Page 1

URBAN

CYCLING WRITTEN AND DESIGNED BY

KATIE KING

RUMFORD


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“I BIKE...


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Photographer // Marti Tulenheimo

I BIKE AROUND TOWN. I BIKE UP HILLS AND DOWN HILLS. I BIKE WHEN IT IS HOT. I BIKE WHEN IT IS COLD.


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Photographer // Marti Tulenheimo

SOMETIMES WHEN I BIKE IT RAINS, AND SOMETIMES THE SUN SHINES TOO BRIGHT ON MY FACE. SOMETIMES I HEAR THE BIRDS. I SMELL THE FLOWERS. I SEE THEM.


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Photographer // Marti Tulenheimo

I’VE NEVER BIKED SO FAR THAT I FELL DOWN, UNABLE TO GO FURTHER. THAT MUST MEAN THAT I CAN ALWAYS TAKE ONE MORE RIDE, AND ONE MORE RIDE AFTER THAT.


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Photographer // Marti Tulenheimo

I AM AMAZED BY THAT, BY WHAT MY BODY CAN DO. IT IS WONDERFUL TO BE AMAZED BY SMALL THINGS.” —Rita Webb Personal Story People for Bikes


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DO YOU


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BIKE?


URBAN

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WRITTEN AND DESIGNED BY

KATIE KING

RUMFORD


THE

BICYCLE

offers a non-polluting, non-congesting, physically active form of transportation in a country, and in a world, that increasingly seems to need such options. —Jeff Mapes, Pedaling Revolution


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART ONE

PART TWO

PART THREE

PART FOUR

(back)STORY

HISTORY

(their)STORY

(your)STORY

22 30 44 88 46//HALEY 54//ERIKA 62//CHAD 70//JIMMY 78//GEORGE


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PART ONE

PART ON


(back)STORY

NE

(back)STORY

Urban Cycling is a form of utility cycling done in the context of a city. Rides are primarily for the purpose of commuting rather than for sport or racing, not to say cycling sports aren’t prevalent as well.

FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE THE CAR BECAME THE KING OF THE ROAD AFTER WORLD WAR II, A GRASSROOT MOVEMENT HAS SURFACED IN CITIES ACROSS AMERICA. CYCLISTS WANT TO RECLAIM THE STREETS... ...Urban cowboys, as dubbed by Jeff Mapes, fill the streets for work, play and commuting. Biking can make you feel like a kid again. It’s a great way to see the city, not to mention it’s an inexpensive method of transportation, it runs on human power, not oil nor nuclear energy. It gives you a feeling of accomplishment as you arrive at your destination, it doesn’t pollute, allowing you to actually choose to make a difference, lessen your carbon footprint and impact the planet, and most of all, it’s just plain old fun. The bicycle has been around for a few hundred years as we’ll discover in Part Two of this book. But before we learn about the history of the bike, there’s a few things you should to know.

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IN THE

UNITED STATES

2

OF TRIPS ARE

MILES OR LESS


90% OF THOSE ARE BY

CAR

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DRIVING R E L E A S E S

20 POUNDS OF CO2 POLLUTION

P E R

G A L L O N

OF GAS


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25 PERCENT O F T H E

U N I T E D

S T A T E S’

CO2 EMISSIONS C O M E

F R O M

MOTOR VEHICLES

25%


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IF

110 OUT OF

CAR COMMUTERS SWITCHED TO A

BIKE


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CO2 EMISSIONS W O U L D B E

REDUCED BY

25.4 MILLION

TONS

PER YEAR All Statisitics provided by the CLIF 2 Mile Challenge1


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PART TWO

PART TW


HISTORY

WO

HISTORY

A record of events, usually placed in chronological order, as of the life or development of a people or institution, often including an explanation of or commentary on those events.

NOT SURPRISINGLY, THE BICYCLE HAS BEEN AROUND LONGER THAN THE AUTOMOBILE. IT IS A CONTRAPTION THAT HAS EVOLVED WITH THE TIMES AND NEEDS OF ITS RIDERS. You’ve probably all read or seen cartoons from the Stone Age where the man in a loincloth is riding a “bike” with square wheels. Ok, so it’s not that ancient, but the idea of transportation by two wheels has been around for hundreds of years. Personal transportation is a fairly new concept, brought about in the late 18th century by Comte Mede de Sivrac. He invented the first contraption resembling a bike in 1790, called a celerifere. It was a wooden scooter-like device with two wheels, no pedals and no steering. Its use was rather limited to flat, well-groomed paths because of its design. It was powered by foot and extremely uncomfortable to ride.

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THE BRAKING MECHA WAS ALMOST MORE SYMBOLIC THAN FUNCTIONAL About fifty years later, in 1839, a Scottish blacksmith named Kirkpatrick MacMillan added pedals to the bike, allowing for more efficient movement and design. It still wasn’t a big hit with the general public because it was expensive and limited in production. Next came the modern bicycle, as we recognize it today. Pierre and Ernest Michaux, a father and son duo, operated a company that made carriages in Paris. They first assembled a twowheeled vélocipède around 1867, also known as the “boneshaker”. This bike was propelled much like a tricycle, with its cranks and pedals connected to the front wheel. Refining the design was Pierre Lallement, an employee of Michaux, who claimed credit for the idea of the boneshaker saying he developed the prototype in 1863 before the Michaux duo. He later refined the design. Lallement set sail for America and filed for the first bicycle patent with the U.S. Patent Office in 1866. By 1870, metalworking had improved to the point that bicycles began to be constructed entirely of metal rather than wood, an improvement in both performance and material strength. The high-wheeled Penny Farthing became popular in the U.S. and Europe in the 1870s and 1880s. The main hazard to the high-wheeled bike design was its danger factor, as the riders (usually young men) sat so high up that they were very vulnerable to road hazards. The braking mechanism was almost more symbolic than functional, and there was really no way to slow the bike. And, if


HISTORY

ANISM

something were to stop the front wheel suddenly, such as a rut or object stuck in the spokes, the rider was immediately bucked forward as he rotated up over the front wheel to land squarely on his head. Hence the origin of the term “breakneck speed,” since a crash often produced truly devastating results. The next stage of bicycle development came with the creation of the safety bicycle, which transformed the bicycle from a dangerous contraption limited to the realm of reckless young men, to a reliable and comfortable device that could be safely used by people of all ages for everyday transportation. Recognizing the design limitations of the high-wheeler bicycles, tinkerers continually looked for ways to improve the bike’s basic form. A major breakthrough came in 1885 with John Kemp Starley’s the creation of (or maybe “return to” is more accurate) a bike design that featured a rider perched much lower between two wheels of the same size, coupled with a sprocket and chain system that drove the bike from the rear wheel. This is the same basic “diamond frame” design still in use in today’s bikes referencing the diamond shaped frame between the wheels. When Starley’s new design was coupled with inflated rubber tires, it ended the jolting and painful ride inflicted on cyclists, and suddenly cycling was safe and fun again. Plus, the price of bicycles was dropping continually as manufacturing methods improved.

