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Fish ID Project By: Katie Blastos


Table of Contents Saltwater Fish

1. Clownfish 2. Angelfish 3. Marlin 4. Tuna 5. Flounder 6. Drum 7. Grouper 8. Zebra Shark 9. Barracuda 10. Bonefish 11. Bluefish 12. Parrotfish 13. Seahorse 14. Firefish 15. Remora 16. Picasso Fish 17. Moray Eel 18. Bluehead Wrasse 19. Puffer 20. Butterfly Fish 21. Powder Blue Tang 22. Bass 23. Reef shark 24. Yellow Tang 25. Tarpon 26. Wolf Herring 27. Manta Ray 28. Rainbow Trout 29. Longear Fish 30. Cleaner Fish 31. Thornback Ray 32. Fluffy Sculpin 33. Sandbar Shark 34. White Seabass 35. Pollock 36. Deepsea Stalkeye 37. Common Snook 38. Atlantic Salmon 39. Skipjack Tuna 40. Butterfly Ray 41. Sloan’s Fangfish

42. Striped Mullet 43. American Shad 44. Fangtooth 45. Leather Bass 46. Barramundi 47. Mandarin Fish 48. Atlantic Cod 49. Barrier Reef Fish 50. Alewife Freshwater Fish 1. Walleye 2. Yellow Madtom 3. Golfish 4. Oscar 5. Kissing Gourami 6. Burbot 7. Cardinal Tetra 8. Cichlids 9. Betta 10. Sheatfish 11. Common Carp 12. Talapia 13. Trout 14. Hatchetfish 15. Rainbow Darter 16. Macquarie Perch 17. Zebra Danio 18. Channel Catfish 19. Green Sunfish 20. Freshwater Drum 21. Fathead Minnow 22. Warpaint Shiner 23. Yellow Bullhead 24. Brook Stickleback 25. Longear Sunfish 26. White Bass 27. Creeper 28. Pimpleback 29. Razorback Sucker 30. Central Mudminnow 31. Rainbow Trout


32. Macquaria Perch 33. Silver Carp 34. Carpsucker 35. Brown Bullhead 36. Long nose Gar 37. Widemouth Blindcat 38. Bigmouth Bass 39. Central Stoneroller 40. Redear Sunfish 41. Alewife 42. River Blackfish 43. Ganges River Dolphin 44. Bloater 45. Smallmouth Bass 46. Bleeding Heart Tetra 47. Piranha 48. Kiyi 49. Chinook Salmon 50. Frontasa Cichlid Marine Invertebrates 1. Blackwater Brittle Star 2. Sea Cucumber 3. Box Jellyfish

4. Moon Jelly 5. Giant Clam 6. Sea Hare 7. Common Octopus 8. Sea Monkeys 9. Savigny’sBrittlestar 10. Ringed Anemone 11. Land Hermit Crab 12. Elkhorn Coral 13. Glass Sponge 14. Cushion Sea Star 15. Grooved Braincoral 16. Blue Crab 17. Nautilus 18. Portugese Man-of-War 19. Vampire Squid 20. American Lobster Freshwater Invertebrates 1. Freshwater Jelly 2. Eastern Grass Shrimp 3. Eastern Pearlshell 4. Salamander Mussel 5. Catspaw


Saltwater Fish


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 1

Common Name: Clownfish Scientific Name: Amphiprion Ocellaris Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacentridae

Geography / Habitat: They are found in the warm waters of the Pacific Ocean, the Red Sea, the  Indian Ocean and Australia’s Great Barrier Reef.  Clownfish live in sheltered reefs or in shallow  lagoons 

Life Strategy:  Clownfish lay eggs on any flat surface close to or under protection of their host  anemones.  Clownfish are protandrous hermaphrodites, meaning they are hatched as sexually  immature fry. As the fish age, they either morph into a male, a female, or remain sexually  immature.  If the female should die or be removed from the group, the most dominant male then  changes into a female, and the rest of the males move up a rank on the hierarchy.  A juvenile only  several months old can make the change from juvenile to male to female in as little as a month.    Food / Feed Strategy: Planktonic food such as zooplankton, copepods, and algae are the primary  source of food. Clownfish also feed on equal amounts of algae and animals, and sometimes eat  parasites off of their host anemones.  

• Body Form or Style: Compressiform • Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform • Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: http://www.fishlore.com/Wiki-ClownFish.htm http://tolweb.org/treehouses/?treehouse_id=3390


Title: Salt Water

Species #: 2

Common Name: French Angelfish Scientific Name: Pomacanthus paru Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacanthidae • Geography / Habitat: Angelfish are found along coral reefs along both sides of the Atlantic. In • the •Eastern are found in West Africa and Cape Verde Island, and in the Western BodyAtlantic, Form or they Style: compressiform Tropical Atlantic ranges from Florida and the Bahamas to Brazil. These fish live in coral reefs • Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform of shallow depths that provide covering and hiding places. • Mouth Position: terminal Life Strategy: Angelfish reach maturity at the age of 3.4 years. Reproduction is a pairCitation: spawning, egg-scattering process. The egg-filled female travels with the male to the surface http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pomacanthus_paru.html where both the eggs and sperm are released into the water. The eggs travel in floating plankton until the young are ready to swim down to the coral. Food / Feed Strategy: Young Angelfish feed on a mix of algae and detritus with occasional parasites, acquired from other fish. Adults mainly eat sponges, but also eat tunicates, gorgonians, hydroids, zoantharians and coral as alternative sources of food.

• • • • •

Body Form or Style: compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pomacanthus_paru.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 3

Common Name: Atlantic Blue Marlin Scientific Name: Makaira nigricans Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Vertebrata

Order: Perciformes

Family: Istiophoridae • Body Form or Style: Fusiform Geography BlueStyle: Marlin live mainly in the tropical and temperate waters of the • Swim/ Habitat: / Locomotion Thunniform Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Larvae are found in the tropical and subtropical waters of • Mouth Position: Terminal the western and central Pacific Ocean, south of Maldives Islands, around the Mascalene Islands, and off the south coasts of Java and Sumatra in the Indian Ocean. They are usually Citation: remaining far from land except where the continental shelf is narrow. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/pictures/Makaira_nigricans.html Life Strategy: The spawning season extends from July through October in the North Atlantic. In the Pacific Ocean, spawning occurs from December to January during the southern hemisphere’s summer. Sexual maturity is reached at 2-4 years of age. The eggs are bouyant in the water and drift until hatching with no parental care. Food / Feed Strategy: The numbers and types of species consumed vary, depending on the location and season. Fish is the most frequent prey, and can constitute up to 86% of the total volume of food consumed. They also eat squid.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/pictures/Makaira_nigricans.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 4

Common Name: Bluefin Tuna Scientific Name: Thunnus thynnus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinoptergii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scombridae Geography / Habitat: Bluefin tuna are distributed throughout the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in subtropical and temperate waters. They are found in both coastal and pelagic waters, and occupy depths from the surface to 1000 meters. They live in tropical, subtropical, and temperate • Body Form or Style: Fusiform waters. • Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal Life•Strategy: Bluefin tuna form spawning aggregations. Bluefin tuna migrate to either the Gulf of Mexico or the Mediterranean and form spawning aggregations. Females lay up to 10 million Citation: eggs each spawning period. Males fertilize the eggs as they are produced by the females. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Thunnus_thynnus.html Food / Feed Strategy: Bluefin tuna chase down their prey using their ability to swim at very high speeds. They can also use modified filter feeding to catch small, slow moving organisms. They have also been known to eat kelp. They eat fish, mollusks, crustaceans, marine invertebrates, and zooplankton.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Thunnus_thynnus.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 5

Common Name: Peacock Flounder Scientific Name: Bothus lunatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Pleuronectiformes

Family: Bothidae Geography / Habitat: Flounders live in the West Atlantic Ocean in both tropical and subtropical regions. They are found off the coasts of Florida, Bermuda, and down the coast of South America to Brazil. They live in clear oceanic waters on sand and rock bottoms, including coral reef environments. Life Strategy: One male mates with multiple females. On average, one male mates with 6 females. Males are defensive of their territory and the females within their territory, denying access to other males. Many small eggs are produced at once, and the survival rate is very low. Food / Feed Strategy: They are predators, mostly feeding on other fish. They also eat mollusks, aquatic crustaceans, other marine invertebrates, and algae

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/resources/Grzimek_fish/Pleuronectiformes/Bothus_lunatus. jpg/view.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 6

Common Name: Zebra Shark Scientific Name: Stegostoma Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Orectolobiformes

Family: Stegostomatidae Geography / Habitat: Zebra sharks live in the central, western and Indian Pacific oceans. This species is abundant in Australian coastal waters. Life Strategy: Females lay eggs, and are suspected to lay more than one egg at a time. There is no pronounced parental care in either eggs or newly hatched offspring. Newly fertilized eggs are laid on rocks at the bottom of reefs. From the time they hatch they are independent of their parents. • Body Form or Style: Fusiform • Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Food Strategy: Sharks mainly eat mollusks, crustaceans, and fish. They are fast • / Feed Mouth Position:Zebra Terminal swimmers and are capable of catching their prey by weaving in and out of the reefs. Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Stegostoma_fasciatum.html http://www.aqua.org/animals_zebrashark.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Stegostoma_fasciatum.html http://www.aqua.org/animals_zebrashark.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 7

Common Name: Black Drum Scientific Name: Pogonias cromis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Sciaenidae

Geography / Habitat: The Black Drum ranges from the Atlantic coasts of New England all the way to Mexico. They are usually found in areas with sandy or soft bottom, near oyster and clam beds. Life Strategy: They can spawn in bays, the Gulf, or estuaries and river systems when temperatures begin to rise in March and April. Drum eggs hatch within 24 hours, and reach sexual maturity after 2 years. The males chase the females and bump the sides of the female that causes the release of the female's eggs. Food / Feed Strategy: Young drums feed on maritime worms, small shrimp, and crabs and small fish. Larger drum eat small crabs, worms, algae, small fish and mollusks. Barbels (or whiskers) are used to find food by feel and smell.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/species/blackdrum/ http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pogonias_cromis.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 8

Common Name: Nassau Grouper Scientific Name: Epinephelus striatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Serranidae Geography / Habitat: They are found in the coastal waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Their range  stretches as far west as the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. Nassau groupers are most commonly  found in shallow water reefs, both natural and artificial.  Life Strategy: Nassau groupers congregate once a year at the edge of reef shelves in shallow water to spawn. They go to the same spawning sites every year. Interestingly, they change colors when they mate. Eggs hatch 23 to 48 hours after fertilization and mature slowly. The maximum age reported for this fish is 16 years. Food / Feed Strategy: Grouper quickly move their gills to create suction, that draws prey into their open mouths. They mainly eat fish, mollusks, aquatic crustaceans, and other marine invertebrates.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Epinephelus_striatus.html http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/gallery/descript/nassaugrouper/nassaugrouper.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 10

Common Name: Bonefish Scientific Name: Albula vulpes Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Albulidae Geography / Habitat: These fish are found in warm tropical waters from the southern coast of Florida, through the Bahamas and along the eastern coast of South America. Bonefish are found in varying water depths. • Body Form or Style: Fusiform Life•Strategy: happens every season in bonefish, and spawning mainly occurs Swim / Reproduction Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform from to late May or early June. They randomly mate, with eggs and sperm released • November Mouth Position: terminal into open water among other males and females. Females release their eggs, which are then fertilized externally by males in the immediate area as the eggs are released. After spawning, Citation: there is no parental care. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Albula_vulpes.html Food / Feed Strategy: Bonefish are predators and consume a variety of prey. They feed on many small mollusks and crustaceans in shallow water. Bonefish normally school, but break into smaller groups to feed.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Albula_vulpes.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 11

Common Name: Bluefish Scientific Name: Pomatomus saltatrix Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomatomidae Geography / Habitat: Bluefish are found in all oceanic and coastal waters except the eastern and northwest Pacific. Smaller bluefish live nearly year-round in estuaries and bays along the coasts. As they mature, they begin annual migrations. Life Strategy: Bluefish do not have characteristics to distinguish males from females. Spawning occurs primarily the continental shelf when water temperatures are warm. After • Body Formoffshore, or Style:over Fusiform hatching, larvae inhabit surface • Swim / Locomotion Style:waters Carangiform • Mouth Position: Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: Bluefish are only carnivorous, eating squid, shrimp, crabs, and fish, such as herring, atlantic mackeral, menhaden, spot, butterfish, and mullet. Bluefish will often first Citation: bite the tail off their prey, consume the food, will regurgitate, and will again eat http://www.cptdave.com/bluefish.html http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pomatomus_saltatrix.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.cptdave.com/bluefish.html http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pomatomus_saltatrix.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 12

Common Name: Queen Parrotfish Scientific Name: Scarus vetula Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Osteichthyes

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scaridae Geography / Habitat: These fish are found in the tropical coral reefs of the Caribbean and are, therefore, restricted to relatively shallow water. Found mainly in the back reef and fore reef zones Life•Strategy: Breeding occurs throughout the year, with mostly in the mornings. The Body Form or Style: Compressiform supermale spawns with an individual female by first swimming in circles around the females • Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform until female joins theTerminal supermale, and the gametes are released into the water. • the Mouth Position: Food / Feed Strategy: They scrape algae, preferably turf algae, that is on flat surfaces and coral Citation: from coral reefs with their unique beak. The parrotfish crush the coral and algae mixture and http://na.oceana.org/en/explore/marine-wildlife/queen-parrotfish excrete the indigestible sand http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Scarus_vetula.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://na.oceana.org/en/explore/marine-wildlife/queen-parrotfish http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Scarus_vetula.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 13

Common Name: Dwarf Seahorse Scientific Name: Hippocampus zosterae Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Syngnathiformes

Family: Syngnathidae Geography / Habitat: They are found in coastal waters of the western Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the continental shelf of the southeastern United States. DwarfForm Seahorses live in seagrass beds of shallow tropical waters, generally in areas • Body or Style: N/A where • eelgrass. Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A • Mouth Position: Terminal Life Strategy: Female seahorses can mate with additional partners during the pregnancy of their mate, but they refuse any partner but their own. Although male seahorses become Citation: pregnant, seahorses do not display sex role reversal. Males compete for access to a mate. Male http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hippocampus_zosterae.html seahorses carry the offspring in his brood pouch until they are ready to be released into the environment. Food / Feed Strategy: These Seahorses eat living prey, including small crustaceans such as amphipods, small shrimps, other small invertebrates, and fish fry. Seahorses are opportunistic hunters that sit until the prey is sighted, stretches toward the prey, and sucks it through snout.

