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Julia Child said it best, “No one is born a great cook, one learns by doing.� This thesis is rooted in the belief that cooking is about building intuition through practice and experience, bringing a new generation of cooks to the counter.

katie king rumford


GRADUATE THESIS PROJECT

katie king rumford www.counterintuitionproject.com


COUNTER INTUITION A graphic design MFA thesis project Written and Designed by Katie King Rumford

Graduate student of the Academy of Art University 79 New Montgomery Street Fifth Floor San Francisco, California 94108 USA Find out more on the web at www.counterintuitionproject.com View more work by Katie at www.katiekingrumford.com To report errors, please send a note to: katie@katiekingrumford.com

Graphic Design Department Chair: Mary Scott Department Director: Phil Hamlett Associate Dept. Director: Hunter Wimmer Advisors: Jenny Ji, Chris Riggs & Gaston Yagmourian Copy Editor: Peter Rumford Printing: Giant Horse Printing Binding: The Key Printing and Binding Paper: Finch Fine ID 100# text Flickr Creative Commons Typefaces: Verlag & Archer

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Copyright Š 2012 Katie King Rumford No portion of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner without prior written consent of Katie King Rumford. Printed and bound in the United States of America


BACKGROUND

Everyone would agree that food is an integral part of every living being’s daily routine. Food is something that we all know well. We know what we like, we know what we don’t like. We plan our social calendars around food, and our culture is inundated with conversations about food. However, cooking amongst the younger generations of America is lacking. Cooking has been around for hundreds of thousands of years, so why the sudden change in cultural patterns and routine? If it’s literally so easy that cavemen did it, why then are we not doing it today? In short, the decline in home cooking in America’s youth today is due to a shifting core value in America. With the onset of World War II, and the introduction of convenient food items such as frozen meals, canned goods, and a craze for fast food, our nation has forgotten how to cook. We have lost a key survival skill because we believe that we don’t need it. We have been conditioned over generations to choose convenience over quality—but this lifestyle is not sustainable. This book is an effort to start the change, to get non-cooks into the kitchen, offer them comfort and companionship. There is a better, healthier, more sustainable way to live.


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...AND IT DID

The following pages are proof that I wasn’t swallowed up by a mysterious hole in the ground, but rather, I was wholeheartedly devoted to a thesis project I believe in.

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Sara Forte (cook & stylist) and Hugh Forte (photographer) www.sproutedkitchen.com

PHOTO CREDIT

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At the heart of every home cook just starting out lies two silent, yet undeniable truths...

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First, they are haunted by the fear of failure—anxiously anticipating an all-consuming humiliation. And second, they believe that by following a recipe they are openly admitting that they do not know how to cook.

BUT IT GETS BETTER

Cooking, like learning anything in life, takes practice, patience and a bit of laughter. I’ll put it out there—failure is inevitable—but it’s the failures that offer invaluable lessons and make the successes all the sweeter. As for not following a recipe, well, remember that recipes are only guides, not the rule—so cook as you like and don’t take yourself too seriously.

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table of contents

013

00

PREFACE

A graphic design thesis defined 017

01

BACKGROUND

The bigger picture The importance of cooking The problem today Changing a life 025

02

RESEARCH

Who this is project for Different learning styles A customer journey 043

03

DESIGN EXPLORATION

Always have a notebook on hand Visual inspiration Finding a visual voice Prototyping & user feedback 059

04

DESIGN SOLUTIONS

Print deliverables Interactive platforms Packaging design 123

05

IMPACT & ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

User feedback & stories My humble thanks & gratitude

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“ SIMPLY LIKING SOMETHING WASN’T ENOUGH. LIKE CAN QUICKLY TURN TO INDIFFERENT AND DISLIKE — A LUKEWARM EMOTION. I NEEDED TO WORK ON SOMETHING THAT I LOVED —THAT WOULD EITHER SPARK A PASSIONATE FLAME OR BURN DOWN IN FLAMES.” K A T I E K I N G R U M F O R D Designer, home cook and food lover

PREFACE

It comes as no surprise that most people have a hard

Initially I decided that my thesis would be about urban

time understanding what a “graphic design thesis” is. I

cycling in San Francisco, because I had done research

probably couldn’t have told you until embarking upon the

on the topic and deemed it a responsible and socially

process myself, and believe me when I say, ignorance is

motivated thesis topic. But as it turns out, after just three

bliss. A graphic design thesis, much like any other thesis

short months of research I didn’t love cycling. Sure, I liked it,

or dissertation, entails a chosen topic, countless hours of

but simply liking something wasn’t enough. Like can quickly turn

research and identifying a solution for whatever issue is

to indifference and dislike—a lukewarm emotion. I needed to work

at hand. It is a year’s worth of research, prototyping and

on something that I loved—that would either spark a passionate

designing that could likely be spread out over a decade

fire or burn down in flames. It’s funny looking back now because

and an entire design team, but alas, we are asked to do it

the answer was right in front of me in every journal I wrote in.

on our own, as a single person.

Food. I have had a passion for food for many years­— teaching

A graphic design thesis is an anomaly because it is researching a problem within a single chosen topic and identifying the best possible solution for the problem, but it goes

myself to cook, starting culinary school and working in the service industry for almost a decade. If I could do anything besides designing, it would be cooking.

beyond that. One must physically create the solutions—not

A graphic design thesis is an attempt to accomplish the seemingly

just tell— but show how the problem can be solved through

impossible. It is like is like a wave—resist and you’ll be knocked

the vehicle of graphic design.

over, but dive into it and you’ll swim out the other side.

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WHAT’S IN A NAME Counter Intuition came about after many months of calling my thesis Don’t Fear the Kitchen, or more commonly known as dftk. The play on words came about because for some, cooking is intuitive and for others, everything about it counterintuitive—it changes with each person, their knowledge and experience. By calling it Counter Intuition, I recognize that not everyone knows how to cook, but also that it can be learned, just like intuition can be cultivated through knowledge and experience.