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PART TWO

“LET ME TELL YOU WHAT I THINK MORE TO EMANCIPATE WOMEN IT GIVES WOMEN A FEELING OF STAND AND REJOICE EVERY TIME WHEEL...THE PICTURE OF FREE, All these factors combined to create the golden age of cycling. People rode them for practical means as well as for leisure. It was transportation and recreation all wrapped up in one package. The number and influence of cycling grew so rapidly in the 1880s and 1890s that they formed groups like the League of American Wheelman (now called the League of American Bicyclists), to lobby for better roads in the days before automobiles ruled the streets.1

EMANCIPATION OF WOMEN The safety bicycle gave women unprecedented mobility, contributing to their emancipation in Western nations. As bicycles became safer and cheaper, more women had access to the personal freedom they embodied, and so the bicycle came to symbolize the New Woman of the late 19th century, especially in Britain and the United States. The bicycle was recognized by 19th-century feminists and suffragists as a “freedom machine” for women. American Susan B. Anthony said in a New York World interview on February 2, 1896: “Let me tell you what I think of bicycling. I think it has done more to emancipate women than anything else in the world. It gives women a feeling of freedom and self-reliance. I stand and rejoice every time I see a woman ride by on a wheel...the picture of free, untrammeled womanhood.”2 The bicycle craze in the 1890s also led to a movement for


HISTORY

OF BICYCLING. I THINK IT HAS DONE THAN ANYTHING ELSE IN THE WORLD. FREEDOM AND SELF-RELIANCE. I I SEE A WOMAN RIDE BY ON A UNTRAMMELED WOMANHOOD.” —Susan B. Anthony

so-called rational dress, which helped liberate women from corsets, anklelength skirts and other restrictive garments, substituting the then-shocking bloomers. The bicycle has continued to evolve and many different forms and shapes of the bicycle has been developed today to fit the rider and its needs. People of all shapes and sizes can ride a bike due to the strong nature of the bike and its frame. A bike is unprejudiced to its rider as anyone of any age, color or experience can ride. The body of the bicycle has stayed relatively the same over the last hundred years with a few minor adjustments and improvements. The following are more recent efforts and news.

GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT During the Reagan Administration biking efforts were stunted because it was said that any involvement by the government was seen as “over involvement of the government in unimportant trivial matters”3. It wasn’t until the mid-1990s that the government’s hands-off method was lifted and transportation efforts, bills and propositions were back on the radar. In the recent 2010 election, Jim Oberstar, who was the House Transportation Committee Chair and has been cycling’s biggest advocate, was defeated by newcomer John Mica, who has already stated that cycling and transportation efforts are much less important than they’ve been made out to be.

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Photographer // Chiara Shine


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PART TWO

“The more accessible [streets and paths] are for bikes, the more likely it is people will use them. But it’s got to start at the local level.” This was a quote from an interview in 2005, in which the interviewer asked former President George W. Bush if his newfound love of cycling had played a role in his decision to pass a transportation bill that earmarked one billion dollars for cycling-related projects, almost as much as the previous 10 transportation bills combined. “Absolutely,” he said. “One reason people don’t ride is fear of getting hit by a car.”4

FEDERAL TRANSPORTATION BILL The Federal Transportation Bill funds everything from highways and transit to bike lanes and sidewalks is rewritten every six years. During the last renewal, $4.5 billion was authorized for bicycling and walking. This was a dramatic increase over previous commitments. But the figure still represents less than 1.5% of all federal government transportation spending. Despite the federal budget deficit and tight economy, federal bike project investment surpassed $1.3 billion during fiscal year 2009. This unprecedented sum is proof that bike projects are viewed positively by senior government officials as job creators, road congestion-reducers, and beneficial to public health and quality of life. During the first half of 2010, a new, high-profile champion for U.S. bicycling emerged. Secretary of


HISTORY

Transportation Ray LaHood led the development of positive new DOT bike policy guidelines. He regularly praised bicycling in his official Fast Lane blog. His rousing closing speech was a highlight of the 10th National Bike Summit. He has gone so far as to make the case why people who never bike should enthusiastically support investments in bike facilities.5 Public opinion has been changing, evidenced by more and more people asking and speaking up for increased spending on public transportation, biking and walking, rather than road and highway construction.

BIKE PLAN San Francisco Bike Plan is a major effort in the fight against climate change. It is a five-year master plan and ambitious road map meant to boost biking to new heights of safety and convenience in the city of San Francisco. Mayor Gavin Newsom and the SFMTA have teamed up to work together to begin the process of bettering the urban landscape for bicyclists. The Bike Plan was implemented in 2009 and there has already been a substantial amount of change to the bike lanes and bike friendliness of San Francisco.6

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PART TWO

BIKES BELONG Bikes Belong is committed to assisting this effort by making strategic community grants to projects that leverage federal funding, as referenced in the Federal Transportation Bill. In addition, Bikes Belong has provided financial support to national groups that are helping communities access federal funds earmarked for bicycling. It is extremely important not only to have the funds allocated to the local governments for cycling and pedestrian advancement, advancement, but also to have people in place to keep the government accountable in their spending, using the money for the community at hand and for the purpose at hand. Bikes Belong is a fantastic organization steeped in the world of cycling all over the United States.8

ISTEA The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) transformed the landscape for bicycling advocates. The new law gave metropolitan areas a big role in transportation planning and allowed local government, states, and policies more flexibility to shift money among different modes of transportation. It sough to create cycling and pedestrian advocates


“ONE REASON PEOPLE DON’T RIDE IS FEAR OF GETTING HIT BY A CAR.” —President George W. Bush

within state departments of transportation, which were often difficult territories to penetrate by local coalitions and advocacy groups.7

TERRAPASS The TerraPass Program was launched by Dr. Karl Ulrich in October 2004 as a way to help everyday people reduce the climate impact of their driving. It is a social enterprise that provides carbon offsetting products to individuals and businesses. Headquartered in San Francisco, TerraPass uses proceeds from member purchases to fund greenhouse gas reduction projects such as wind farms and methane digesters. Since its inception it has helped indi9

viduals and businesses to reduce over one billion pounds of carbon dioxide. 9

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PART THREE

PART TH


(their)STORY

HREE

(their)STORY their

The following chapters are personal accounts and stories of real San Franciscans. Some of them are avid cyclists, some are not. Each of them has a unique perspective, raising important issues about urban cycling.