• • •

Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hippocampus_zosterae.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 14

Common Name: Firefish Scientific Name: Pterois volitans Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Scorpaeniformes

Family: Scorpaenoidei Geography / Habitat: They are found near western Australia and Malaysia to the Marquesas Islands. Also, they are found near northern to southern Japan and southern Korea. They live on reefs. Life•Strategy: When are ready to reproduce, males turn darker and are more uniformly Body Form orlionfish Style: Globiform colored, and females become paler. Twelve hours after fertilization the embryo begins to form. • Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Within four days, the larvae are already good swimmers and are able to begin feeding. • Mouth Position: Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: Sunset is an optimal time to begin feeding because this is when activity in Citation: the coral reef is highest. The lionfish attacks with one swift gulping motion that sucks the prey http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pterois_volitans.html into its mouth. They eat mostly crustaceans and other fish.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pterois_volitans.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 15

Common Name: Remora Scientific Name: Remora Remora Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Echeneidae Geography / Habitat: Common in warmer parts of all oceans. Remoras are sometimes free swimming but are usually found attached to hosts such as sharks or marine mammals. Life Strategy: Spawning occurs during the spring and early summer. After being fertilized externally, the eggs develop a durable shell that keeps them from drying out even if they wash onto• theBody shore. Form or Style: • Swim / Locomotion Style: Food Strategy: generally feed on the parasites, usually copepods, but will also take • / Feed Mouth Position:They terminal any available small prey and leftover scraps. Citation: http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/blueplanet/factfiles/fish/remora_bg.shtml http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Remora_remora.html http://www.ehow.com/about_5455565_remora-life-cycles.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/blueplanet/factfiles/fish/remora_bg.shtml http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Remora_remora.html http://www.ehow.com/about_5455565_remora-life-cycles.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 16

Common Name: Picasso Fish Scientific Name: Rhinecanthus aculeatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Tetraodontiformes

Family: Balistidae Geography / Habitat: These fish live in many regions of the Indo-Pacific Ocean, and Eastern Atlantic Ocean. They are generally found in shallow outer reef habitats. Life Strategy: There are separate male and female parents. The Female lays eggs, and the males fertalize the eggs. Nests are built by the female parent, in which the eggs are fertilized and cared for •until theyForm hatch.orThe newly-hatched young are also looked after by the female parent. Body Style: Compressiform • Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Food Strategy: fish eat reef invertebrates, algae, small crustaceans, worms, • / Feed Mouth Position:Picasso Terminal brittlestars, sea urchins, and snails. They usually obtain their food by searching the sand and rocks. Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinecanthus_aculeatus.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinecanthus_aculeatus.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 17

Common Name: Green Moray Eel Scientific Name: Gymnothorax funebris Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Anguilliformes

Family: Muraenidae Geography / Habitat: Western Atlantic Ocean, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Typically, these moray eels range as far north as New Jersey and as far south as Brazil. live in rocky, intertidal areas, coral reefs, mangroves, tidal creeks, harbors, seagrass beds, and other areas over sandy or muddy bottoms. Life•Strategy: A male and aAnguilliform female moray eel position themselves in such a way that their Body Form or Style: sperm egg can combine. Shortly after the fertilized egg makes contact with water, it begins • and Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform to develop intoPosition: a larvae.Terminal Moray eel eggs tend to drift for at least year before settling on a reef. • Mouth Food / Feed Strategy: They will eat anything they can get their mouth around and swallow hole. Citation: They normally prey on crustaceans and other fish. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gymnothorax_funebris.html http://www.morayeel.info/moray-eel-reproduction.php

• • •

Body Form or Style: Anguilliform Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gymnothorax_funebris.html http://www.morayeel.info/moray-eel-reproduction.php


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 18

Common Name: Bluehead Wrasse Scientific Name: Thalassoma bifasciatum Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Labridae Geography / Habitat: Bluehead wrasses are common to the tropical waters of the western Atlantic Ocean. They are most common in the waters around Bermuda and south of Florida. They are often around coral reefs, as well as offshore reefs. They are also known to inhabit other asor inshore and seagrass beds. • areas Bodysuch Form Style: bays Compressiform • Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Life•Strategy: The females are capable of becoming males. There are initial phase males and Mouth Position: Terminal terminal phase males. Initial males make up 50% of the population and are more aggressive. These fish do not take care of their young. Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Thalassoma_bifasciatum Food / Feed Strategy: These fish eat zooplankton, worms, mollusks, echinoderms, shrimp, and other small crustaceans. Bluehead wrasse diet also consists of parasites found on other fish. They often hunt daily during the daylight hours.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Thalassoma_bifasciatum


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 19

Common Name: Spiny Puffer Scientific Name:

Diodon holocanthus

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Tetraodontiformes

Family: Diodontidae Geography / Habitat: They are widespread in the Caribbean and Eastern Asia, but they are found in tropical waters all around the world. They are found in shallow areas of the ocean, and prefer grassy flats, coral reefs, and mangrove areas. Life Strategy: During spawning season, a male pushes a female to the surface and they immediately spawn.orThe round eggs float in the water until they are 10 days old. The young • Body Form Style: Globiform have thin shell covering, which then lost. • a Swim / Locomotion Style: is Ostraciiform • Mouth Position: Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: Puffer fish have teeth on both the upper and lower jaws. This beak makes cracking the shells of snails, sea urchins and hermit crabs very easy for the fish. They eat Citation: many crustaceans and snails. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Diodon_holocanthus.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Diodon_holocanthus.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 20

Common Name: Butterflyfish Scientific Name: Chaetodon auriga Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Chaetodontidae Geography / Habitat: These fish are found in many areas of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Butterflyfish are found in tropical coral reef habitats. Although they are usually found where there is abundant coral, they are occasionally found in areas that have little coral. Life•Strategy: Theyormate with one partner and maintain this partnership for many years. Body Form Style: Compressiform However, if an individual loses a mate, they will find another. Females release hundreds of • Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform thousands of eggs at a time. The parents do not care for their young. • Mouth Position: Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: Butterflyfish usually  feed mostly on plankton.  Threadfin  Citation: butterflyfish have long snouts, with small mouths that are filled with many small, sharp  http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Chaetodon_auriga.html teeth. They use their long snouts to scrape the surface of coral to obtain food.  

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Chaetodon_auriga.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 21

Common Name: Blue Tang Scientific Name: Acanthurus leucosternon Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Acanthuridae Geography / Habitat: These fish are found in the western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea. Blue Tangs usually live on hard-coral reefs, but can also be found near soft corals, rubble, seagrass beds, and algal beds. Life Strategy: When adults are ready to mate, their colors change from a uniform deep blue to pale• blue on the front half ofDepressiform the body and dark blue on the back half of the body. Sexual Body Form or Style: maturity is usually reachedStyle: after one year. The eggs take 24 hours to hatch, and are not cared • Swim / Locomotion Carangiform for •by the parents. Mouth Position: Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: These fish are herbivores, and mainly feed on algae. They will Citation: occasionally eat plankton. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Acanthurus_coeruleus.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Acanthurus_coeruleus.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 22

Common Name: Scientific Name: Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Moronidae Geography / Habitat: These bass are found on the Atlantic coast of the United States, from northern Florida to southeastern Canada. They normally live in large bodies of deep, clear water. Life Strategy: During “rock fights,” a group of 7 to 8 males surround and bump a single female to the waters surface. They continue to bump her at the surface until her eggs are released into the water, and the males release their sperm. Females can release thousands to millions of eggs, but only about 1% of the eggs survive. Food / Feed Strategy: At different stages of their lives, they eat different foods. They eat fish insects, mollusks, aquatic crustaceans, other marine invertebrates, and zooplankton. They do most of their hunting at night.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Morone_saxatilis.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 23

Common Name: Whitetip Reef Shark Scientific Name:

Triaenodon obesus

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae Geography / Habitat: The whitetip reef shark in found in both the Indian and Pacific oceans. These sharks live near reefs in tropical, coastal waters. They spend much of their in caves and deep crevices in coral reefs. Life•Strategy: These sometimes school in groups of nearly a hundred in pursuit of a Body Form orsharks Style: Fusiform female. Mating in this particular species happens in autumn and winter. They give birth to • Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform about live young. Terminal • three Mouth Position: Food / Feed Strategy: During the day they are docile, but they become very aggressive at night Citation: looking for food. They are very fast swimmers and are capable of chasing down their prey. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Triaenodon_obesus.html These sharks eat fish and crustaceans.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Triaenodon_obesus.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 24

Common Name: Yellow Tang Scientific Name:

Zebrasoma flavescens

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Acanthuridae Geography / Habitat: They are found in the Pacific Ocean in waters east of Japan and west of Hawaii. These fish live in reefs in subtropical waters, but not tropical seas. Life Strategy: Tangs can spawn in groups or in pairs. In pairs, the male changes colors and displays a movement. They reproduce externally. Females produce about 40,000 eggs, and after the eggs hatch they are not taken care of by the parents. • Body Form or Style: Compressiform Food Tangs’ longCarangiform turned-down mouths help them graze algae. A large portion • / Feed SwimStrategy: / Locomotion Style: of their diet consists of algae that grows on coral reefs. They also will feed on seaweed and • Mouth Position: Subterminal zooplankton. Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Zebrasoma_flavescens.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Subterminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Zebrasoma_flavescens.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 25

Common Name: Tarpon Scientific Name: Megalops atlanticus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Elopiformes

Family: Megalopidae Geography / Habitat: These fish are usually found in the warm, shallow, coastal regions of the eastern and western Atlantic Ocean. Tarpons live in estuaries, bays, lagoons and travel up into freshwater rivers. Life Strategy: To initiate spawning, these fish swim in a circular pattern. They breed seasonally, and travel far to spawning ground. After These fish do not take care of their offspring. • Body Form or Style: Fusiform Food Young tarpons feed on insects, zooplankton and small fish. Once larger, • / Feed SwimStrategy: / Locomotion Style: Thunniform these eat needlefish, pinfish, and many species of crabs and shrimp. They hunt in the open • fish Mouth Position: Supraterminal ocean • during the day and night. Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Megalops_atlanticus.html

• Body Form or Style: Fusiform • Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform • Mouth Position: Supraterminal • Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Megalops_atlanticus.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 26

Common Name: Wolf Herring Scientific Name:

Chirocentrus dorab

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Clupeiformes

Family: Chirocentridae Geography / Habitat: These Herring live in the Indian Ocean. They can be found as north as southern Japan and as south as northern Australia. Herring live in warm coastal waters, often in inland areas. • Body Form or Style: Sagittiform • Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Life•Strategy: Wolf Herring make migration to mating locations. They breed in open waters, Mouth Position: Terminal and eggs are released into the current. Spawning usually happens from April through June. The parents do not care for their young. Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Chirocentrus_dorab.html Food / Feed Strategy: These fish are carnivorous, and will eat octopus and squids. Their most http://www.britannica.com/facts/5/497610/herring-as-discussed-in-reproductive-behaviourcommon zoology prey is sardines. Herring hunt during the day and find their prey with their keen eyesight.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Chirocentrus_dorab.html http://www.britannica.com/facts/5/497610/herring-as-discussed-in-reproductive-behaviourzoology


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 27

Common Name: Manta Ray Scientific Name: Manta birostris Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Rajiformes

Family: Myliobatidae Geography / Habitat: Manta Rays live in tropical and warm temperate coastal regions of the world's oceans. This includes the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. They are found near the surface and close to the shore where there is plenty of food and warmer waters. Life•Strategy: Manta when they are sexually mature at the age of 5 years, and in the Body Form or Rays Style:mate Depressiform months of December through April. They will gather in large numbers and many males will • Swim / Locomotion Style: Rajiform court single female. After about thirteen months, the females will give birth to one or two • aMouth Position: Subterminal pups. Citation: Food / Feed Strategy: Manta rays are filter feeders and planktivores, feeding on fish, http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Manta_birostris.html crustaceans, and zooplankton. As they eat the water is filtered through their gills and the food is trapped. They do not use their teeth while eating.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Rajiform Mouth Position: Subterminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Manta_birostris.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 28

Common Name: Rainbow Trout Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus mykiss Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae Geography / Habitat: These fish are only native to the Pacific Coast of North America. Although these fish spend the beginning of their lives in freshwater mountain streams, they migrate to spend their adult life in the ocean. Life•Strategy: Females find nest sites, and the male fish guard the site. After mating, the females Body Form or Style: Fusiform lay •eggsSwim in the/ Locomotion nest and leaves them to fend for themselves. Many females die during the mating Style: Subcaranjiform period. The number of offspring • Mouth Position: Terminalis from 200 to 8000 fish. Food / Feed Strategy: These trout eat fish and insects. To save energy, they usually hunt for Citation: food suspended in the water. Trout also will eat algae, marine worms, and crustaceans. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Oncorhynchus_mykiss.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcaranjiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Oncorhynchus_mykiss.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 29

Common Name: California Sheephead Scientific Name: Semicossyphus pulcher Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family:

Labridae

Geography / Habitat: These fish are found in the Eastern Pacific Ocean along the California coast, from Monterey Bay to the Gulf of California. They live along the Rocky coasts of the Pacific Ocean on reefs and kelp beds. Life Strategy: During mating, there is a dominant male who claims his territory and mates with many Thisor happens during sunset, until the sun is set or all of the females have mated. • females. Body Form Style: Compressiform The•eggs drift/ Locomotion into the water, so the young are not taken care of. Swim Style: Carangiform • Mouth Position: Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: Sheepheads eat a plethora of food including purple sea urchins, Pacific rock crabs, acorn barnacles, mussels, clams, and bryozoans. They also eat snails, squids, Citation: common sand dollars, eccentric sand dollars, and sea cucumbers. They use their teeth to pry http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Semicossyphus_pulcher.html open mussels and clams.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Semicossyphus_pulcher.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 30