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01

BACKGROUND

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“ NOTHING WOULD BE MORE TIRESOME THAN EATING AND DRINKING IF GOD HAD NOT MADE THEM A PLEASURE AS WELL AS A NECESSITY.” V O L T A I R E French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher

COOKING IS A PART OF LIFE

Cooking is a part of life. Whether you cook, or you are one of the lucky ones that has parents, roommates, friends or a significant other that feeds you on a daily basis, food is a necessity to survive. In the time of cavemen cooking was a survival skill. In our generation it is becoming less of a necessary skill and more a choice, and fewer and fewer people are making the choice to cook. There are so many other options out there that cooking at home has fallen by the wayside. There are many things to blame for this decline, which we’ll look at in a bit more depth later, but it’s not fair to lay it all on the generations that came before us. We make choices and we form habits that shape us into who we are and how we want to be perceived. In today’s world, it is considered normal to be a foodie, yet not know how to prepare your own dinner. Fifty years ago that would have been an absurd statement and something would have been done to change that immediately.

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If cavemen could cook without fancy kitchens, all-clad stainless steel, and refrigerators—anyone can do it.

WE HAVE BEEN COOKING FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS

There is no clear evidence when cooking was “invented” but some

Angelo Pellegrini, the author of The Unprejudiced Palate, said that

historians suggest it was invented more than 1.8 million years ago,

in the 21st century, Americans became infatuated with the French

while others suggest an accidental discovery from a natural disaster

Culinary world, often finding the recipes described “intricate and

approximately 40,000 years ago. Like everything else, cooking has

esoteric, making anyone other than the professionally trained

evolved over thousands of years from cooking over an open flame to

cooks feel incapable of making a decent meal.” Much of modern

the microwave. A recent decline in cooking at home reveals that

America still holds this view and has sworn off cooking because

people are evolving just as cooking methods have evolved, leaving

someone else can do it better. Pellegrini continued saying that “to

behind their cooking instincts. Since WWII, with the advent of

the top chefs, they were making works of art.” But by definition, that

canned goods and processed foods, the tradition and education of

means that only few can master the “art” of cooking. Many would

cooking has slowly been replaced by prepared meals, frozen T.V.

argue that cooking is an art, and to a degree it is true because it is

dinners, and take-out, causing America not only to fatten up, but

inherently creative and for many it’s a creative outlet.

become one of the most unhealthy, stressed yet wealthiest countries in the world.

Cave paintings by the San bushmen in Namibia c. 4,000 BCE. The cavemen recorded daily activities such as hunting and gathering—evidence that food was an integral part of life, much as it is today.

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We spend more time watching television about cooking than we actually spend cooking. CHOOSING CONVENIENCE OVER ACTION

WWII changed the modern world and structure of the “modern”

and more time has been devoted to bettering our lives outside the

home. With men away at war, women went to work outside the

home. But we’ve lost our connection to food and cooking as a

home for the first time—coming home after a long day of work,

way of life, as a tradition, as a time to sit around the table and talk

they had little energy to cook. At the same time, food giants like

about our lives.

General Mills and Kraft began to sell the idea of convenience to Americans through commercials and advertising. Canned food, frozen T.V. dinners, prepared meals and fast food became a regular part of normal day-to-day life. Simplicity, efficiency and instant gratification became a way of life. Less and less time was devoted to cooking and more time was devoted to pursuing life outside the home. This trend continues today, even when the men came home from war, women continued to work outside the home and more often homes had two working parents. Today, there are many two working parent families, as well as single-parent families

The average American spends 27 minutes a day prepping and cooking their food that will fuel the rest of their day. Compared to the 240 minutes spent watching television and the 419 sleeping, it is a small percentage. Food is the foundation for how we live and fuel our lives, cooking is time well spent.

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In Michael Pollan’s 2009 New York Times article, Out of the Kitchen, Onto the Couch he says that “the average person spends just 27 minutes a day on food preparation,” while further research shows the average American watches 4 hours of television a day. People watch more television about cooking than they actually spend in the kitchen cooking. It’s because entertainment television has made cooking a sport. The truth is that people love food, but aren’t willing or prepared to actually cook the food they so desire. This isn’t due to a lack of wanting, but due to a lack in skill and experience.


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c h a p t e r background

HOURS IN A DAY

5

REASONS TO COOK

COOKING IS EASY

Many people don’t cook because they don’t know how. But the reality is that cooking isn’t rocket science or it wouldn’t have been passed down for thousands of years. Cooking can be simple, done with few ingredients. The best part about it is that there are recipes to aid the chef, but cooking is flexible and adaptable to any ingredient and time frame. Not to mention, with cooking at home you don’t need a PhD in Biochemistry to understand the ingredients. COOKING IS GREEN

With cooking, people have the power to choose. Cooking with local, fresh ingredients produces less waste and uses less fuel than eating processed or prepared foods. You have the power to cut down on your carbon footprint with the small choices you make. COOKING IS HEALTHY

When dining out or eating processed foods, ingredients and portions are left by the wayside, often forgotten or ignored. Research shows that people consume 50% more calories, fat and sodium when they eat out than when they cook at home (Liz Szabo, USA Today). By cooking you can take control over what you put in your body. America is wrought with obesity. One way to fight obesity is to maintain a healthy diet, learning to cook one's own food can make an impactful change.

4% OVERWEIGHT YOUTH IN U.S. (1959)

32% OVERWEIGHT YOUTH IN U.S. (2012)

28 % OVERWEIGHT ADULTS IN U.S. (1979)

68% OVERWEIGHT ADULTS IN U.S. (2012)

COOKING IS CHEAP

27

MIN

240

MIN

COOKING & EATING WATCHING TV

754

MIN

WORK & LEISURE

419

MIN

SLEEPING

People often assume that eating out is cheaper than staying at home, especially for one or two people but research shows that is not the case. Research shows that dining out is more costly than eating in when all costs are considered (time, gas, money, etc.). By cooking at home, you have the power to spend what you want. COOKING IS SOCIAL

It’s no secret that people love food and eating, our culture is obsessed with food, most social gatherings involve food. By cooking, you become an instant entertainer, educator, and enthusiast. It is one of the few things in life that offer instant gratification, making cooking is entirely relevant today. page 0 2 1


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I would get a frozen McDonald’s hamburger in my lunch bag. I always crossed my fingers that it would thaw in time for lunch. Needless to say no one ever traded their snack pack with me.