THERE ARE THOSE WHO THINK THAT BIKING IN SAN FRANCISCO IS THE BEST EXPERIENCE IN THE WORLD AND THEN THERE ARE THOSE WHO THINK BIKING IN THE CITY IS JUST PLAIN CRAZY. BOTH ARE RIGHT... Both perspectives have many reasons to validate why think the way they do and there are of course many people who stand somewhere in the middle of the two extremes. This section of the book gives a glimpse into the lives of several San Franciscans. The following accounts do not fit into any sort of mold, but rather, each person you’re introduced to, has their own voice and experience cycling in the city.

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PART THREE

Photographer // Warszawa Rowerowa

This is my roommate’s bike, meet “Bella”. My roommate told me to take her out for a test ride today. Well, this is as far as i got...two blocks from our apartment. I swear I almost got hit by a truck just now. My dad would have a heart attack if he knew I was riding without a helmet. Sorry dad!

ABOVE NAME//HALEY AGE//21 OCCUPATION//COLLEGE STUDENT


(their)STORY

HI MY NAME IS

HALEY

I’m a 21-year-old college student, attending San Francisco State. I’ve lived in the city for about six months now, sharing a house with five other girls in the Outer Sunset. I transferred from a junior college in Wisconsin to come to the big city to see what it’s all about. So far, I love San Francisco. I’ve told my parents that and they’re scared that means I’ll never come home, which is probably true, besides the obligatory holidays and special occasions. I’m pretty close to my family and I miss them dearly. My dad is a safety nut and always asks if I carry my pepper spray with me and makes sure that I never walk alone late at night. I recently told them about my idea to start cycling in the city. They were not very happy, especially my dad. He said he would have to fly out here to get all the right

gear and make sure I’m well educated and ready for the roads. I no longer wonder where my instinct of fear or worst-case-scenario comes from.

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“I’M SCARED TO DEATH TO RIDE. BUT I DON’T ACTUALLY TELL PEOPLE THAT.”


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PART THREE

The more I learn about cycling the more I’m scared to actually mount a bike. The streets of San Francisco are not bike friendly; I can see that from the bus window as I pass by the cyclists, just inches away from me. I’ve heard horror stories of cyclist dying because they were hit by a driver’s door opening on them. Even if I wear a helmet there’s not much that can protect me from an accident. What if I get lost? What if my bike gets stolen? What if I get in an accident and no one is around to help me? What would I do if I got in an accident? I wouldn’t know the first thing to ask. What are my chances of being hit by a car? I don’t know my way around the city. I would probably get lost. Is it worth it? Why should I take a risk just to bike? I mean really, how much better could biking be? I was asked the other day by a housemate why I don’t ride in the city? She rides and loves it; she has her cool fixie bike, Chrome messenger bag and Toms shoes. I secretly envy her. I wish I were cool enough to weave through the streets of the city without a care in the world. I’m just not as carefree as that, I need to be safe and in control. What it really comes down to is that I’m afraid for my life just walking in the city let alone riding right next to the zooming cars. If I start biking, what’s the guarantee that I won’t die from being run over by a semi-truck, a bus or by running into an open door? I guess, that’s the point, there is no guarantee.


(their)STORY

PROBLEM The problem as I see it is that riding a bike

ple who don’t ride? How do you make them

in the city streets of San Francisco is just

want to ride? I’ve asked myself lately what

too dangerous. People are afraid for their

it would take for me to freely ride the city

lives just walking around the city, so why

streets of San Francisco and a few things

would they increase their risk and ride a

came up for me. First thing, there would

bike, just inches away from the two-ton

need to be areas, popular areas, where

moving vehicles. I know I’m not alone on

cars aren’t allowed. I’ve seen places like it

this one either. People are afraid. So I guess

in Europe where no cars are allowed, just

the problem is really two-fold, biking in San

pedestrians and cyclists. Second, I would

Francisco is inherently dangerous, and fear

really need someone to show me the rules

keeps people from riding. How do you prop- of the road. And third, I would remove the erly address the dangers of the road and

hills from the city because there is just no

people’s fears? How do you reach the peo- going around them.

“I SECRETLY ENVY HER. I WISH I WERE COOL ENOUGH TO WEAVE THROUGH THE STREETS OF THE CITY WITHOUT A CARE IN THE WORLD.”

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OPPORTUNITY NOTHING TO FEAR CAMPAIGN

Fear is one of the leading reasons why people don’t ride a bike in the city of San Francisco. The unfriendly urban landscape is being addressed by the Bike Plan with adding bike lanes to the existing streets, but nothing is being done to get more people to ride. By addressing fears people can learn the facts and make an educated decision, no longer based on unsupported fear, whether they want to ride in the city. The cycling community of San Francisco welcomes new riders and hopes that the Nothing to Fear campaign will reach the masses.

FORMAT AUDIENCE

Print and web campaign. New and perspective riders between the ages of 18 and 45.

The cycling community of San Francisco has realized the fear that infiltrates new and prospective riders in this city. Fear of an accident, fear of getting lost, fear of bike theft, fear of looking inexperienced, etc. All of which are real and legitimate fears. People tend to fear the unknown, which, to new riders, is the entirety biking. The feel of the road is different, the routes are confusing, the laws are annoying and new riders aren’t comfortable with sharing the road with cars. To fear is human, but to hide behind it is cowardly. Face your fears and join the thousands of urban cyclist in San Francisco by promoting the Nothing to Fear campaign. One of the best ways to get people to notice something is to infiltrate their everyday lives with it. Get someone to

notice a sign, stop and read it, chuckle as they pass by and spread the word. In order to combat the newbie fear, the urban cycling community is planning to launch a citywide Nothing to Fear campaign. The campaign will target a younger audience through design and product placement. The hope is to alleviate the fear of the unknown by putting the information out there, easily accessible to anyone and everyone. The campaign will take the form of posters, billboards and a hand-painted sign on the side of the Hobart Building on the corner of Market and Montgomery in the financial district. Posters will be distributed and posted at all MUNI stations, on the side of the busses and trains, on BART and in public buildings and parks. You might also see the bike


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NOTHING NOTHING TO TO FEAR FEAR

R I D E T H E C I T Y. L O V E T H E C I T Y. R I D E T H E C I T Y. L O V E T H E C I T Y.

friendly businesses around town hanging the posters in their store windows. In reality the campaign has the potential of reaching a much wider audience. The average age in the city of San Francisco is 40 according to the 2008 Bay Area Census.1 With the target audience in mind, the sleek style of the campaign seeks to grab the attention of the younger generation San Franciscans.

In cyclists’ opinion, the risk of riding a bike in San Francisco is well worth it. If you’re interested in finding out more about the current cycling efforts being made in San Francisco you can visit the website www.nothingtofear.com or simply stop by the campaign office on the corner of Market and Montgomery. There’s nothing to fear when it comes to biking as long as you’re prepared.