Common Name: Cleaner Fish Scientific Name: Labroides dimidiatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Labridae Geography / Habitat: These fish are found in Indo-pacific coral reefs, including the Great Barrier Reef. They live in coral or rocky areas on coral reefs. Life Strategy: Cleaner fishes’ eggs are released into the water and then fertilized. The males perform a mating andTaeniform attract many females to their territory. If the male dies, the most • Body Formdance or Style: dominant female will become a male in twenty-four hours and take over his territory. • Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform • Mouth Position: Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: They are called cleaner fish because they attract larger fish and eat the parasites and invertebrates that live in or on their mouths or gills. They also will eat free Citation: floating crustaceans. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Labroides_dimidiatus.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Labroides_dimidiatus.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 31

Common Name: Thornback Ray Scientific Name: Raja clavata Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Rajiformes

Family: Rajidae Geography / Habitat: This species is found in coastal waters from Iceland to Norway. They tend to stay inshore during summer and move off shore into deeper waters during winter. These rays live at the bottom of the continental shelf and upper slope of the coastal sea floor. Life•Strategy: Females swimDepressiform in shore and spend the morning either buried in the sand or lay Body Form or Style: atop• each other in large groups, the males swim up and down the beach looking for Swim / Locomotion Style:while Rajiform mating partners. Females lay one egg at a time, which hatch after four to six months. • Mouth Position: Subterminal Food / Feed Strategy: These rays eat bottom dwelling aquatic crustaceans such as amphipods, Citation: mysids, and crangonid shrimps. Larger adults feed on larger crustaceans and fish. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Raja_clavata.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Rajiform Mouth Position: Subterminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Raja_clavata.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 32

Common Name: Fluffy Sculpin Scientific Name: Oligocottus snyderi Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Scorpaeniformes

Family: Cottidae Geography / Habitat: This sculpin is found along the Pacific Coast of the United States, Canada and Mexico. They are dominant in subtidal, low intertidal, and mid-intertidal pools in Central California. Life•Strategy: Theyorreproduces using internal fertilization. Internally fertilized eggs are laid on Body Form Style: Fusiform rocks are/ guarded by the males. It is thought that females spawn more than once per year • and Swim Locomotion Style: Carangiform and•do Mouth so during the winter and spring. Position: Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: They prey upon shrimp and crabs, and eat a greater diversity of food in Citation: general. Also, males eat a greater diversity of food. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Oligocottus_snyderi.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Oligocottus_snyderi.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 33

Common Name: Sandbar Shark Scientific Name: Carcharhinus plumbeus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae Geography / Habitat: These sharks are found worldwide in tropical and warm temperate water such as the western Atlantic, the eastern Atlantic, the western Pacific, the western Indian, and the eastern Indian oceans. Also, they are found in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Mediterranean Sea. • Body Form or Style: Fusiform Life•Strategy: Male and female sharks swim in separate schools and only interact Swim / Locomotion Style:sandbar Thunniform during mating.Position: The female shark gestation period ranges between 9 and 12 months and they • Mouth Terminal may give birth to litters ranging from 1 to 14 pups. Citation: Food / Feed Strategy: They feed on small bottom fish, mollusks, and crustaceans. Larger sharks http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Carcharhinus_plumbeus will also consume small sharks, skates, and rays.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Carcharhinus_plumbeus


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 34

Common Name: White Seabass Scientific Name: Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Sciaenidae Geography / Habitat: These fish live along the Pacific coastline, from Alaska to Baja California and in the Gulf of California. Seabass prefer Rocky reefs and soft bottomed habitats. Life Strategy: This species usually spawn up to 5 or 6 times a year in the months of April to August. Females are usually mature by 4 years and males are usually mature by 3 years. At each• spawning event, can produce 1.5 million eggs, and she does not look after them Body Form or females Style: Fusiform after are/ layed. • they Swim Locomotion Style: Carangiform • Mouth Position: Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: They eat northern anchovy, market squid, Pacific sardines, blacksmith, silversides, Citation: and pelagic red crab. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Atractoscion_nobilis.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Atractoscion_nobilis.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 35

Common Name: Pollock Scientific Name: Pollachius virens Kingdom: Animilia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Gadiformes

Family: Gadidae Geography / Habitat: Their distribution in the western Atlantic between Cape Cod and the Strait of Canso, and eastern Atlantic around Iceland, the North Sea, and off the northern coast of Norway. Life Strategy: Spawning occurs over hard bottoms with stony or rocky surfaces when water temperatures fall below 8 C,Fusiform and peaks when temperatures are below 4.5 to 6 C. Females an lay • Body Form or Style: from 8,260,000 eggs and the incubation time of eggs ranges from 5 to 15 days. • 200,000 Swim /to Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform • Mouth Position: Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: The smallest adults (41 to 65 cm) feed mainly on crustaceans. The larger adult pollock can also feed on fish and mollusks. Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pollachius_virens.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pollachius_virens.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 36

Common Name: Deepsea Stalkeye Scientific Name: Idiacanthus fasciola Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Idiacanthidae Geography / Habitat: They are found throughout the northeast and central Atlantic Ocean, in deep, temperate and equatorial oceanic waters. They are deepsea fish and inhabit waters from 500 meters to 2000 meters. Life•Strategy: Males very large testes that take up most of their body cavity. Females’ Body Form orhave Style: Anguilliform ovaries’ can contain 14,000Style: mature eggs as well as many undeveloped eggs. It is thought that • Swim / Locomotion Anguilliform their is between August and September. • mating Mouthseason Position:Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: These fish eat fish, aquatic crustaceans, zooplankton. They are known to Citation: eat Lantern Fish. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Idiacanthus_fasciola.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Anguilliform Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position:Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Idiacanthus_fasciola.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 47

Common Name: Mandarin Fish Scientific Name: Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Callionymidae Geography / Habitat: This fish lives near the western Pacific regions including the Philippines, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Australia, and New Guinea. They live on corals reefs and are bottom dwellers. Life•Strategy: Spawning occurs on reefs when males and females gather during the night. There Body Form or Style: Compressiform are •usually a few activeStyle: males, so there is a lot of competition between the males. They Swimonly / Locomotion Carangiform breed round and the parents do not take care of their young. • year Mouth Position: Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: Mandarin Fish eat small crustaceans, isopods, small worms, and Citation: protozoans. They are bottom feeders and gather their food from reefs and liverocks. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Synchiropus_splendidus.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Synchiropus_splendidus.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 38

Common Name: Atlantic Salmon Scientific Name: Salmo salar Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae Geography / Habitat: These salmon are found in the basin of the North Atlantic Ocean. The first couple years of their lives are spent in freshwater, but they migrate to live in the Atlantic Ocean for most of their life. Life•Strategy: Atlantic salmon spawn in October and November. The females deposits 700-800 Body Form or Style: Fusiform eggs• per pound of her bodyStyle: weight. The eggs are buried in gravel. There is no parental care Swim / Locomotion Subcarangiform after • spawning. Mouth Position: Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: These fish eat aquatic insects such as blackflies, stoneflies, caddisflies, and Citation: chironomids. Larger salmon eat a variety of fishes such as herring and alewives, smelts, http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Salmo_salar.html capelin, small mackerel, sand lace, and small cod.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Salmo_salar.html

v


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 39

Common Name: Skipjack Tuna Scientific Name: Katsuwonus pelamis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scombridae Geography / Habitat: These fish are found in most waters all over the world but are rarely seen in the North Sea and have never been caught in the Black Sea. They tend to live in nutrient-rich waters, as well as regions where cold and warm water mix. Life•Strategy: Theyorspawn Body Form Style:throughout Fusiformthe year in regions near the equator. Depending on their size,• females produce between 100,000 to 2 million eggs that hatch in about one day after Swim can / Locomotion Style: Thunniform they• areMouth fertilized. Position: Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: Skipjack Tuna mainly eat fishes, crustaceans and mollusks. They eat Citation: mostly during the morning and in the late afternoon. They also eat squid. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/fishwatch/species/atl_skipjack.htm http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Katsuwonus_pelamis.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/fishwatch/species/atl_skipjack.htm http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Katsuwonus_pelamis.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 40

Common Name: Butterfly ray Scientific Name: Family Gymnuridae Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Rajiformes

Family: Gymnuridae Geography / Habitat: Gymnuridae are found worldwide in tropical and warm temperature waters. They are largely distributed in the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans. Life Strategy: Butterfly rays seem to go through mating, gestation, and birth at the same time as all the other females in the group and usually birth between two and six live young at a time. The•birthed into the sea quite able to feed and fend for themselves. Body rays Formcome or Style: Depressiform • Swim / Locomotion Style: Rajiform Food Strategy: rays seek prey near the sandy bottom of warm waters and feed • / Feed Mouth Position:Butterfly Subterminal on crabs, shrimps, various invertebrates, fishes, small crustaceans, and mollusks. Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gymnuridae.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Rajiform Mouth Position: Subterminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gymnuridae.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 41

Common Name: Sloan’s Fangfish Scientific Name:

Chauliodus sloani

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Chauliodontidae Geography / Habitat: Sloan’s Fangfish live in almost all warm and tropical marine waters . Their range extends from about 63 ° N to 50 ° S. The only regions they have not been found is in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean north of the equator. Life Strategy: They are not known to be sexually dimorphic since the specimens caught are rarely sexed; however, it can be presumed that light emissions are used in communication activities. Spawning probably occurs year round but mostly Jan.-March. Food / Feed Strategy: They feed on a variety of nektonic, planktonic, and benthic organisms. This includes other bony fishes and crustaceans. Sloan’s Fangfish are known to be able to prey on fish that are 63 % of their own body length.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Anguilliform Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Chauliodus_sloani.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 42

Common Name: Striped Mullet Scientific Name: Mugil cephalus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Mugiliformes

Family: Mugilidae Geography / Habitat: These fish live in coastal waters of the tropical and subtropical zones of all seas. They also live in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. They prefer warm waters and stay close to shore around the mouths of streams and rivers. Life Strategy: In the autumn and winter months, adult mullet migrate far offshore in large aggregations to spawn. Males mature in three years and females mature in four years. There is no parental care once the eggs are released. Food / Feed Strategy: These fish mainly eat zooplankton, dead plant matter, and detritus. Striped mullet remove detritus and microalgae by sucking up the top layer of sediments.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Mugil_cephalus.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 43

Common Name: American shad Scientific Name:

Alosa sapidissima

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Clupeiformes

Family: Clupeidae Geography / Habitat: American shad are restricted to temperate climates in coastal areas of the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean. They will travel to the rivers of the United States, Canada, and Mexico to lay their eggs. They inhabit areas from Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and the St. Lawrence River in the north down to coastal central Florida. • Body Form or Style: Fusiform Life•Strategy: These fish enter freshwater rivers of the United States, Canada and Mexico to Swim / Locomotion Style:Subcarangiform spawn. One orPosition: more males chase a female up a river and may also nudge her belly until the • Mouth Terminal female releases her eggs in open water so that the pursuing males can fertilize the eggs. Citation: Food / Feed Strategy: Young American shad are omnivores eating mostly zooplankton and http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Alosa_sapidissima.html insect larvae. Older American shad also feed on small fish, crustaceans, plankton, worms, and occasionally fish eggs.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Alosa_sapidissima.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 44

Common Name: Fangtooth Scientific Name: Anoplogaster cornuta Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Beryciformes

Family: Anoplogasteridae Geography / Habitat: These fish live worldwide in tropical to temperate and subartctic seas. They are most commonly found between 500 meters and 2000 meters. • Body Form or Style: Globiform • Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Life•Strategy: In this species, the males are smaller than and are parasitic to the females. They Mouth Position: Terminal usually spawn from June to august and do not have a specific area for spawning. There is no parental care and the adult fish rarely come in contact with the juvenile fish since they live in Citation: different areas. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Anoplogaster_cornuta.html Food / Feed Strategy: Young Fangtooth fish feed on crustaceans, while adults feed primarily on fish and shrimp. They are aggressive hunters and tend to swallow fish whole.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Anoplogaster_cornuta.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 45

Common Name: Leather Bass Scientific Name: Dermatolepis dermatolepis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Serranidae Geography / Habitat: These fish live in the Eastern Central Pacific and the Southeast Pacific Oceans. Leather Bass inhabit rocky reefs and areas near the base of rocky faces. Life Strategy: Leather bass mate at night time. They find a spot high on a reef, and spawn in groups of hundreds. The males and females pair off and race towards the surface, releasing a cloud eggsForm and sperm. • ofBody or Style: Compressiform • Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Food Strategy: fish search for food on the tops of reefs during the day. They • / Feed Mouth Position:These Terminal mainly feed on small fish that are stirred up by bottom feeders, but they also eat crustaceans, crabs, and shrimp Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Dermatolepis_dermatolepis

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Dermatolepis_dermatolepis


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 46

Common Name: Barramundi Scientific Name:

Lates calcarifer

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centropomidae Geography / Habitat: Barramundi are found in the coastal areas of the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans to include coastal Australia, Southeast and Eastern Asia, and India. Life Strategy: Males and females gather together only during spawning which takes place at the mouths of estuaries on or near a full moon, where tides draw the eggs up into the estuaries Spawning season per year occurs at the end of the dry season and the beginning of the rainy season and females carry from 2.3 to 32.2 million eggs. Food / Feed Strategy: They are predators that eat microcrustaceans such as copepods and amphipods. Mollusks are consumed in a smaller amount. Larger barramundi eat macrocrustaceans and pelagic bony fishes (80%).

