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KARL H. BENGZON M.ARCH 2013 GSAPP


CONTENTS


SYN-TACTICAL STRUCTURES 06 ADVANCED STUDIO VI SPRING 2013 TORU HASEGAWA + MARK COLLINS

C-BIP 2 STUDIO - MIXED USE TOWER

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C-BIP STUDIO - ACTIVE THERMAL ENVELOPE

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ADVANCED STUDIO V FALL 2012 DAVID BENJAMIN

ADVANCED STUDIO IV SPRING 2012 SCOTT MARBLE

C-BIP 2 MASHRABIYA 62 ADVANCED STUDIO V FALL 2012 DAVID BENJAMIN

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING + REPRESENTATION II

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SHARED SOLITUDE - MIDTOWN LIBRARY

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SPRING 2011 T. KELLY WILSON

CORE STUDIO II SPRING 2011 CHRISTINA GOBERNA

PECK SLIP AIR LAB 92 CORE STUDIO I FALL 2010 JEANETTE KIM

BUILDING TECHNOLOGY 106 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY IV FALL 2011 KEVIN LICHTEN

FORMWORKS 112 FALL 2012 JOSHUA DRAPER

BRIDGING THE GAP 120 COMPETITION JURY SELECTION 2007 - 2008

ST. PHILIP’S ACADEMY 132 PROFESSIONAL PROJECT 2004 - 2006

THREE GRACES BRIDAL 140 FREELANCE PROJECT 2011 - 2012

TRAVEL SKETCHES + PHOTOGRAPHY SELECTED WORKS 2011 - 2013

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Syntax is the study of the principles and processes by which sentences are constructed in particular languages. Syntactic investigation of a given language has as its goal the construction of a grammar that can be viewed as a device of some sort for producing the sentences of the language under analysis. -Noam Chomsky


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SYN-TACTICAL STRUCTURES ADVANCED STUDIO VI SPRING 2013 TORU HASEGAWA + MARK COLLINS

Our studio will apply new and innovative computing technologies to a growing problem of deep significance, both in the US as well as the site of our travel, Japan. Changing demographics have led to an imbalance between a disproportionately aging and infirm population and too few young workers to support needed social structures such as the healthcare system. In Japan this crisis is particularly acute, with a quarter of its citizens reaching retirement age, already the highest in the world but expected to increase dramatically in the next decade.

At the heart of these efforts to address the population crisis is an implicit belief in rapid technological development to create a more humane world rather than the dystopian scenarios usually associated with technology and robotics. We will immerse ourselves in the emerging domain of bio-medical technologies - encouraging a process of experimentation, re-wiring and creative play to enrich our design process.

From advanced techniques such as scripting and data mining to disruptive technologies such as rapid-prototyping, computer vision, This context will take us to research laboratories that are developing low power sensor networks and robotics we will create new and robotic exoskeletons, mind-reading devices that can record your innovative outcomes and a new typology - combining the home, the dreams, and internet-of-things developers who make smart health clinic and the research lab. wheelchairs and streets that talk.

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SYN-TACTICAL STRUCTURES


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2009

Japan’s Rapidly Aging Population Japan is setting the pace among the aging societies of the world. People aged 65 and over now make up over one-fifth of the population and in twenty years will reach one-third.

Japan’s Augmenting Technology In Japan, technology is seen as a viable means of combatting this growing problem. Of the many technologies available, the use of robotic exoskeletons such as the one pictured here, has the potential to radically alter architecture and the built environment.

HAL exoskeleton by Cyberdyne Systems

2010

19 14 19 18 19 22 19 26 19 30 19 34 19 38 19 42 19 49 19 53 19 57 19 61 19 65 19 69 19 73 19 77 19 81 19 85 19 89 19 93 19 97 20 01 20 05 20 2009 10

Elderly Japan’s Mortality Cancer and heart disease remain the most common causes of death. However, senility, dementia, overall mental and physical degradation lower the quality of life for a growing number of elderly Japanese.