I STARTED COOKING TO SAVE MY MOM’S LIFE

If you would have asked me ten years ago whether I would have

In eighth grade, my world came crashing down with the news that

ever pictured myself as a “cook”, my response would have likely

my mom had cancer. It was the first time that I realized what you

been a definitive, “Never!” I didn’t choose to start cooking, I started

put in your body affects your health. Over the course of a few

cooking to save my mom’s life. It sounds dramatic, I know, but I

months, our eating and cooking habits as a family changed

really did.

drastically. My brothers and I banded together, taking the task of

I grew up in a house with five brothers and a single mom. Processed food was the norm in our house. Our daily brown bag lunches often consisted of some pretty odd items. For example, my mom would head over to McDonald’s on Sunday nights, buy the maximum amount of $0.29 cent hamburgers, freeze them and place them in our lunch bags during the week, hoping that they would thaw by lunchtime. Needless to say, no one ever traded their Snack Pack with me.

This was taken on my on my first day of culinary school. My chef coat was clean and pristine—that didn’t last long. One of my life goals is to complete culinary school, just for my own personal enrichment.

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cooking dinner into our own hands. We were ill-prepared to cook, but we learned because we had to. What we got out of it, besides a few burnt meals here and there, was a tight knit family and the miraculous healing of my mother. What I’ve learned through my experiences is that life isn’t simple, but that doesn’t mean that you should give up simply because the future is uncertain or you don’t know how to do it.


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02

RESEARCH

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“ NO ONE IS BORN A GREAT COOK, ONE LEARNS BY DOING.” J U L I A C H I L D American Chef, author and television personality; pioneer of home cooking

LISTENING TO NON-COOKS

The first step in any design project is to define the problem. The second step is to develop the problem, the issues surrounding it and to interact with your audience. Design isn’t always about designing a cool piece simply because you want to. Designing something for the sake of design isn’t really design at all, it’s art. The difference between art and design is that design always has a client, someone dictating the problem and driving the solutions. For my thesis, the client was the most difficult one I’ve ever dealt with—me. I am my own worst critic, so I leaned quite a bit on my audience for feedback. I listened to them and what they wanted to see, what they would use and how they would interact with it. Through my research I defined the problem—the decline in cooking at home. The second phase of research I targeted an audience and mapped out a plan to solve the problem. Of course, like everything in life, plans fall through, so I learned to improvise.

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WHEN THE GOING GETS TOUGH The tough gets...written down in a moleskin, pondered over, doodled over and recorded. I carried a journal with me everywhere I went—in case I heard something I needed to jot down, saw something I needed to sketch, or simply to write down notes when inspiration came to me. I filled six journals, but surely I could have continued to fill them with all my findings as long as I cook.

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Martha Stewart Magazine

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PHOTO CREDIT

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I want to demystify the cooking process for timid, beginning home cooks—ultimately getting them comfortable cooking.

ABSTRACT

With the decline in home cooking amongst twenty and thirty somethings in America today, Counter Intuition hopes to reach a vulnerable audience. There are many who do cook and we hope that they would join in this movement to help the non-cooks, but the population that doesn’t know how to cook doesn’t know where to start. Counter Intuition is a place for them to start, by recognizing and empathizing with them, the seemingly insurmountable task of learning to cook is achievable by sharing and showing the paths of others like them. There is a barrier of entry into the kitchen that is intimidating. Counter Intuition aims to break down that wall. Cooking shows are great, but they’re for entertainment, not for teaching. Cooking classes take time and money, of which this population doesn’t tend to have much in excess. And beautiful books full of hero-shot images are lovely to look at, but not what the beginning cook needs. They need to know that they’re not alone in this and that they can do it.

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We’ve realized the generation missing in the kitchen—so now, many efforts are being made to educate children about their food. Seniors have habits in place and Chefs’ expertise far exceed the level of “novice”and therefore are not part of the audience.

My audience is not children because there are many efforts being made to reach them now. I am not trying to change the life-long habits of older generations, they often already have the skills. And I am not trying to teach seasoned chefs how to cook. These people may benefit from the solutions but it is not intended for their use or interaction. page 0 3 2


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TARGETING NOVICE HOME COOKS

Cooking is a huge topic, so by narrowing it down not only to the problem, but specifically to those that could and should benefit from the designed solutions, my thesis became much clearer. When doing research on the decline in cooking, it’s true that the decline initially occurred with our grandparents’ generation, but they still generally have the skills to cook. The expertise and knowledge was passed down from generation to generation and they have their way of doing things. Today, the population that is missing from the kitchen is twenty and thirty something American adults. Whether it’s because of a lack of knowledge, fear of failure or limited time available, this population needs (and wants) help in the kitchen. Cooking is a universal language, so how did we miss the boat? That was for me to find out.

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AN OPPORTUNITY ARISES AN AUDIENCE THAT’S READY TO CHANGE

I could have chosen to work with the population that was already cooking. In my research, the people already cooking wanted to learn more. It goes to show, not only that there is always more to learn about cooking, but that once you start cooking, you want to continue cooking. Instead, I chose to work with a population much smaller—people who aren’t already cooking, and don’t know how. They are just as important to reach, if not more so. I asked every non-cook in my interviews and surveys if they wanted to learn to cook, and to my surprise, 96% of people who don’t cook wanted to learn to cook. Not only is there a population that isn’t be reached, they actually want to learn and are willing to give it a try. I found my audience.

10 %

10%

OF YOUNG PEOPLE DON’T COOK

BUT

96%

OF THOSE PEOPLE WANT TO LEARN

My research showed that in the twenty and thirty somethings in

Of the 10% interviewed above, a resounding 96% of people said

America today, 10% said that they don’t cook at all. Another 17%

that they would like to know how to cook and are willing to learn.

said that they “cook” one or two times a week, but their definitions

This was an astonishing turn of events for me in my research. I

of “cooking” did not align with the aforementioned definition.

assumed that if they weren’t cooking, they didn’t want to cook or

That’s 27% of people that I interviewed that aren’t cooking on a

had little to no interest in cooking. I thought I was going to be

regular basis at home.

reaching out to people who already knew how to cook.

Research was generated by multiple surveys. Total people who took the survey was 204. The answers provided were given in both written response as well as calculated from multiple choice answers.

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CHANGING TECHNOLOGY WHAT A DIFFERENCE A YEAR MAKES

As any thesis should evolve over the course a of a year, my research showed how my audience wants to learn to cook and interacting in the kitchen is changing—and rapidly. Just under a year before, computers and cookbooks were the forerunners in what people generally use as a cooking reference in the kitchen. Not even a year later the same population was questioned and the responses were amazing. With the introduction of Apple’s personal assistant, Siri, and the ipad HD with increased photo and video capacity, the usage of mobile devices more than doubled making them the forerunner in how people want to learn to cook in the kitchen. The deliverables and design had to adapt and change with my audience’s changing needs.