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lates_calcarifer.html

v


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 47

Common Name: Mandarin Fish Scientific Name: Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Callionymidae Geography / Habitat: This fish lives near the western Pacific regions including the Philippines, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Australia, and New Guinea. They live on corals reefs and are bottom dwellers. Life•Strategy: Spawning occurs on reefs when males and females gather during the night. There Body Form or Style: Compressiform are •usually a few activeStyle: males, so there is a lot of competition between the males. They Swimonly / Locomotion Carangiform breed round and the parents do not take care of their young. • year Mouth Position: Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: Mandarin Fish eat small crustaceans, isopods, small worms, and Citation: protozoans. They are bottom feeders and gather their food from reefs and liverocks. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Synchiropus_splendidus.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Synchiropus_splendidus.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 48

Common Name: Atlantic Cod Scientific Name: Gadus morhua Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Gadiformes

Family: Gadidae Geography / Habitat: They inhabit areas along the eastern and northern coasts of North America, along the coasts of Greenland, and from the Bay of Biscay north to the Arctic Ocean, the North Sea, and the Barents Sea Life•Strategy: Spawning takes place once a year and lasts 3 weeks to 3 months. Atlantic cod Body Form or Style: Fusiform females are responsible for Style: mate selection. Larger males who were successful in spawning • Swim / Locomotion Subcarangiform appear to dominate the population • Mouth Position: Terminal and act aggressively towards “lesser” male. The females only release 5 to 25% of their total eggs at any time. Citation: Food / Feed Strategy: These fish feed on anything they can capture. Juveniles feed on shrimp http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gadus_morhua.html and other small crustaceans. Adult Atlantic cod consume squid, mussels, clams, tunicates, comb jellies, brittle stars, sand dollars, sea cucumbers, and polychaetes, and are also cannibalistic.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gadus_morhua.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 49

Common Name: Barrier Reef Anemonefish Scientific Name: Amphiprion akindynos Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacentridae Geography / Habitat: These fish are found in the Western Pacific region in the waters of the Great Barrier Reef of Australia and the Coral Sea. Anemonefish are able to live and make shelter among the tentacles of anemones without being stung by the tentacles. Life•Strategy: Mating fish live in the same anemone. Before spawning, males and females Body Form or Style: Compressiform interact more./ Locomotion Depending on the size of the fish, the female can lay 100 to over 1000 eggs. All of • Swim Style: Carangiform the •young initially develop into males, but later will become females if necessary. Male Mouth Position: Terminal anemonefish guard the nest. Citation: Food / Feed Strategy: They eat algae and zooplankton. They also eat aquatic or marine worms, http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Amphiprion_akindynos.html aquatic crustaceans, echinoderms, and cnidarians.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Amphiprion_akindynos.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 50

Common Name: Alewife Scientific Name: Alosa pseudoharengus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Clupeiformes

Family: Clupeidae Geography / Habitat: The alewife fish are found in the Atlantic Ocean and the lakes and streams that drain to it from Newfoundland to North Carolina, including the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the outer coast of Nova Scotia, the Bay of Fundy, and the Gulf of Maine, the Great Lakes, Life Strategy: Spawning usually begins in April in the south and lasts until the end of May in northern waters. Nine to ten year old fish have been recorded at spawning sites. Reproductive maturity is three to six years and the number of eggs per female may be 10,000-360,000. Food / Feed Strategy: Adult land-locked fish eat zooplankton such as copepods, cladocerans, mysids, and ostracods. Spawning adults also eat small fish or fish eggs while they are in shallow waters. The alewife hatchlings have a high mortality rate as only approximately one out of 80,000 will make it to the sea.

• Body Form or Style: Fusiform • Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform • Mouth Position: Terminal • Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Alosa_pseudoharengus.html


Freshwater Fish


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 1

Common Name: Walleye Scientific Name: Stizostedion vitreum Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percidae Geography /Habitat: They are found in lakes and larger rivers of North America, from across Canada east of the Rocky Mountains to Labrador, southward along the Atlantic Coast to North Carolina, west to Arkansas, and north along the Missouri River. They originally were found in the Mississippi, Great Lakes, and St. Lawrence drainages, but have now spread into Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf drainages. Life Strategy: Walleye will swim up to approx. 100 miles to search for the best spawning area. Breeding occurs once per year at night during the months of April-June. A female lays 20,00050,000 eggs per pound of body weight in a single night and the average time to hatch is 20 days. In captivity, they have lived up to 29 years of age. Food / Feed Strategy: Walleye feed at night and are carnivorous. The young walleye eat plankton, but they get older, they mostly eat fish like the yellow perch and freshwater drum. They also eat insects, crayfish, snails, and mudpuppies (a kind of salamander).

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Stizostedion_vitreum.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 2

Common Name: Yellowfin Madtom Scientific Name: Noturus flavipinnis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae Geography / Habitat: Yellowfin Madtom can be found only in the upper portion of the Tennessee River drainage, in the Powell River and Citico Creek in Tennessee, and in Copper Creek in Virginia. Before 1893, they populated other rivers and creeks in Virginia, Tennessee, and Georgia. Life Strategy: The males spawn once per season and females may spawn twice per season.  They spawn from late May to mid July and average 89 offspring. Their maximum  reported age is 4 years.  Food / Feed Strategy: Their feeding takes place mainly at night. The Yellowfin Madtom’s diet consists mostly of aquatic insect larvae, and sometimes crayfish. They are known to be opportunistic and benthic feeders.

• Body Form or Style: Taeniform • Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform • Mouth Position: Terminal • Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Noturus_flavipinnis.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 3

Common Name: Goldfish Scientific Name: Carassius auratus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae Geography / Habitat: Goldfish originally came from China. In the wild they are found in slowmoving, freshwater bodies water. They thrive in a pond environment with real plants to eat. • Body Form or Style:ofCompressiform An •aquarium a dirt bottom is ideal but small pebbles are a sufficient. Goldfish will survive Swim / with Locomotion Style:Carangiform in water temperatures freezing to 30 degrees C • Mouth Position:from Terminal Life Strategy: In the wild waters, goldfish breed during the summer and can breed year round in indoor aquariums. Males chase the females for several days before breeding. Females can Citation: produce several thousand eggs per spawning period every 8 to 10 days. Eggs hatch in about 4-5 Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Carassius_ days at 64-68 degrees F. Average life span is q0 years in captivity and can be approx 41 years in the wild. Food / Feed Strategy: In wild waters, goldfish eat plants, insects such as mosquito larvae, small crustaceans, zooplankton, and detritus.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Carassius_


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 4

Common Name: Oscar Scientific Name: Astronotus ocellatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Cichlidae

Geography / Habitat: The oscar fish inhabit the Amazon River basin, from the Orinoco River to the Rio Paraguay, throughout Venezuela, Guyana, and Paraguay. Life Strategy: Oscars are sexually mature as soon as they are 12 cm long. After spawning in open water, the eggs are laid on ground cleared by one of the parents. After three or four days, the eggs hatch. The young are moved to a sandy hollow for about one week. Young fish and are nutured as they are seen clinging to their parents with their mouths. Food / Feed Strategy: The Oscars have great eye site which help them as predators that feed mostly on insect larvae and smaller fish.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Astronotus_ocellatus.html


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 5

Common Name: Kissing Gourami Scientific Name: Helostoma temmincki Kingdom: Aminalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Helostomatidae Geography / Habitat: The hissing gourami is found in Southeast Asia in Thailand, Indonesia, Sumatra, Borneo, and Java. It has also been reported in Florida due to tropical fish breeding for aquariums. Life•Strategy: Kissing gourami breed once yearly at the beginning of the rainy season (May) Body Form or Style: Compressiform The•number offspring average 1000 and hatch in 1 to 2 days. Lifespan is usually 5-7 years. Swim of / Locomotion Style: Carangiform • Mouth Position: Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: Kissing gourami are omnivorous and feed on phytoplankton, zooplankton, and aquatic insects, supplemented by plant material. Being the most highly Citation: specialized freshwater filter-feeder of southeast Asia, they have intricate gill rakers. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Helostoma_temmincki.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Helostoma_temmincki.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 6

Common Name: Burbot Scientific Name: Lota lota Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Gadiformes

Family: Lotidae Geography / Habitat: These fish are native to the cold fresh waters of the Nearctic and Palearctic regions. Found in temperate lake bottoms and slow moving cold river bottoms, these fish often live in roots, trees, rocks, and dense vegetation. Life•Strategy: Theyorcan be slow to reach sexual maturity. Burbot spawn in winter, laying their Body Form Style: Taeniform eggs• in Swim shallow water to hatch during the spring, laying from 700,000 to 800,000 eggs that hatch / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform in two four months. • to Mouth Position: Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: They are carnivours. Juviniles exists on molluscs and insect larvae. Adults arehttp://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lota_lota.html piscivorous, their diet changes due to competition and feed on curtacians in summer Citation: and opossum in fall.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lota_lota.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 7

Common Name: Cardinal Tetra Scientific Name:

Paracheirodon axelrodi

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Characiformes

Family: Characidae Geography / Habitat: Cardinal tetras live in rivers and streams in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. They prefer slow moving, middle layer water in shoals. Life Strategy: Mating takes place during the rainy season at twilight. Fertilization is external. As the scatters about 500 eggs into the water and they sink and adhere to plants, Males • female Body Form or Style: Compressiform then• fertilize eggs Swim /the Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform • Mouth Position: Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: Cardinal tetra eat very small crustaceans, mesofauna, eggs, algae, detritus, and some other types of prey. They may also eat ants, Diptera larvae or pupae, mites, Citation: newly hatched shrimp, fungus, and fish larvae. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Paracheirodon_axelrodi.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Paracheirodon_axelrodi.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 8

Common Name: Cichlids Scientific Name: Cichlidae Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Cichlidae Geography / Habitat: Cichlids are found in the lowland, freshwater areas of tropical and subtropical regions. They are also found in Madagascar (17 species) and Asia, also inhabit brackish waters. It is believed that between 800 and 2100 exist in the Great Lakes of East Africa. • Body Form or Style: Compressiform Life•Strategy: display complex behaviors in feeding, reproduction and prenatal care. Swim / Cichlids Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Males eggs and Terminal fry in the mouth for 15 days after spawning. Females spawn a week • nurture Mouth Position: later. In an aquarium, the cichlid can live up to 18 years. Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cichlidae.html Food / Feed Strategy: They eat algae, zooplankton, phytoplankton, whole fish, the fry, larvae or eggs of mouth brooding species, and the scales or fins of various fish

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cichlidae.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 9

Common Name: Betta Scientific Name:

Betta splendens

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Belontiidae Geography / Habitat: These fish are native to Thailand and can be found in the inland waters of the Orient. Bettas live in thickly overgrown ponds and in only very slowly flowing waters such as shallow rice paddies, stagnant pools, polluted streams, and other types of areas in which the water has a low-oxygen content. • Body Form or Style: Compressiform Life•Strategy: The male very aggressively pursues the female, causing her fins to be badly torn Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform and•sheMouth may even be missing some scales. The males guard the nest, taking care of the eggs until Position: Terminal the young hatch. The fish reaches sexual maturity around five months. Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Betta_splendens.html Food / Feed Strategy: They feed mainly on insects that have fallen into the water. Since they need to eat frequently, they will feed on algae until their next real meal. They capture their food by snapping at it.

• Body Form or Style: Compressiform • Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform • Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Betta_splendens.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 10

Common Name: Sheatfish Scientific Name: Silurus glanis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Siluridae Geography / Habitat: These fish are found in eastern Europe and Asia. They are found primarily in large rivers and lakes and in deep water near dams, and sometimes enter brackish water in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea. Life Strategy: Males create nests where females deposit their eggs. Males then guard the eggs until they hatch. Males mature faster than females. They may live to 80 years. Food / Feed Strategy: Fry eat plankton for the first year of their lives. Adults eat worms, snails, crustaceans, aquatic insects, and small fish. They also will feed on ducks, voles, crayfish, fish, eels, frogs, rats, coypu, and snakes.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Silurus_glanis.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 11

Common Name: Common Carp Scientific Name:

Cyprinus carpio

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae Geography / Habitat: These fish are found near Europe but have been widely introduced and are now found worldwide except for the poles and northern Asia. They live in man made and natural reservoirs, andStyle: poolsFusiform in slow or fast moving streams. • Body Form or • Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Life•Strategy: They spawn in the spring and early summer depending upon the climate. A Mouth Position: Terminal typical female may produce 300,000 eggs, with some estimates as high as one million over the breeding season. Males typically become sexually mature at 3 to 5 years and females at 4 to 5 Citation: years. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cyprinus_carpio.html Food / Feed Strategy: Adult carp are known to eat a wide variety of organisms including, insects, crustaceans, annelids, mollusks, fish eggs, fish remains, and plant tubers and seeds. They feed by sucking up mud from the bottom ejecting it and them selectively consuming items while they are suspended.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cyprinus_carpio.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 12

Common Name: Blackchin Tilapia Scientific Name:

Sarotherodon melanotheron

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Cichlidae Geography / Habitat: Tilapia are found only in freshwater lagoons and brackish, or slightly salty, waters along the coast of West Africa from Senegal to southern Cameroon. They live in brackish water in lagoons and estuaries, or areas where freshwater rivers meet the ocean. • Body Form or Style: Compressiform Life•Strategy: Female blackchin take the initiative in courting males and each female Swim / Locomotion Style: tilapia Subcarangiform begins dig aPosition: pit for eggs before a male has been chosen. Females produce anywhere from 200 • to Mouth Terminal to 900 eggs but the number of eggs that can be incubated by the male ranges from less than 20 to over 700. Once hatched, the young fry may remain in the mouth of the male for up to 19 Citation: days before being released. animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sarotherodon_melanotheron Food / Feed Strategy: Blackchin tilapia feed primarily on filamentous algae, microorganisms, and organic material from dead and decomposing plants and animals. Juveniles are much more carnivorous than adults and add small crustaceans and zooplankton to their diet.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sarotherodon_melanotheron


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 13

Common Name: Brook Trout Scientific Name:

Salvelinus fontinalis

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae Geography / Habitat: Brook trout are found as far south as Georgia in the Appalachian mountain range and extend north all the way to Hudson Bay. They live in rivers, lakes, and marine areas. Life Strategy: To gain the spawning right of the female the males compete for position by nipping and displaying themselves to the competitor males. The eggs are initially adhesive to • Body Form or Style: Fusiform prevent them/from washingStyle: awayCarangiform so they are able to incubate within the gravel, and after they • Swim Locomotion hatch fry remain in the gravel until the yolk sac is absorbed • the Mouth Position: Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: Brook Trout eat many aquatic insect larvae such as caddisflies, mayflies, Citation: midges, and black flies. Other organisms consumed include worms, leeches, crustaceans, http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Salvelinus_fontinalis.html terrestrial insects, spiders, mollusks, a number of other fish species

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Salvelinus_fontinalis.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 14

Common Name: Common Hatchetfish Scientific Name: Gasteropelecus sternicla Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Characiformes

