review the way we regulate work, largely shaped by the environment existing more than 100 years ago, to adapt it to contemporary circumstances. Australia’s workplace relations framework must permit and encourage greater efficiency in the structuring of work to best enable businesses to navigate changing markets and consumer preferences. If goods and services are unable to be offered in line with changing demand, this will come at a cost to employment and Australia’s competitiveness. The Australian Chamber will continue to seek reform of the rules governing work to get them out of the age of the horse, buggy and steam engine, and better suited to the realities of the 21st century in which we live and work; we also continue to encourage and laud our fellow Business Member Organizations who are also driving this effort!

Barbados Labour Statistics The BEC tracks trends by monitoring various media including newspapers, online publications, partner websites as well as utilizing information supplied by our members. The below statistics were compiled from these sources. Layoffs

Work Stoppages 200 Number of Employees

21600

Years

2017 475

2016

150

2015 135

2016 100 50

86

2017 25

10

0 0

5100

10100

15100

Number of Employees

20100

25100

0

Jan-Jun

Years

0 Jul-Dec

www.BarbadosEmployers.com

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Law & Guidance guidance note

BEC Guidance Note:

Sexual Harassment

S

exual harassment is any unwelcome physical, verbal or non-verbal conduct, whether of a sexual nature or based on sex, which affects the human dignity of the recipient. It includes a comment, gesture, contact or display of a graphic picture. It is unlawful to harass a person (an applicant or employee) because of their sex. The International Labor Organization perceives sexual harassment as a social and economic problem that is likely to affect the workers and employers equally.

Guidance for Employers Due to the absence of sexual harassment legislation in Barbados, employers should avoid sexual harassment in the workplace by following established disciplinary rules and procedures, whether included in the company’s policies and procedures or those outlined in the Employment Rights Act. However, due to the sensitive nature of harassment issues, there may be the need to restrict the number of persons involved. When following disciplinary procedures, it is critical to ensure that the principles of natural justice are adhered to to ensure that: 1. The matter is thoroughly investigated 2. The accused is informed of any charge brought against them 3. The accused is allowed to respond 4. Bias is removed when deciding upon judgment. The BEC’s Red Book: A Guide to Employment Relation in Barbados provides a sample sexual harassment policy which is a useful guideline for all employers in creating and maintaining a harassment free workplace. There are steps to be followed by employees when reporting sexual harassment within the work place such as: • Politely but firmly, confront whoever is doing the harassing. State how you feel about his/her actions and request that the person ceases the harassment immediately. • If the harassment continues or you believe some employment consequence may result from your confrontation, report the matter to your immediate supervisor. If circumstances prohibit this response, report the behavior to senior management in writing, stating details of the sexual harassing behavior. • Make sure that any complaint of harassment receives the immediate attention of the manager to whom it is made. • If you’re dissatisfied with your company’s response you may seek representation from your union or other party. Employers should ensure that employees are made aware of these steps. Sanctions against harassment will depend upon the circumstances surrounding the incident. Minor first offences could lead to written warnings, while major or multiple offences could lead to the dismissal of the offender. These steps can be outlined in the employee handbook and/or a specific policy. The Barbados Sexual Harassment Bill (not yet passed by government) states in section 7 “where an employee alleges that he has been sexually harassed by another employee or by a client, the first mentioned employee may, within 3 months of the date of the occurrence of the event that constitutes sexual harassment, lodge a complaint in writing with the employer. In addition section 8 states; where a complaint is lodged with the employer under section 7, the employer shall a) In the case where the complaint is made against the employee, inform him in writing of the complaint and its details; b) In the case where the complaint is made against the client, take such action as he considers appropriate in the circumstances to bring the matter to the attention of the client and; c) Shall investigate the complaint.

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BEC Employment Compass

The Barbados Safety and Health Work Act 2012 states that the employer owes his/her employees a duty of care. In section 6 subsection (5) of this Act it states “It shall be the duty of every occupier to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare at work of all his employees. This includes prevention and resolution of any reported acts of sexual harassment as this will also affect the safety of an employee”. Can the Union be involved in preventing sexual harassment within the Workplace? Trade unions should participate in the development and implementation of a company’s sexual harassment policy to ensure that issues related to sexual harassment in the workplace are negotiated in a fair and transparent manner. They should also provide information, advice and representation to the following categories: • Workers who have been sexually harassed • Workers against whom allegations of sexual harassment have been made The issue of harassment within the workplace is surrounded by concerns related to confidentiality, trust and reputation; this means that employers, while being proactive in dealing with such issues, must also be very careful in how they handle such issues when presented. In the absence of legislation employers should be guided by decent work principles and procedures embedded in policies such as the employee handbook or any other policy. Regardless of the form of harassment, once suspected, the employer is obligated to address the situation with expediency.


GREEN

YO U T H

CHAMPION

PROJECT

PHASE 2 - PLAN OF ACTION

COLOUR ME GREEN COMPETITION

Hey Green Youth Champions, here’s what you have to do:

5

Ages 9-11

Make Barbados more Green friendly!

4

Promote Green submissions in community areas

Create a scrapbook or a 1 min. video presentation on one of these topics:

• Recycle and Resell (Be Innovative) Identify an item to be recycled in order to create a product for sale.

3

Taking steps to emphasize the importance and benefits of identifying linkages of green initiatives.

• Solid waste’s impact on the environment. • Law enforcement and their role in protection awareness. • Identify a local green project and outline its benefit to Barbados. • Choose a Superhero and show how his/her powers can reduce pollution.

Ages 12-15

Assist with mentorship and creativity of submissions project

WHERE WE ARE TODAY:

Create a scrapbook or a 1 min. video presentation on one of these topics:

2 Promotion of the project

Ages 16-18

Create an entreprenuership proposal on this topic:

• My Green Start-Up (Sustainability) Create a start-up proposal for a new green business and it should include a business overview, projections, budgets and natural resources.

Prizes

Include mentorship for all who enter.

1

Launch the Green Youth Champion Project

Submit to:

becon@barbadosemployers.com or on USB or CD: Barbados Employers’ Confederation Braemar Court, Deighton Road, Brittons Hill, St. Michael BB14000

For more info contact BEC: 435 4753 | 271 5257/8

Phases of the BEC’s GREEN FRAMEWORK PHASE PHASE PHASE PHASE

1. Green Sensitization of Communities and Sectors 2. Identifying Linkages of Green Initiatives across the Region 3. Addressing the Impact of Green Climate Change 4. Measuring the Impact of the Green Framework

JOIN THE BEC IN OUR QUEST FOR A GREENER BARBADOS


The best way to predict the future is to create it. Innovation is a driver of growth and development. At Sagicor, we are committed to making the experience of our employees and customers more efficient and convenient. Flexibility and the introduction of new technology, are just some of the strategies we employ to ready our organisation for the future.

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