The information provided in the campaign will include statistics like “The average commuter cyclist has just one accident every 8.7 years”, and “For every one mile pedaled rather than driven, about one pound of CO2 is saved”2. By seeing the statistics and knowing the information people will be more inclined to ride. OPPORTUNITY GAP

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PART THREE

Photographer // Warszawa Rowerowa

After Jack passed away I avoided cycling because it reminded me of him. But now, Nathan and I have started biking together, and it’s special. When we ride, it feels like Jack is here with us again.

ABOVE NAME//ERIKA AGE//32 OCCUPATION//MOTHER


(their)STORY

HI MY NAME IS

ERIKA

I’m a 32-year-old single, working “supermom”, as my seven-year-old son Nathan, puts it. We live in South Beach, a block and a half from the ballpark. I’ve lived in the city for about nine years now and don’t plan on leaving. I love the city. I came from New York, where I met Jack, my husband. We lived, worked and played in New York but both knew we wanted to end back up in California where we grew up. San Francisco seemed like the best place for us, as we wanted the city life without the East Coast weather. Well, the summers are terrible here, but in South Beach it’s almost always sunny. We seriously contemplated moving out to the East Bay when we found out I was pregnant with Nathan, but after months of going back and forth with pros and cons lists, meetings with preschools and talking to other parents we decided to stay and brave it out in the city.

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“SCHOOLS NEED TO ADDRESS ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION METHODS FOR THE CHILDREN.”


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PART THREE

Jack and I were avid cyclists, had been since living in New York, which is actually great for cycling, much to people’s surprise. We rode in San Francisco our first few years of living here, mostly for commuting and the rare weekend ride to Sausalito. But once Nathan was born we were too afraid to risk his life on the back of our bikes. Fear kept me from doing something I loved, a lesson I learned not to repeat. Jack passed away two years ago from cancer, so it’s just Nathan and I braving the city together. We have begun riding together, just small rides; usually I’ll drive us out to Marin for a ride where the streets are less dangerous. He’s not unomfortable riding on the open road streets still. I don’t think of myself as an overprotective mother, but I am aware of the city’s dangers and I don’t think a child should ride their bikes in the city until they are educated in the ways of cycling. When Nathan was first born I swore I would never let him ride in the city, but he loves it and I understand that love. What I think San Francisco is lacking is some sort of education program for cycling. Schools provide P.E. for the children and I think it would be a neat thing to introduce cycling into the physical education curriculum. Parents are afraid to let their children out of their sight but with the lack of school transportation in the city the only options for getting your child to school are driving, walking, biking or public transportation, three of which are out of the parents control.


(their)STORY

“I DON’T THINK OF MYSELF AS AN OVERPROTECTIVE MOTHER, BUT I AM AWARE OF THE CITY’S DANGERS.”

PROBLEM The lack of educated cyclists in the city is

needs to be another way to get my child to

surprising. People think just because they

and from school that is cost-effective and

have a bike they should ride it. The thought is

safe. I would love to be able to ride with Na-

great, but in reality, much like the thinking of

than every day to school, but as a working

John Forester, I believe that if you don’t know

single mother, it’s just not possible to be two

the rules, it’s better to just stay off the road 3.

places at once. I know Nathan would do well

There is no education curriculum set up in

on his own, but I don’t trust the streets of San

the public schools of San Francisco to teach

Francisco to take care of him and watch out

kids how to bike in the city. Without any form

for him. If he was better prepared and had a

of transportation provided by public schools

buddy system to get to school it would make

for the children in San Francisco, the trans-

me more inclined to let him bike to school on

portation options are limited and costly. Most

his own or with his friends.

children, because of the lottery system in the city often have to attend a school on the opposite side of the city. Getting to school can be hazardous and dangerous if unprepared and uneducated. My child is old enough to know not to ride in the street but young enough to be careless and reckless. There

It would be great to see an education system that supports the health and well being of its students, starting with exercise and activities. Getting children to exercise regularly in school might be a way to let their energy out as well.

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OPPORTUNITY CYCLING CURRICULUM

There is no education curriculum in San Francisco public schools for cycling. Parents are encouraged to bike to school, but when they’re unable to ride, how can they be sure their child is ready to ride alone? Introducing a cycling curriculum into elementary schools is important in order to teach children from a young age what it looks like to be safe, healthy and have fun.

FORMAT AUDIENCE

Education venue & curriculum Parents & children

Jim Oberstar and John Forester were the

The second most important is to get the

pioneers in the early 1990s for education

children on a bike. Research shows that

of cycling but what their legacy has

those who bike as children are more

failed to do is to create a child friendly

likely to bike as an adult, and children

curriculum to get kids not only to ride to

who bike are less likely to be obese and

school, but also to learn the rules of the

have a longer attention span4. With Cy-

road in school. Cycling Curriculum offers

cling Curriculum the child and the parent

children two hours a week of bike riding

are a team and can perform challenges,

within the walls of the school with adult

reach goals and win prizes together. To

supervision. The course offers a space

learn more about Cycling Curriculum vis-

for parents to come and be a part of the

it the Cycling Curriculum website www.

learning process, encouraging children

cyclingcurriculum.com/sf. The website

to share what they’re learned, but also

offers information, statistics, resources,

to learn together and teach one another.

challenges, and events that are coming

The most prominent goal of the Cycling

up in the Bay area. Log your rides in the

Curriculum is to educate both children and their parents about urban cycling.

database and keep track of the miles to reach the goals and win prizes.


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THE PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN WHO WALK OR BIKE TO SCHOOL HAS DROPPED FROM 50% TO 15%, WHILE CHILDHOOD OBESITY HAS TRIPLED.

5

6

Photography by Mikol V. coutresy of Flickr OPPORTUNITY GAP

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Photographer // Warszawa Rowerowa

I guess you could say that I’ve quickly adopted the hipster bike culture of San Francisco. I live it and breathe it. I do it because I like it and because it’s just plain cool. If you don’t bike, you should. Really. You should.

ABOVE NAME//CHAD AGE//26 OCCUPATION//YOU HIRING?


(their)STORY

HI MY NAME IS

CHAD

I’m new to San Francisco, just moved here from Orange County three weeks ago. Currently I’m unemployed and scouring the city for all the sweet hot spots, not to mention eating anywhere and everywhere I can. I don’t really know anyone in the city and haven’t really met a lot of people. I moved here for grad school but decided a week before moving that Finance is not for me and business school really isn’t what I want to do. My boxes were already packed and I found an apartment up in the city, so I just moved. After my first two days of being here I realized how hard driving is in the city. I have a car because I plan to drive home every few months, but driving is a real pain in the butt. Actually the driving isn’t so bad, it’s the parking that’s tough. I live in North Beach and I have to circle for 30 minutes sometimes just to find a spot a mile away from my apartment. I started taking MUNI but the 30

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“I RIDE BECAUSE IT’S COOL. THAT’S ALL.”