Family: Gasteropelecidae Geography / Habitat: These fish live in the Amazon river basin and most of its tributaries. Here the fish lives near the surface. It frequents well-vegetated areas near shore, but when schooled, will venture out into open water Life•Strategy: Theor eggs are Compressiform laid by the female, then the male will swim near the eggs and Body Form Style: release his sperm. The unusal shape and body cavity size of the species may account for the fact • Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform that•itsMouth brood size is generally smaller than other tropical fishes of its size. Position: Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: They have a diet which is composed primarilly of insects and larvae. They Citation: only feed near the surface of the water, so many terrestrial insects which they eat have fallen http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gasteropelecus_sternicla into the water. A large part of their diet consists of many winged insects, a large assortment of aquatic insects, and some zooplankton such as daphnia

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gasteropelecus_sternicla


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 15

Common Name: Rainbow Darter Scientific Name:

Etheostoma caeruleum

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percidae Geography / Habitat: The species inhabits the Great Lakes region and the Ohio River valley, into northern Alabama, and west into Missouri and Arkansas. They prefer the fast-moving currents in creeks, small rivers and rocky-bottom streams Life Strategy: Male fish are more brightly colored during the breeding season and are territorial warding off other males. When mating the male and femail vibrate together; the male deposits his sperm and the female deposits 3-7 eggs in the gravel. They repeat the process for several days until the female lays about 800 eggs Food / Feed Strategy: They feed on aquatic insect larvae, small snails, and crayfish. They will eat minnow or lamprey eggs. Rainbow darters also prefer caddis fly larvae.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Etheostoma_caeruleum.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 16

Common Name: Macquarie Perch Scientific Name:

Macquaria australasica

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percichthyidae

Geography / Habitat: The Macquarie perch is only found in Australia. (Paxton et. al., 1989). They are in highest abundance in the Murray-Darling basin in New South Wales and have been introduced in other rivers in Australia. They prefer deep, rocky pools and shallow, cool, clear, slow moving water. Life Strategy: They are schooling fish. To breed, they migrate upstream and gather in schools where the males nudge the female vent region which causes the release of eggs and then fertilization. Spawning occurs in fast-flowing water over gravel beds. The eggs stick to the gravel on the bottom of the water and hatch in 10 to 18 days. Food / Feed Strategy: They feed on caddisfly, stonefly and mayfly species, and terrestrial insects. Adults feed at the bottom of lakes and rivers. The young fish are zooplanktivores, and eat water fleas, rotifers and water mites.

• Body Form or Style: Compressiform • Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform • Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Macquaria_australasica


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 17

Common Name: zebra danio Scientific Name:

Danio rerio

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae Geography / Habitat: Danio rerio comes from inland streams and rivers of India and has a broad geographic range. A few populations now inhabit inland waters in the United States (California, Connecticut, Florida and New Mexico) and Columbia, South America. Life Strategy: Zebrafish breed during monsoon season. Spawning begins at first light during breeding season fororabout hour. They initiate courtship as 3 to 7 males chase females and try • Body Form Style:anDepressiform to lead female/ Locomotion to spawning Style: site bySubcarangiform nudging her and/or swimming around her in a tight circle or • Swim figure like to breed in silt-bottomed and well vegetated pools • eight. MouthThey Position: Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: Zebrafish are omnivores and find their food in the water column, mainly Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Danio_rerio.html eating zooplankton and aquatic insects. Zebrafish also surface feed, eating terrestrial insects and arachnids and mosquito larvae.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Danio_rerio.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 18

Common Name: Channel Catfish Scientific Name: Ictalurus punctatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae Geography / Habitat: They come from the Neartic in lower Canada and throughout the midwest of the United States and have been introduced in Cyprus, Czech Republic, Romania, Slovakia, and Spain. Life Strategy: Channel catfish can live in both fresh and salt water but are generally found in freshwaters such as lakes, reservoirs and ponds. They are also in areas of moving water such as streams, creeks and rivers. Food / Feed Strategy: Ictalurus punctatus have taste buds located all over their body. The olfactory system is used mostly in consumption of food. Adult channel catfish eat yellow perch and sunfish, as well as snails, algae, snakes, frogs, insects, aquatic plants, and even birds occasionally. Younger channel catfish generally eat a large variety of plants and animals.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ictalurus_punctatus.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 19

Common Name: Green Sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis cyanellus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae Geography / Habitat: They are found from east of the Rocky Mountain range and west of the Appalachian mountain range, including northeastern Mexico and southeastern Canada. They have also been introduced to Africa, South America, Asia, and Europe as an exotic species. They prefer sluggish streams and ponds and also inhabit weedy shorelines of lakes and slow rivers. Life Strategy: Spawning normally occurs 1 to 2 days after nest construction, when a male leads a female to his nest by making sounds. They then swim in circles above the nest before spawning. Males defend the nests and can spawn with several females simultaneously. 50,000. They produce approx. 50,000 eggs that normally take 1 to 2 days to hatch and another 5 to 7 days of protection from the male green sunfish. Food / Feed Strategy: Green sunfish larvae consume various types of zooplankton and, as they grow, they also eat insect larvae and small snails. As juveniles and adults, they begin to eat small crayfish, fish eggs, insects, and small fish.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lepomis_cyanellus.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 20

Common Name: Freshwater Drum Scientific Name: Aplodinotus grunniens Kingdom: Animalia Class: Actinopterygii Family: Sciaenidae

Phylum: Chordata Order: Perciformes

Geography / Habitat: Freshwater drum are considered to be one of the most wide-ranging fish species in North America. They are found at the northern Hudson Bay down to the Rio Usumacinata Basin of Guatemala. They are found stretching east as to the Appalachian Mountain range and as far west as Texas, Oklahoma and Kansas. They like slow currents and silty to rocky substrates. Life Strategy: They breed seasonally in open water. The eggs are fertilized and left floating near the surface of the water where the eggs, then larvae, are carried by currents. It is thought that males and females disperse eggs and sperm into the water where they are randomly fertilized. Food / Feed Strategy: Freshwater drum move rocks and other substrates to flush their prey. Adults feed primarily on aquatic insects such as mayflies, small fish, and mollusks. During the larval stage they feed on the larval stages of other fishes. As they grow larger they feed on zooplankton.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Aplodinotus_grunniens.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 21

Common Name: Fathead Minnow Scientific Name: Pimephales promelas Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae Geography / Habitat: They are found in rivers, ponds, and muddy pools of headwaters and creeks. They are from the Nearctic region from Quebec to Alberta, and Canada. They habitat extends as south as Alabama, Texas, and New Mexico. They appear to tolerate habitat conditions such as high turbidity and temperature, variable pH and salinity, and low oxygen. • Body Form or Style: Depressiform Life•Strategy: Fathead minnows spawn between May and September, producing anywhere Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform from to 10000 offspring per season. Reproductively mature males are responsible for the • 1000 Mouth Position: Termina selection and preparation of nest sites on the underside of rocks, wood, and vegetation. Nest Citation: sites typically occur in shallow water on a sandy substrate. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pimephales_promelas.html Food / Feed Strategy: Fathead minnows sift through mud and silt to find food. Freshwater sediments often contain a large abundance of algae and protozoans. Secondary prey items include diatoms, filamentous algae, small crustaceans, and insect larvae.

• Body Form or Style: Depressiform • Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform • Mouth Position: Termina Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pimephales_promelas.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 22

Common Name: Warpaint Shiner Scientific Name: Luxilus coccogenis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae Geography / Habitat: Warpaint shiners inhabit creeks, streams, and rivers with cool, clear water. Their presence extends north into Virgina and east Tennessee, west to south-central Tennesse, south into north Alabama, north Georgia, and the tip of South Carolina and North Carolina. Warpaint shiners are native only to the Tennessee River drainage but have now been introduced theor Upper the Santee, and the New River drainages. • Bodyinto Form Style:Savannah, Compressiform • Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Life•Strategy: WarpaintTerminal shiners, both male and female, reach sexual maturity at the age of two Mouth Position: and spawn for the first time during their third summer. They are nest parasites, spawning on the margins of nests built by river chub. Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Luxilus_coccogenis.html Food / Feed Strategy: They use their large mouths to capture food in the current or at the surface. They will face the current and horizontally and vertically to capture food. They feed on insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods; aquatic or marine worms.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Luxilus_coccogenis.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 23

Common Name: Yellow bullhead Scientific Name: Ameiurus natalis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae Geography / Habitat: Yellow bullhead are found throughout the eastern United States, extending north to southeastern Canada and west to the Great Plains and Rio Grande. They can be found in the shallow parts of streams, lakes, ponds, or large bays. They are bottom dwellers, living among muck, rock, sand, or clay substrates. Life Strategy: Yellow bullhead spawn from April until June. The female produces 300 to 700 sticky yellowish eggs per spawning act, and the nest can contain 1700 to 4300 eggs in total. Both the male and female help build the nest and which one parent will guard. After the fry hatch the male herds the young into a dense ball and will protect them until they grow to two inches long. Food / Feed Strategy: Yellow bullheads are opportunistic feeders and feed at night. They have been known to eat minnows, crayfish, insects and insect larvae, aquatic invertebrates, and worms. Young yellow bullheads feed on aquatic invertebrates.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Actinopterygii.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 24

Common Name: Brook Stickleback Scientific Name: Culaea inconstans Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Gasterosteiformes

Family: Gasterosteidae Geography / Habitat: They are common to the Arctic and Atlantic drainages from Nova Scotia to the northern territories of Canada, Great Lakes-Mississippi River basins from southern Ohio to New Brunswick, Canada and west to Montana and eastern British Columbia. They generally live•in the shallow of cool, clear lakes and ponds with moderate to dense vegetation cover. Body Formedges or Style: Fusiform • Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Life•Strategy: The males establish territories and begin nest construction; they also change Mouth Position: Terminal coloration from the non-mating olive to dark green or black. Once the nest is complete, the male performs a “tail flagging” dance to attract females. When the female leaves the area, the Citation: male will swim through the nest to fertilize the eggs. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Culaea_inconstans.html Food / Feed Strategy: Culaea inconstans are predominately carnivorous feeders on aquatic invertebrates, mostly larvae and crustaceans. Fish eggs, from their own species as well as others, and algae may make up a smaller portion of their diet.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Culaea_inconstans.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 25

Common Name: Longear Sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis megalotis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae Geography / Habitat: They are found primarily in the Mississippi and Great Lakes watersheds. These fish live in shallower, warmer headwaters of streams which have numerous pools with permanent or semi-permanent flow. Life•Strategy: When breeding female enters a nesting colony, a male longear sunfish will Body Form oraStyle: Compressiform attempt to lead her to its nest. A male longear sunfish guards the nest territory during all • Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform phases of reproduction even after all of the young have left. • Mouth Position: and Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: They mostly eat aquatic insects, microcrustaceans, fish eggs young bass, Citation: and young sunfish. They have been observed eating dragonflies and other insects, which touch http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lepomis_megalotis.html the surface of the water.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lepomis_megalotis.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 26

Common Name: White bass Scientific Name: Morone chrysops Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Moronidae Geography / Habitat: Its range extends from southern Canada to northeastern Mexico following a path roughly between the Mississippi River system and the Appalachian Mountains. These fish are found in found in large bodies of water. Life Strategy: River-dwelling white bass migrate upstream in search of tributaries to spawn. Hatching occurs about 2 days after fertilization, with growth of the young being quite rapid. • Body Form or Style: Compressiform White not invest parental care beyond laying the eggs. • bass Swimdo/ Locomotion Style: Carangiform • Mouth Position: Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: Larval white bass feed mostly on zooplankton. common prey includes, fathead Citation:minnows , johnny darters, gizzard shad, threadfin shad , young sunfish, yellow perch, saugers, freshwater drum, carp, bullhead species, and others. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Morone_chrysops.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Morone_chrysops.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 27

Common Name: River Blackfish Scientific Name: Gadopsis marmoratus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order:

Perciformes

Family: Gadopsidae Geography / Habitat: River blackfish have a relatively limited range, inhabiting freshwater rivers in southeastern Australia. They prefer to stay in low-velocity (0 to 20 cm/s), highly sheltered pools of lowland rivers. Life Strategy: River blackfish reproduce sexually. Fertilization of eggs occurs outside of the mother’s body, and eggs are normally laid inside hollow logs. Few eggs are produced, so the parents protect the young to ensure their survival. Food / Feed Strategy: River blackfish are carnivorous, ambush predators. They prefer to ambush prey areas of cover in order to most efficiently use their short, quick bursts of speed. Their diet includes insects, mollusks, crustaceans, small fish, and terrestrial invertebrates.

