Page 1

July 2017 Shawwal, 1438 Volume 8, Issue No. 7 ‫جامعة الملك عبداهلل للعلوم والتقنية‬

‫ المملكة العربية السعودية‬،‫ثول‬

King Abdullah University of Science and Technology Thuwal, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

www.kaust.edu.sa

‫عام من اإلثراء‬ A year of enrichment


A year of enrichment The University’s Enrichment Programs were created as a way to draw KAUST faculty, students, staff, partners, collaborators and community members out of their daily routines and into a curated program of expansive thinking. The programs are shaped to educate, inspire, enrich and contribute to the community, the Kingdom and the world.

The Beacon Volume 8, Issue No. 7 PUBLISHED BY MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS King Abdullah University of Science and Technology Thuwal, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

The Beacon Staff Managing Editor: Nicholas Demille Arabic Editor: Salah Sindi English Editor: Caitlin Clark Designer: Omnia Attallah Writers: David Murphy, Meres J. Weche Translator: Adel Alrefaie Photographers: Ginger Lisanti, Lilit Hovhannisyan The Beacon is published monthly. © 2017 King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

2

THE BEACON | JULY 2017

Under the umbrella of Academic Affairs, the Office of Enrichment Programs produces and delivers three Enrichment Programs during the year: the two-week-long Winter Enrichment Program (WEP) and the Enrichment in the Spring and Enrichment in the Fall shorter programs. In collaboration with faculty, staff and students and a nominated KAUST faculty chair, the Enrichment Office decides on a theme for each program and selects content from proposals submitted by the KAUST community. This is immersive, enlightening, challenging and focused work. In the University’s ninth academic year, we have seen great things come from the Enrichment Programs—we’ve fostered new collaborations and inspired new areas of inquiry. The programs make improbable

1

meetings happen, shine the spotlight on great ideas, inspire people to aim high and support learning that empowers curious minds to create and innovate. The highlights of this year of inspiration and enrichment are collected in this issue of The Beacon through stories and articles written about the last three programs: • Enrichment in the Spring 2017: “Pioneers” - chaired by Gilles Lubineau, KAUST professor of mechanical engineering • Winter Enrichment Program (WEP) 2017: “Pushing the Limits: Challenging Engineering and Science” - chaired by Gilles Lubineau • Enrichment in the Fall 2016: “Food for All” - chaired by Mark Tester, KAUST professor of plant science Save the date for the upcoming Enrichment Programs: • Enrichment in the Fall 2017: October 20 to 28 • Winter Enrichment Program (WEP) 2018 (“Human-Machine Future”): January 14 to 25, 2018


1. Marie-Laure Boulot, manager of Enrichment

Programs at KAUST, has been part of the University since 2009. In her role, she sets up strategy and oversees the Enrichment Programs' development.

2. James Calvin, KAUST vice president for Academic Affairs, oversees the University's Enrichment Programs as part of his role in Academic Affairs. 3. Gilles Lubineau (left), KAUST professor of

mechanical engineering, chaired the 2017 Winter Enrichment Program and the 2017 Enrichment in the Spring program. He is pictured here with Marie-Laure Boulot, manager of the University's Enrichment Programs.

4. Mark Tester, KAUST professor of plant science, chaired the 2016 Enrichment in the Fall program.

2

3

3

4

Scan here to visit the Enrichment Programs' website to learn more about these exciting on campus events.

The Enrichment Programs' Facebook page provides all of the latest Enrichment news. Scan here to learn more.

The Enrichment Programs' Twitter feed gives all of the exciting details about the three programs of the year. Scan here to read the latest tweets.

www.kaust.edu.sa

3


From Bedouin boy to oil minister: the journey of H.E. Ali Al-Naimi By Caitlin Clark

When people ask me what the secret of my success is, I tell them there is no secret—it all comes down to hard work. My advice to all of you here is to work hard.” - H.E. Ali Ibrahim Al-Naimi, chairman of the KAUST board of trustees and former Saudi minister of petroleum and mineral resources

In April 1944, the then American-owned oil company Aramco (later Saudi Aramco) opened the Jabal School, the first company school, in Dhahran, in Saudi Arabia’s Eastern Province. Established to help educate boys under 18, by the mid-1940s,

44

THE BEACON | JULY 2017

the school found itself with one of Saudi Arabia’s most famous future figures as a pupil. The student was Ali Ibrahim Al-Naimi, a 9-year-old illiterate Bedouin boy. He would later become president and CEO of Saudi Aramco and, in 1995, Saudi Arabia’s minister of petroleum and mineral resources. His Excellency Al-Naimi also serves as chairman of the KAUST board of trustees, and has been a part of the University since its beginnings.

Studying in the ‘university of life’ “I was born in 1935 in the Eastern Province, and the only education on offer then was in the university of life,” AlNaimi told an audience of KAUST faculty, students, staff and community members at a 2017 Winter Enrichment Program (WEP) keynote lecture on January 8. There, he discussed his recent autobiography “Out of the Desert: My Journey from Nomadic Bedouin to the Heart of Global Oil.”


‫من صبي يعيش في البادية إلى‬ ‫وزير للبترول والثروة المعدنية‪ :‬رحلة معالي‬ ‫الوزير علي بن إبراهيم النعيمي‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫حاليا) في منتصف‬ ‫سابقا (أرامكو السعودية‬ ‫قامت شركة النفط األمريكية أرامكو‬ ‫األربعينات الماضية‪ ،‬بافتتاح مدرسة الجبل في مدينة الظهران في المنطقة الشرقية في‬ ‫المملكة العربية السعودية‪ ،‬كأول مدرسة خاصة بالشركة‪ .‬وكان السبب من وراء إنشاء هذه‬ ‫ً‬ ‫عاما‪ .‬ولم يكن يعلم مسؤولو‬ ‫المدرسة هو تثقيف وتعليم الصبية السعوديين دون سن ‪18‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫واحدا من أشهر الشخصيات والقيادات‬ ‫هذه المدرسة أن أحد تالمذتها سيتخرج منها ليصبح‬ ‫السعودية في المستقبل‪ .‬كان هذا الطالب هو علي بن إبراهيم النعيمي‪ ،‬ابن التسع‬ ‫سنوات الذي نشأ وترعرع في البادية‪.‬‬ ‫تقلد معالي الوزير عدة مناصب كبيرة خالل تاريخ حياته العملية الحافلة باإلنجازات‪ .‬حيث‬ ‫شغل منصب الرئيس والمدير التنفيذي لشركة أرامكو السعودية‪ ،‬وأصبح وزير البترول‬ ‫والثروة المعدنية في عام ‪ .1995‬كما يشغل معالي الوزير منصب رئيس مجلس أمناء‬ ‫جامعة الملك عبداهلل للعلوم والتقنية‪ ،‬ويعتبر أحد القيادات المؤسسة لها منذ البداية‪.‬‬

‫‪55‬‬

‫‪www.kaust.edu.sa‬‬

‫التعلم من مدرسة الحياة‬ ‫ألقى معالي الوزير علي النعيمي في الثامن من شهر يناير ‪ 2017‬محاضرة رئيسية في‬ ‫جامعة الملك عبداهلل للعلوم والتقنية ضمن فعاليات برنامج اإلثراء الشتوي (ويب) لعام‬ ‫‪ 2017‬حيث تحدث إلى أعضاء هيئة التدريس والطلبة والموظفين وأفراد مجتمع الجامعة‬ ‫ً‬ ‫حديثا بعنوان "من البادية إلى عالم النفط" ويتناول‬ ‫وضيوف البرنامج عن كتابه الذي صدر‬ ‫سيرته الذاتية وقصة حياته حيث قال‪" :‬ولدت في عام ‪ 1935‬في المنطقة الشرقية‪ ،‬وكانت‬ ‫فرصتي الوحيدة لتلقي العلم هي من خالل مدرسة الحياة‪ .‬وكنت في سن الرابعة أعمل‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫محظوظا‪ ،‬ألني ولدت في المكان‬ ‫راعيا ألغنام أسرتي‪ .‬وعلى الرغم من ذلك‪ ،‬أجد نفسي‬

‫والزمان المناسبين‪ .‬حيث تغيرت حياتي مثلما تغيرت حياة الكثيرين بعد اكتشاف النفط في‬ ‫المملكة العربية السعودية‪".‬‬


1 “By the age of 4, I was working as a shepherd boy for my family for our sheep. I was lucky, though—although I didn’t know it, I had been born in the right place at the right time. When they discovered oil in Saudi Arabia, my life and the lives of others would never be the same again,” Al-Naimi said.

Education and hard work Al-Naimi’s older brother Abdullah became an Aramco employee, and one day, he recounted, Abdullah told him, “Come on, Ali—we are going to school.” “I didn’t know what that was, but it sounded like fun,” Al-Naimi said, beginning his two years of education at the Jabal School. He then became an Aramco employee—an office boy—and was later sponsored by the company to study in the U.S., completing degrees at Lehigh University and Stanford University. After returning to work for Aramco again, he became vice president of Producing and Water Injection in 1975, and was one of the first Saudis to become an Aramco executive. He became president of the company in 1984 and CEO in 1988. “Education has played a vital role in my life, and it is important to discuss this while at KAUST,” Al-Naimi said. “What I really learned during my education was how to work hard—it was a lesson in life that I never forgot.”

The secret of success “When I was very young,” he continued, “someone asked me what I wanted to do when I was older, and I said I wanted to be the president of Aramco, but I didn’t know what this meant. It sounded good—and it came true. “I was looking forward to retiring from my position at age 60 when King Fahd asked me to become minister of petroleum and mineral resources, a position I held for more than 20 years. When people ask me what the secret of my success is, I tell them there is no secret—it all comes down to hard work. My advice to all of you here is to work hard.”

6

THE BEACON | JULY 2017

2

Education and society “KAUST is an example of harnessing human talent in a small environment,” Al-Naimi said. “We have to start by assuming that education is the first thing you need to focus on in any society. Without great education for society, there is no hope for it—superior education advances us. “I see some of the world’s brightest intellect here. Humanity faces some major challenges, and KAUST was set up to tackle those challenges. In many ways, you are fortunate to have been born at this time in human evolution, when we have the benefit of history and the ability to think into the future. You need to succeed in your efforts to help the planet and future generations. Think hard, think big and face the impossible.”

‘A great future’ Al-Naimi also discussed the Kingdom’s movement towards a knowledgebased economy. “The potential to do things at great scale is here—all we have to do is work hard,” he said. “If you combine the intelligence of men and women with what is already available in the Kingdom, you have great potential for a great future when you put it all together.” However, one can’t go about building this future alone, Al-Naimi noted. “It takes effort to create, develop and get things right,” he said. “If you want to develop something, you can’t do it by yourself. You need people to help you do this, and you need to respect those people. To be a leader, you must respect every human being that you lead.” Although Al-Naimi held one of the world’s most powerful economic jobs for over two decades, he said, “I’ve always done what I had to do. When I was 4 years old, I had to tend the sheep, so that’s what I did. Looking back, I would have done the same things—maybe not tend the sheep, but certainly everything else!”


‫‪1. H.E. Ali Al-Naimi speaks about his life‬‬ ‫‪at his 2017 Winter Enrichment Program‬‬ ‫‪keynote lecture on January 8.‬‬ ‫‪2. H.E. Ali Al-Naimi (left) answers‬‬ ‫‪questions from the audience during his‬‬ ‫‪2017 Winter Enrichment Program keynote‬‬ ‫‪lecture, with James Calvin (right), KAUST‬‬ ‫‪vice president for academic affairs, acting‬‬ ‫‪as moderator.‬‬

‫التعلم والمثابرة‬

‫التعليم والمجتمع‬

‫وتحدث الوزير علي النعيمي عن بداية التحاقه في المدرسة حيث كان أخوه األكبر عبداهلل‬ ‫ً‬ ‫موظفا لدى أرامكو وفي أحد األيام قال إنه سيأخذه إلى المدرسة‪ .‬يقول النعيمي‪:‬‬ ‫يعمل‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ممتعا بالنسبة لي"‪ .‬درس‬ ‫"بالطبع لم أكن أعرف ما هي المدرسة أول األمر ولكن ذلك بدا‬ ‫النعيمي بعد ذلك في مدرسة الجبل لمدة سنتين ثم أصبح أحد موظفي أرامكو حيث كان‬ ‫يعمل كعامل مكتب‪ ،‬وبعد ذلك عرضت عليه أرامكو فرصة االبتعاث للدراسة في الواليات‬ ‫المتحدة حيث ذهب وأكمل دراسته الجامعية في جامعة ليهاي وجامعة ستانفورد‪ .‬وبعد‬ ‫عودته شغل منصب نائب الرئيس إلنتاج وحقن المياه في أرامكو في عام ‪ ،1975‬وكان من‬ ‫أوائل السعوديين لشغل منصب مسؤول تنفيذي في شركة ارامكو‪ .‬ثم أصبح رئيسا للشركة‬ ‫في عام ‪ 1984‬والرئيس التنفيذي لها في عام ‪ .1988‬وتحدث النعيمي للحضور في جامعة‬ ‫الملك عبداهلل عن فضل العلم وأهميته حيث قال‪" :‬أجد أن هذه مناسبة مثالية لمشاركة‬ ‫ً‬ ‫دورا‬ ‫مجتمع جامعة الملك عبداهلل للعلوم والتقنية عن تجربتي مع التعليم‪ .‬حيث كان للتعليم‬ ‫ً‬ ‫مهما في حياتي‪ ،‬وتعلمت أثناء دراستي أن النجاح ال يتحقق اال بالعمل الجاد والمثابرة وهو‬ ‫ً‬ ‫درس حياة لن أنساه أبدا‪".‬‬