SURVEY: SEPTEMBER

2011 71%

COOKBOOK

82%

COMPUTER

17%

TV IPHONE IPAD

22%

13%

SURVEY: JUNE

2012 32%

COOKBOOK COMPUTER TV

10%

IPHONE IPAD

25%

65% 73%

The same survey that was used in September of 2011 was given to the same audience as the first survey. The vast difference in results is the result of our culture, the quickly advancing technology in our daily lives and the widespread use of smart phone and tablet devices.

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DIFFERENT LEARNERS PREFERRED METHOD OF LEARNING

MEETING THE NEEDS OF DIFFERENT LEARNERS

READING INSTRUCTIONS

61%

There are three main categories of learners, visual learners, audito-

PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS

61%

mation visually through word and pictures while auditory learners

HANDS-ON EXPERIENCE

ry learners, and kinesthetic learners. Visual learners take in inforlearn best by listening to instructions. Kinesthetic learners learn

66%

best by doing and putting what they’re seeing and/or hearing into practice. In general each individual learns best in one category,

38%

VIDEO

but they can learn and take in information in multiple ways. Karen Hamilton wrote about the different ways to reach and educate people in the different learning groups (seen below). I performed my own research to see how my audience would best learn how to cook and found that it was pretty split, meaning that I would have to teach my audience using multiple teaching techniques and methods. I wanted to initially do a printed book, but as seen here, that would only reach about a third of the population. My horizons were expanded as well as my expectations for myself.

36%

23 %

41%

VISUAL LEARNERS

AUDITORY LEARNERS

KINESTHETIC LEARNERS

(SEE)

(HEAR)

(TOUCH)

Provide written materials and exercises

State the information

Demonstrate how a principle works

Write key words on board or flip chart

Ask audience to describe specific info

Ask them to practice the technique

Ask them to write a response

Provide discussion periods

Encourage underlining & highlighting key words

Use visuals or graphics

Encourage questions

Provide real-life simulations

Ask them to take notes in a group

Foster small group participation

Offer hands-on activities

Involve them through visual/spatial sense

Utilize audiovisuals and audio technology

Involve them physically

Video instruction

FORMATS FOR LEARNING

Printed materials

Video instruction

(including books, flashcards, posters, etc.)

In person, hands-on instruction

In person, hands-on instruction

Video instruction

Community (online & in-person)

Community (online & in-person)

Illustration & Photos

At-home practice

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A CUSTOMER’S JOURNEY TOUCH POINTS AT EVERY STEP ALONG THE WAY

INSPIRE

By focusing on the customer’s journey and really looking at my

Non-cook is contemplating learning how to cook but doesn’t know where to begin NEEDS:

project from their perspective, I was able to define the needs of

reasons to cook encouragement specific guidance hands-on experience

the beginning cook along their path to the kitchen. There are six main steps for the novice cook from thinking about cooking all the way to the finished meal. First, they need inspiration to get them to want to cook. Next, they need motivation to push them to actually take the plunge. Then they need a bit of guidance and then they need to be equipped, and educated so that they can finish the meal and get to the point that they want to share their

MOTIVATE

process with others. In order for this project to be successful, each of these needs will need to be addressed. The icon is circular

Take home piece, reads through and determines that they want to cook NEEDS:

because the process of cooking doesn’t go in a straight line, but

more information equipment tell them how to do something

rather it goes in a circular motion. Each cook starts back at the beginning with each meal, always with something new to learn and something to share.

GUIDE

Purchases equipment & ingredients and goes home and has recipe they want to cook NEEDS: reminder about details timer / sous-chef instructions

EQUIP

They’ve set up their kitchen, and are ready to start cooking at home on their own NEEDS: mise en place get equipment ready on hand help shopping list quantity calculator alternatives/substitutions

EDUCATE

They hit a snag while cooking and don’t know what to do, need assistance NEEDS: on-hand help reference guide troubleshooting options

SHARE

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People wanted to share what they were cooking—beyond the table. My audience was speaking loud and clear, what they really wanted was to be connected to the greater cooking community.

AUDIENCE PARTICIPATION & FEEDBACK

Being that my thesis is all about food and getting people into the kitchen, I had a very eager and active audience. Not all were eager to cook, but all were eager to taste. Throughout the process and research I challenged people in my audience to cook. I designed a personal recipe using inspiration from the form and function of an IKEA furniture guide and asked them to try it. The results were astounding! If I had any doubts about my audience wanting to learn to cook, they vanished with this challenge. At first they only shared their successes and failures with me, but I started seeing these people in my audience post cooking process photos on Facebook and Instagram. People wanted to share what they were cooking, beyond the table. I realized that what was needed, in addition to print pieces, was a connection to the greater cooking community. My audience was speaking loud and clear, thus my designed deliverables had to change with their desires and needs.

The photos on the left were submitted by my audience members who willingly took on the cooking challenges. They were asked to take a photo of the ingredients, of the prep before cooking (getting them in the habit of prepping before starting to cook), cooking process, and a shot of the final dish. The responses were so fun to receive and people were inspired to keep cooking. page 0 4 1


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DESIGN EXPLORATION

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“ IN THE ABSTRACT ART OF COOKING, INGREDIENTS TRUMP APPLIANCES, PASSION SUPERSEDES EXPERTISE, CREATIVITY TRIUMPHS OVER TECHNIQUE, SPONTANEITY INSPIRES INVENTION, AND WINE MAKES EVEN THE WORST CULINARY DISASTER TASTE DELICIOUS.” B O B B L U M E R Chef, author and Food Network host

VISUAL RESEARCH & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Exploration is one of the most important parts of design, but usually it’s done behind closed doors for no one else to see. Prototyping and exploration shape a project, its deliverables, and helps to get feedback from users. The reason it is so important is that it shows the behind the scenes work that builds the framework of any project. People love to watch the “behind the scenes” of films. This may not be as exciting as explosion scenes gone wrong, but in the same vein, there are massive misses here as well as pieces of gold. As a designer, I’m a visual problem solver and I love to see process. I’m curious to know how things came to be whether it’s design, food or anything really. I love the conceptualizing and reasoning behind design. I journaled and kept record of my thoughts, process and decisions along the way. It’s therapeutic (and sometimes masochistic) to look back and see what I’ve gone through. The following pages shaped my design direction.