• Body Form or Style: Compressiform • Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform • Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Strophitus_undulatus.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 28

Common Name: Rockbass Scientific Name: Ambloplites rupestris Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae Geography / Habitat: Rock bass are native to the Great Lakes region, the Mississippi Valley, and certain streams on the east side of the Alleghany Mountains. Rock bass occupy large lakes, reservoirs, and ponds in the Midwest. Life•Strategy: In the of spawning, the male and female cross the nest, their stomachs close Body Form or act Style: Depressiform together, the male a little behind female, and simultaneously void the eggs and eject the milt. • Swim / Locomotion Style: the Carangiform They between 3 and 5 years of age. • become Mouthsexually Position:mature Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: The main source of food of this species is aquatic plants. They also feed Citation: on small crayfish, minnows, tadpoles, worms, and insects. Some rock bass become cannibalistic http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Quadrula_pustulosa.html in early life, with the larger eating the smaller.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Quadrula_pustulosa.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 29

Common Name: Razorback Sucker Scientific Name: Xyrauchen texanus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Catostomidae Geography / Habitat: Razorback suckers are restricted to a relatively small number of sites in the Colorado River system, from southwestern Wyoming to southeastern California. They are found in fluctuating river basin systems with unpredictable and extreme flows and turbidity. Life•Strategy: Males together and when a female comes by, several males will pursue Body Form or aggregate Style: Sagittiform and•position forStyle: mating. When the fish reach their spawning grounds, they lie close Swim themselves / Locomotion Subcarangiform to the large aggregates. • bottom Mouth in Position: Terminal These fish do not provide parental care. Food / Feed Strategy: These fish primarily eat phytoplankton and zooplankton. They also eat Citation: planktonic crustaceans, diatoms, filamentous algae, and detritus. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Xyrauchen_texanus.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Xyrauchen_texanus.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 80

Common Name: Central Mudminnow Scientific Name: Umbra limi Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Esociformes

Family: Umbridae Geography / Habitat: Central mudminnows are native to the Nearctic, found in both Canada and the United States. Central mudminnows live in waters with dense vegetation, low dissolved oxygen levels, minimal flow, and thick layers of organic substrate Life•Strategy: Spawning is most likely prompted by warming water temperatures and flooding. Body Form or Style: Compressiform Within individual ovaries all eggsCarangiform were the same size before spawning season and ripen at the • Swim / Locomotion Style: same There is some egg guarding behavior by the female. • time. Mouth Position: Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: Central mudminnows are primarily bottom feeders and generally Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Umbra_limi.html carnivorous. Their diet includes small crustaceans, amphipods, isopod crustaceans, crayfish, chironomid larvae, culicid larvae and pupae, dixid larvae, long-legged fly larvae, crane flies, mayflies, earthworms and a variety of small fishes.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Umbra_limi.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 31

Common Name: Rainbow trout Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus mykiss Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae Geography / Habitat: They are only native to the Pacific Coast of North America. However, they have been introduced throughout the United States and in every continent except for Antarctica for game fishing purposes. Freshwater, brackish, or marine waters of temperate zones. Life Strategy: The male and female open their mouths, arch their backs, and deposit the eggs and milt (fish sperm) at the same time. The eggs are enveloped in a cloud of milt and are fertilized. Only a few seconds elapse from the time the female drops into the redd and fertilization occurs. Rainbow trout usually breed every 2-3 years and spawning generally occurs March to July, depending on temperature and other climatic variables Food / Feed Strategy: Resident rainbow trout tend to eat more fish than steelhead. Both species primarily feed on invertebrate larvae drifting in mid-water to conserve energy that would be expended if they were foraging for food in the substrate. Young rainbow trout and steelhead eat insect larvae, crustaceans, other aquatic invertebrates, and algae.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Oncorhynchus_mykiss.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 32

Common Name: Macquaria Perch Scientific Name: Macquaria australasica Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percichthyidae Geography / Habitat: The macquaria perch is found only in the Murray-Darling basin in New South Wales, Australia. It has been introduced to the Wannon, Barwon, and Yarra Rivers in Victoria, Australia, and the Nepean and Shoalhaven Rivers, in New South Wales. Life•Strategy: Breeding fish Compressiform migrate upstream and gather in schools which can last for several Body Form or Style: weeks. Males/nudge the female vent region which causes the release of eggs and then • Swim Locomotion Style: Carangiform fertilization. layTerminal their eggs in groups of two or four. One or two males usually • MouthFemales Position: accompany the females during this time to protect the eggs. After the eggs hatch the larvae travel downstream either through swimming or from the current of the stream. Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Macquaria_australasica.html Food / Feed Strategy: Their diet consists of aquatic invertebrates such as caddisfly, stonefly and mayfly species, with a small quantity of terrestrial insects taken as well. Adults feed at the bottom of lakes and rivers. The young eat eat water fleas, rotifers and water mites

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Macquaria_australasica.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 33

Common Name: Silver Carp Scientific Name: Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae Geography / Habitat: Silver carpare native to eastern Asia and are commonly found in northeastern China and Siberia. They have also been introduced to other areas of the world, and are now considered invasive to North America. Silver carp have been reported in 16 states in the United States and are well established in the Mississippi River Basin. Life Strategy: Cued by increased water temperature, they generally reproduce in warm seasons. Silver carp participate in broadcast spawning as the female releases eggs and males fertilize them within the water column. A single female can carry as many as 2 million eggs. They reach sexual maturity at 4 to 6 years of age. Food / Feed Strategy: As filter feeders, silver carp are able to filter out the very smallest organisms. However, only a small part of their diet consists of zooplankton and detritus., they can also eat small arthropods and algea.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hypophthalmichthys_molitrix.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 34

Common Name: Carp Sucker Scientific Name: Carpiodes carpio Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Catostomidae Geography / Habitat: They were originally distributed in the Mississippi River basin from Pennsylvania to Montana. Now it also lives in Louisiana, Calcasieu River, the Rio Grande in Texas and New Mexico. They prefer large, deep rivers with sand and slower-moving current. Life•Strategy: In late this species gathers in large groups and spawns. This carpsucker Body Form or spring, Style: Fusiform broadcasts eggs randomly and usually releases over 100,000 eggs. They broadcasts their eggs on • Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform the •sand and leave them.Supraterminal Mouth Position: Food / Feed Strategy: They are bottom feeders that eat and filter nutrients from silt and Citation: detritus. It ingests all kinds of items on the river bottom like algae, protozoans, chironomids, http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Carpiodes_carpio.html microcrustaceans, various tiny planktonic plants and animals.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Supraterminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Carpiodes_carpio.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 35

Common Name: Brown Bullhead Scientific Name: Ameiurus nebulosus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae Geography / Habitat: They range from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to Mobile Bay, Alabama, and in the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and Mississippi basins from Quebec west to southeast Saskatchewan to Louisiana. They have introduced to countries of Europe, the Middle East, New Zealand, Chile, and Puerto Rico. western United States and British Columbia. Life Strategy: Brown bullhead are monogamous. Courtship, occurring near nesting sites, involves holding the partners jaw, tail, or head with the mouth, head butting, nibbling bodies, and caressing barbels. Pairs settle over nests and face away from each other during gamete release. The males are territorial during nesting. Food / Feed Strategy: Juveniles eat zooplankton, including chironomids, cladocerans, ostracods, and amphipods, insects, including mayfly larvae and caddisfly larvae, and plants. Adults feed on insects, small fish, fish eggs, mollusks, plants, leeches, worms, and crayfish.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ameiurus_nebulosus.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 36

Common Name: Long Nose Gar Scientific Name: Lepisosteus osseus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Semionotiformes

Family: Lepisosteidae

Geography / Habitat: Gars are found in the eastern United States. They can be found along the eastern seaboard from the Delaware River, N.J. to central Florida and in the upper Midwest in the St. Lawrence River. They live in a variety of lowland habitats, preferring sluggish areas of larger rivers, lakes, reservoirs and estuaries. Life Strategy: Spawning occurs in the spring and summer. In rivers, longnose gar make upstream spawning runs during the spring period of high water, then move downstream into larger pools. They have also been seen spawning in open, wind-exposed areas over rocks as well as gravelly, weedy sites. They provide no parental care. Food / Feed Strategy: Gars are active night feeders and much of the feeding is surface-oriented. They eat eggs, insects, and fish such as: shads, silversides, and catfish.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lepisosteus_osseus.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 37

Common Name: Widemouth Blindcat Scientific Name: Satan eurystomus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae Geography / Habitat: This fish is from the Edwards Aquifer in Bexar County near San Antonio, Texas. Widemouth blindcats live in the fresh waters. Life Strategy: Spawning season usually varies by habitat. parental care has been seen, although it varies among species and sexes. Food / Feed Strategy: Widemouth blindcats are carnivores and detritivores. They mainly eat crustaceans. These fish are top predators in their habitat.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://eol.org/pages/1000287/details http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Satan_eurystomus.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 38

Common Name: Bigmouth Bass Scientific Name: Micropterus salmoides Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae Geography / Habitat: They are native to eastern North America and historically ranged from southern Canada to northern Mexico, and from the Atlantic coast to the central region of the United States. Bass prefer quiet, clear waters with abundant vegetation. Life•Strategy:During breeding season, each male prepares and builds a nest in shallow Body Form or the Style: Fusiform water. generally very crude in design. Once the nest is built a female swims near, and • Nests Swim are / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform following an act of courtship, she lay her eggs in the nest. Schooling fry remain close to their • Mouth Position: Terminal father for at most one month. Citation: Food / Feed Strategy: The young eat zooplankton and aquatic insects. As they grow their diet http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Micropterus_salmoides.html shifts to crayfish and other fish species. Sunfish are the food of choice for most adult largemouth bass.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Micropterus_salmoides.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 39

Common Name: Central Stoneroller Scientific Name: Campostoma anomalum Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae Geography / Habitat: Central stonerollers are found from New York west through the Great Lakes to Wisconsin and Minnesota and south through the Mississippi valley to Mexico. They prefer to live in pools or riffles with gravel or rubble substrate in small to medium-sized streams. Life Strategy: Depending on the stream, fish may migrate upstream, possibly into small headwater streams, to find suitable spawning habitat. Females stop to lay eggs in nests occupied by larger males. Neither male nor female remain to guard the nest. Food / Feed Strategy: The diet also consists of detritus, diatoms, inorganic material, and bluegreen algae. 95% of their diet consisted of diatoms and filamentous algae.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Campostoma_anomalum.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 40

Common Name: Redear Sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis microlophus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae Geography / Habitat: Redear sunfish are native to the central and southern United States and can be found in the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes and Mississippi River drainages. They prefer warm and calm or stagnant waters. Life•Strategy: During matingCompressiform season, male redear sunfish make popping sounds while in close Body Form or Style: proximity to females, whichStyle: are used to gain the attention of potential mates. Male redear • Swim / Locomotion Carangiform sunfish construct nests made from sand, gravel, and mud. Female sunfish lay their eggs in • Mouth Position: Terminal several nests each mating period. Citation: Food / Feed Strategy: Redear sunfish are mainly bottom feeders. They feed on algae and http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lepomis_microlophus.html microcrustaceans, insects, insect larvae, small snails. Once they reach an older age, they only eat snails.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lepomis_microlophus.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 41

Common Name: Brook Trout Scientific Name: Salvelinus fontinalis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Clupeiformes

Family: Clupeidae Geography / Habitat: Brook trout are found in the Appalachian mountain range and extend north to Hudson Bay, westward to eastern Manitoba and the Great Lakes. The fish has been introduced in western North America, South America, New Zealand, Asia, and many parts of Europe. They are found in rivers, lakes, and marine areas. Life Strategy: Females detect areas of ground-water flow for spawning grounds. Brook trout reach maturity around two. The redd, or pitt, is where the eggs will be deposited and fertilized after the males compete for spawning right to the female. This is one of the least tolerant of competing species of coldwater fishes. Food / Feed Strategy: They will practically eat anything its mouth can hold, including insect larvae such as caddisflies, mayflies, midges, and black flies. Other organisms consumed include worms, leeches, crustaceans, terrestrial insects, spiders, mollusks, a number of other fish species frogs, salamanders, snakes and even small mammals like voles found in the water.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Salvelinus_fontinalis.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 42

Common Name: River Blackfish Scientific Name: Gadopsis marmoratus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Gadopsidae Geography / Habitat: River blackfish are found living in freshwater rivers in southeastern Australia, north and south of the Great Dividing Range. They prefer to stay among sheltered rocks and woody debris found in low-velocity lowland rivers. Life•Strategy: Fertilization eggs occurs outside of the mother’s body, and eggs are normally Body Form or Style:of Depressiform laid•inside hollow logs. River blackfish only average approximately 300 eggs per spawning Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform season. For this reason, Terminal both parents are protective of the eggs until they hatch. • Mouth Position: Food / Feed Strategy: River blackfish are carnivorous, ambush predators. Prey items include Citation: insects, mollusks, crustaceans, small fish, and terrestrial invertebrates that fall into the water. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gadopsis_marmoratus.html Of all their prey items, larval mayflies are most important, comprising 50% of the diet. Terrestrial insects are 10% of their intake.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gadopsis_marmoratus.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 43

Common Name: Ganges River Dolphin Scientific Name: Platanista gangetica Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Cetacea

Family: Platanistidae Geography / Habitat: Limited to southern Asia, they live in the Ganges and Indus rivers and connected lakes. This species is restricted to freshwater. These river dolphins prefer areas that create eddy countercurrents, such as small islands, river bends, and convergent tributaries. Life•Strategy: Birthing peaksFusiform in December and January, preceding the beginning of the dry Body Form or Style: season. Gestation is typically about 10 months. Ganges river dolphins have one offspring and • Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform usually wean inPosition: nine months. Males and females typically reach sexual maturity at 10 years of • Mouth Terminal age and grown into their 20's. Citation: Food / Feed Strategy: Their teeth and long snouts are designed to catch and hold fish. They http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Platanista_gangetica.html feed on catfish, carp, herring, freshwater sharks, crustaceans, and mollusks.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Platanista_gangetica.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 44

Common Name: Bloater Scientific Name: Coregonus hoyi Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae Geography / Habitat: The bloater is found in the Great Lakes basin of North America where it inhabited all lakes except Lake Erie. This species was probably extirpated from Lakes Ontario and Nipigon and is threatened in Lake Michigan and declining in Lakes Superior and Huron. They swim near the bottom and move upwards in the water column at night. • Body Form or Style: Fusiform Life•Strategy: occurs February and March over almost all bottom types at a depth Swim / Spawning Locomotion Style:inSubcarangiform between 36 andPosition: 90 m. Egg production ranges from 3000 to 12000 per female, depending on the • Mouth Terminal size of the female. Citation: Food / Feed Strategy: The bloater eats primarily Mysis relicta and Pontoporeia affinis, both http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Coregonus_hoyi.html near bottom dwelling plankton. Fish eggs, fingernail clams, and copepods have also been found in some stomachs.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Coregonus_hoyi.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 45

Common Name: Smallmouth Bass Scientific Name: Micropterus dolomieu Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae Geography / Habitat: They are abundant in the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence seaway drainages from southern Quebec and New Hampshire to North Dakota, and the Mississippi River drainage. They have also been introduced to Belgium, South Africa, Scandinavia, the British Isles, France, Germany, the Czech Republic, Mexico, Belize, Austria, Slovakia, Vietnam, Guam, Fiji, and Hawaii. Life Strategy: The male will excavate and guard a small, round nest. When a female enters the male's territory, a complex dance occurs, with the pair rubbing and biting each other. This occurs for two hours. Females lay upwards of 2,000 eggs at each spawning. Only the male guards the eggs and fry for approx. two weeks. Food / Feed Strategy: Fry and juvenile diets consist primarily of zooplankton and insect larvae. Adults feed on crayfish, amphibians, insects, and other fish. The adults will also cannibalize the young of other parents.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Micropterus_dolomieu.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 46