‫وخالل المحاضرة تحدث الوزير علي النعيمي عن جامعة الملك عبداهلل وبيئتها الفريدة حيث‬ ‫قال‪" :‬جامعة الملك عبداهلل مثال ناجح على كيفية تسخير المواهب والطاقات البشرية في‬ ‫ً‬ ‫دوما أن نضع التعليم في االعتبار كأول هدف نركز عليه في أي مجتمع‪.‬‬ ‫بيئة صغيرة‪ .‬علينا‬ ‫ً‬ ‫شيئا‪ ،‬التعليم الراقي والمتميز هو من‬ ‫فالمجتمع دون تعليم راقي لن ينهض ولن يحقق‬ ‫يرفع األمم‪ .‬أرى جامعة الملك عبداهلل تزخر بالعقول النيرة من جميع أنحاء العالم‪ .‬هذه هي‬ ‫العقول التي ستساعد الجامعة على تحقيق رسالتها الطموحة لمعالجة التحديات الكبرى‬ ‫التي تواجه اإلنسانية في الوقت الحالي‪ .‬أنتم محظوظون ً‬ ‫جدا أن ولدتم في هذا الزمن‬ ‫ً‬ ‫تطورا غير مسبوق لإلنسانية‪ ،‬حيث تستطيعون االستفادة من قدراتكم الفكرية‬ ‫الذي يشهد‬ ‫الفريدة وتجارب السابقين للنجاح من أجل مستقبل مشرق لسكان االرض واألجيال القادمة‪.‬‬ ‫اعملوا بجد وفكروا بتمعن وال تخشوا مواجهة المستحيل "‪.‬‬

‫سر النجاح‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫صغيرا‪ ،‬سألني أحدهم ماذا تريد أن تصبح عندما تكبر؟‬ ‫قائال‪" :‬عندما كنت‬ ‫واستطرد النعيمي‬ ‫قلت أريد أن أكون رئيس شركة أرامكو‪ ،‬ولكني وقتها لم أكن أعرف ما يعنيه ذلك إال أن‬ ‫ً‬ ‫جميال‪ ،‬وبفضل اهلل تمكنت من تحقيق ذلك‪ .‬كنت أتطلع للتقاعد من منصبي في‬ ‫وقعها كان‬ ‫أرامكو في سن الستين‪ ،‬ثم طلب مني الملك فهد رحمه اهلل أن أصبح وزير البترول والثروة‬ ‫ً‬ ‫عاما‪ .‬وعندما يسألني الناس ما سر نجاحي‪ ،‬أقول لهم ال‬ ‫المعدنية فشغلت المنصب لمدة ‪20‬‬ ‫يوجد سر‪ ،‬كل ما عليكم القيام به هو العمل الجاد فقط وهذه نصيحتي لكم جميعا هنا "‪.‬‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫‪www.kaust.edu.sa‬‬

‫االقتصاد المعرفي‬ ‫كما ناقش الوزير علي النعيمي خطة المملكة الرامية لتحويل اقتصادها إلى االقتصاد‬ ‫المعرفي‪ .‬وقال في هذا السياق‪ ":‬لدينا في المملكة العربية السعودية القدرة على تحقيق‬ ‫أشياء عظيمة‪ ،‬كل ما علينا القيام به هو العمل الجاد‪ .‬فقد حبا اهلل المملكة ثروات معدنية‬ ‫ونفط وغاز وشركات كبيرة وحكومة مستقرة‪ .‬بعقول أبنائنا إذا استغلينا هذه المزايا‪،‬‬ ‫فالمستقبل واعد بإذن اهلل‪" .‬‬ ‫وتحدث النعيمي عن دور القائد وأهمية العمل الجماعي والمشاركة حيث قال‪" :‬ال يمكن أن‬ ‫ً‬ ‫أشخاصا لمساعدتك في القيام بذلك‪ ،‬وهنا ينبغي عليك‬ ‫تبني المستقبل لوحدك ألنك تحتاج‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫جديرا ينبغي عليك احترام كل من يعمل‬ ‫قائدا‬ ‫كقائد أن تحترم هؤالء األشخاص‪ .‬ولكي تكون‬ ‫تحت قيادتك‪.".‬‬


A taxonomy of great science By David Murphy Acclaimed author and physicist Alan Lightman recently gave a keynote address on the great scientific discoveries of the 20th century and the scientists responsible for these discoveries as part of this year’s Enrichment in the Spring Program. In an enlightening talk, the author of the international best-seller "Einstein's Dreams" and "The Diagnosis" and others and professor of the practice of the humanities at MIT skimmed through an analysis of 25 of the most important scientific discoveries and discoverers of our time—discoveries that have radically changed our notions of the world and our place in it. His presentation entitled “The Discoveries: Great Breakthroughs in 20th-Century Science” covered everything from the theory of relativity to mapping the structure of DNA and was based on his 2005 book "The Discoveries.”

The great scientific discoveries of our time Lightman, whose literary essays and articles have appeared in The Atlantic, Granta, Harper’s, The New Yorker and The New York Review of Books, discussed some of the great scientists and their discoveries from 1021 A.D. up through 1972. Highlights from Lightman's talk included the works of the great Muslim scholar Ibn al-Haytham for his understanding of vision, optics and light (1021 AD); Max Planck for the discovery of the quantum (1900); Ernest Starling and William Bayliss for their research on hormones (1902); Albert Einstein for elucidating the particle nature of light (1905); Ernest Rutherford for the nucleus of the atom (1911); Max von Laue for the size of the cosmos (1912); Neils Bohr for the quantum atom (1913); Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner for nuclear fission (1939); Francis Crick and James Watson for the structure of DNA (1953); and Paul Berg’s research on recombinant DNA in 1972. He examined one case study in detail: the discovery of the cosmic distance scale by the American astronomer and early pioneer Henrietta Leavitt in 1912. Leavitt's work culminated in the discovery of the relation between the luminosity and the period of cepheid variable stars—a discovery which became one of the cornerstones of modern astronomical science. “When you look up at the sky you only see a two dimensional picture. You see a cluster of stars—and you don't know if it's a separate galaxy—because you don't know the size of our galaxy. The distance to other galaxies was determined through Leavitt's theory,” Lightman said. “Unfortunately and unbelievably, Leavitt died prematurely of cancer in 1921 and didn't even receive a professorship or a big award during her lifetime.” Lightman pointed out that although there have been a number of important scientific discoveries and contributions from women throughout history, women simply haven’t had the same opportunities as their male peers. He insisted that this is a trend that needs to change in the future, and, to this end, he founded the Harpswell Foundation, the mission of which is to empower a new generation of women leaders in Southeast Asia.

8

THE BEACON | JULY 2017

“Women should be encouraged in science. Worldwide, women are not encouraged to go into science half as much as men are—and that's something that we are going to have to work on,” he said.

A 'taxonomy' of scientific discovery Lightman, who has a Ph.D. in physics from the California Institute of Technology, discussed what he described as a "taxonomy" of scientific discovery and how it applied to the scientists in question. “In most discoveries there's a kind of synthesis involved. Discoveries can follow periods of being stuck— sometimes, scientists can find what they are looking for by not looking at all,” Lightman said. With a wealth of experience in scientific research and reportage, Lightman also dispensed some advice for current students and researchers and for the scientists of the future who might have run into a brick wall in their research and findings. “Don’t despair when you are stuck. In fact. I encourage you [students and researchers] to get stuck. It gives you time to think, and you could be on the edge of a great discovery—great discoveries can follow periods of being stuck,” Lightman said. He also implored those same budding science writers, students and researchers not to be afraid to critique the science behind their profession and chosen field. “Don't think of science with rose-colored glasses. Don’t be afraid of critiquing the science. A lot of the world— especially today—is scientific and highly technical. We must think critically about the science behind the discovery. Sometimes these discoveries might not have been ethical or used improper principles. In the field of science, we don’t want to train cheerleaders. We want to train people who can put science into a context and place,” he said.

The prepared mind In keeping with the theme of this year’s Enrichment in the Spring program, Lightman, whose research on general relativity, radiation processes and stellar dynamics, along with his literary credentials, can be classified as a true pioneer of science, concluded his address by highlighting how his involvement with science continues to inform his day-to-day activities. “Science informs my writing. The subject matter, the culture, the ethos—that’s what I draw from. Unlike artists, scientists work on problems that ultimately have a solution. It may take one to 10 years plus, but the solution exists. If the scientist is committed to the discovery, he or she will eventually make the breakthrough,” he emphasized. “I don't think there's been enough time for analysis to say what has been the best discovery of the 20th century. You need a certain amount of time to know the importance of a discovery. In my opinion, not one great scientific discovery has been made by an amateur. All the great discoveries were by scientists with 'prepared minds'—they had studied their subjects, they had mastered their craft and they were highly skilled individuals—they were the experts,” he concluded.


‫تصنيف الكتشافات‬ ‫علمية عظيمة‬ ‫في كلمته التثقيفية‪ ،‬في برنامج االثراء الربيعي‪ ،‬تحدث األستاذ الممارس في‬ ‫العلوم اإلنسانية في معهد ماساتشوستس للتقنية‪ ،‬ومؤلف كتابي "أحالم‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫عالما‬ ‫مبيعا في العالم‪ ،‬عن أهم ‪25‬‬ ‫إينشتاين" و"التشخيص"‪ ،‬وهما من أكثر الكتب‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫غيرت مفاهيمنا عن‬ ‫واكتشافا‬ ‫علميا في عصرنا الحالي‪ ،‬أي االكتشافات التي ّ‬ ‫تغييرا جذريا‪ً.‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫العالم وموقعنا فيه‬ ‫وغطى عرضه التقديمي‪ ،‬الذي حمل عنوان "االكتشافات‪ :‬إنجازات علمية عظيمة‬ ‫وانتهاء بوضع خارطة بنية الحمض‬ ‫ابتداء بالنظرية النسبية‬ ‫في القرن العشرين"‪،‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫استنادا إلى كتابه "االكتشافات" الذي ّألفه في ‪.2005‬‬ ‫النووي‪ ،‬وذلك‬

‫االكتشافات العلمية العظيمة في عصرنا‬ ‫تناول اليتمان‪ ،‬الذي نشرت مواده ومقاالته األدبية في "أتالنتيك" و"غرانتا"‬ ‫و"هاربرز" و"نيويوركر" وفي "نيويورك ريفيو أوف بوكس" على سبيل المثال ال‬ ‫ابتداء من عام ‪ 1021‬للميالد‬ ‫الحصر‪ ،‬بعض العلماء العظماء واختراعاتهم‪ ،‬وذلك‬ ‫ً‬ ‫حتى ‪ .1972‬وتطرق في كلمته إلى أعمال العالم المسلم العظيم ابن الهيثم‬ ‫وفهمه للرؤية والبصريات والضوء (‪ 1021‬للميالد)؛ وماكس بالنك على اختراعه‬ ‫نظرية الكم (‪)1900‬؛ وإرنست ستارلنغ ووليام بايليس على أبحاثهما في مجال‬ ‫الهرمونات (‪)1902‬؛ وألبرت إينشتاين لتوضيح وشرح الطبيعة الجسيمية للضوء‬ ‫(‪)1905‬؛ وإرنست رذرفورد على أبحاثه في مجال نواة الذرة (‪)1911‬؛ وماكس فون‬ ‫الوي على قياس الكون (‪)١٩١٢‬؛ ونيلز بور على ميكانيك الكم في الذرة (‪)1913‬؛‬ ‫وأوتو هان وليز ميتنر على االنصهار النووي (‪)1939‬؛ وفرانسيس كريك وجيمس‬ ‫واتسون على بنية الحمض النووي (‪)1953‬؛ وأبحاث بول بيرغ في مجال أبحاث‬ ‫الحمض النووي المعاد تركيبه في ‪.1972‬‬ ‫وتناول بالتفصيل دراسة حالة عن اكتشاف مقياس المسافة الكونية في ‪1912‬‬ ‫من قبل عالمة الفلك األمريكية الرائدة هينرييتا ليفيت‪ ،‬التي أصبح اكتشافها‬ ‫للعالقة بين اللمعان والتغاير الدوري في إضاءة النجوم‪ ،‬من ركائز العلم الحديث‪،‬‬ ‫وكان بمثابة تتويج ألعمالها‪.‬‬ ‫وقال اليتمان‪" :‬عندما ننظر إلى السماء‪ ،‬لن نرى إال صورة ثنائية األبعاد‪ .‬سنرى‬ ‫مجموعة من النجوم‪ ،‬دون أن نعلم إن كانت من مجرة أخرى‪ ،‬ألننا نجهل حجم‬ ‫مجرتنا‪ .‬لقد أسهمت نظرية ليفيت في تحديد المسافة بين مجرتنا والمجرات‬ ‫األخرى"‪ .‬وأضاف‪" :‬ولسوء الحظ‪ ،‬فقد فارقت ليفيت الحياة بصورة مفاجئة في عمر‬ ‫مبكر في ‪ 1921‬قبل أن تنال األستاذية أو أي جائزة كبيرة خالل حياتها"‪.‬‬ ‫وأشار اليتمان إلى أن النساء لم يحصلن على الفرص نفسها التي نالها الرجال على‬ ‫وشدد على‬ ‫الرغم من االكتشافات والمساهمات العلمية الكثيرة لهن عبر التاريخ‪.‬‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫اتجاها ينبغي تغييره في المستقبل‪ .‬وهذا ما دفعه إلى تأسيس‬ ‫أن هذا يمثل‬ ‫مؤسسة هاربسويل التي تسعى لتمكين جيل جديد من النساء الرائدات في جنوب‬ ‫شرق آسيا‪ .‬وقال‪" :‬ينبغي تشجيع النساء في مجال العلوم‪ .‬فالنساء في العالم‬ ‫بأسره ال يحصلن إال على نصف ما يناله الرجال من تشجيع على دخول معترك‬ ‫الميدان العلمي‪ ،‬وذلك شيء ينبغي أن نعمل على إصالحه"‪.‬‬