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VISUAL PALETTE AND INSPIRATION

I had a vision for my thesis when it began, but of course, like any project that develops over an extended period of time, it changed. Initially I was inspired by the gorgeous food blogs like Sprouted Kitchen, Food52, 101 Cookbooks and What Katie Ate, imagining my entire thesis being comprised of carefully crafted and shot food photography. That is well and all, and it could have been just as successful with it, but after some research I found that not everyone responded well to the hero shot images because they are lofty and often unrealistic for the beginning cook. It is important for my audience to have small, digestible pieces that are simple and easy to understand. The visual voice that I developed for Counter Intuition is friendly, engaging, personable and lighthearted. The tone of voice I developed is jovial, witty and straightforward. The combination of the two, as seen in the inspirational imagery on the right (not my own work or photography) inspired the direction I went.

The images on the right were gathered in the first stage of my visual research. These photos were some of the ones that rose to the top because of the look and feel, the voice and the composition.

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FINDING THE RIGHT VISUAL VOICE

Finding the right visual voice for a project takes time, and quite a bit of trial and error. I printed out look and feel pieces for my audience to see how they reacted to them. It was important for my audience to be involved in the design process because they are the ones who would be using it. In order for the project to be successful, the pieces would have to be useful, efficient and easy to follow. I couldn’t have found the right visual voice without the constant interaction and feedback from my audience.

The pieces on the left are snapshots of work, typesetting, composition and style. Each of the pieces were presented to audience members for them to give feedback on how easy it is to follow and what is visually pleasing.

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USER FEEDBACK The utility guide is a great example of the rounds of revisions that went into the design and organization of information. Starting with a hand-drawn version and then moving to a photo heavy style— the voice wasn’t consistent. By creating a seamless integration of both illustration and photography the system is approachable, realistic, and youthful.

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40

HOURS FOR

2

MINUTES

The two minute video may seem like it was simple to create, but it actually took hours upon hours to create. The filming alone took 8 hours, not counting the editing. Prior to the shoot there was planning and design of the packaging and the printed pieces as well as the props and set up. (To see the process of making the video, see page 55)

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FILMING A SHORT VIDEO Here are a few process shots of the video shoot for the Taco Video. A visual recipe, and another way to reach the visual and auditory learners. The filming took about 8 hours, while the prep took countless hours. A special thanks goes out to Eric Slatkin (videographer), Abby Stolfo (food stylist, see on left), Josh Gruetzmacher (photographer), Mary Lowe (friend & fellow designer), John & Kristin Walcott for the beautiful kitchen and home to cook in, and last but not least, a big thanks to my patient superhero husband for helping out wherever I needed. This couldn’t have happened without this amazing team.

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04

DESIGN SOLUTIONS

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“ GIVE A MAN A FISH, YOU HAVE FED HIM FOR A DAY. TEACH A MAN TO FISH, AND YOU HAVE FED HIM FOR A LIFETIME.” ANCIENT CHINESE PROVERB

DESIGN SOLUTIONS

After seeing my process, I’m sure it comes as no shock that there are final pieces that look a whole lot better than the scribbles in my notebook. The process of prototyping helped me to resolve issues I was having. One thing I learned and put into practice during this stage was how important it is to print things out and interact with the pieces—really feel and play with the product, making changes to it and ultimately making it better. The following pages hold the final designed deliverables. The objective was to get my audience into the kitchen, make them feel comfortable and to get them cooking. There wasn’t a single piece or answer to the puzzle, but an integrated system that involves deliverables ranging from printed pieces, to packaging design, brand strategy, and interactive design. Each of the pieces corresponds to a specific need that the audience had along the customer journey (see page 38 and 39 for the customer journey description description).

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IDENTITY SKETCHES

The process of creating an identity that fit my concept as well as the visual voice that I developed took months. There were a few “final” (or so I thought) marks. Initially I thought that “Counter” should be in handwriting because everyone has a different experience at their counter, while “Intuition” should be in a sans serif hairline typeface because it is aloof, hard to see and austere. It wasn’t until I realized that intuition was really the part that is different for everyone that I needed to redesign the logo in orderC OtoU Nhave in a more approachable typeface and T E R “Counter” COUNTER COUNTER

COUNTER

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“Intuition” in a unique and variable style.

COUNTER The sketchbooks on the left are a mere glimpse of the handwritten

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counter COUNTER

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COUNTER version of both words. I filled an entire Moleskin journal (number COUNTER

COUNTER

four) with identity scribbles, C Osketches U N T and E Rwritings. The computer generated, and more refined directions below were taken from the COUNTER COUNTER counter counter sketchbooks and made into counter vector images. COUNTER

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TYPOGRAPHY SYSTEM Archer

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LOGO CLEAR SPACE

MINIMUM LOGO SIZE

The clearspace around the logo is the cushion, around which, nothing should come into contact. The clearspace allows for breathing room of the mark and should never be violated.

The minimum size of the logo should never go below 0.25inches in height (and 1.72in width). This is set to preserve the complexity of the logo and to ensure readability at all times.


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MEANING OF A MARK “Counter� is set in Archer, a friendly and approachable typeface. The kitchen counter is the intimidating place for non-cooks, so by starting with a friendly and inviting face, the mark is off to a good start. Intuition is hand written because intuition varies according to each individual, based on their prior knowledge and experience. Intuition is fluid, rhythmic and calming.

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ILLUSTRATION STYLE

Inspired by many different illustrations, fine art, cartoons, writing and styles, I developed my own style of illustrations for my thesis. In my research I found that people learned from photos, but often were intimidated by them because they were so perfect and often their own results looked nothing like the photo. And it’s not their fault, more often than not, the photos that they see in magazines, on TV or elsewhere had a professional stylist and chef preparing a picture perfect meal, and they had multiple chances to create the “perfect image”. By introducing illustration into the visual system it added an element of playfulness, imperfection and youthfulness. Cook’s illustrated does a good job with their audience, but they are not reaching the youth of America because the tone of voice is too serious and difficult to get into. By using both illustraion and photography, the system was flexible and could be molded to the application. Some pieces would only require illustrations to tell the story, while some instances call for photography to tell the story.