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PART THREE

and 45 are so slow and so packed, it’s pointless to take the bus sometimes. I spent an afternoon on the Embarcadero one day and started noticing all the cyclists. There are so many, and they seem like they’re having fun. That’s when I decided to get a bike. I never would have dreamed of biking in Orange County. Everything is just too spread out, it would take an hour to get anywhere. Although I guess driving is just as bad when you think about it. San Francisco is different, everyone is on a bike it seems, and everyone has somewhere that they’re going on their bike. It all seemed very cool and seemed like the thing to do. So far I have biked down the Embarcadero, done the Marina Green loop and that’s about it. It’s kind of hard to get motivated to go out sometimes because I don’t have anyone to ride with. The guys at the bike shop were cool when I bought my bike, but didn’t offer much advice for rides to go on except for showing me the map I could buy for $5. The last two weeks have been great, exploring the city on my bike has been great but I feel as though I’m really missing the connections I had in Orange County. Not having friends is hard and not knowing how to get plugged in is even harder.


(their)STORY

PROBLEM The city of San Franicsco is full of newcom-

I went to was full of a bunch of old people.

ers like me. I’ve heard that the average stay

There needs to be some sort of networking

of a San Francisco resident is between two

or iPhone app that tells you where the best

and six years, which means there is a lot of

ride of the day is and who’s going to be there.

turnover and connections are lost somewhat

I’m young and cool, why can’t I find anyone

frequently. Being a city full of semi-nomads,

to kick it with?

it makes it all the harder to get connected and meet people. If there was a way to meet people in a non-threatening and inexpensive environment (for those of us without a job). I’ve heard of some meet ups but the one

“I WANTED TO SEE AND EXPLORE THE CITY, AND THE COOLEST WAY TO DO IT WAS OBVIOUSLY BY BIKE. SO I BOUGHT A BIKE.”

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OPPORTUNITY NETWORK RIDES & WORKSHOPS

San Francisco is a city that is constantly changing. People move here, stay here a little while and then move on. One thing that cyclists have all found in common upon moving to the city is that it is incredibly difficult to get plugged in. That’s where the networking rides and workshops come in. This is a chance to meet up with people who like biking and enjoy an active lifestyle. Meet other new San Franciscans who have a passion and excitement for fitness and biking, make friends and explore the city.

FORMAT AUDIENCE

Communication and education venue & activity All San Francisco newcomers. Anyone who joins must have their own bike or access to one. A bike is not provided as part of the networking membership.

NeverSolo is a new networking tool for

great way to meet people and hang out.

San Francisco cyclists. If you’re new to

NeverSolo has teamed up with the San

the city there’s so much to see and to

Francisco Bike Kitchen to help answer

do it so why not explore by bike? Never-

any questions you might have about

Solo let’s you create an account to find

your bike, riding in the city, etiquette,

out where people are meeting for rides,

gear, great rides, and anything else you

what routes are great that day and net-

might want to know. The San Francisco

works you with riders near you. The

Bike Kitchen has a booth at all Never-

iPhone app let’s you track your location,

Solo events and welcomes anyone to

distance, speed and more. Messaging

their shop. Learning how to take care

also comes with the NeverSolo app so

of you, your bike and the city has never

you can keep up with your biking bud-

been so fun.

dies on the go.

To find out more or to become a mem-

The NeverSolo staff, sponsor weekly

ber simply go to www.NeverSoloSF.

group rides that all members are wel-

com and click Join. You’ll find helpful

come to join in. At the end of the ride

information about the city and a cy-

there’s food, drinks and live music, a

cling calendar for the upcoming rides.


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AS BICYCLISTS BECOME MORE COMFORTABLE WITH RIDING,THE NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF WEEKLY TRIPS TAKEN BY BIKE INCREASE SIGNIFICANTLY.

7

Photography by Warszawa Rowerowa coutresy of Flickr OPPORTUNITY GAP

03


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PART THREE

Photographer // Warszawa Rowerowa

Yep, I’m a driver turned cyclist, that’s me. I used to hate cycilsts but then I started riding and had a revelation about how awesome biking truly is. That’s pretty much all I do now. I make art and bike around the city. Life is good.

ABOVE NAME//JIMMY AGE//28 OCCUPATION//ARTIST


(their)STORY

HI MY NAME IS

JIMMY

I’m an artist. Well, I’m a starving artist actually. I’m 28-years-old and fresh out of grad school with no perspective jobs on the horizon. I never fear though, something will come around, things always have a way of working themselves out so I try not to stress out about it too much. I’ve lived in the city for, let’s see, going on five years now and I’ve seen it all. One reason I love San Francisco so much is because it is a city that relishes in freedom of expression, and as artist I rely on that freedom to create what I am inspired to create. I love seeing the graffiti art in the Mission, the murals in Potrero, the old painted buildings in the Civic Center, walking through the art galleries in SOMA and the sculptures all over the city. I wish more people had the time and chance to appreciate these things too. For a city of artists and creatives, we can always have more art on the streets.

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75

“I BIKE EVERYWHERE. IT’S JUST WHAT I DO AND HOW I DO IT.”


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PART THREE

Another reason I love San Francisco is because I love the bike culture here. I recently travelled to Amsterdam and Copenhagen to check out the cycling culture in Europe. That trip is what inspired me to start riding a few years ago. Before that I hated the SF cyclists, elitist jerks who think they’re above the law. I was a driver back then and had anger management issues. I tried to hit anything with two wheels, well, not really but I used to daydream about removing all the crazy cyclists, and roaming the streets in my Bronco. After my trip I realized just how great cycling is in cities and that it’s way easier to get around on a bike, especially in a place like San Francisco where driving and parking are such a pain. So I bike now, pretty much everywhere. I think more people should travel to Amsterdam or Copenhagen just to see what a cycling city looks like. Cars and bikes dance together, coexisting on the streets. I wish San Francisco could be like that. One attribute that makes San Francisco so different from any other city in the world is its districts. You can walk a span of five blocks and see two or three entirely different districts that make you feel like you’ve visited China, Japan, New York, Italy, or a small street in Europe. What needs to be done in this city is find a way to tie the districts closer. People venture out to see other districts but they need a reason. Art is a great way to bring people together and that’s one reason I believe San Francisco has such wonderful and diverse districts, each with its own art culture.


(their)STORY

“I HATED CYCLISTS, ELITIST JERKS WHO THINK THEY’RE ABOVE THE LAW, AND THEN I BECAME ONE. IT’S INVIGORATING.”