Common Name: Bleeding Heart Tetra Scientific Name: Hyphessobrycon erythrostigma Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Characiformes

Family: Characidae Geography / Habitat: Bleeding heart tetras are found in the Upper Amazon River basin, in the Rio Negro of Brazil as well as other regional rivers. These fish are commonly found in small creeks and river bends where vegetation is dense. They are popular aquarium fish as well. Life Strategy: Females are externally fertilized. Spawning begins with vigorous swimming among dense vegetation and is followed by mates pressing their sides together. Eggs are released after brief quivering, then eggs attach to vegetation or fall to the bottom. Females do not respond to mating in aquariums. Food / Feed Strategy: It is thought that their diet is similar in the wild as it is in captivity and is made up of small crustaceans, insects, zooplankton, and other organic matter.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hyphessobrycon_erythrostigma.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 47

Common Name: Piranha Scientific Name: Pygocentrus nattereri Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Characiformes

Family: Characidae Geography / Habitat: Piranhas live in South America, and can be found east of the Andes in the Parana-Paraguay and Amazon basin. They typically live in whitewater streams. Life Strategy: They mate with ventral-to-ventral interactions among the male and female. Eggs are placed in the sediment, in bowl shaped nests. The eggs are in clusters and are attached to the bottom vegetation. Food / Feed Strategy: The smaller fish hunt during the day, and the larger fish hunt in the evening. They eat fins, scales, fish, insects, snails, and plants. The plant intake of the animal may be an active way of gaining food supplies while scanning for prey.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pygocentrus_nattereri.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 48

Common Name: Kiyi Scientific Name: Coregonus kiyi Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae Geography / Habitat: They are found only in the Great Lakes between the United States and Canada. They live in a freshwater climate and reside at depths of 35 to 200 m. Although they are occasionally found in shallower waters, kiyi prefer waters of at least 108 m in depth. Life•Strategy: Theyorspawn open gravelly areas. They practice external fertilization, and Body Form Style: over Fusiform eggs• areSwim scattered across the substrate. Eggs hatch in 120 to 140 days. Kiyi reach maturity at / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform an age of 2 to 3Position: years. Terminal • Mouth Food / Feed Strategy: Kiyi predominantly prey on small freshwater shrimps and may also prey Citation: on opossum shrimp, amphipods, mayfly nymphs, mollusks, zooplankton, benthos, and http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Coregonus_kiyi.html chironomids.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Coregonus_kiyi.html


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 49

Common Name: Chinook Salmon Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae Geography / Habitat: Chinook Salmon are found natively in the Pacific from Monterey Bay, California to the Chukchi Sea, Alaska in North America and from the Anadyr River, Siberia to Hokkaido, Japan in Asia. They also live in the great lakes. Life•Strategy: Theor Chinook Salmon have seasonal runs in which all adults return to their natal Body Form Style: Fusiform streams and spawn at approximately the same time of year. Sexual maturity can be anywhere • Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform from years.Position: There isTerminal no parental care in Chinook Salmon, as both parents die before the • 2-7 Mouth young emerge. Citation: Food / Feed Strategy: While in freshwater, Chinook Salmon fry and smolts feed on plankton http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Oncorhynchus_tshawytscha and then terrestrial and aquatic insects, amphipods and crustaceans. In the Great Lakes, Chinook Salmon were introduced to control the invasive alewife population

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Oncorhynchus_tshawytscha


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 50

Common Name: Frontasa Cichlid Scientific Name: Cyphotilapia frontos Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Cichlidae Geography / Habitat: These fish are found in Lake Tanganyika, Africa. Large schools are found 30-50 meters deep with isolated individuals being found shallower, however it is very uncommon to find individuals in shallow waters Life•Strategy: Theyorare mouthbrooding Body Form Style: Globiform fish, and contiue to stay in deep waters while releasing its fry. Cichlids release theirStyle: fry about twenty meters deep. Females lay 22 to 25 eggs and • Swim / Locomotion Ostraciiform incubate their Position: fry until they are close to 25mm long • Mouth Terminal Food / Feed Strategy: They mainly eat shellfish and smaller fish. However, when kept in an Citation: aquarium they will eat almost anything, from vegetable flakes to other fish and insects. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cyphotilapia_frontosa.html

• • •

Body Form or Style: Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cyphotilapia_frontosa.html


Marine Invertebrates


Title: Marine Inverts

Species #: 1

Common Name: Black Brittle Star Scientific Name: Ophiocoma echinata Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: n/a

Order: Ophiurida

Family: Ophiocomidae Geography / Habitat: The spiny brittle star is found along the eastern coastlines of Central and South America to Brazil, Florida, and the majority of the islands in the Caribbean Sea. They occupy reefs and reef flats, seagrass beds and mangroves, under rocks, and in old coral heads. Life Strategy: They have testes and ovaries consisting of clusters of gametes in sac-like cavities called bursae. An individual 22 mm in disk length can contain 888,000 eggs. Sexes are separate, however, no sex differences have evolved because no sex recognition is necessary in the spawning process. Fertilization is external. Food / Feed Strategy: To filter food, the arms of the stars move from side to side, curving upward to intercept detritus and plankton. Food particles are caught in mucous strands strung between the spines and are then moved down to the mouth by the podia. Larger material is swept to the mouth by a looping action of the lateral movement of the arms. The stars feed mainly on pieces of fleshy algae.

• • •

Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ophiocoma_echinata.html


Title: Marine Inverts

Species #: 2

Common Name: Sea Cucumber Scientific Name:

Trachythyone elongata

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Holothuroidea

Order: Dendrochirotida

Family: : Phyllophoridae Geography / Habitat: The sea cumber is found in the waters of the Mediterranean and the Atlantic from Norway to Morocco. They are strictly marine and are found in the sand and mud from sea level to 110 meters in the water Life•Strategy: Theyormainly reproduce by sexual reproduction and have only one gonad which Body Form Style: n/a is a •cluster or/ tuft of closed Style: tubules. Swim Locomotion n/aThe male gamete is released first into the water then the females lay eggs. Fertilization • Mouth Position: n/a takes place in the water and the fertilized egg sinks to the bottom or rises to the surface. Citation: Food / Feed Strategy: Like earthworms, they ingest sand and mud along with the plankton and http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Trachythyone_elongata.html pass it through their bodies. Some species have annual periods of dormancy where they eat nothing at all and only eat when the water has reached a certain temperature. When they do eat, they usually eat plankton and other microscopic organisms.

• • •

Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Trachythyone_elongata.html


Title: Marine Inverts

Species #: 3

Common Name: Box Jellyfish Scientific Name: Chiropsalmus quadrigatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Cubozoa

Order: Cubomedusae

Family: Chirodropidae Geography / Habitat: The box jellyfish is found in the Pacific Ocean from Australia to the Philippines. It is also found rarely in the Caribbean, so it is generally not a problem for swimmers. They travel towards the shores of mainlands in calm weather on a rising tide. Life Strategy: The female jelly release eggs and the male jelly fertilizes them. The fertilized eggs then become larva and eventually polyps. The polyps reproduce asexually by budding, a process in which young jellies grow on the polyp and are released to swim free and grow into adults. Their season, the wet season in Australia is from November to March. Food / Feed Strategy: The box jellyfish prey on small crustaceans and small fish. They congregate near the mouths of creeks and rivers following rain because it is thought that food is washed down these waterways towards the waiting jellyfish.

• • •

Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Chiropsalmus_quadrigatus.html


Title: Marine Inverts

Species #: 4

Common Name: Moon Jelly Scientific Name: Aurelia aurita Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Scyphozoa

Order: Semaeostomeae

Family: Ulmaridae Geography / Habitat: The moon jelly is found near the coast in all zones and are abundant in mostly warm and tropical waters. They are prevalent in both inshore seas and oceans. They are also known to live in brackish waters with low salt content. Life•Strategy: Sexual maturity Body Form or Style: n/aoccurs in the spring and summer. The eggs develop in gonads located in pockets formed by the frills • Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a of the oral arms. The gonads are deep and conspicuous coloration. ThePosition: gonads lie • Mouth n/aat the bottom of the stomach. Males and females are distinct and reproduction is sexual. Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Aurelia_aurita.ht Food / Feed Strategy: Their primary foods include small plankton organisms such as mollusks, crustaceans, tunicate larvae, copepods, rotifers, nematods, young polychaetes, protozoans, diatoms, and eggs. These foods collect on the surface of the animal, where they become entangled in mucus. Then, the food is moved by flagellar currents, along eight separate canals that branch off and run into the stomach.

• • •

Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Aurelia_aurita.ht


Title: Marine Inverts

Species #: 5

Common Name: Giant Clam Scientific Name: Tridacna gigas Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Bivalvia

Order: Veneroida

Family: Tridacnidae Geography / Habitat: Giant clams are found throughout the Tropical Indo-Pacific oceanic region, from south China, Australia and Fiji. They live in shallow lagoons and reef flats, and are typically embedded in sandy substrates or coral rubble. Life Strategy: These clams reproduce sexually via broadcast spawning. They expel sperm and eggs into the sea where fertilization takes place. The larvae must swim and feed in the water column. After further development, they settle on sand or coral rubble, and begin their adult life as a sessile clam. Food / Feed Strategy: They filter particulate food, using its ctenidia, or gills. It obtains most of its nutrition from photosymbionts living within its tissues. These are unicellular algae that are farmed by the mollusk host in much the same way that corals do.

• • •

Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tridacna_gigas.html


Title: Marine Inverts

Species #: 6

Common Name: California Sea hare Scientific Name: Aplysia californica Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Gastropoda

Order: Anaspidea

Family: Aplysiidae Geography / Habitat: Sea Hares are marine animals that live in coastal regions thick with vegetation. The California Sea Hare ranges from Northern California to Baja California. They can be found crawling in seaweed they use for food. Life•Strategy: Theyorgenerally Body Form Style: n/alive a quiet life crawling among the bottom of shallow waters and eating Two of its behaviors • seaweed. Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a include head waving and ink secretion, an important defensive mechanism in n/a the form of an ink gland that processes and secretes a defensive ink • Mouth Position: pigment. This pigment is obtained from the red seaweed they eat. Citation: Food / Feed Strategy: California sea hare are herbivorous and feed on a variety of algae and http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Aplysia_californica.html eelgrass. Their pair of jaws and broad rasp-like radula help crop the seaweed they eat. The color of the particular animal matches the color of the algae or vegetation they feed on the most.

• • •

Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Aplysia_californica.html


Title: Marine Inverts

Species #: 7

Common Name: Common Octopus Scientific Name: Octopus vulgaris Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Cephalopoda

Order: Octopoda

Family: Octopodidae Geography / Habitat: They are found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate waters between the surface and a depth of 100 to 150 meters. This species has a world-wide distribution. It is abundant in the Mediterranean Sea, the Eastern Atlantic Ocean, and in Japanese waters. Life•Strategy: During mating, Body Form or Style: n/athe male approaches the female, who fends him off for a while, but •then accepts him. Females become Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a restless and search for a sheltered place where they can lay •andMouth brood Position: the eggs without disturbance. Egg care includes cleaning the eggs with the arm Subterminal tips and directing jets of water from the funnel through the strings. Citation: Food / Feed Strategy: The Common Octopus feed primarily on gastropods and bivalves. Small http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Octopus_vulgaris.html hatchlings typically spend several weeks as active predators in the plankton.

• • •

Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: Subterminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Octopus_vulgaris.html


Title: Marine Invert

Species #: 8

Common Name: Sea Monkeys Scientific Name:

Artemia salina

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Branchiopoda

Order: Anostraca

Family: Artemiidae Geography / Habitat: They are found in inland salt water bodies such as the Great Salt Lake in northern Utah, on the rocky coast south of San Francisco, and in the Caspian Sea. Some are found in salt swamps just inland of the dunes at the seashore, but never in the ocean itself, because there are too many predators. • Body Form or Style: n/a Life•Strategy: lay the eggs Swim / Females Locomotion Style: n/ain a brood sac in the water. They take about one week to mature from aPosition: nauplii larva • Mouth n/a to an adult and then lives for several months and can reproduce up to 300 new nauplii every four days. Citation: Food / Feed Strategy: Sea monkeys live on photosynthetic green algae. They obtain food by http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Artemia_salina.html either filtering small particles with fine slender spines on the legs as they swim or by grazing on bottom mud and scraping algae off rocks with quick movements of their appendages.

• • •

Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Artemia_salina.html


Title: Marine Invert

Species #: 9

Common Name: Savigny’s Brittle Star Scientific Name:

Ophiactis savignyi

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class:

Order: Ophiurida

Family: Ophiactidae Geography / Habitat: They live in tropical marine habitats around the globe. Brittle stars are found inshore, on continental shelves, and continental slopes. This brittle star shelters itself in various subtropical marine and tropical marine habitats Life•Strategy: Eachorsex scatters Body Form Style: n/a its gametes in the water column. During sexual reproduction gametes from/ different colonies mix. There is no parental involvement after • Swim Locomotion Style:presumably n/a spawning, theyPosition: reproduce • Mouth n/awhen they reach a large enough size. Food / Feed Strategy: They eat small particles of detritus. The stomach typically contains Citation: foraminiferans, bryozoans, organic detritus, and small gastropods. This brittle star is a http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ophiactis_savignyi.html suspension feeder using its tube feet to catch small particles and moving them toward its mouth.

• • •

Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ophiactis_savignyi.html


Title: Marine Invert

Species #: 10

Common Name: Ringed Anemone Scientific Name:

Bartholomea annulata

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Cnidaria

Class: Anthozoa

Order: Actiniaria

Family: Aiptasiidae Geography / Habitat: They live in the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Western Atlantic. This anemone is often found under ledges, but more commonly found as a sand-pocket dweller. Life Strategy: They reproduce sexually and asexually. The anemone broadcasts its eggs and larvae are widely distributed by water currents. Food / Feed Strategy: Anemone eat zooplankton, while larger specimens feed on both zooplankton and may even take in macroscopic prey. They use long tentacles to paralyze prey with toxin injected by the nematocysts found in rings on tentacles.