“A Profile of Older Japanese” 2009 2012 Report by the International Longevity Center of Japan

he period from 1950 to 2000 is from dying at This change problematical in terms of both 10 isSYN-TACTICAL STRUCTURES

ests of the dying people and their families.

esponse to changes in pattern of dying. Some


How might architecture and the technology of robotic suits mitigate the effects of mental and physical degradation?

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concrete paver waterproof membrane insulated glass unit metal sill + drainage channel laminated wood cap thermal break rain collection system / planter

cove light fixture wood framing (laminated or dimension lumber)

recessed services channel for tel / data / fiber, radiant heating / cooling, or other future system(s)

AUGMENTED CONSTRUCTION As the robotic suit enhances humans, augmented construction enhances architecture by seamlessly integrating structure, envelope, openings and services into a single thickness.

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01

02

all actions occur in the built environment occur upon three elemental surfaces: horizontal, vertical and diagonal.

combining different surface types may allow multiple combinations of actions to occur.

02a these combined surfaces can then be arranged to form a new grammar that challenges the actions possible upon surfaces in the built environment.

VERTICAL SURFACES separating dividing bearing HORIZONTAL SURFACES sitting standing kneeling walking lying DIAGONAL SURFACES ascending descending bracing

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SYN-TACTICAL STRUCTURES

A residential module

B residential / comm. module

C commercial module

E landscape module

F landscape / lab module

G landscape / lab module

D shrine / temple module


03 the seven types are loaded into a simple program that arranges the tiles according to a probability factor, resulting in many possible design variations.

step 1: initial modules loaded into processing sketch

step 2: random selection of module biased by a probability factor

10% 10%

step 3: selected module instantiated. for-loop returns to step 1 and repeats until completion. step 4: output design variations are evaluated and developed by human designer

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20%

15% 20% 5%

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If the human body is altered, then the built environment, which is premised upon the body, must be altered as well. Every surface would need to be re-imagined – all walls, floors, stairs, ramps, roofs and openings.

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CBIP2 STUDIO


CBIP2 STUDIO ADVANCED STUDIO V FALL 2012 DAVID BENJAMIN

PROJECT ABSTRACT In recent years, argues entrepreneur Kevin Slavin, without anyone quite realizing it, algorithms have assumed command of most aspects of our lives. Algorithms now control finance, public infrastructure, espionage, and movie scripts. Algorithms have migrated from the domain of data to the domain of culture, and they now offer simulations of human behavior, predictions of taste, and a new “physics of culture.� Algorithms have even burrowed their way into the age-old categorization of narrative conflicts: man-against-nature has become man-against-nature-against algorithms. This is the territory of CBIP 2, a new experimental design studio at the intersection of computation, collaboration, culture, and construction. As a new chapter in the Columbia Building Intelligence Project (CBIP), this Third year and AAD studio will explore new advanced topics and produce new publishable research. We will build off of modules of building intelligence from previous CBIP studios, and in turn develop new modules of building intelligence for future CBIP studios. We will draw on workflows of open source software development, and we will develop our own new models of collaboration. We will apply computation to enhance creativity, and not merely to achieve cold-blooded efficiency. We will investigate energy, environmental performance, and ecology in new ways. And over the course of the semester, we will contribute in a novel and important way to an open-ended and critical discussion of artificial intelligence, collaborative intelligence, and building intelligence.

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Traditional Islamic architecture is a highly effective and sustainable form of spatial practice that embodies the social and cultural values of its context. In short, it is a vast library of building intelligence. Though this intelligence has been thoroughly developed in response to the cultural and climatic needs of the Middle East over centuries, most new construction in the region has failed to utilize this valuable resource. With this in mind, our intention is to bring traditional spatial practice into the skyscraper, creating a sustainable, dynamic and comfortable environment where residents and non-residents alike spend as much time as possible. We believe we can realize this by offering residents the organic spatial organization of the traditional town, in the form of a high-rise building. We will attempt to merge our design intentions with traditional Islamic building intelligence by exploiting the power of computation and evolutionary design algorithms to arrive at a digital workflow for designing a mixed use tower in the Middle East.