PROBLEM Cyclists and drivers have very little interaction

With so many creative people in San Francisco

besides the confrontations on the street. As

it seems like we would have come up with

a converted driver I am sympathetic both to

some sort of solution to get people to see the

drivers who find the cyclists to be obnoxious

other side. As an artist I would love to be able

hipsters, as well as to cyclists who hate that

to give back to the city and beautify the streets

cars are polluting the air and don’t recognize

of San Francisco while fostering an environ-

the man power it takes to ride a bike up these

ment of mutual respect and understanding

hills. There is no place for people, bikers, driv-

between drivers and cyclists. It could happen.

ers and pedestrians to come together and interact outside the context of the street.

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OPPORTUNITY BIKE RACK DESIGN COMPETITION

San francisco is a city known for its liberals and radical thinkers. It’s also one of the few places in the world where freedom of speech and freedom of expression are highly regarded, almost sacred. In a city that thrives off of art and creativity, there’s the perfect opportunity to beautify the city while bringing together its residents as well. Functional street art can be used by cyclists and noticed, appreciated and respected by pedestrians and drivers. Think of it as a free visit to an exclusive exhibit at an art gallery and the best way to see it is to ride a bike around the city.

FORMAT AUDIENCE

Design competition, activity & venue All San Franciscans

Bike parking is essential to the city,

streets of San Francisco, districts and

but bike racks have little personality

communities will come together. Peo-

and serve one purpose, to park a bike.

ple will begin to notice the street art

That’s all fine and well, but why not have

and want to see more. The designs will

the racks serve multiple purposes?

become a spectacle and tour route for

Could bike racks be street art? That’s

people to see, easily navigated by bike.

why the San Francisco Bike Coalition is

The idea is to bring people together

gearing up for it’s first ever Bike Rack

and to create functional art that gets

Design Competition. Partnering with

noticed. Getting drivers to notice bik-

Gavin Newsom’s Bike Plan and the

ers and for bikers to band together

My Dutch Bike, the Bike Rack Design

and to interact positively with drivers

Competition will take place throughout

is very important. The judging party is

the streets of San Francisco featur-

for anyone to attend, a night you won’t

ing winning designs as installations of

want to miss, driver or cyclist. Free

functional art.

food, free PBR on tap and the winners

The spirit of the competition is to pro-

will be unveiled.

mote the idea that by beautifying the


79

12 BIKES CAN BE PARKED IN THE SAME SPACE AS 1 CAR.

8

The Bike Rack Design Competition is open to anyone who wants to submit a piece. For more information please visit the San Francisco Bike Coalition website www.sfbc.org. All profits will be going to the Bike Plan fund to better the streets of San Francisco for cycling. Photography by AnaBananaSplit, Carro vs. Bicicletas, (2010) OPPORTUNITY GAP

04


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PART THREE

Photographer // Warszawa Rowerowa

I grew up riding bikes. There’s nothing like the feeling of wind in your hair, even if you don’t have much, like me. Biking offers you a freedom unlike driving. You can cruise anytime and anywhere. Everyone should have the chance to ride a bike.

ABOVE NAME//GEORGE AGE//OLDER THAN YOU OCCUPATION//RETIRED TEACHER


(their)STORY

HI MY NAME IS

GEORGE

I’ve lived in this city longer than you’ve been alive. Well, maybe not really, but I’ve lived here for about 35 years so we won’t talk about my age. I’m a retired teacher. Retired is a relative word, as I’ve recently started my own business. My wife told me to settle down and enjoy some downtime, but I’ve never been one to sit still for longer than five minutes. For an old bird like me, I just don’t want my life to pass me by. I’ve owned my fair share of bikes in my day, don’t have one right now though. Last one was stolen from my garage about a month ago. Bikes are like the pennies you see at gas station counters, you take one when you need one and leave one when you don’t. No, not really but that should be how it is. People in this city come and go and don’t really need to own a bike since they don’t have the spare room to keep it. Once they move I always wonder

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83

“EVERYONE SHOULD HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO RIDE A BIKE.”


84

URBAN

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PART THREE

if they’ll ever use the thousand-dollar bike they bought. I buy cheapies now and just expect it to get stolen; they usually do at some point too. You’ll be hard pressed to find someone who isn’t a victim of bike theft if they own a bike in the city. I didn’t always think this way, I used to be very protective of my bikes. I would spend lots of money to buy the newest and greatest bike, I would sit in my garage and work on it any extra time I had. I would ride it to work and across the bridge any chance I got. I pampered my bike and cared for it like a daughter. Now, after my seventh bike has been stolen, I have come to the realization that it will all come back to me. Someone else, some kid probably, needs the bike more than I do. I will take my daily stroll down through Golden Gate Park whether I have a bike or not. I’ve encouraged people to bike for years and tried to provide people with a bike and anything they might need, but I only had so many. Seeing the city on a bike is entirely different from seeing the city from a car or bus window. You can see the city, really see it. You get to know the city and really take it all in. Biking is the best way to feel like part of the city and to feel like you’re making the city a better place.


(their)STORY

PROBLEM Like I said, I don’t have enough bikes to go

have the space to keep it or both. Maybe

around to lend to friends anymore. I wish I did.

people are interested in cycling but haven’t

Back in the day I travelled around Europe and

had the opportunity or the pleasure of riding

saw many cities, like Paris that are becom-

because there’s no way to do it without look-

ing bike friendly. I’ve read more about it now,

ing like a tourist and riding around with the

but wouldn’t it be great if San Francisco could

black fanny pack and map on the front of the

be more bike friendly? Many people who live

bike. San Francisco needs a gateway for non-

here don’t have the means to buy a bike, don’t

riders to experience riding in the city.

“I WOULD LOAN MY BIKES TO ANYONE WHO WANTED TO BORROW THEM.”

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OPPORTUNITY BIKE SHARING PROGRAM

San francisco is one of the most bike friendly cities in the world, but many people do not have the chance to ride a bike in the city. Bringing in a bike sharing program has worked in urban areas all over the world, San Francisco is the perfect candidate for a bike sharing program. More people would be afforded the opportunity to ride, and due to the low cost and convenience, many people would start choosing to bike instead of driving or taking public transportation. A bike sharing program is the next major step in making San Francisco more bike friendly.

FORMAT AUDIENCE

Campaign, toolkit, venue & system Anyone who needs a bike on the go

Want to ride but don’t own a bike?

to ride the streets of San Francisco. All

Would you ride if you had the opportu-

you have to do is become a member

nity to use a bike whenever you want?

and you can have access to over 1,500

Would it be even better if it was free?

bicycles all over the city. All members

San Francisco is pleased to announce

will have a membership card that can

the launch of its pilot Bike Sharing

unlock any of the bikes for free. For

Program, BikeShareSF. Many cities

your convenience, BikeShare SF is set

throughout the world like Mexico City,

to place 45 stations throughout the city

Paris, Chicago and New York have set

with bikes available for you to ride when

up Bike Sharing programs to give peo-

you want and return when you’re done.

ple that opportunity to ride the streets

For more information or to become a

without the hassle of buying a bike and maintaining it as well as offering convenience and ease of transportation. The more cyclists on the street, the safer the streets are for cyclists. BikeShareSF is about giving city residents the chance

member of BikeShare SF simply to our website www.BikeShareSF.com to create an account and we’ll send your card in the mail. Start riding for free today!