• • •

Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Bartholomea_annulata.html


Title: Marine Inverts

Species #: 11

Common Name: Land Hermit Crab Scientific Name: Coenobita perlatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Coenobitidae Geography / Habitat: These crabs are found in the Indo-Pacific from the Islands of Aldabra, Mauritius, and Seychelles through Samoa. These areas are located about 1,600 miles northeast of New Zealand. They are near shore or adjacent dunes, tidal pools, sandy areas, and humid areas with dune vegetation. Life Strategy: They reproduce sexually while both individuals are in intermolt (hard-shelled stage), often in the burrows of males, or on land near the sea. The eggs (about 10,000-50,000 per fertilization) are attached to the pleopods (appendages used for swimming) on the female's abdomen and remain there for some time. Developed eggs are carried on female abdomens to the sea and left for the tide to carry them out to sea. Food / Feed Strategy: They are scavengers and are called the "garbage collectors of the seashore", eating a variety of dead and rotting material found along the seashore. These crabs can go long periods of time without food or water by carrying water in their shells on land.

• • •

Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Coenobita_perlatus.html


Title: Marine Inverts

Species #: 12

Common Name: Elkhorn Coral Scientific Name: Acropora palmata Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Anthozoa

Order: Scleractinia

Family: Acroporidae Geography Habitat: This coral • Body/ Form or Style: n/a is found in reefs from southern Florida southward to the northern coasts of Venezuela, andn/a abundantly in the Bahamas and the Caribbean. Elkhorn • Swim / Locomotion Style: coral found in shallown/a warm water and often establishes in heavy surf close to shore and • isMouth Position: create an optimal habitat. Citation: Life Strategy: Branches of the coral can break off and attach to substrate. The coral animals http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Acropora_palmata.html within the branch can then colonize the new area and begin a new colony. They can also reproduce sexually. Each colony contains both male and female structures, and is simultaneously hermaphroditic. Millions of male and female gametes are released into the water at the same time. The coral larva will float and land to create a new colony. Food / Feed Strategy: They get food energy from the algae symbionts that live in their tissues. The polyps provide the algae protection, suitable habitat, and waste products that the algae use as nutrients. Elkhorn coral polyps also use their tentacles to capture small particles of detritus and also small organisms, including phytoplankton, microbes, and small zooplankton.

• • •

Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Acropora_palmata.html


Title: Marine Inverts

Species #: 13

Common Name: Glass sponge Scientific Name: Euplectella aspergillum Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Hexactinellida

Order:

Hexactinellid

Family: Euplectellidae Geography / Habitat: This sponge species is found attached to rocky areas of the seafloor in the western Pacific Ocean near the Philippine Islands. Other species in this genus are found in oceans all around the world. It lives 100 to 1000 m below the surface, but more common at depths greater than 500 m. • Body Form or Style: n/a Life•Strategy: It is thoughtStyle: that they Swim / Locomotion n/a use asexual reproduction where amoebocytes attach themselves around the deteriorating sponge. Later epithelial cells surround the amoebocytes, • Mouth Position: n/a and when the deteriorating sponge is all gone a new animal grows from the clump of cells. Some sponges have two sexes, and individuals have only one sex, but it is likely that E. aspergillum is Citation: hermaphroditic, producing both male and female gametes at different times. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Euplectella_aspergillum.html Food / Feed Strategy: The glass sponge’s staple food is microscopic organisms and organic debris. These are filtered out of the water that flows through the sponge.

• • •

Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Euplectella_aspergillum.html


Title: Marine Inverts

Species #: 14

Common Name: Cushion Seastar Scientific Name: Oreaster reticulatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Asteroidea

Order: Valvatida

Family: Oreasteridae Geography / Habitat: The cushion seastar ranges from South Carolina to the Caribbean Islands, and is most common in the shallow waters in the Carribean. It has also been introduced to the Cape Verde Islands in Western Africa. They usually are found on coarse, calcereous sandy bottoms that are isolated or surrounded by seagrass. • Body Form or Style: n/a Life•Strategy: is external. Swim / Fertilization Locomotion Style: n/a Sperm and eggs are released when a male and a female seastar are in close proximity. • Mouth Position: n/a The seastar reproduces when there are dense aggregations and there are large numbers of males and females ensuring eggs will be fertilized. Citation: Food / Feed Strategy: They are omnivores and feed on echinoids, holothuroid juveniles, and http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Oreaster_reticulatus.html other invertebrates including polychaete worms, copepods, ostracods, crab larvae and sponge tissue. They pile sediments and everts its large cardiac stomach, which allows it to surround the food. Digestive juices are then excreted to break down the food.

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Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Oreaster_reticulatus.html


Title: Marine Inverts

Species #: 15

Common Name: Grooved Brain Coral Scientific Name: Diploria labyrinthiformis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Anthozoa

Order: Scleractinia

Family: Faviidae Geography / Habitat: This coral grows in the Caribbean, Bahamas, southern Florida, and Bermuda. This species tends to grow on loose substrates of the ocean floor. With a single-celled symbiotic algae within its cells, grooved brain coral needs to be at depths where light can penetrate the water. As a result, this species has a depth limit of approximately 50 meters. Life Strategy: Grooved brain coral is hermaphroditic, with a 10-11 month period for gonad (sex organ) development. Spawning season is from late May to late June and likely begins as a result of environmental cues such as high air temperature, low number of solar hours per month, low wind velocity, and initiation of the rainy season. Food / Feed Strategy: This coral depends primarily on suspension feeding of small marine invertebrates and zooxanthellate algae. The symbiotic algae photosynthesize and supply the coral with nutrients and energy for calcification and growth.

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Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Diploria_labyrinthiformis.html


Title: Marine Inverts

Species #: 16

Common Name: Blue Crab Scientific Name: Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Portunidae Geography / Habitat: The Blue Crab is spread from the western Atlantic Ocean from Nova Scotia to Argentina. It has introduce into both Asia and Europe. These animals are bottomdwellers . Life Strategy: Unlike males, females mate only once in their lifetime. Females producing from 2 - 8 million eggs per spawn. The female will protect the young while they hatch, but do not have a significant role in parenting. Food / Feed Strategy: This species eats clams, oysters, and mussels as well as almost any vegetable or animal • Body Form ormatter. Style: This n/a species will scavenge freshly dead animals but not long dead animals. The /crabs will sometimes also eat young crabs. • Swim Locomotion Style: n/a • Mouth Position: n/a Citation http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Callinectes_sapidus.html

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Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Callinectes_sapidus.html


Title: Marin Inverts

Species #: 17

Common Name: Chambered Nautilus Scientific Name: Nautilus pompilius Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Cephalopoda

Order: Nautilida

Family: Nautilidae Geography / Habitat: They are found in the Indo-Pacific area. They primarily live near the bottom, in waters up to 500 meters deep, but rise closer to the surface throughout the night. Life Strategy: This species reproduces sexually through internal fertilization and reaches sexual maturity at age 15 to 20 years. They then lay oblong eggs that are around 1.5 inches in length. The newly hatched chambered nautilus has a small shell that is about one inch in diameter. Food / Feed Strategy: Due to its primitive eyes and sensitivity to light, relies on its sense of smell to detect the fishes and crabs that it feeds on. They also feed on carrion.

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Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Nautilus_pompilius.html


Title: Marine Invert

Species #: 18

Common Name: Portugese Man-of-War Scientific Name: Physalia physalis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Cnidaria

Class: Hydrozoa

Order: Siphonophora

Family: Physaliidae Geography / Habitat: This species has been found in the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Caribbean, and the Sargasso Sea. It floats on or near the surface of the water. Life Strategy: Fertilization may take place close to the surface in the open water. Most reproduction takesor place in the • Body Form Style: n/a fall, producing the great abundance of young seen during the winter and spring. • Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a • Mouth Position: n/a Food / Feed Strategy:The Portuguese Man-of-War traps its food in its tentacles. It feeds mainly on fish, fry, and small adult fish, and it also consumes shrimp, other crustaceans, and other Citation: small animals in the plankton. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Physalia_physalis.html

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Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Physalia_physalis.html


Title: Marine Inverts

Species #: 19

Common Name: Vampire Squid Scientific Name: Vampyroteuthis infernalis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Cephalopoda

Order: Vampyromorpha

Family: Vampyroteuthidae Geography / Habitat: The vampire squid lives in the tropical and subtropical oceans of the world. Vampire squids live in the oxygen minimum layer of the ocean where virtually no light penetrates. Life Strategy: Because small vampire squids occupy deeper water than larger squids, spawning probably occurs in or very deepn/a water. Males transfer spermatophores to the female from their • Body Form Style: funnel. The female vampireStyle: squidn/a is larger than the male and discharges the fertilized eggs • Swim / Locomotion directly into the water n/a • Mouth Position: Food / Feed Strategy: The vampire squid uses its sensory filaments to find food in the deep sea. Citation: is not an agressive predator. While drifting, the squid deploys one filament at a time until one of http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vampyroteuthis_infernalis them contacts an animal of prey. The squid then swims around in a circle hoping to catch the prey.

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Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vampyroteuthis_infernalis


Title: Marine Invert

Species #: 20

Common Name: American Lobster Scientific Name: Homarus americanus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Nephropidae Geography / Habitat: They are found along the Atlantic coast of North AmericaThe American Lobster lives on the bottom of the ocean. They can be found in sandy and muddy areas, but prefer rocky bottoms with more places to hide. Life•Strategy: A female is ready Body Form or Style: n/a to mate at about 5 years of age. Mating must occur within 48 hours female molts, and n/a the process usually lasts about a minute. The female will • after Swimthe / Locomotion Style: spawn eggsPosition: betweenn/a one month and two years after mating. • her Mouth Food / Feed Strategy: American Lobsters have three stomachs. It is usually a scavenger, feeding Citation: on dead animals, but is also capable of capturing its own prey. The lobster's diet consists mostly http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Homarus_americanus.html of clams, crabs, snails, small fish, algae and other plants called eelgrass

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Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Homarus_americanus.html


Freshwater Invertebrates


Title: Freshwater Inverts

Species #: 1

Common Name: Freshwater Jellyfish Scientific Name: Craspedacusta sowerbyi Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Cnidaria

Class: Hydrozoa

Order: Hydroida

Family: Olindiidae Geography / Habitat: These jellyfish are found in all continents. They live in a variety of freshwater environments: freshwater lakes, reservoirs, man-made impoundments, water-filled gravel pits, rock quarries, algae-filled ponds, and rivers. Life Strategy: They reproduce asexually in the polyp form, via budding. They can form three different types of buds: polyps, frustules, or medusa buds. The polyp bud grows and develops while attached to Style: the original • still Body Form or n/a polyp. • Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Food Strategy: • / Feed Mouth Position:The n/adiet of the freshwater jellyfish consists primarily of zooplankton. It uses its nematocysts located on tentacles to sting and paralyze prey before scooping it into its mouth Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Craspedacusta_sowerbyi

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Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Craspedacusta_sowerbyi


Title: Freshwater Inverts

Species #: 2

Common Name: Eastern Grass Shrimp Scientific Name: Palaemonetes paludosus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Palaemonidae Geography / Habitat: They are found in freshwater ponds, lakes, and streams in the coastal plain of North American east of the Allegheny Mountains, from Florida to New Jersey. Life Strategy: Eastern grass shrimp reproduce sexually. In pre-spawning females, their ripening ovaries take on a greenish color. Breeding usually occurs between early-February and mid-October. Females usually carry their eggs attached to their abdomen for two months. Food They mainly eat algae, but they also consume vascular plants, detritus, • / Feed BodyStrategy: Form or Style: n/a aquatic insects, and other benthic coarse particulate organic matter. • Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a • Mouth Position: n/a Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Palaemonetes_paludosus

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Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Palaemonetes_paludosus


Title: Freshwater Inverts

Species #: 3

Common Name: Eastern Pearlshell Scientific Name: Margaritifera margaritifera Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Molluska

Class: Bivalvia

Order: Unionoida

Family: Margaritiferidae Geography / Habitat: They are native to European rivers and streams. The range stretches from Norway to Spain and populations are found in Great Britain and Scotland. They live buried or partly buried in stream bed substrates Life Strategy: In early summer months, cued by rising temperatures, males release sperm into the water column, where it is ingested by females carrying eggs. Sexual maturity varies with growth rate of the mussel, • Body Form or Style:but n/ais typically reached in twenty years. • Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Food Strategy: pearl mussels filter small organic particles from the water • / Feed Mouth Position:Freshwater n/a column. Populations of zebra mussels and other bivalves can also lead to competition for food, as both groups filter for similar food material. Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Margaritifera_margaritifera

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Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Margaritifera_margaritifera


Title: Freshwater Invert

Species #: 4

Common Name: Salamander Mussel Scientific Name: Simpsonaias ambigua Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Bivalvia

Order: Unionoida

Family: Unionidae Geography / Habitat: They are found in the Ohio River drainages, north through Lake Erie in southern Michigan, west to Iowa sandsouth to northern Alabama. They are often under large flat stones, where mudpuppies are found. Life Strategy: Males release sperm into the water, which is taken in by the females through their respiratory current. The eggs are internally fertilized. Females brood fertilized eggs in their marsupial pouch. • Body Form or Style: n/a Food TheyStyle: are filter • / Feed SwimStrategy: / Locomotion n/a feeders. Mussels have been cultured on algae, but they may• also ingest bacteria, protozoans and other organic particles. Mouth Position: n/a Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Simpsonaias_ambigua

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Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Simpsonaias_ambigua


Title: Freshwater Invert

Species #: 5

Common Name: Catspaw Scientific Name: Epioblasma obliquata Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Bivalvia

Order: Unionoida

Family: Unionidae Geography / Habitat: They are found in the Ohio River drainage and the Detroit River. Catspaws live in high gradient streams in riffles with gravel. Life Strategy: Males release sperm into the water, which is taken in by the females through their respiratory current. Females brood fertilized eggs in their marsupial pouch, but there is no parental care once the eggs are released. Food Mussels • / Feed BodyStrategy: Form or Style: n/ahave been cultured on algae, but they may also ingest bacteria, protozoans other organic particles. • Swimand / Locomotion Style: n/a They are filter feeders and mainly eat algae and phytoplankton. • Mouth Position: n/a Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Epioblasma_obliquata.html

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Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Epioblasma_obliquata.html


Fish ID Project  

Auburn Highschool, Aqua Science Fish Identification Project

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