‫‪9‬‬

‫‪www.kaust.edu.sa‬‬

‫"تصنيف" لالكتشافات العلمية‬ ‫ناقش اليتمان‪ ،‬الذي حصل على درجة الدكتوراه في الفيزياء من معهد كاليفورنيا‬ ‫للتقنية‪ ،‬ما وصفه بأنه "تصنيف" لالكتشافات العلمية‪ ،‬وكيف يمكن تطبيقه على‬ ‫العلماء الذين تناولهم في كلمته‪.‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫وغالبا ما تأتي‬ ‫وقال‪" :‬تنطوي االكتشافات بمعظمها على نوع من وضع الحلول‪.‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫أحيانا إيجاد ما‬ ‫هذه االكتشافات بعد فترات من االستعصاء‪ .‬ويستطيع العلماء‬ ‫يبحثون عنه من خالل عدم البحث على اإلطالق"‪.‬‬ ‫وأسدى اليتمان‪ ،‬الذي يتمتع بخبرة واسعة في األبحاث والتحقيقات العلمية‪،‬‬ ‫بعض النصائح للطالب والباحثين الحاليين ولعلماء المستقبل‪ ،‬الذين قد تصل أبحاثهم‬ ‫ونتائجهم إلى حائط مسدود‪.‬‬ ‫وقال‪" :‬ال تسمحوا لليأس بأن يتسرب إليكم عندما تصلون إلى حائط مسدود‪.‬‬ ‫وفي الحقيقة‪ ،‬أنا أشجعكم (أيها الطلبة والباحثين) على الوقوع في مأزق‪.‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫وقتا للتفكير‪ :‬فقد تكونون على شفا حفرة من اكتشاف عظيم‪.‬‬ ‫فهذا يمنحكم‬ ‫فاالكتشافات العظيمة تأتي عادة في أعقاب فترات من الصعوبات"‪.‬‬ ‫كما ناشد الكتاب والطلبة والباحثين الصاعدين بأال يشعروا بالخوف من انتقاد‬ ‫العلوم التي يستند إليها اختصاصهم والميدان الذي اختاروه‪.‬‬ ‫وأضاف‪" :‬ال تنظروا إلى العلم نظرة مثالية‪ .‬وال تتهيبوا انتقاده‪ .‬فجزء كبير من‬ ‫العالم‪ ،‬وخاصة في عصرنا هذا‪ ،‬علمي وعالي التقنية‪ .‬وينبغي أن نفكر بصورة‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ناقدة بالعلوم التي تكمن وراء االكتشافات‪ ،‬التي قد ال يكون معظمها أخالقيا أو‬ ‫يستخدم مبادئ مالئمة‪ .‬وال حاجة بنا في الميدان العلمي إلى تدريب مجموعة من‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫المهللين‪ ،‬بل نرغب في تدريب من يستطيعون وضع العلم في سياق ومكان"‪.‬‬

‫العقل المستعد‬ ‫ً‬ ‫التزاما منه بموضوع هذا العام من برنامج اإلثراء في الربيع‪ ،‬اختتم اليتمان‪ ،‬الذي‬ ‫تضعه أبحاثه في مجال النسبية العامة وعمليات اإلشعاع والديناميات النجمية‪ ،‬إلى‬ ‫جانب مؤهالته األدبية‪ ،‬في مصاف رواد العلم الحقيقيين‪ ،‬اختتم كلمته بتسليط‬ ‫الضوء على اهتماماته العلمية وكيف تثري نشاطه اليومي‪.‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫قائال‪" :‬تعزز العلوم كتابتي‪ .‬وأنا أستند إلى الموضوع المطروح‬ ‫وأكد اليتمان‬ ‫والثقافة والروح المعنوية‪ .‬وبخالف الفنانين‪ ،‬يعمل العلماء على مسائل لها حل‬ ‫في نهاية المطاف‪ .‬وقد يستغرق إيجاد الحل عشر سنوات أو أكثر‪ ،‬ولكن الحل‬ ‫موجود‪ .‬وإذا التزم العلماء باالكتشافات‪ ،‬سيحققون إنجازات في نهاية المطاف"‪.‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫كافيا قد انقضى كي نحدد االكتشاف‬ ‫وقتا‬ ‫قائال‪" :‬ال أعتقد أن‬ ‫وانتهى في حديثه‬ ‫األفضل في القرن العشرين‪ .‬وال بد من مضي فترة كافية من الوقت لمعرفة‬ ‫هاو أي اكتشاف علمي عظيم برأيي‪ ،‬فقد‬ ‫أهمية االكتشاف‪ .‬ولم يحقق أي ٍ‬ ‫تحققت كافة االكتشافات الرائعة على يدي علماء من أصحاب "العقول‬ ‫المستعدة"‪ ،‬فقد درسوا مواضيعهم‪ ،‬وأتقنوا حرفتهم‪ ،‬وكانوا من أصحاب المهارة‬ ‫العالية‪ ،‬أي كانوا هم الخبراء"‪.‬‬


Choosing to fly By Denis J. Boutry Steph Davis, climber, author and wingsuit pilot, spoke to the KAUST community on January 15 as part of the 2017 Winter Enrichment Program (WEP). Davis, a self-proclaimed expert in what she terms “high commitment activities,” shared her experiences with pushing physical and emotional limits. Before becoming a celebrity in her field, she gained a lot of experience by building up confidence through increasingly challenging rock climbing ascents. After reaching the top of the rock climbing world with record-breaking free-solo climbs in some of the most challenges mountains, she took up base jumping and eventually wingsuit flying. “I spent most of my childhood on a piano bench and not participating in sports,” she said. She went out rock climbing with some friends as a college freshman and things progressed from there in an inauspicious start to years of nomadic existence common among top climbers. “I moved into my grandma’s hand-me-down Oldsmobile, waitressing in Moab, Utah, to save money for expeditions and climbing trips,” she said.

Steph Davis, a climber, author and wingsuit pilot, spoke to the KAUST community on January 15 as part of the 2017 Winter Enrichment Program.

10

THE BEACON | JULY 2017


Dealing with fear Davis started skydiving and base jumping 10 years ago, which was how she met her husband Mario, who died in a wingsuit jump three years ago. “Learning how to go forward without Mario was the hardest thing I’ve done so far, but life continues to surprise me with beautiful gifts and with the joy that I find all around me,” she said. Davis is a calm and methodical person, which is probably the reason she is still doing what she does. She has learned how to deal with fear, which “controls us more than anything else,” she noted. “Intensity is what you came for—do not irrationally try to run away from it.”

A long progression For the solo climber and the wingsuit jumper, every decision made has to be the best one “because we are dealing with our lives,” Davis explained. Hard work and experience are essential.

it’s a long road—it requires experience, a lot of skills and confidence to decide to jump off a cliff," she said. "What is interesting is that you get better at it over time and become a better risk manager. That requires a lot of honesty with yourself, as you must really assess yourself and the environment around you and your place in that situation."

Create value in climbing She now makes her living from her activities, noting that the outdoor industry has changed a lot and now offers more opportunities for sponsorship “even if you're not participating in golf or football," Davis said. "I want to create value in climbing, sharing it with people in a way that is inspiring or helpful or that enables community building, and then it has value. I work very hard to keep my path forward relevant." Davis captured the audience's attention with breathtaking photos and videos of her adventures and spoke honestly and humorously about her feelings and emotions about them, concluding, “All of us can choose to fly."

“It’s a long progression: After you have done 200 hundred skydives, you can start flying in a wingsuit. Generally speaking,

www.kaust.edu.sa

11


Helping feed the world

1

By David Murphy On October 17, Fred Davies, regents professor from the Department of Horticultural Sciences at Texas A&M University, spoke to the KAUST community as part of the University’s Enrichment in the Fall program about the growing needs and problems in feeding the world’s population. In his keynote address entitled “Agriculture, Food Security & Sustainable Intensification: Can We Feed the World?,” Davies also discussed how we source, cultivate and distribute food worldwide. Davies’ engaging and thought-provoking lecture focused on the challenges of feeding the global population, which is projected to reach 9 billion people by 2050. According to Davies, the largest and most pressing outstanding challenge is that current food production will need to grow 70% to meet these increased demands. In other words, according to Davies, “food issues could become as politically destabilizing after 2050 as energy issues are today.”

A varied system approach to food production For the first time in human history, Davies said, food production will be limited on a global scale by the availability of land, water and energy. He highlighted the need for a greater focus on what he dubbed "'sustainable intensification,' which is doing more with less: less land, input of water, fertilizer and chemicals— something that is environmentally and economically viable," he said. Davies stressed that forecasted increases in crop productivity from the combined fields of biotechnology, genetics, agronomics and horticulture will not be sufficient to meet food demands, and resource limitations will constrain the global food system. “Going forward, it’s going to have to be a varied system approach to food production so we can continue to feed the world. There are increasing hunger and food security problems in the world. One in eight populationwise suffers from chronic undernourishment. Food security is tethered to the nexus of nutrition, food, energy, water, health, sanitation and smart policy,” Davies explained. He also drew attention to the fact that something as trivial as how a certain item of food looks can be enough to see it go to waste, imploring us to think more about how we interact with food, noting, “We waste way too much food. A third of all food goes to waste because of how it looks."

12

THE BEACON | JULY 2017

Davies also felt that there is too much of an emphasis on beef production and consumption globally, which he feels is an antiquated and somewhat inefficient form of nutrition on a mass scale, and an area where alternatives to meat should be brought to the fore. “We’re consuming way too much meat—more than is needed—and we need to look at alternatives. Beef production is a really inefficient food production system. For every pound of meat you get, you need to provide 15 pounds of fodder/food to get it,” he said.

If we’re going to change dietary habits, it’s not going to happen in just one generation. We need to educate young people on the importance of nutrition. Mobilizing a new generation of university students to try to address the coming problem of trying to feed 9 billion people is essential.” - Fred Davies, regents professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M University

In a presentation loaded with intriguing facts and figures, Davies noted that Saudi Arabia is among some of the top consumers of groundwater and food imports worldwide. “Saudi Arabia, along with China and the U.S., is one of the nations that is using groundwater at an alarming rate, and this is water that of course cannot be renewed. 1.5 percent of Saudi Arabia is arable, and due to these conditions, Saudi Arabia is 65-70 percent dependent on imports to meet its food requirements,” he said.

Food for thought The most stark figures of the evening had to do with the ongoing problem of starvation and malnutrition not only only in the developing world but also in the developed world.

2


‫المساعدة في تحقيق‬ ‫األمن الغذائي العالمي‬ ‫حل البروفيسور فريد ديفيز‪ ،‬من قسم علوم البستنة في جامعة تكساس إيه اند إم‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ضيفا على مجتمع جامعة الملك عبداهلل للعلوم والتقنية حيث قدم محاضرة‬ ‫البحثية‪،‬‬ ‫رئيسية بعنوان " الزراعة واألمن الغذائي والتكثيف المستدام‪ :‬هل يمكننا إطعام‬ ‫العالم؟" تناولت االحتياجات والمشاكل المتزايد في موضوع األمن الغذائي العالمي‬ ‫ً‬ ‫أيضا‬ ‫وذلك ضمن فعاليات برنامج اإلثراء في الخريف لعام ‪ .2016‬كما ناقش ديفيز‬ ‫كيف يمكننا تحديد مصادر المواد الغذائية‪ ،‬وانتاجها وزراعتها وتوزيعها في جميع أنحاء‬ ‫العالم‪.‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫أيضا على العديد من المسائل المثيرة لالهتمام والمحفزة‬ ‫واشتملت محاضرة ديفيز‬ ‫للتفكير حول تحديات إطعام سكان العالم‪ ،‬والذي يتوقع أن يصل إلى ‪ 9‬مليارات نسمة‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫إلحاحا هو أن اإلنتاج الغذائي‬ ‫ووفقا لديفيز‪ ،‬فإن أكثر المشاكل‬ ‫بحلول عام ‪.2050‬‬ ‫الحالي يحتاج الى معدل نمو ‪ ٪ 70‬كي يلبي الطلبات المتزايدة على المواد الغذائية‪.‬‬ ‫وبعبارة أخرى‪ ،‬وفقا لديفيز‪" ،‬فإن قضية االمن الغذائي العالمي يمكنها أن تصبح عامل‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫تماما مثل قضايا الطاقة اليوم‪".‬‬ ‫سياسيا في العالم بعد عام ‪2050‬‬ ‫لزعزعة االستقرار‬

‫‪“One in six Americans relies on some sort of food support‬‬ ‫‪for their daily intake—this is not just a developing world‬‬ ‫‪problem. We cannot tolerate a world where nearly 1‬‬ ‫‪billion people go to bed nightly hungry,” Davies said.‬‬ ‫‪Davies told the crowd he was under no illusions as to‬‬ ‫‪how long it would take to get people to change their‬‬ ‫‪food consumption trends and dietary beliefs, but he‬‬ ‫‪said he saw the future of food awareness lying with‬‬ ‫‪future generations.‬‬ ‫‪“If we’re going to change dietary habits, it’s not going‬‬ ‫‪to happen in just one generation. We need to educate‬‬ ‫‪young people on the importance of nutrition. Mobilizing‬‬ ‫‪a new generation of university students to try to address‬‬ ‫‪the coming problem of trying to feed 9 billion people is‬‬ ‫‪essential,” Davies explained.‬‬