87

THE #1 REASON GIVEN FOR NOT BICYCLING IS A LACK OF ACCESS TO A BICYCLE. 9

Photography by James Butler, Bicing Rack, Spain (2010) OPPORTUNITY GAP

05


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‘‘

EVERY TIME I

S E E

A N

A D U L T

ON A BICYCLE, I NO LONGER DESPAIR

FOR THE FUTURE OF

THE HUMAN RACE —H. G. WELLS


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PART FOUR

PART FO


(your)STORY

OUR

(your)STORY

The last part of this book is dedicated to you, the reader. Your story is just as important as everyone else’s and it should be recorded. Take some time to record your rides and story.

YOU’VE HEARD WHAT OTHERS HAVE TO SAY ABOUT URBAN CYCLING, NOW IT’S YOUR TURN. Hopefully this book has been enlightening, inspiring or just plain entertaining, but it doesn’t end here. The last part of this book is a choose-your-own-adventure chapter. You’ve been informed of the risks and the benefits of riding a bike in the city, but there are still a few more things you should know. Americans of all ages and backgrounds enjoy bicycling. Some 42.5 million Americans ride bicycles, according to the National Sporting Goods Association’s 2000 study. This is more than the numbers that participate in other leading sports (29.4 million basketball players, 27.5 million golfers, 22.5 million runners, 13.2 million soccer players, 11.2 million tennis players, and 7.7 million downhill skiers).1 Be a part of something big. The power of making a difference is at your fingertips, or toes since you pedal with your feet.

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25 REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD

RIDE

1.

No gas required

2.

Free parking everywhere

3.

No traffic

4.

Always be the first one in line at a light

5.

A bike goes where you want, when you want

6.

Get your exercise while commuting to work

7.

Builds muscle and increases strength and endurance

8.

Annual cost of operating a bike: $120 vs. annual cost of operating a car $5170

9.

100 bicycles can be produced for the same energy and resources required to build one medium-sized car

10. Decreases your carbon footprint 11. Limit your otherwise excessive purchases at the grocery 12. Tend to support local businesses 13. Automatic air conditioning 14. There’s adventure around every corner 15. You get to see the city 16. Less expensive to fix or replace than a car 17. You can learn how to fix your bike and maintain it 18. Makes you feel like a kid again

B E S I D E S T H E F A C T T H AT. . .

19. You appreciate a beautiful day 20. Feel the wind on your face and in your hair

And Albert Einstein discovered the Theory of Relativity while bicycling. Ernest Hemingway said that, “It is by riding a bicycle that you learn the contours of a country best, since you have to sweat up the hills and coast down them.” John F. Kennedy said, “Nothing compares with the simple pleasure of a bike ride.”

21. Get some vitamin D 22. You meet people on bikes 23. Put’s your mind at ease 24. Anyone can do it 25. It’s fun


93

1. N O G A S R E Q U I R E D

Low start up cost and next to no maintenance fees for the life of the bike. Bikes run on human-power and energy, which is free and doesn’t harm the environment.

2. F R E E P A R K I N G E V E R Y W H E R E Don’t carry change with you because parking is free!

7. K E E P S Y O U I N G R E A T S H A P E

Biking is a great way to commute to work and to play, but also to stay active and healthy. Being outside lightens moods and you get some Vitamin D.

13. A U T O M A T I C A I R C O N D I T I O N I N G

With biking you don’t need to pay loads of money for air conditioning because when the air hits your face your feel great.

23. E A S E O F M I N D

Biking, although intimidating at first is freeing once you get the hang of it. You’ll never miss the frustration of traffic or trying to find parking. It’s a freedom unlike anything else in the world!

24. A N Y O N E C A N D O I T

All ages, ethnicities, and genders can bike. There is no judgement when it comes to biking. Ride because you can, and ride because you love it.

25. I T ’ S F U N

That’s all there is to it, it’s fun to ride.


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95

IF 1,000,000 PEOPLE REPLACED A TWO–MILE CAR TRIP ONCE A WEEK WITH A BIKE RIDE, CO2 EMISSIONS COULD BE REDUCED BY 50,000 TONS PER YEAR 2


96

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IF YOU’RE GOING TO RIDE A BIKE IN THE CITY HERE’S A FEW

THINGS YOU SHOULD

KNOW

1

2

Even if you can’t see trouble, you can sense it by attending to your surroundings. Upcoming intersections are a major source of accidents but many people roll into them blind, hoping to react to whatever might come. A better way: Use walkers as a clue to what’s going on ahead. Are they crossing in your direction? And more importantly, have people suddenly stopped? It sounds obvious, but most bike riders pay attention only to the pavement in front of them. That’s a good way to get hurt. Also, if a car ahead of you swerves right, there’s a good chance they’re trying to pull a sudden Uturn. Slow down in response. Learn how to turn your head correctly. Most bikes, especially road bikes, make you hunch over at least a little bit. That means you can’t look over your shoulder as you normally would when walking, by keeping your neck straight and turning your head. If you do that on a bike, you’re blinding yourself to the road ahead and you’ll naturally turn your shoulders too. That throws your

balance off and makes you more likely to fall if something unexpected happens in front of you. Instead, if you’re looking left for example, lower your chin onto your left collarbone. You won’t have to turn your head from the road, and you won’t shift your center of gravity.

3

4

Drivers will drive wherever they’re given room. So when you’re sharing the road, don’t encourage them to squeeze past you. Claim your space, especially on busy streets. Don’t hug the curb to give yourself a slim profile. That only encourages drivers to whip around you. Instead, give yourself a wide berth. The worst you’ll hear are honks. The alternative is getting knocked off your bike while trying to be polite to a driver who doesn’t care. Look at the road from the standpoint of the cars around you. Be aware of where drivers’ blind spots are. If you’re in one, slow down or speed up to get out of it. Never, under any circumstances, put yourself


97

between a big truck and a curb. Too many people get seriously injured or killed when trucks swerve or turn suddenly. You might feel goofy stopping behind a truck at a light and not passing it when there’s a three-foot gap on the side. Deal with it. Be patient.

chain like the messengers use. They’re not heavy when worn around your waist. When you lock your bike, loop through the wheel and, more importantly, the frame-few thieves will saw through it to steal your bike.