The sketches in one of my sketchbooks on the left was the initial stage of the illustrations. I began by asking my audience what they had on their kitchen counter and started drawing a library of things found on kitchen counters. The illustrations above are the finalized vector drawings used throughout the design pieces. page 0 6 5


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INSPIRE

COOKING TIPS & TRICKS

A cliffnotes® for cooking—insider trades, secrets and tips to avoid culinary disasters in the kitchen.

25 THINGS NO ONE TOLD YOU ABOUT COOKING

This piece was created to focus solely on illustration and a witty tone of voice. In order to reach the timid home cooks, easing the tension and allowing them to laugh before even stepping foot in the kitchen, this small book offers advice, tips and loads of playful illustrations and personality. This book isn’t a cookbook but a cheat sheet for every home cook’s kitchen.

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USER-BASED CONTENT The content of this book was not just my own response but words from the larger community of home cooks. I asked people who cook already, what they wished they had known when they were just starting out in the kitchen. I got quite a few responses, some of them a bit too colorful for this book, but insightful nonetheless. A special thanks to all those that responded and inspired the book.

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INSPIRE

INSPIRATIONAL REMINDERS

Inspirational quotes to encourage home cooks to always take chances, to enjoy the process, and to laugh at themselves.

INSPIRATIONAL POSTERS

It can be hard to remember when you’re in the midst of cooking a meal that the process is enjoyable. It’s important to surround oneself with things that remind them that there is joy in the process, and that it’s just cooking. By having posters, postcards and other inspiration materials, you’ll be laughing at yourself in no time.

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Julia Child | P I O N E E R O F H O M E C O O K I N G

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Truman Capote | A M E R I C A N W R I T E R


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Gwyneth Paltrow | A C T R E S S S & H O M E C O O K

Harriet Van Honre | A M E R I C A N J O U R N A L I S T

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OCT 15 2010 4 C A.

O SC

ANCI  FR SAN

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BE INSPIRED. LEARN. SHARE. For twenty and thirty-somethings, cooking at home has become rare. Whether it’s due to a lack of knowledge, fear of failure, or lack of time, the population is largely absent in the kitchen. Counter Intuition is a graphic design thesis project that aims to demystify cooking by creating tools that are intuitive, approachable, and fun for the novice home cook. Post this inspirational quote where you will see it often. When you see it, remember that you are not alone in this

MAIL TO:

place postage here

Julia Child | P I O N E E R O F H O M E C O O K I N G

Gwyneth Paltrow | A C T R E S S S & H O M E C O O K

Truman Capote | A M E R I C A N W R I T E R

journey of cooking and that thousands of others like you are learning the same thing you are. Be inspired, learn to cook and share with others by downloading our app from the app store, visit our website for more information.

A great way to share your enthusiasm of cooking is to send snail mail, also known as a postcard. Everyone loves to get mail, and even better when it’s something you can proudly hang on the front of your fridge as a reminder of the inspiration and love for cooking.

Katie King Rumford | G R A P H I C D E S I G N E R

Copyright © 2012 Katie King Rumford www.counterintuitionproject.com

POSTCARDS

Harriet Van Honre | A M E R I C A N J O U R N A L I S T

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MOTIVATE

TOOLS OF THE TRADE

Every new cook needs to fill their kitchen. Whether they’re starting from scratch and need tools and utensils or they have the basics and need some help filling in the blanks, Counter Intuition’s packaging line offers something for everyone and for every need.

TOWELS, NAPKINS AND APRONS, OH MY!

Every cook has to start somewhere, so why not start by filling your kitchen with pieces that inspire and inform you. Whether you’re in need of appliances or utensils, aprons or ingredients, Counter Intuition has the piece for you. If you have what you need but want to branch out, there are pieces for you too.

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area, great for all sizes of things needed to be cut. The blade tends to be heavy to hold, so it is important to know how to properly hold your knife. The Chef’s knife is used for slicing and chopping needs, everything from large vegetables to meats, to a fine dice or brunoise, this knife can do it. If you don’t have a wide variety of knives, this is a must-have knife that can easily take the

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place of other knives if need be.

CHEF’S KNIFE

WHAT TO REMEMBER

• Slicing and chopping needs • A workhorse knife, a chef’s best friend • A must-have knife for every cook

T H E “ WO R K H O R S E ” K N I F E

BEER

BEER HEAD

TALL GLASS

PILSNERS ARE FOR LIGHTER BEERS POUR IN A PALE LAGER OR A PILSNER Pilsner glasses are great for holding lighter beers. This typically means “lighter” in regards to color, not so much the Light version of a beer, although you could pour a Bud Light in here to keep it classy. They shape is tall, slender and tapered at the top in order to show off the color of the beer, the carbonation (the bubbles have a long way to travel and more time to see it), as well as to hold in the head (or foam at the top) of a beer. To get a smaller head at the top, pour beer into a pilsner glass that is tilted about 45˚.

PILSNER

WHAT TO REMEMBER

• Pale Lager • Pilsner

TALL, SLENDER & TAPERED

SETTING UP

WATER GLASS

PLACE SETTINGS VARY BY OCCASION WATER GLASS BREAD & BUTTER

WHITE WINE

DON’T BE INTIMIDATED BY THE TABLE RED WINE

Place settings can be quite complex or super simple, it really depends on what you want and how you want your guests to feel. Silverware doesn’t have to be different sizes if you don’t have it and glasses don’t have to be different shapes if you don’t have them, just make sure that you and your guests have what you need and that’s all there is to it. The water or main wine glass should sit between the plate and the knife. Glassware should form a 45˚ line over the plate and silverware. This way people won’t get confused with whose glass is whose.

FOLDED NAPKIN

And remember, when it comes to silverware, always work from the outside to the inside (salad fork to dinner fork, etc.).

PLACE SETTING CASUAL & FORMAL

WHAT TO REMEMBER

• Place settings can be set up any way you want • Work your way from the outside in

PA N T R Y

WHAT MAKES A MEXICAN DISH SO FLAVORFUL EARTHY, SPICY AND SALTY Mexican food has an amazing depth of flavor made with simple ingredients. The tortillas is a simple vessel that can hold many different types of food and dishes (tacos, burritos, enchiladas, etc.). Beans and rice are also Mexican food staples. When it comes to spices that really make a dish taste like it was made in Mexico, key flavors profiles are spicy, earthy (or savory) and salty. Key spices and ingredients include fresh cilantro, oregano, cumin, cinnamon, cocoa, chili powder (and whole chilies), salt and pepper. Other key ingredients include citrus (limes are most popular in adding some zing), onions and garlic.