‫ويرى ديفيدز أن هناك ضرورة قصوى في توعية الناس بعمل تغيير جذري في‬ ‫معتقداتهم الغذائية ونمط استهالكهم للمواد الغذائية اال أنه يعي أن ذلك ليس باألمر‬ ‫الهين في هذا الوقت وأن ذلك سيقع بصورة كبيرة على عاتق األجيال القادمة‪ .‬يقول‬ ‫ديفيز " إذا أردنا تغيير العادات الغذائية‪ ،‬فإن ذلك لن يحدث في جيل واحد فقط‪ .‬بل‬ ‫نحن بحاجة إلى تثقيف الشباب من الجيل الحالي والقادم حول أهمية التغذية وحث‬ ‫طلبة الجامعات على محاولة معالجة هذه المشكلة المقبلة وإظهار مدى أهميتها‬ ‫لمستقبل البشر"‪.‬‬

‫‪1. Fred Davies, regents professor in the‬‬

‫‪Department of Horticultural Sciences at‬‬ ‫‪Texas A&M University, spoke to the KAUST‬‬ ‫‪community in a keynote address as part of‬‬ ‫‪this year's Enrichment in the Fall program.‬‬

‫‪2. Fred Davies speaks to the KAUST community‬‬ ‫‪during his Enrichment in the Fall keynote lecture.‬‬

‫‪13‬‬

‫‪www.kaust.edu.sa‬‬


WEP 2017 kicks off at the WEP Hub

1

By Denis J. Boutry The opening night of the 2017 Winter Enrichment Program (WEP) in the University Library on January 7 took place around the all-new WEP Hub, which functioned as the beating heart of this year's WEP. The Enrichment Team welcomed a large and enthusiastic crowd with speeches, giveaways and a walkthrough of the new Hub and the exceptional two-week-long program. Giant board games, a mime and more attracted the attention of visitors at the library's entrance, while varied activities gave an overview of what was on offer during WEP and at the Hub. The evening also recognized the collaboration between the Enrichment Team and the University Library, as they worked together to transform the area into the bustling WEP Hub, making the program an even greater experience. The opening night also provided the opportunity to thank members of the community who helped make WEP possible. Gilles Lubineau, chairman of WEP 2017, and MarieLaure Boulot, Enrichment Team manager, presented the rich 2017 program that featured lectures from renowned international speakers, workshops, a science fair, a poster competition, field trips and activities that encouraged participants to explore the limits of science and engineering.

A hub of activity Among the great features of the Hub this year, visitors discovered the "WEP on Air" space that connected the program's guest speakers and the KAUST community twice a day through daily morning and afternoon interviews followed by a Q&A session broadcast on Facebook Live.

14

THE BEACON | JULY 2017

A "Create and Make" space encouraged community members to take part in activities involving creation, engineering and science for a personal “pushing the limits” experience. The first week of WEP focused on creation, with LEGO bridge building, origami, Chinese painting and calligraphy, kinetic sculptures and ceramics, while the second week was an invitation to make and focused on the basic concepts of IoT, designs for 3-D printing, analog and digital electronics and the KAUST research poster competition. Two Pop-Up Exhibit areas featured fascinating displays, including the photography exhibition KAUST, an Oasis for Birds, Chinese painting and calligraphy and the KAUST research poster competition. The WEP Hub also included an info desk, a coffee corner, a story wall and a Link Up area to connect visitors with the program's guest speakers. Lubineau noted, "The Hub was an excellent showcase of the richness of WEP 2017, with this year's program focusing on engineering and projects for the 21st century." As with previous Enrichment programs, this year’s program got off to an exciting and engaging start.


‫‪2‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫انطالق فعاليات برنامج‬ ‫اإلثراء الشتوي (ويب)‬ ‫لعام ‪2017‬‬ ‫احتفلت جامعة الملك عبداهلل للعلوم والتقنية بانطالق فعاليات برنامج اإلثراء‬ ‫الشتوي (ويب) لعام ‪ 2017‬في مكتبة الجامعة في السابع من يناير لهذا العام‪.‬‬ ‫ورحب فريق برامج اإلثراء في الجامعة بالحضور الذين اكتظت بهم أروقة المكتبة‬ ‫حيث استمع الجميع بحماس الى عروض وفعاليات البرنامج الذي استمر لفترة‬ ‫اسبوعين‪ ،‬باإلضافة إلى توزيع الهدايا التذكارية للحضور والتعريف بالمنصة الجديدة‬ ‫للبرنامج داخل مكتبة الجامعة والتي تميز بها البرنامج لهذا العام والتي كانت ثمرة‬ ‫التعاون بين فريق اإلثراء وإدارة مكتبة الجامعة وأضافت تجربة جميلة أثرت البرنامج‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫حيويا ينبض بالحياة والنشاطات والعروض العلمية‬ ‫مكانا‬ ‫وجعلت مكتبة الجامعة‬ ‫والترفيهية المختلفة‪.‬‬ ‫وتحدث كل من جيلز لوبينو‪ ،‬رئيس برنامج اإلثراء الشتوي لعام ‪ ،2017‬وماري لور‬ ‫بولو‪ ،‬مديرة فريق اإلثراء‪ ،‬عن فعاليات البرنامج لهذه السنة والتي اشتملت على‬ ‫محاضرات من متحدثين دوليين بارزين‪ ،‬وورش عمل متميزة‪ ،‬ومعارض للعلوم‪،‬‬ ‫ومسابقة للملصقات‪ ،‬والرحالت الميدانية‪ ،‬واألنشطة التي تشجع المشاركين على‬ ‫استكشاف آفاق العلوم والهندسة‪.‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫مكعبات الليغو (‪ ،)LEGO‬والتدرب على فن طي الورق الياباني أوريغامي‪ ،‬وفن‬ ‫الرسم والخط الصيني والنحت والسيراميك‪ .‬بينما يركز األسبوع الثاني على مفهوم‬ ‫إنترنت األشياء (‪ ،)IoT‬وتصاميم الطباعة ثالثية األبعاد‪ ،‬واإللكترونيات التناظرية‬ ‫والرقمية ومسابقة ملصقات األبحاث في الجامعة‪.‬‬ ‫كما تم تجهيز مساحتين في المكتبة لعرض الصور الفوتوغرافية في جامعة الملك‬ ‫عبداهلل‪ ،‬وصور الطيور‪ ،‬والرسم والخط الصيني‪ ،‬باإلضافة إلى معرض ملصقات‬ ‫األبحاث‪ .‬وتضمنت منصة برنامج اإلثراء الجديدة على مكتب استعالمات وركن‬ ‫للقهوة‪ ،‬ولوحة معلومات ومنطقة اتصال بين متحدثي البرنامج والضيوف‪.‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ممتازا لفعاليات‬ ‫معرضا‬ ‫وأشار جيلز لوبينو أن منصة البرنامج لهذا العام "كانت‬ ‫برنامج اإلثراء الشتوي لعام ‪ ،2017‬ومناسبة ً‬ ‫جدا لموضوعات برنامج هذا العام‬ ‫التي تتمحور حول الهندسة ومشاريع القرن الواحد والعشرين‪".‬‬

‫منصة األنشطة‬ ‫وأتاحت منصة البرنامج الجديدة في مكتبة الجامعة للحضور التواصل مع متحدثي‬ ‫هذه السنة من خالل فقرة (ويب على الهواء) التي يتم خاللها الحوار مع متحدثي‬ ‫البرنامج وإتاحة فرصة طرح األسئلة للحضور والنقاشات وذلك في فترة الصباح‬ ‫ً‬ ‫يوميا وبث الحوار مباشرة على حساب الجامعة في موقع‬ ‫وفترة بعد الظهر‬ ‫التواصل االجتماعي فيسبوك اليف‪ .‬كما تم تنظيم فعالية "اصنع بنفسك" والتي‬ ‫تتيح لمجتمع الجامعة تجربة القيام بأنشطة متعلقة بالصناعة‪ ،‬والهندسة‪ ،‬والعلوم‪.‬‬ ‫وركز األسبوع األول من برنامج اإلثراء الشتوي (ويب) لعام ‪ 2017‬على موضوعات‬ ‫البناء والصناعة واالبتكار والتي تمثلت بأنشطة ترفيهيه لبناء المجسمات باستخدام‬

‫‪15‬‬

‫‪www.kaust.edu.sa‬‬

‫‪1. Marie-Laure Boulot, manager of the Office of‬‬

‫‪Enrichment Programs (right), and Professor Gilles‬‬ ‫‪Lubineau, 2017 Enrichment Programs chair, speak in‬‬ ‫‪the University Library during the Winter Enrichment‬‬ ‫‪Program opening gala on January 7. Photo by Lilit‬‬ ‫‪Hovhannisyan.‬‬

‫‪2. The KAUST community enjoys the opening night of‬‬

‫‪the 2017 Winter Enrichment Program in the University‬‬ ‫‪Library on January 7. Photo by Denis J. Boutry.‬‬

‫‪3, 4. Members of the KAUST community take part‬‬ ‫‪in different activities during the opening night‬‬ ‫‪of the Winter Enrichment Program. Photos by Lilit‬‬ ‫‪Hovhannisyan.‬‬


'The new way we do things'

1

By Meres J. Weche By the year 2030, the majority of the world’s population will be living in cities. Scientists have understood the need to rely on data to meet this challenge by developing various technologies, such as information and communication technology (ICT) and the internet of things, to usher in the era of smart cities. During his recent visit to KAUST as part of the University's 2017 Winter Enrichment Program (WEP), Christopher Fabian, the co-founder of UNICEF’s Innovation Unit, argued that a vital part of this challenge facing humanity is applying these technologies to the world of global development, policy and governmental change. “Data is very helpful and allows you to make decisions that you can't make without it,” said Fabian.

Connecting populations UNICEF Innovation also believes that access to information is essential to innovation for equity by connecting the world’s most marginalized populations. Based on these principles, Fabian’s team used technology to spur innovations like mobile birth registration in Nigeria; deploying drones to transport blood samples in Malawi for early infant diagnosis of HIV; and using SMS to support mothers in Mexico. As a result of these initiatives, birth registrations in Uganda increased by 70 percent. The Innovation Unit also helped build the world’s largest mobile health system in Nigeria, which has so far reported on more than 17 million births by SMS.

16

THE BEACON | JULY 2017

Improving health and education The ability to gather and share real-time data can vastly improve the health and educational prospects of people—and especially the youth—who are often not connected with their governments. This is particularly important as the world grapples with pandemics like the Zika virus and Ebola. “The world is more tightly connected now. The most dangerous thing you can do in an epidemic is cut off information from the people affected,” said Fabian.

Innovation for the developing world In the short-term future, UNICEF Innovation is aiming to develop and deploy 3-D printing, drones and digital currency in the developing world. The development of these innovative technological solutions reflects the advice Fabian gave the KAUST students and community during his keynote. “Create a place for yourself and a job that didn't exist five years ago—that's what I did...Always start with things you are good at and things you are interested in. Be a translator between the way people do things and the new way we do things,” he said.


2

Data is very helpful and allows you to make decisions that you can't make without it." -C  hristopher Fabian, co-founder of UNICEF’s Innovation Unit

1, 2. Christopher Fabian, the co-founder

of UNICEF’s Innovation Unit, discussed how humanity must use data and technology to improve lives worldwide during his 2017 Winter Enrichment Program lecture.

www.kaust.edu.sa

17


Women in biology

1

By Caitlin Clark From Rosalind Franklin, the researcher whose X-ray crystallography image helped unweave DNA’s double helix structure, to Rachel Carson, the marine biologist and author of the groundbreaking environmental conservation work “Silent Spring,” and Marie Curie, the famous nuclear physicist and two-time winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics for her discoveries in radioactivity, women have excelled—and continue to do so—in the sciences. The 2016 Fall Enrichment Program gave the KAUST community a chance to hear firsthand success stories from a panel of four outstanding female scientists working in the biological sciences field. Panel speakers Peiying Hong, KAUST assistant professor of environmental science and engineering; Bettina Berger, scientific director of The Plant Accelerator, Australian Plant Phenomics Facility at the University of Adelaide, Australia; Ashwag Abdullah Albukhari, assistant professor of medical oncology at King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah; and Jasmeen Merzaban, KAUST assistant professor of bioscience, outlined their strengths, triumphs and struggles while navigating successful careers in biology.

Difficult career for males and females “Science is a difficult career no matter if you are male or female. Much support is required,” said Berger. “We need to support females as they grow up and move into science. Science is not an easy field and takes a lot of work, time and commitment, and the work-life balance is difficult, especially at the beginning,” Merzaban echoed. “Gauging how much time to put into your job and your family is especially challenging. Women have a lot of responsibilities in their lives, and they often don’t get credit for these; for example, women often help to support their children, parents and husbands. Having a scientific career on top of these responsibilities can be difficult without support from many people.” “Women don’t always have an outstanding support system,” added Hong. “Our decisions for our careers become influenced by family considerations and societal expectations, often restricting what we decide to do. However, I believe women should be respected for their decisions, even if they decide not to continue further with their careers. At the end, excellence in life is about asking yourself, ‘Have I done my best?’”