5

Don’t ride fast at night. Accidents happen faster when it’s dark, since you’re slower to react when you can’t see as much. And an unappreciated danger is the road itself. If you’re moving quickly, a small, invisible bump can send you flying. (This is what produced my most potentially severe accident, when I cracked my helmet.)

• Your bike wheels probably come with quick-release skewers, the bolt that attaches the wheel to the front fork or rear wheel stays. Tell the bike store to replace them with regular bolts that require a wrench. That’ll make your wheels slow and annoying to steal, and wheels are surprisingly expensive to replace.

6

Most wheel and bike thefts take just a few seconds. Increase the time required to steal yours. A couple of tips:

• Sounds dastardly, but if I’m parking my bike next to a bunch of others, I’ll do it close to a bike that’s obviously easy to steal, leaving any bike thief to wonder: Why steal this one when that one is easy pickings?

• Don’t skimp on the lock, and lock your bike right. Those ubiquitous black-vinyl covered U-locks are terrible-they can be popped with a six-inch piece of metal. Cable locks are just as bad. Get yourself a hardened U-lock, or, better yet, a city

7

Wear a helmet. If you’re too embarrassed, you’re also too dumb to ride a bike in a city. Seriously. WRITTEN BY 3 CLIFF KUANG


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OK, NOW IT’S

YOUR TURN...


99

RIDE

ON

Photographer // Chiara Shine

GET OUT THERE AND RIDE A BIKE. SEE WHAT IT FEELS LIKE TO KNOW THAT YOU’RE MAKING A DIFFERENCE WITH EVERY PEDAL REVOLUTION.


100 URBAN

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THIS COULD BE YOU


101

IF YOU’RE GOING TO RIDE A BIKE IN THE CITY YOU’LL WANT TO

KEEP TRACK OF YOUR

RIDES... DATE//

MY RIDE WAS//

DISTANCE// ROUTE// DURATION//

DATE//

MY RIDE WAS//

DISTANCE// ROUTE// DURATION//

DATE//

MY RIDE WAS//

DISTANCE// ROUTE// DURATION//

DATE//

MY RIDE WAS//

DISTANCE// ROUTE// DURATION//

DATE// DISTANCE// ROUTE// DURATION//

MY RIDE WAS//


102 URBAN

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103

SAVE SAN FRANCISCO

RIDE A

BIKE


104 URBAN

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ENDNOTES Listed below are the research resources for my research. For more information please visit the websites or books listed here. There are many more resources that have enriched my overall knowledge of my Urban Cycling topic but that are not represented here because the specific information was not used. Research and interactions with people have been the most enriching part of this project and gaining insights.

PART ONE 1

“CLIF 2 Mile Challenge: Get the Facts.” CLIF 2 Mile Challenge. 2009. Web. <http://2milechallenge.com/getthefacts>.

PART TWO 1

Fiedler, David. “History of the Bicycle - An Illustrated History of the Bike.” Bicycling -About.com. 2010. Web. <http://bicycling.about.com/od/thebikelife/ss/History.htm>.

2

Quoted in Lynn Sherr, Failure is Impossible: Susan B. Anthony in Her Own Words (Times Books, 1995), p. 196.

3

Mapes, Jeff. “How Cyclists Created a Political Movement.” Pedaling Revolution: How Cyclists Are Changing American Cities. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State UP, 2009. 45. Print.

4

Mapes, Jeff. “How Cyclists Created a Political Movement.” Pedaling Revolution: How Cyclists Are Changing American Cities. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State UP, 2009. 58-59. Print.

5

“Federal Policy & Funding | What We Do.” Bikes Belong. Web. <http://www. bikesbelong.org/what-we-do/federal-policy-funding/>.

6

Newsom, Gavin, and Nathaniel P. Ford Sr. “San Francisco Bicycle Plan.” San Francisco Bicycle Plan (2009). Print.

7

Parker, Elizabeth. “ISTEA Reauthorization Policy Statement And Principles.” U.S. Department of Transportation. Web. <http://www.dot.gov/ost/govtaffairs/istea/ isteap&p.html>.

8

“Bikes Belong.” Bikes Belong. 2010. Web. <http://www.bikesbelong.org/>.

9

Ulrich, Karl. “Fight Global Warming, Reduce Your Carbon Footprint.” TerraPass Inc. 2004. Web. <http://www.terrapass.com/>.

PART THREE 1

“San Francisco City and County Census.” Bay Area Census. 2008. Web. <http://www.bayareacensus.ca.gov/counties/SanFranciscoCounty.htm>.

2

“When People Ride Bikes, Good Things Happen.” Bikes Belong. PeopleforBikes.org. Web. <http://www.bikesbelong.oli.us/StatsOnePager.pdf>.


105

3

“Bikes Belong Health Statistics.” Bikes Belong. PeopleforBikes.org. Web. <http://www.bikesbelong.org/resources/stats-and-research/statistics/health-statistics/>.

4

“Bikes Belong Health Statistics.” Bikes Belong. PeopleforBikes.org. Web. <http://www.bikesbelong.org/resources/stats-and-research/statistics/health-statistics/>.

5

“U.S. Travel Data Shows Decline in Walking and Bicycling to School Has Stabilized.” National Center for Safe Routes to School. Federal Highway Admin istration, 2010. Web. <http://www.saferoutesinfo.org>.

6

“Obesity and Overweight for Professionals: Childhood | DNPAO | CDC.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. USA.gov, 2007. Web. <http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/index.html>.

7

“Bicycling Perceptions and Experiences.” Bike Portland. Bicycle Transportation Alliance & Inavero Institute for Service Research, 8 Sept. 2009. Web. <http://bikeportland.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/btasurveyreportfull2.pdf>.

8

“CLIF 2 Mile Challenge: Get the Facts.” CLIF 2 Mile Challenge. 2009. Web. <http://2milechallenge.com/getthefacts>.

9

Royal, D., and D. Miller-Steiger. “National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior.” National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 2008. Web. <http://www.nhtsa.gov/>.

PART FOUR 1

“League of American Bicyclists – Ride Economics.” League of American Bicyclists. 2010. Web. <http://www.bikeleague.org/resources/why/economics.php>.

2

“CLIF 2 Mile Challenge: Get the Facts.” CLIF 2 Mile Challenge. 2009. Web. <http://2milechallenge.com/getthefacts>.

3

Kuang, Cliff. “Bike Commuting and Living to Tell About It - Conflict of Interests - GOOD.” GOOD Magazine. 21 Apr. 2009. Web. <http://www.good.is/post/bike-commuting-and-living-to-tell-about-it/>.


106 URBAN

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THANK YOU Now put this book down and get out there!


Urban Cycling  

Urban Cycling is a book dedicated to addressing the problems of biking in urban areas by suggesting alternatives and solutions to problems....

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