MEXICAN PANTRY STAPLES

FLASHCARDS & RECIPE CARDS Two sets of flashcards offer insight and assistance in the kitchen. Stuck and don’t know what to do? The flashcards can help. Need inspiration for a recipe? Check out the recipe cards. There are also blank cards so that you can add and share your own recipes and store them in the custom shaped box.

WHAT TO REMEMBER

• Spicy, salty and savory • Cilantro, oregano, cumin, cinnamon, chilies

TOOLS & UTENSILS

SHARP TOOTHED EDGE LONG THIN BLADE

YOUR BEEFED UP BREAD KNIFE ALSO GREAT FOR SLICING TOMATOES The serrated knife often gets overlooked in the kitchen because calling it the “bread knife” makes it sounds pretty limited. But have you ever tried to cut bread with a nonserrated knife? Not so easy, is it? That’s why this knife is a must have in every kitchen. Another helpful use for the serrated knife (or toothed knife) is to cut tender (or not) tomatoes. The fine teeth of the knife can cut through rough surfaces like it’s butter, but also be gentle on paper thin surfaces like tomatoes, so make sure to make use of this knife and keep it sharp.

SERRATED KNIFE THE BREAD KNIFE

WHAT TO REMEMBER

• Bread slicer • Perfect for slicing tender tomatoes • A must-have knife for every cook

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ALL-PURPOSE WOODEN UTENSILS The branded wooden utensils are an essential kitchen item. These are eco-friendly, made from organic bamboo, they’re durable, sturdy, and the more stains the better they look, so get cooking!

MUST-HAVE SPICES The packaged spices are a must-have in any kitchen. These can set a cook free or intimidate them if they let them. The idea is to experiment, and use the guide inside on flavor profiles, how to use and mix the spices and new recipes to try.

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MISE EN PLACE BOWLS The nested mise en place bowls have specially designed numbers on the side and bottom that match up with the recipe cards. Place specific ingredients in specific numbered bowls and think no more. Inspired by paint by numbers, this system allows for simple prep and set up, and even simpler application.

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GUIDE

REDESIGNING A RECIPE

It boggles my mind that people are confident in their ability to build IKEA furniture but say they can’t cook. By rethinking the format of a recipe with a combination of words, photo and illustration, anyone who can build furniture can cook.

A VISUAL RECIPE THAT UNFOLDS AS YOU COOK

Recipes are great, but for some, simply reading instructions isn’t enough. By rethinking the form of a recipe and going back to the basic need and desire of the home cook, this piece was created. Inspired by IKEA’s furniture building instructions, simple drawings help to break down the complex process of cooking and simplifies it. It also references the paint by number inspiration and partners with the mise en place bowls.

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STARTER RECIPE The starter recipe for tacos is a great example of the IKEA inspired form and function. The illustrations demonstrate the cooking process while the images are used to show the beginning and end. The photos are highlighted photos from users.

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START WITH SHOPPING By starting with shopping, the user has the ability to take this with them, write on it, cross it off and use it as a shopping list. They also have access to their grocery list on the app (more to come on this later).

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EASY TO FOLLOW GUIDE The cooking process is broken down into step-bystep illustrations. The bold word encapsulates the summary of the step while the secondary text and illustrations further illustrate the process. The map on the upper right side (middle image) is a set up for your kitchen counter—a play on the paint by number instructions, that are intuitive for my audience.

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STARTER KIT UTILITY GUIDES The starter kit has a variety of recipes that are easy to follow, and even easier to make your own and share. Covering the basics that every home cook can master: drinks, tacos, pasta, pizza and cake, it's a perfect place to start.

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EQUIP

A VISUAL RECIPE VIDEO

Capturing the act of cooking on film is no easy task. By working with a videographer, food stylist and photographer we were able to make the seemingly impossible a reality. Art directing a short film was in experience in and of itself.

A VIDEO: MORE THAN MEETS THE EYE

This piece was created in order to meet the needs of visual learners as well as kinesthetic learners. The video format is an interactive piece that shows cooking from a different perspective. This is a two minute video—a how to make chicken tacos— that I directed and cooked in. There were many hands in the kitchen helping out on this piece of the project.

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WATCH THE VIDEO ONLINE

https://vimeo.com/53715392

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EDUCATE

HANDS-ON LEARNING

For the kinesthetic learner, having hands-on action was key. By offering classes to practice skills, learn new techniques, try out new equipment and gather with the larger cooking community, home cooks were able to take what they learned from a community setting to their own kitchen.

+ PARTNERING WITH FORAGE SF FOR CLASSES

Anyone who is in the restaurant business knows the exhaustive list of kitchen equipment needed to provide a safe, sanitary and educational kitchen setting. By partnering with Iso Rabins and ForageSF, Counter Intuition was able to offer classes to learn new skills, try out new equipment and techniques and ultimately to gather with the larger cooking community to encourage and pay forward cooking knowledge.

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PAY-IT-FORWARD CLASS Partnering with ForageSF’s new community kitchen, we were able to do a trial run using our packaging, our products, and printed materials to get some great feedback and to put it into use. Experienced cooks educated the new home cooks using the visual recipe utility guide. We used a pay-it-forward type of method to encourage community building and relationship building. We had each participant (experienced and non) use their mobile devices to share their process and products. It was fun to see the variation in the recipe, and each shared their meal with others to share what they did and learn what they could do differently next time.

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SHARE

SHARING TECHNOLOGY

In the technology-driven world we live in today, it was paramount to providing platforms for online and mobile device use is paramount. In order to connect and share with the cooking community at large, an app and website were designed to keep home cooks inspired, teach them a few new things and allow them to share with the world.

AN INTEGRATED INTERACTIVE EXPERIENCE

By creating an app that acts as a sous chef, your best friend, your mom, and grandmother in the kitchen, you feel right at home cooking. Share your cooking process, see the process of others, cook their recipes and create your own. The online gallery has thousands of recipes and even more photos of the recipe process to help you out with any questions or concerns you might have. Get connected and and cooking!

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WEBSITE A website for checking in, documenting and tracking your cooking process, a live cooking feed to see what others are cooking up. See recipes and download visual recipes, videos and more.