Explore every opportunity Merzaban noted she “didn’t start out wanting to be a scientific researcher,” originally intending to become a medical doctor. “Even in high school, I always loved biology, and I followed that passion,” she said, “A series of opportunities appeared and smacked me in the face,

18

THE BEACON | JULY 2017

and I decided I wanted to go through with them. These opportunities pushed me down certain paths, along with mentorship from different people, and I found that through research, I could still help in the medical field. I don’t regret any door that opened or any opportunity I took.”

You must believe in yourself and find out what makes you happy. What drives you is the most important thing for your future.” - Bettina Berger, scientific director of The Plant Accelerator, Australian Plant Phenomics Facility at the University of Adelaide, Australia

“If you look at my CV, you might think there was some planning involved in my career, but it was really just meeting different people at the right times,” Berger said. Hong agreed, adding, “My successes were a series of opportunities given to me at different times in my life. My passion for science developed over my undergraduate degree, and then I was awarded scholarships. Through those years, I built skills and I had people who believed in me. This drove my passion for research.”

Build your career with confidence “Your Ph.D. is just the beginning of your career,” explained Albukhari. “After completing it, you must continue to do more research and prove yourself in different ways. It is so important to be satisfied with what you are doing and to love it because you will spend a lot of time doing your research.” “We women must have the inner confidence to believe in ourselves and what we are doing in science,” said Merzaban. “We must follow what we are passionate about, at the same time remembering that the skills we develop along the way are needed in any field we go into.” She advised the students in the audience to find a mentor, noting, “You have to find people who believe in you when you don’t necessarily believe in yourself. Don’t ever give up. Failure will happen, but you just have to pick yourself up and move forward.” “You must believe in yourself and find out what makes you happy,” Berger concluded. “What drives you is the most important thing for your future.”


Birds take flight on campus By Caitlin Clark

2

If you look carefully on your walks around campus, you might see a few of the 240 species of birds that call KAUST home. Marios Mantzourogiannis, the business manager for Government Affairs & Security, and Brian James, a former KAUST School teacher, gave the KAUST community the chance to meet some of our resident feathery friends at KAUST, an Oasis for Birds, a Winter Enrichment Program (WEP) 2017 photography exhibition held in the University Library. The exhibition guided visitors through some of the main habitats for birds at KAUST and presented around 60 of the most common species regularly spotted on campus—and a few of the rarest species, as well. James and Mantzourogiannis discovered bird photography in different ways: James has been bird watching for over 30 years, with his hobby beginning in Tanzania when he was a teacher there, whereas Mantzourogiannis started photography in 2009 and expanded to photographing birds in 2015. James has seen around 5,000 birds in total and recorded about 400 species during his time in Saudi Arabia, and Mantzourogiannis has photographed more than 100 species in KAUST. "I have always loved nature, and when I got into bird photography, it immediately became my passion," Mantzourogiannis said. "I've photographed birds in other places in the Kingdom and also in places like Sri Lanka, Kenya and Greece, and I'm so thankful I discovered my passion for bird photography while being at KAUST." "In fact," he continued, "the thing that surprised me about KAUST was its diversity—first it was the diversity of cultures and later on the diversity of birds here. We have some excellent birding spots here at KAUST, as many birds stop over during their migration, and a good number of species are present throughout the year. I hope our exhibition has inspired everyone to engage more with nature and birding." You can view more of Mantzourogiannis' bird photos on his website at http://www.discovering-birds.com/ and James' photos on his website at http://kaustbirding.blogspot.com/.

3

4

5 1. A panel of four successful female scientists field spoke about their exciting careers to the KAUST audience as part of the University's 2016 Enrichment in the Fall Program. 2, 3, 4, 5. The KAUST community met some of the 240 birds that live on campus at the 2017 Winter Enrichment Program (WEP) photo exhibition KAUST, an Oasis for Birds. Photos by Marios Mantzourogiannis.

www.kaust.edu.sa

19


Building minds at KAUST

1

By Caitlin Clark “At KAUST, I learned different important concepts like inspiration, patience, persistence and accepting difficult challenges. These concepts have created a strong impact in my academic career as an assistant professor,” said Muna Saeed Khushaim, a KAUST 2015 Ph.D. graduate in material science and engineering who was part of an Alumni Lecture Series event at the University’s 2017 Winter Enrichment Program (WEP). The lecture series also featured alumni speakers Dinorath Olvera Ramos (M.S. 2013), Jenna Lloyd-Randolfi (M.S. 2012) and Ahmad Showail (Ph.D. 2016, M.S. 2010), who discussed their career pathways after graduating from KAUST and the impact their time at the University has had on their lives so far.

Our job is to continue to build our minds as we did at KAUST—but it’s not always an easy job. We must also direct current and future KAUST students to build their minds in a new way for the benefit of the Kingdom and the world.” -M  una Khushaim, KAUST 2015 Ph.D. alumna

Enriching skills “I returned as a speaker for WEP because I wanted to share my fruitful experience as a KAUST Ph.D. student with other students at KAUST,” said Khushaim. “Furthermore, KAUST has always encouraged us to share our knowledge as broadly as possible, and these kinds of experiences truly enrich my skills.” Khushaim completed her bachelor’s degree at Madinah’s College of Education in 2002 and her master’s degree at King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah in 2007. She currently works as an assistant professor in the Physics Department at Taibah University in Madinah. At KAUST, her studies under Associate

20

THE BEACON | JULY 2017

Professor of Chemical Science Alexander Rothenberger focused on the analysis of materials using atom probe tomography (APT). “KAUST has highly analytical and sophisticated techniques. Performing my Ph.D. using APT was truly exciting, as this is a rare technique to use around the world. KAUST is the first and only institution in the Middle East that has this increasingly popular device used and applied in the investigation of different types of materials,” she said.

Local and global impact Khushaim noted that it “was a great opportunity to participate in WEP 2017. This kind of an event is an excellent opportunity to be in continued contact with KAUST and to outline how the University has helped to shape our careers and academic philosophies. We also have the opportunity to make connections for institutional collaboration in research areas that impact local and global communities.”

‘Find your passion’ Olvera Ramos, a current Ph.D. student at the Trinity Centre for Bioengineering at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland, outlined her work in the Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering and Mechanobiology Research Group. There, she has focused on the use of fiber-reinforced hydrogels; the effect of topography and biochemical cues on adult mesenchymal stem cell differentiation; and extracellular matrix components to recreate the tissue-specific microenvironments that make up the complex ligament-bone attachment. She hopes to complete her Ph.D. in 2018 and continue her career in the tissue engineering field. “Find your passion and your niche and surround yourself with experts,” she advised the students in the audience. “Also make use of the University’s outstanding facilities—my knowledge from these helped me get into my current Ph.D. program.”

Preparing for the real world Lloyd-Randolfi studied under KAUST Professor Jorg Eppinger at the University’s Catalysis Center and went on to work as a development engineer for Heliae Development LLC, a biotechnology company in Arizona, U.S., that produces microalgae-based products for agriculture. She currently works for Western Window Systems in Arizona as a testing engineer.


2

3

“Even when you think you have found the answer for a technical issue, getting it ready for the real-world scenario is the situation you have to prepare for,” she told the audience. “When given a design challenge, you also have to understand the requirements and parameters.” Lloyd-Randolfi noted her time at KAUST was filled with many happy memories, such as volunteering for The KAUST School, playing sports, making friends from around the world and traveling internationally. “Some of the benefits of being a KAUST alumna include the ability to thrive on cross-cultural teams and meeting friends wherever you travel,” she said.

Maintaining excellence Showail currently works at Taibah University in Madinah as the vice dean of the College of Computer Science and Engineering. Prior to joining KAUST, he worked as a system engineer for the Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC). In his talk, Showail outlined the internet of things and how it is the next big technological revolution, highlighting the problem of IPv4 address exhaustion and how to possibly mitigate this through IPv6. “KAUST gave me the opportunity to explore many areas, including how to begin a startup,” Showail said. “In September of 2016, I launched my startup zayer.net, a tourist guide for Madinah. I continue to work on my startup while at the same time maintaining excellence in teaching and research in computer science and engineering at Taibah University.”

International successes While Khushaim, Olvera Ramos, Lloyd-Randolfi and Showail have embarked on successful careers since graduation from KAUST, all four noted none of their successes would have been possible without their time at KAUST. “Our job is to continue to build our minds as we did at KAUST— but it’s not always an easy job,” Khushaim said. “We must also direct current and future KAUST students to build their minds in a new way for the benefit of the Kingdom and the world.”

1. From left to right: Alumni Ahmad Showail (Ph.D. 2016, M.S. 2010), Muna Khushaim (Ph.D. 2015), Dinorath Olvera Ramos (M.S. 2013) and Jenna Lloyd-Randolfi (M.S. 2012) receive congratulations from KAUST Professor Gilles Lubineau, chair of the 2017 Enrichment Programs, after their Winter Enrichment Program speaking event. 2. Jenna Lloyd-Randolfi, a testing engineer at Western

Window Systems in Arizona, U.S., talks to the audience about her career pathway after graduating from KAUST.

3. Ahmad Showail, Taibah University vice dean of

the College of Computer Science and Engineering, discusses the internet of things.

www.kaust.edu.sa

21


'Food for All' the KAUST community

1

By David Murphy The opening night of the University’s 2016 Enrichment in the Fall program on October 16 coincided with World Food Day 2016, and was welcomed with a strong turnout from the KAUST community. The Auditorium (bldg. 20) lobby was transformed into a vibrant “Food for All” marketplace as those in attendance visited engaging displays that included fresh produce from around the world. Both young and old also enjoyed a colorful smorgasbord of educational booths that featured culinary demonstrations, scientific demonstrations and facts and figures about global food produce and food wastage. Fresh food was very much to the fore with edible plants built into "herb walls" available for purchase.

Markets of the World Among the booths present, there was a booth run by the student Green Group; a presentation of the "International Cooking with KAUST" cookbook project by community members Melanie Balkner-Zielke and Philippa Arkley; and a presentation and tasting session by the KAUST CookHub startup featuring female cooks from the University's neighboring town of Thuwal. A photography exhibition entitled Markets of the World showcased 35 food-related photographs by KAUST photographers. A special fish and plant tank displayed fish that highlighted the University’s research on hydroponics and was presented by Ryan Lefers, a Ph.D. candidate from the KAUST Water Desalination and Reuse Center. Denis Boutry, a writing and communications specialist for the Enrichment team, was impressed with the response by the KAUST community to the opening night event. “We are really happy with tonight’s turnout. It’s great to see people engaging with the displays and with each other,” he said. At 6:30 p.m., the crowd moved from the lobby area of the Auditorium to be seated for the evening’s musical entertainment provided by the baroque oriental TurkishEuropean group Pera Ensemble.

'We are here to become enriched' In his opening address, Mark Tester, professor of plant science and chair of the 2016 Enrichment Programs, thanked those in attendance and said he was encouraged by the KAUST community’s response to

22

THE BEACON | JULY 2017

the growing need for a global understanding and reaction to the environmental impact of food production and wastage. “We are here to become enriched, to gain wisdom and be challenged. Today is World Food Day, and this is why we are having the 'Food for All' theme for this program. We need to increase food production, but we must do this sustainably and better in the face of climate change. I think we will be able to rise to this challenge by innovation—through human innovation, but we are all going to have to do a lot and do it all together. We have a great opportunity here at KAUST to make real contributions to this," he said.

We are here to become enriched, to gain wisdom and be challenged. Today is World Food Day, and this is why we are having the 'Food for All' theme for this program. We need to increase food production, but we must do this sustainably and better in the face of climate change. I think we will be able to rise to this challenge by innovation." - Mark Tester, professor of plant science and chair of the 2016 Enrichment Programs

The eight-strong Pera Ensemble saw out the opening night's entertainment by delighting the crowd with a grand and memorizing display of musical skill and virtuosity. As with previous Enrichment programs, this year’s program got off to an exciting and engaging start.


‫‪2‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫فعالية "الغذاء للجميع"‬ ‫في جامعة الملك‬ ‫عبداهلل للعلوم والتقنية‬ ‫تزامن انطالق فعاليات برنامج اإلثراء في الخريف في ليلة ‪ 16‬من أكتوبر مع‬ ‫ً‬ ‫إقباال كبير من‬ ‫اليوم العالمي للغذاء لعام ‪ ،2016‬حيث شهدت ليلة االفتتاح‬ ‫مجتمع جامعة الملك عبداهلل‪ ،‬وتحولت أروقة مبنى ‪ 20‬إلى سوق حيوية تعرض‬ ‫ً‬ ‫كبارا‬ ‫األغذية والمنتجات الطازجة من جميع أنحاء العالم‪ .‬كما استمتع الجميع‬ ‫ً‬ ‫وصغارا باألجنحة والمنصات التثقيفية التي اشتملت على عروض علمية وعروض‬

‫حية للطهي‪ ،‬إضافة الى شرح حقائق علمية وأرقام حول إنتاج الغذاء العالمي‬ ‫ومعدالت اإلهدار في الثروات الغذائية‪.‬‬

‫أسواق العالم‬ ‫وكان من بين العروض المتميزة‪ ،‬عرض لطلبة الجامعة من مجموعة أصدقاء البيئة‬ ‫بعنوان "الطبخ العالمي في جامعة الملك عبداهلل"‪ ،‬وهو مشروع كتاب طبخ من‬ ‫تأليف بالكنير‪-‬زيلك وفيليبا اركيلي‪ .‬كما اشتملت الفعالية على عرض تقديمي‬ ‫وجلسة تذوق من قبل الشركة الناشئة (‪ )CookHub‬من جامعة الملك عبد اهلل‪،‬‬ ‫والتي قدمت مجموعة من األطباق الشهية من إعداد طاهيات متميزات من بلدة‬ ‫ثول‪ .‬كما اشتمل السوق على معرض للتصوير الفوتوغرافي بعنوان أسواق العالم‪،‬‬ ‫حيث قام بعرض ‪ 35‬صورة التقطتها عدسات المصورين في جامعة الملك عبداهلل‬ ‫وتناولت موضوع الغذاء‪ .‬وتوسط السوق حوض مائي خاص استعرض أبرز األبحاث‬ ‫في جامعة الملك عبداهلل في مجال الزراعة المائية‪.‬‬ ‫وأعرب دينيس بوتري‪ ،‬عضو فريق اإلثراء في الجامعة والمتخصص في الكتابة‬ ‫واالتصاالت عن سعادته بمدى إقبال مجتمع الجامعة في ليلة االفتتاح‪ ،‬حيث قال‪:‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫حقا بهذا اإلقبال وبرؤية مدى تفاعل مجتمع الجامعة مع بعضهم‬ ‫"نحن سعداء‬ ‫البعض "‪.‬‬ ‫مساء إلى داخل قاعة المؤتمرات في‬ ‫ثم انتقل الحضور في تمام الساعة ‪6:30‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫المبنى حيث استمتعوا بفقرة موسيقية قدمتها الفرقة التركية األوروبية الشرقية‪.‬‬

‫‪23‬‬

‫‪www.kaust.edu.sa‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫"جئنا من أجل اإلثراء"‬ ‫ألقى البروفيسور مارك تستر‪ ،‬أستاذ علوم النبات ورئيس برامج اإلثراء لعام ‪،2016‬‬ ‫كلمة افتتاحية‪ ،‬شكر فيها الحضور على تفاعلهم مع الحدث واهتمامهم المتزايد‬ ‫بكل ما يخص البيئية والعوامل البيئية المؤثرة على انتاج المواد الغذائية‪.‬‬ ‫وقال البروفيسور تستر‪" :‬جئنا من أجل اإلثراء‪ ،‬والكتساب المعرفة والفائدة‪ .‬اليوم‬ ‫هو اليوم العالمي للغذاء‪ ،‬وهذا هو السبب في اختيارنا موضوع “الغذاء للجميع"‬ ‫لنسخة البرنامج لهذا العام‪ .‬نحن بحاجة إلى زيادة إنتاج الغذاء‪ ،‬ولكن يجب علينا أن‬ ‫نفعل ذلك على نحو مستدام في ظل التغيرات المناخية الحالية‪ .‬أنا واثق من قدرتنا‬ ‫على مواجهة هذا التحدي من خالل االبتكار‪ .‬ولدينا فرصة كبيرة هنا في جامعة‬ ‫الملك عبداهلل لتقديم مساهمات حقيقية في هذا اإلطار "‪.‬‬

‫‪1, 2, 3. The KAUST community enjoyed the opening‬‬ ‫‪night activities of the 2016 Enrichment in the Fall‬‬ ‫‪program on October 16, which featured the theme‬‬ ‫‪of "Food for All." Photos by Meres Weche.‬‬ ‫‪4. Mark Tester, professor of plant science and chair‬‬

‫‪of the 2016 Enrichment Programs, gave the opening‬‬ ‫‪address at the University's 2016 Enrichment in the Fall‬‬ ‫‪program on October 16. Photo by Meres Weche.‬‬


The right space and time By Meres J. Weche

Renowned California Institute of Technology (Caltech) physicist Edward C. Stone gave a keynote address on January 9 at KAUST as part of the eighth annual Winter Enrichment Program (WEP). As the project scientist for NASA’s unmanned Voyager Mission since 1972 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Stone shared insights into his career and the evolution of space exploration. As a graduate student at the University of Chicago during the 1950s, Stone was originally focused on becoming a nuclear physicist, but as the Space Age dawned with the launch of Sputnik in 1957, he found a new calling. “Fortunately I was there at the beginning, and I was able to build an instrument to launch into space in 1961, and then from that I moved to Caltech, where I’ve been now for over 50 years,” Stone said. He originally joined Caltech as a researcher and became a full faculty member in 1967. In 1972, Stone became the project scientist for JPL’s Voyager Mission, which is run by Caltech. Stone was also the director of JPL from 1991 to 2001.

An engineering challenge for the ages

Another consideration when planning the deployment of the Voyager crafts was how to power them. Solar energy wasn’t an option because the sun's rays become much too dim once the Voyagers get very far away from the sun. Instead, the natural radioactive decay of plutonium-238, which creates heat used as a source of energy, was used. Because of its radioactive decay, it means that there is less and less energy to power the craft with each passing year. The JPL team turns off 4 watts at a time every year. Based on this accumulated loss of 4 watts per year, it’s estimated they’ll have enough electrical power to run for another 10 years with the instruments JPL has. After that, it will become necessary to turn off the instruments one-by-one. According to estimates the will no longer hear transmissions from the Voyager crafts around 2030.

Current learning and future hopes

“Your smartphone has 240,000 times more memory than all the computers that the Voyager crafts have,” he told the WEP audience.

“Time after time, our view of the solar system has expanded since Voyager,” Stone said. “The first big surprise was that the moon of Jupiter, called Io, has 10 times the volcanic activity of Earth. Before that, the only known active volcanoes were on Earth, and here was a small moon with 10 times as much. That was a big surprise."

“It turned out that what the research intern had discovered was that in 1977, a spacecraft could fly by Jupiter, on to Saturn, on to Uranus and then finally on to Neptune all in that order. Once in every 176 years, they are all together on the same side of the sun, so that became the urgency in creating a new kind of spacecraft that could actually go this far and deep into space,” Stone explained. 1977 was also the year when Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 were launched on September 5 and August 20, respectively. The Voyager missions went to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune from 1977 to 1989.

THE BEACON | JULY 2017

Dimming messages

The Voyager missions (1 and 2) were the first fully automated and totally computer-controlled spacecrafts. Astonishingly, their computers have around 4,000 words of memory—minuscule by today's standards.

With the technology of the time, Ed Stone’s Voyager team aimed to coordinate a scientific study of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. A clever solution to achieve this engineering feat came from an unlikely source. In 1965, a Caltech graduate student who was working at JPL for the summer was given the task of looking for opportunities for a craft to fly by a planet.

24

“After that, we continued on what’s called the Voyager Interstellar mission hoping to get outside the bubble the sun created around itself. That happened in 2012. Voyager 1 is now in interstellar space, the space between the stars,” Stone added.

During the course of their exploratory journey, the Voyager crafts have revealed many exciting new findings.

Although the Voyagers will no longer be transmitting within the next 15 years, they will continue in their journey. The JPL team has inserted phonograph records known as the Voyager Golden Records aboard both Voyager spacecrafts containing selected sounds and images from Earth’s diverse cultures and civilizations. Those records are intended for any intelligent extraterrestrial life form that may one day find them. “The big question is: Is there life out there? The impact of finding microbial life elsewhere in the universe would be enormous,” said Stone.


1. World-renowned NASA physicist

Edward C. Stone speaks during his 2017 Winter Enrichment Program keynote address.

2. Edward C. Stone is congratulated at

3

the close of his 2017 Winter Enrichment Program keynote lecture by KAUST Professor Gilles Lubineau (left), 2017 Enrichment Programs chair, and KAUST President Jean-Lou Chameau (right).

3. This picture of Neptune was produced

from the last whole planet images taken through the green and orange filters on NASA's Voyager 2 narrow angle camera. The images were taken at a range of 4.4 million miles from the planet four days and 20 hours before closest approach. The picture shows the Great Dark Spot and its companion bright smudge; on the west limb, the fast moving bright feature called Scooter and the little dark spot are visible. These clouds were seen to persist for as long as Voyager's cameras could resolve them. North of these, a bright cloud band similar to the south polar streak may be seen. Photo courtesy of NASA/JPL.

1 2

4. NASA Voyager 2 was launched on

4

August 20, 1977, from the NASA Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral in Florida, U.S., where it was propelled into space on a Titan/Centaur rocket. Photo courtesy of NASA/JPL.

www.kaust.edu.sa

25


The world of the future

1

By Caitlin Clark Have you ever been stuck on a homework question— in electrical engineering, for example—late at night and wondered what to do? You couldn’t call your professor and your friends weren’t in your class. You’re in a bind— what to do? Estelle Metayer, an entrepreneur and trend-spotter and a keynote speaker at the University’s 2017 Winter Enrichment Program (WEP), told a KAUST audience the answer to this quandary lies in the near future at her lecture on January 18. “Soon, ‘hyperconnectivity’ will be found in our world,” she said. “We will all be interconnected with each other and to everyone else in the world. For example, if you need a professor of electrical engineering to help you out on your homework at night, you’ll just need to access an app on your phone. Through the app similar to Uber, you’ll find professors available who can give you a half-hour lesson and grade you, and at the end, you rate the chosen professor. All of these interactions will be based on trust.” “The world is changing very fast now,” she continued. “If you look at what you will experience in your lifetime—if not in the next five years—there will be significant changes in the world and for science and technology.”

'The answer for everything' Metayer worked as a consultant at the consulting firm McKinsey & Company, where she gained consulting experience in aerospace, consumer good and financial services. She then founded and was president of a leading training organization for executives and analysts in strategic intelligence. After selling her company in 2004, she became a public speaker and workshop organizer for managers, CEOs and executives, and she is also an adjunct professor at McGill University in Canada. “I believe science can provide the answer for everything where everything is open and transparent and where the answers come from putting the pieces of the puzzle together,” she said. “Science and technology have a huge impact on our lives, and they are all about vision and tracking for new horizons.”

26

THE BEACON | JULY 2017

Metayer noted that the world of the future will feature many advances, such as the advancement of artificial intelligence, with computers and robots becoming more and more intelligent; autonomous cars on the streets; and drones “coming to life” to deliver everything from packages to pizza, and even finding a place as artificial bees to help pollinate fruit trees. Robots will one day become commonplace in our everyday lives, she said, describing how some hospitals have already begun using robots to take the place of nurses. Studies revealed that patients preferred the robots to humans, as they never suffered from bad moods and were always friendly. “With all of this, however, comes the realization that we must decide what to do with the data gathered,” Metayer said. “We must think intelligently about this, as data will be pervasive. We have to make a choice: Do we use the data for good or evil? Will this be the end of privacy? Regulators are agitating for privacy, but in most markets already, companies are giving up private information for increased services and convenience.”

‘Tons of opportunities’ Although technology provides “tons of opportunities and tons of ways to do things differently,” Metayer said, “we also have to think about whether technology is a good thing or not.” As an example, she cited autonomous cars. Although many feel these will revolutionize travel, Metayer noted that with the development of these vehicles, more and more people will be on the roads, leading to increased congestion. Cities and roadways will have to be redesigned to accommodate the cars and areas for drop-off and pick-up. In addition and more chillingly, programmers for autonomous car operation will have to determine what happens when the vehicle is in an accident situation—does the car hit a barrier, for example, killing the people in the car, or does it continue onwards, killing pedestrians crossing the street? “We must determine whether these advances are something people need or something people want,” she said. “We have to think about whether they are good for society and sustainable or just providing for a particular need.”


2 Shifting assumptions Science and technology have always had a huge impact on the development of industries, Metayer noted, but many industries take a long time to shift and shift slowly. For example, department stores 60 or 70 years ago had sales assistants choosing products off the shelf for customers, she said, but this changed with the idea of self-service stores like our present-day supermarkets. Companies are increasingly moving towards getting rid of physical stores, further changing the way retail is carried out. “Science and technology are behind all of this,” she said, “but industries only shift when key assumptions are challenged. Companies that succeed today always shift assumptions.”

A key currency In our future world, Metayer said, “time is going to be very important. The next generation will have little time to do things, spending their lives at work, in school, on social media and socializing. Designs in the future will need to incorporate simplicity as time becomes the key currency.” Metayer advised the KAUST students in the audience to be aware that their time is precious, noting they must also spend time away from technology to “stargaze,” or contemplate things quietly and think about ideas outside of their fields. “Put down your cell phone sometimes and go away from the computer. Meet in the center of your university and take time to talk with your colleagues and think about things. Also take time to talk to others from other fields,” she said. “Eventually you will find a link to your own work.”

‘Continue imagining’ Taking time to “open up and understand the wider world around you” will only lead to new and better ideas, Metayer noted, and companies are “starving for people who can help them understand where science and technology are going next.”

The world is changing very fast now. If you look at what you will experience in your lifetime—if not in the next five years—there will be significant changes in the world and for science and technology.” - Estelle Metayer, entrepreneur and trend-spotter

As the students prepare to finish their degrees, she advised them to continue building their toolbox, a set of key hard and soft skills that will help them succeed today. “Being an expert in one area is usually not good enough now,” she said. “You will need a complex toolbox to make it. Keep imagining and don’t lose that imagination. Push forward and think of options for the future, and carve out the future you want for yourself. Be bold—you are talented and you have resources at your disposal. Try to think where you want your technologies to go and what you want to do with them.” “A few people can make a difference. Continue imagining and remember that each one of you can do great things and make a great impact on the world in the future,” she concluded.