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A FOOD-SHARING PLATFORM

Think of Counter Intuition’s app like an Instagram meets FoodSpotting but for the sole use of sharing home cooked meals. There is no rating, no pressure to perform. It is a photo-sharing platform for home cooks. Instantly users can see what others are cooking, follow links to recipes, see the cooking process of the same recipes, maintain personal recipe libraries, have access to tips, tricks, videos, and most importantly share what you’re cooking. By partnering with Instagram, we immediately have access to their millions of users who are already comfortable with their photo-sharing platform. Our app not only lets you see what others are doing, but you can record video as well as images with Instagram’s new technology. This is a way to not only share what you are doing, but how you are doing it. Imagine an app where other cooks answer your cooking questions by their process pictures. Wonder what your chicken is supposed to look at a certain point? Compare it to the process photos of other cooks who did the same recipe. Record your findings and results for others to see and learn from.

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05 IMPACT

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“ INVEST IN WHAT’S REAL. CLEAN AS YOU GO. DRINK WHILE YOU COOK. MAKE IT FUN. IT DOESN’T HAVE TO BE COMPLICATED.” G W Y N E T H P A L T R O W Actress, singer and adventurous home cook

PEOPLE ARE COOKING AT HOME

Throughout the entirety of my thesis I have been fortunate enough to see change happening in people's lives. I know people who didn't know how to cook and were afraid to make toast‚ and now they're cooking at home on a regular basis. By giving people challenges and a goal to work towards, along with a nudge of encouragement, they can achieve more than they think they can. I found that people often underestimate themselves when it comes to cooking. And for no real reason other than they don't know how. My thesis has impacted people's lives in ways that I have been able to see, but I hope that my thesis continues to impact and motivate people to get in the kitchen and cook. I want people to be unafraid and unashamed when it comes to cooking, because we all come to the counter for a first time and we all know what it's like to take that first step into the unknown. But it's worth it. And here are people that can vouch for that.

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PEOPLE ARE SHARING Some home cooks were been able to experiment, share and join the larger community of cooks simply by posting pictures of their home cooked meals with their custom profiles and using the Counter Intuition app. The photos sparked interest, started culinary conversations, were the beginning of meals and brought people together.

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USER TESTIMONIES

A THESIS WORTH SHARING

“ Your kitchen wisdom actually makes me want to try cooking. Who knows, I might fall in love.” SHANNON KAVLICH Novice home cook, lover of adventure and all things chocolate

“ I absolutely need one of those posters for my kitchen. It is a must have item.” JO CLANCY Novice home cook, food lover, vintage kitchen collector

“ This app has genius written all over it. Having a platform only for home cooking is awesome. I would absolutely use it! DAVE LOMAS Novice home cook, fabulous public speaker, afraid of food processors

TACO EXPLORATION The photos on the left are from some of my audience members who took on the "taco challenge". These are the images that they shared with me of their beginnings, process and end. The photos speak for themselves—people have started cooking at home and my thesis is what spurred them on and encouraged them to continue on their culinary adventure.

“ Want those postcards. Now!” SARA FORTE food blogger, lover of travels and cooking, fabulous home cook

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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“ IN NORMAL LIFE WE HARDLY REALIZE HOW MUCH MORE WE RECEIVE THAN WE GIVE, AND LIFE CAN'T BE RICH WITHOUT SUCH GRATITUDE. IT IS SO EASY TO OVERESTIMATE THE IMPORTANCE OF OUR OWN ACHIEVEMENTS COMPARED WITH WHAT WE OWE TO THE HELP OF OTHERS.” D I E T R I C H B O N H O E F F E R German theologian

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Countless people walked alongside me through this journey called a thesis, and each and every one of you know who you are. I am incredibly grateful for everything that you’ve done. There were times when I wanted to quit but I have the best support because you wouldn’t let me. You reminded me how hard I’ve been working and how close to the finish I was. My gratitude goes beyond a simple thank you. I am thankful for the work and comments that you contributed, but even more than that, I am thankful for each and every person that has surrounded me in support these last three and a half years. I’m thankful to be a part of a community that loves well, that encourages constantly and that believes in the goodness of people. I have been amazed by each of you and I can’t imagine my walk without you.

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TO MY BELOVED FAMILY (YOU ALWAYS BELIEVED)

My family is a rare breed. If you read the first chapter, you know a tiny portion of the story. There is so much more to them than I could share in this book. My family is large. We’re loud, competitive, supportive, we’re energetic, we’re emotional and we love each other unconditionally. We’re the best teammates you could ask for. I always knew I could call any one of you in distress and just hearing your voice would ease my fears and remind me that life isn’t about school­—life is about people and connecting with ones you love. I can never repay you for what you’ve done and how you’ve supported me, but know that I am forever grateful and if it’s even possible, I love each and every one of you more. TO MY FRIENDS (YOU CHALLENGED ME AND CHEERED ME ON)

I literally could not have done this without you. So much of what I was doing relied on participation and interaction with my peers. To Abby Stolfo for the amazing food styling. To Eric Slatkin for the fantastic video. To each and every one of you who participated in my many food escapades and testing. To John and Kristin Walcott for a beautiful house to shoot in. To my classmates—we made it out alive. Thanks to Mary Lowe, Whitney Clarke, Dara Weinberg, Carey Ordway and the countless others who sustained me. Cheers! TO MY ADVISORS & PROFESSORS (YOU GAVE ME GUIDANCE & WORDS OF WISDOM)

Jenny Ji, thanks for getting me started. Your words of encouragement and constant challenging, made me a stronger designer and a more passionate person. Chris Riggs, thank you for your eye and careful critiques. I hope this final project is a bit shocking from the last state you saw it. Gaston Yagmourian, I couldn’t have finished without you. You helped to keep me grounded when I was freaking out and you had the wisdom to tell me when something was good enough to move on. We crossed the finish line together and I’m forever grateful for your patience and imagination. Hunter Wimmer and Phil Hamlett, what can I say except thank you. You two have walked with me through school, you know my story, you know my work and somehow you believed in me. TO MY HUSBAND (MY BEST FRIEND & PARTNER IN CRIME)

Last but most definitely not least, thank you to my babe. I don’t know how you handled life with me these past three and a half years, but I’m forever grateful for you. You stood by my side, brainstormed with me, proofread work, gave me critiques (and I apologize if I didn’t heed your helpful advice), challenged me to keep going and to give it my best, you encouraged me and supported me. Thank you for being you and for loving me.

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Combining a love for food & design ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. copyright Š 2012 katie king rumford no portion of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner without prior written consent of katie king rumford.


Counter Intuition