1, 2. Trend-spotter and keynote speaker Estelle

Metayertalked to a KAUST audience about the future of technology and science on January 18 as part of theUniversity’s 2017 Winter Enrichment Program. Photos by Lilit Hovhannisyan.

www.kaust.edu.sa

27


Hyperloop: From pipe dream to reality By David Murphy Dirk Ahlborn, CEO of Jumpstarter Inc. and Hyperloop Transportation Technologies Inc. and one of the invited speakers at the University’s 2017 Winter Enrichment Program (WEP), spoke to the KAUST community on January 11. JumpStartFund.com (operated by Jumpstarter Inc.) is a web portal that helps to create smarter and more successful companies by applying crowdsourcing from the conception of an idea all the way through to the funding stage, and also helped to fund his team's latest project—the Hyperloop.

On a Hyperloop to the future The Hyperloop is a proposed futuristic mode of passenger and freight transport that propels podlike vehicles through a vacuum-like tube at speeds comparable to or faster than conventional airliners. The whole system relies on renewable electric propulsion to accelerate the vehicles through the tube in a low pressure environment. It is hoped that each Hyperloop vehicle will have a passenger capacity of 840 people and will travel at a top speed of 760 mph, thus redefining modern transportation. Ahlborn feels that Hyperloop would be the optimal solution to current ineffective and outdated global modes of transport, which he believes serve only to create mass traffic problems, emissions and pollution and act as a drain on worldwide governmental funding. “We have the chance to completely redesign public transport. Traffic is a major problem and form of pollution. We waste too much time in traffic—valuable time that we could be spending time with people we care about. With Hyperloop you will be able to get from San Francisco to L.A., a distance of roughly 400 miles, in 36 minutes. The Hyperloop will be like what the railroads were to the U.S. in the 1800s and it’s safer than any railroad,” he said.

Creating a movement Ahlborn is a serial entrepreneur with extensive experience in almost every area of business. He's a firm believer in and advocate of the practice of crowdstorming. During his keynote lecture and the WEP on Air talk held in the University Library earlier in the day, he described the role crowdsourcing and people power have played in companies that he has been involved with or invested in.

28

THE BEACON | JULY 2017

“Usually discussions about transport infrastructure happen behind closed doors, but we use a system called crowdstorming. It's like an open community of thought. We are actually building the tools as we go, and we connect with each other globally at least weekly. Our team realized it wasn't enough to build a company, we had to build a movement—a movement of not being alone. We have encouraged investment and participation from companies and individuals from around the world,” he said. "It's so powerful that you don't need to be a billionaire or a millionaire to change the world. You just need to bring people together."

When it comes to you building a business, it can happen anywhere; for example, ideas scrawled on the back of a napkin. Sometimes you have to ask crazy questions to generate brilliant ideas." - Dirk Ahlborn, CEO of Jumpstarter Inc. and Hyperloop Transportation Technologies Inc.

Building a business He also imparted some of his entrepreneurial wisdom and advice to KAUST entrepreneurs and the budding entrepreneurs in attendance. “When it comes to you building a business, it can happen anywhere; for example, ideas scrawled on the back of a napkin. Sometimes you have to ask crazy questions to generate brilliant ideas. As an entrepreneur, you are always learning, and if you are successful, you must be adaptable. As an entrepreneur, you must also be willing to move, to pivot and to learn. In summary, my best advice to entrepreneurs is to ask— ask for help, ask for advice, ask for ideas. Just because someone says it can't be done doesn't mean it can't be done. It just means they haven't figured out a way to do it yet,” he said.

1


2

4

1, 2, 3. Dirk Ahlborn, CEO of Jumpstarter Inc. and Hyperloop Transportation Technologies Inc., discussed the future of transport in his 2017 Winter Enrichment Program keynote address on January 11. 4. Dirk Ahlborn receives congratulations at the

3

close of his 2017 Winter Enrichment Program keynote lecture from KAUST Professor Gilles Lubineau, 2017 Enrichment Programs chair.

A question and answer session followed Ahlborn’s address, with community members getting the chance to discuss and debate on aspects of the Hyperloop project ranging from scientific, structural, environmental and even social aspects. “When you have an idea and you keep it to yourself, you need to confront yourself—you need to get your message out. Every day you are changing, and every day you need to adjust. Don't be afraid to share your ideas,” he said.

www.kaust.edu.sa

29


How to be a successful scientist-entrepreneur By Meres J. Weche Some scientists are primarily interested in basic discovery, while some are satisfied with seeing the application of their lab research many years later. Certain entrepreneurial scientists, however, are eager to see their technology or inventions out in the marketplace as quickly as possible. “The way to make that happen most effectively is through entrepreneurial thinking,” said Dr. Eric Fossum, a professor at the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth and director of the school’s Ph.D. Innovation Program. Fossum, a U.S. National Inventors Hall of Fame inductee, was featured in the KAUST 2017 Enrichment in the Spring Program. He's best known for his invention of the complementary metaloxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel image sensor, which is used in billions of cameras worldwide. CMOS technology is ubiquitous and is used in webcams, drones, medical imaging devices and many other applications.

Necessity as the mother of invention After completing his Ph.D. at Yale in 1984 and becoming an electrical engineering faculty member at Columbia University, Fossum was recruited to the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) at Caltech, where he managed JPL’s image sensor research unit. His main task was to develop lighter and less energy-hungry cameras for use on NASA’s spacecrafts. “The cameras that they were using back in those days were really large, like the size of a refrigerator,” Fossum explained. The reason the onboard camera systems were so large is that they operated with a particular type of image sensor called the charge-coupled device (CCD). The electronics required to make them work made the cameras bulky. Fossum and his team at JPL had to come up with a new image sensor technology that would work as well as the existing technology to allow for the miniaturizing of cameras used on spacecrafts. “It had to work well or better, and that was when the CMOS image sensor came to be,” said Fossum.

30

THE BEACON | JULY 2017

It soon became apparent that the small size, low power dissipation and energy efficiency of these new technology sensors would be useful in many applications. Chief among these were portable applications where users would require something small, compact and long-lasting in terms of energy consumption.

Opening a new world of possibilities Before the invention of the CMOS sensor, even widely used consumer products like camcorders—themselves running on CCD sensor technology—were relatively large. The bricksized batteries at the back of these 1980s/1990s camcorders only lasted for about an hour, and it was very inconvenient to recharge them so often. The advent of Fossum’s CMOS sensor technology had a significant impact on these types of consumer electronics. Fossum foresaw some of these applications and their ramifications, but others were less expected. “I didn’t expect that my CMOS sensor technology invention would launch a whole selfie and selfie sticks movement,” said Fossum. The popularity of cat videos was another unforeseen result. After being somewhat frustrated with the slow pace of action after presenting his new technology to various electronics companies, he created the Photobit Corporation to commercialize the technology in 1995. After a few years of development, he sold the company in 2001. Around that time, cellphone camera applications came along, which made CMOS sensor technology very compelling on the marketplace. “A lot of companies started pouring R&D funds, and thousands of engineers around the world worked on improving the technology, bringing it to where it is now,” Fossum noted. When asked if he now regrets selling Photobit just as the wave of camera phones gained momentum, Fossum said the timing was right because, as a small company, Photobit was


2 1 Usually for a new technology to really take hold and displace an incumbent technology, it has to be better in a compelling way—not just like 20 percent better or something like that. It has to be really compelling. The CMOS image sensor was a success because the value proposition wasn’t just a little better. The tech was very compelling." - Dr. Eric Fossum, Dartmouth professor and the inventor of the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel image sensor

“Usually for a new technology to really take hold and displace an incumbent technology, it has to be better in a compelling way—not just like 20 percent better or something like that. It has to be really compelling,” said Fossum. “The CMOS image sensor was a success because the value proposition wasn’t just a little better. The tech was very compelling." According to Fossum, scientists can’t simply assume that they can successfully present new technology and get funding as “that often doesn’t happen. You have to do it yourself and prove that it can really be a product. You must take that extra step of translating it from an invention into a real product that’s usable," he noted. “Our role actually in a university, in my opinion, is to not only investigate and discover new things but to somehow deliver them to society at large and to be helpful to society. As universities, we need to find ways to get that technology out there. We also need to own the IP,” Fossum said.

going to face some stiff and well-funded competition. The two options were either to raise vast sums of capital or to sell to an electronics company with the resources to take the technology to the next level.

How to be a scientist-entrepreneur As basic R&D corporate budgets are shrinking, it has become the norm for big corporations to acquire smaller startups developing market-ready innovative technology. Over the past 15 to 20 years, universities have filled the gap by playing an important role as incubators of future technologies. This means the technology has to be compelling and bring value to the market.

1. Dr. Eric Fossum, a professor at Dartmouth and the inventor of the complementary metaloxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel image sensor used in cameras worldwide, speaks during his 2017 Enrichment in the Spring Program lecture on campus. 2. Dr. Eric Fossum (center) receives a gift from the KAUST Enrichment Programs team thanking him for speaking during the 2017 Enrichment in the Spring.

www.kaust.edu.sa

31


Ancient disruptors of the Islamic Golden Age By Meres J. Weche

The word “disruptors” is often bandied about these days in discussions about tech startups and Silicon Valley. The Cambridge dictionary loosely describes disruptors as those who change the traditional in which a paradigm operates—especially in a new and effective way. South African-born historian and imagineer Mike Bruton recently came to KAUST as part of the 2017 Enrichment in the Spring program to discuss great disruptors of the scientific method from the House of Wisdom, or Bayt alHikma, during the Islamic Golden Age spanning the 8th to the 13th centuries C.E. “The scientists I'll describe today were not just pioneers, they were masters of their craft—most of whom were years ahead in their research,” Bruton said during his KAUST keynote address. The great Islamic scholars from Bayt al-Hikma made contributions in many different fields, Bruton noted, including introducing the concept of zero, which allowed mathematicians to explore orders of magnitude and decimals, and the debunking of the Greek theory of sight which said that rays emanated from the eyes. “Today we use the term 'disruptive,' and this very much applies to the work they did because they didn’t just build on the work of the ancients, they totally disrupted the direction of science and technology. They created new ways of doing things and looking at things,” said Bruton.

The Dark Age that never was Many people in the West and beyond believe that the period from the end of the Greek era to the Renaissance was essentially a scientific desert. As Burton explained, however, “Nothing could be further from the truth. It was a time of great scientific productivity carried out almost entirely in the Islamic world.” The highly detailed chronicles of the work from these Islamic scholars laid the foundation for modern civilization.

A perhaps little-know fact is that the decision by UNESCO to name 2015 the International Year of Light was to mark the 1,000-year anniversary of the publication of Ibn al-Haytham’s (965 to 1040 C.E.) famous book of optics. In this seven-volume treatise, Ibn al-Haytham completely revolutionized knowledge of how the eye works, how vision works and the properties of light. He was also the first to demonstrate that light bounces off objects from light sources like the sun or candles and enters our eyes. “He was a serious disruptor in terms of contemporary thought,” Bruton said.

The Bayt al-Hikma: a global incubator of ideas Another relevant Silicon Valley concept is that of the incubator—a setting where potential disruptors are offered the space and resources to nurture their ideas. In this vein, Bruton purported that one of the reasons why science flourished under Islam during the Golden Age is because the caliphs and sultans of the time had strong ethics for the patronage of science. “They considered it a prestige to have the greatest scholars, the biggest libraries, the best astronomical observatories and the most comprehensive House of Wisdom in their caliphate—it was a status symbol,” said Bruton. “There was this 'ethic of innovation'—of constantly improving on the status quo.” The vast expanse of the Islamic world at the time, which stretched from Spain in the West to China in the East, meant that ideas were flowing. The Arabic language was also used very widely.

Historian and imagineer Mike Bruton speaks at KAUST as part of the Enrichment in the Spring program, discussing the great disruptors of the scientific method from the House of Wisdom, or Bayt al-Hikma, during the Islamic Golden Age. Photo by Ginger Lisanti.

32

THE BEACON | JULY 2017


“There was this ethic of encyclopedism—in other words, they were compelled to write down their knowledge and pass it on to future generations,” Burton explained, which means that a huge amount of effort was put into translation.

experimentalist who sought to prove everything through experiments, and he helped establish the scientific method of testing an idea through experiment and observation. He was also a bit of an elitist, writing in a style that was intentionally out of reach for non-specialists of the time.

“The ancient works in Greek, Sanskrit and Persian and others languages were translated into Arabic to make them available to Arabic scholars and then subsequently into Latin and English,” he continued.

“Interestingly, the word 'jibberish' comes from Jabir ibn Hayyan's surname due to the quite intricate and complicated descriptions and specialized jargon of his work,” said Bruton.

Recording and sharing the memory of the ancient Islamic scholars

Ismail Al-Jazari (1136 to 1206 C.E.), another great innovator of the time, was an engineer and polymath best known as the father of robotics. He built a robotic man as well as various clocks, including the first portable clock and the impressive Elephant Clock. Al-Jazari detailed his work in "The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices."

It was part of the Islamic scholars’ work ethic to record their findings and research before they died. They were in fact great science communicators and took great care in detailing and documenting all aspects of their experiments, creations and discoveries. Al-Kindi (801 to 873 C.E.), who is considered one of the 12 greatest minds in history, wrote a very detailed book in which he described the 50 mechanical devices and machines that he developed, and he provided accurate drawings of them. He played a major role in introducing Arabic numerals and zero into arithmetic—work that was carried on by the scientists who followed him.

Although the research theses of the early Islamic scholars are well-documented, they are unfortunately not wellknown in the West. Through his background in science and his interest in studying innovation and creativity, as well as pulling from his experience as a science communicator, Bruton has traveled the world with an exhibition showcasing the achievements of the ancient House of Wisdom. He was also a consultant for the construction of the KAUST Museum Of Science and Technology in Islam.

Jabir ibn Hayyan (721 to 815 C.E.) is regarded as the father of quantitative chemistry who pioneered many of the techniques that are still in use today. He was a great

www.kaust.edu.sa

33


Doing what was once impossible

1

By Nicholas Demille Reconstructive microsurgey is the transplant of body parts with arteries and veins to damaged areas of the body. Examples include transplanting sections of skin from the tummy to the neck and face or replacing a damaged thumb with a toe. Early practitioners of the medical sciences attempted many of these procedures and documented their work well before 1900. Due to the widespread need for such procedures after World War I, surgeons rapidly developed the protocols, tools and medications to make microsurgeries more routinely successful. Dr. Laurent A. Lantieri, a modern physician and pioneer who has helped innovate the field of microsurgery, visited KAUST recently as part of the 2017 Enrichment in the Spring program. Lantieri’s high-profile surgical work is focused on improving the quality of life for patients who have experienced disabling injuries or illness in vital areas such as the face and hands. His high-profile surgical cases include a double hand transplant as well as the world’s first full-face transplant.

A brief history of transplant surgeries Lantieri delivered a keynote address as part of his time at KAUST, outlining a brief history of reconstructive microsurgical procedures. He highlighted a historic article about one such procedure known as flap surgery, which detailed the use of a flap from the forehead to replace a damaged nose. According to Lantieri, World War I and II were times of rapid innovation in the field of reconstructive surgery given the massive numbers of injuries sustained in the conflicts. World War I, for example, was a time when surgeons experimented with the growth of tubes of skin to reconstruct features of the face. World War II saw the development of skin grafting. In particular, Lantieri cited Nobel Prize winner Peter Medawar for his work on the immune response to skin grafts, as well as the work of pioneering surgeons such as Joseph Murray, who performed the first successful kidney transplant. According to Lantieri, Murray's critical insights about immunology paved the way for many of the transplant procedures we view as routine today. Vascular surgery is also a key component of successful transplant surgery, according to Lantieri. Though controversial, Nobel Prize winner Alexis Carrel's work led to the success of surgeons like Harry Buncke, who pioneered the suturing of small vessels and ultimately the repair of major injuries.

34

THE BEACON | JULY 2017

The hands and face Lantieri talked through not only the transplantation of soft tissue but also of bone. He performs allotransplantation, which is the movement of tissue and bone from donors to recipients. This has been made possible by the many historic advances in vascular surgery and immunology he spoke about earlier in his talk. "For centuries, pioneers were attempting transplants and failing because they lacked the proper techniques and medications," Lantieri said. "For example, the first hand transplant happened in 1963, but it was largely unsuccessful due to the lack of drugs needed to properly blunt the immune system's natural response to non-native tissue. It was only after the development of the right cocktail of drugs that wide-scale allotransplant surgeries became possible." Apart from the historical and technical aspects of transplant surgery, Lantieri also spoke at length about the professional ethics of transplant surgery in both his KAUST Live interview and during his keynote address. “We cannot harvest a face or arms without consideration for the deceased and that person's family," Lantieri said. "When we take these items from a donor, we replace them with prosthetic items and a mask to make sure that the body of the deceased is intact. Ethically, we have to treat all patients—donors and recipients—with the same level of respect.”

The future of surgery might not be 'surgery' Lantieri dedicated part of his talk to the growth of new tissues as an alternative to transplant and allotransplant (transplant from a donor) procedures. “Maybe the future is with tissue engineering, in which we will grow animal and human tissues in plant cell scaffolds,” Lantieri opined. "Pioneers such as Harald C. Ott have removed small cells from a donor and have grown new organs, but creating new full-size organs is still not possible. Ultimately I think the future is bioengineering, and I think we will see this come to fruition within the next 10 years or so."

Scan here to view Dr. Laurent Lantieri's KAUST Live interview, part of the 2017 Enrichment in the Spring program.

2


‫‪1. Pioneering plastic surgeon Dr. Laurent‬‬ ‫‪Lantieri delivers a keynote address on April 17‬‬ ‫‪as part of the University's 2017 Enrichment in‬‬ ‫‪the Spring program.‬‬ ‫‪2. Dr. Laurent Lantieri (right) stands with‬‬ ‫‪Marie-Laure Boulot, KAUST manager of‬‬ ‫‪Enrichment Programs, after his keynote‬‬ ‫‪Enrichment in the Spring presentation.‬‬ ‫‪Photos by Lilit Hovhannisyan.‬‬

‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫يوما ما‬ ‫مستحيال‬ ‫تحقيق ما كان‬ ‫نيقوالس ديميل‬

‫يمكن تعريف الجراحة المجهرية االستنباتية بأنها زراعة أجزاء من الجسم مع‬ ‫الشرايين واألوردة في مناطق متضررة منه‪ .‬ومن أمثلة ذلك أخذ مقاطع من الجلد‬ ‫من منطقة البطن وزرعها في الرقبة والوجه‪ ،‬أو استبدال إبهام متضرر بأحد أصابع‬ ‫القدم‪ .‬لقد حاول الممارسون األوائل للعلوم الطبية إجراء الكثير من العمليات‬ ‫طور الجراحون‬ ‫المشابهة‪ ،‬ووثقوا عملهم قبل عام ‪ 1900‬بكثير‪ .‬وسرعان ما ّ‬ ‫البروتوكوالت واألدوات واألدوية الالزمة إلنجاح عمليات الجراحة المجهرية بصورة‬ ‫اعتيادية أكثر‪ ،‬وذلك بسبب الحاجة واسعة النطاق لمثل هذه اإلجراءات بعد الحرب‬ ‫العالمية األولى‪.‬‬ ‫لقد زار الدكتور لوران النتيري‪ ،‬وهو من األطباء والرواد المعاصرين الذين أسهموا‬ ‫ً‬ ‫مؤخرا‬ ‫في ابتكار ميدان الجراحة المجهرية‪ ،‬جامعة الملك عبداهلل للعلوم والتقنية‬ ‫في إطار برنامج اإلثراء في الربيع‪ .‬وأجريت معه مقابلة مباشرة على الهواء ُب ّثت‬ ‫عبر صفحة الجامعة على موقع "فيسبوك" في إطار سلسلة البث المباشر في‬ ‫جامعة الملك عبداهلل للعلوم والتقنية‪.‬‬ ‫[‪]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gUgLGSB8qWE‬‬ ‫وتركز العمليات الجراحية المتطورة التي يجريها النتيري على تحسين حياة المرضى‬ ‫الذين تعرضوا إلى إصابات ينجم عنها إعاقات أو أمراض في مناطق حيوية كالوجه‬ ‫واليدين‪ .‬ومن العمليات الجراحية المتطورة التي أجراها عملية زرع يدوية ثنائية‪،‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫فضال عن أول عملية زراعة وجه كامل في العالم‪.‬‬

‫تاريخ موجز عن جراحات الزرع‬ ‫ألقى النتيري كلمة رئيسية أثناء وجوده في جامعة الملك عبداهلل للعلوم‬ ‫والتقنية‪ ،‬استعرض فيها بإيجاز تاريخ الجراحة المجهرية االستنباتية‪ .‬وعرض مقالة‬ ‫تاريخية تتحدث عن أحد أنواع هذه اإلجراءات الذي يعرف بالجراحة السديلية‪ ،‬وشرح‬ ‫فيها بالتفصيل كيفية استخدام سديلة من الجبهة الستبدال أنف متضرر‪.‬‬ ‫ويقول النتيري إن الحروب الكبيرة‪ ،‬وما خلفته من أعداد ضخمة من اإلصابات‪،‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫جرب‬ ‫وقتا‬ ‫كانت‬ ‫مناسبا لالبتكار السريع في مجال الجراحة االستنباتية‪ .‬فقد ّ‬ ‫الجراحون‪ ،‬على سبيل المثال‪ ،‬زرع أنابيب من الجلد لترميم مالمح الوجه أثناء الحرب‬ ‫العالمية األولى‪.‬‬ ‫وشهدت الحرب العالمية الثانية تطور تطعيم الجلد‪ .‬وعلى وجه التحديد‪ ،‬ضرب‬ ‫ً‬ ‫مثال عن بيرت ميداوار‪ ،‬الحائز على جائزة نوبل على عمله في االستجابة‬ ‫النتيري‬ ‫المناعية لطعوم الجلد‪ ،‬باإلضافة إلى أعمال جراحين رواد مثل جوزيف موراي‪،‬‬ ‫الذي أجرى أول عملية ناجحة لزرع كلية‪ .‬ورأى النتيري أن رؤى موراي الهامة عن‬ ‫عبدت الطريق أمام العديد من إجراءات الزرع التي أصبحت عملية‬ ‫علم المناعة قد ّ‬ ‫روتينية في الوقت الحالي‪.‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫أيضا من جراحة الزرع الناجحة‪.‬‬ ‫رئيسيا‬ ‫مكونا‬ ‫وقال النتيري إن جراحة األوعية تعتبر‬ ‫ورغم أنه إشكالي‪ ،‬إال أن عمل أليكسيس كارل‪ ،‬الحائز على جائزة نوبل‪ ،‬أدى‪ ،‬في‬ ‫ً‬ ‫رائدا في خياطة‬ ‫نهاية المطاف‪ ،‬إلى نجاح جراحين مثل هاري بنك الذي كان‬ ‫األوعية الدموية الصغيرة وإصالح إصابات كبيرة‪.‬‬

‫‪35‬‬

‫‪www.kaust.edu.sa‬‬

‫اليدان والوجه‬ ‫لم يكتف النتيري بالحديث عن زرع النسج الطرية فحسب‪ ،‬بل تحدث عن زرع العظام‬ ‫ً‬ ‫أيضا‪ .‬وهو يجري عملية زرع الطعم الخيفي‪ ،‬أي نقل النسيج والعظم من متبرعين‬ ‫إلى مستقبلين‪ ،‬التي تحققت بفضل التطورات التاريخية الكثيرة في جراحة األوعية‬ ‫وعلم المناعة التي تناولها في بداية كلمته‪.‬‬ ‫الرواد بالفشل طوال‬ ‫وقال النتيري‪" :‬لقد باءت محاوالت الزرع التي أجراها األطباء ّ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫نظرا إلى عدم توفر التقنيات واألدوية المالئمة‪ .‬وعلى سبيل المثال‪ ،‬فقد‬ ‫قرون‪،‬‬ ‫أجريت أول عملية زرع يد في ‪ ،1963‬ولكنها لم تتكلل بالنجاح بسبب عدم توفر‬ ‫للحد من رفض نظام المناعة للنسيج الغريب‪ .‬ولم تعرف جراحات‬ ‫األدوية الالزمة‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫الطعم الخيفي طريقها إلى التطبيق إال بعد تطوير المجموعة المناسبة من‬ ‫األدوية"‪.‬‬ ‫وتحدث النتيري عبر الفيديو عن سيدة في فرنسا فقدت ذراعيها ورجليها بسبب‬ ‫عدوى‪ .‬وقررت‪ ،‬بعد تسع سنوات من استعانتها باألعضاء الصناعية‪ ،‬أن تحاول عملية‬ ‫زرع يد ثنائية وذراع‪ ،‬وتكللت العملية الجراحية المتطورة‪ ،‬التي أسهم النتيري في‬ ‫إجرائها‪ ،‬بالنجاح في نهاية المطاف‪.‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫أيضا في‬ ‫وبعيدا عن الجوانب التاريخية والتقنية لجراحة زرع األعضاء‪ ،‬أسهب النتيري‬ ‫الحديث عن األخالق المهنية لزرع األعضاء في مقابلته الحية مع جامعة الملك‬ ‫ً‬ ‫أيضا في سياق كلمته الرئيسية‪.‬‬ ‫عبداهلل للعلوم والتقنية‪ ،‬كما تحدث عنها‬ ‫قال النتيري في سياق كلمته الرئيسية‪" :‬ال يمكننا قطف وجه أو ذراع دون مراعاة‬ ‫المتوفى وعائلته‪ .‬وعندما نأخذ هذه األعضاء من متبرع‪ ،‬فإننا نستبدلها بأعضاء‬ ‫ً‬ ‫حرصا على سالمة جثمان المتوفى‪ .‬فاألخالق المهنية تملي علينا أن‬ ‫صناعية وقناع‬ ‫نعامل كافة المرضى‪ ،‬متبرعين ومستقبلين‪ ،‬بالمستوى نفسه من االحترام"‪.‬‬ ‫قد ال تكون "الجراحة" هي مستقبل الجراحة‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫بديال‬ ‫جزءا من كلمته للحديث عن زراعة النسج الجديدة باعتبارها‬ ‫وأفرد النتيري‬ ‫إلجراءات زرع األعضاء وزرع الطعم الخيفي (الزرع من متبرع)‪.‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫قائال‪" :‬بفضل هندسة النسج‪ ،‬ربما نتمكن‬ ‫وعبر النتيري عن رأيه بمستقبل الجراحة‬ ‫في المستقبل من زراعة النسج الحيوانية والبشرية في سقاالت الخلية‪ .‬لقد نزع‬ ‫رواد مثل هارلد سي‪ .‬أوت خاليا صغيرة من متبرعين وزرعوا أعضاء جديدة‪ ،‬ولكن‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ممكنا بعد"‪.‬‬ ‫تخليق أعضاء جديدة كاملة الحجم ليس‬ ‫وأضاف‪" :‬في نهاية المطاف‪ ،‬أعتقد أن المستقبل سيكون للهندسة البيولوجية‪،‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫تقريبا"‪.‬‬ ‫وأننا سنجني ثمار ذلك في غضون السنوات العشر القادمة‬


32

THE BEACON | JULY 2017

2017 July Beacon  

The Beacon Newspaper

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you