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CBIP2 STUDIO


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CBIP2 STUDIO KARL BENGZON, DAMON LAU, DAN TAEYOUNG LEE, ALEXANDER MALAGELADA, FERESHTEH TABE

STUDIO WORKFLOW - DAVID BENJAMIN In this studio, we will consider how architecture might be defined by an ecology of numbers—an ebb and flood of input numbers and output numbers. To start, we will engage input numbers as a technique to grow geometry. We will use parametric modeling software and building information modeling (BIM) software (CATIA) to create adaptive three-dimensional models that are defined by precise inputs. Then we will write scripts that generate complex forms based on changes in the inputs. This general approach reflects a relatively new paradigm in artificial intelligence: rather than program machines to follow fixed and known rules, set up an emergent system to evolve new and unexpected results. But applying scripting to generate geometry is only the beginning.

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CBIP2 STUDIO

The heart of our research will involve the study of how specific input numbers correspond to specific output numbers. After a set of inputs generates a precise form, how do we measure its performance? For performance analysis, we will several digital simulation packages. We will use finite element analysis software (Robot), computational fluid dynamics software (Solid Works Flow Simulator), environmental analysis software (EQuest), and crowd flow software (OpenCrowd) to test the performance of possible designs under various conditions. We will also consider how to quantify objectives such as program and aesthetics in order to measure each design. Then, we will pioneer the application of multi-objective optimization software (modeFrontier) to architectural design. This software will allow us to automate the process of generating, evaluating, and evolving thousands of possible designs through the use of evolutionary computation and genetic algorithms. For our purposes, optimization will not be about simple and cold-blooded efficiency— but rather it will be about complex trade-offs and the art of negotiation between competing architectural values.


What if we flip the traditional Islamic town up?

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Turn the Islamic town upon its side and extend these traditional spatial practices into the skyscraper building type.

However, standard high rise construction cannot accommodate our intent. So, how do we realize our project?

In doing so, occupants should then be able to freely circulate throughout the volume of the building.

What if we move primary structure to the perimeter and then hang the floors to attain volumetric circulation?

CBIP2 STUDIO

Then, we connect the floors with large diagonals that carry program and circulation.


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SYSTEM DESIGN MAP

GROUP 01 KARL BENGZON DAMON LAU ALEX MALAGELADA DAN TAEYOUNG LEE FERESHTEH TABE

CBIP-2, FALL 2012, DAVID BENJAMIN GROUP 01

METRICS + DESIGN OBJECTIVES

MICRO-SCALE TESTING

MACRO-SCALE TESTING

DESIGN STATEMENT INTENTIONS

STICKINESS

MANUAL DESIGN

CATIA RHINO GRASSHOPPER

CONTEXTUAL RESEARCH ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE MASHRABIYA + BADGIR BASRA, IRAQ

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CBIP2 STUDIO

DESIGN SPACE

PROGRAM + MASSING

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

KERN TESTING STABILITY

VERSION ‘A’ KARL BENGZON DAMON LAU ALEX MALAGELADA FERESHTEH TABE

INITIAL RESEARCH

VERSION ‘B’

PREFABRICATION METROLOGY + DATA

DAN TAEYOUNG LEE


This page: rendering by Alex Malagelada Opposite page: rendering by author

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MACRO SCALE TESTING - PROGRAM Version 1.0

PROGRAM SCORING Two scores are proposed:

COMPETING DESIGN OBJECTIVES Maximize public programs on the lower floors.

Developer contentment The higher floors are given a higher value than the lower floors. Value is assigned in packs of 100m2.

Minimize overlapping areas between towers on lower floors. Maximize light, views and ventilation for all floors.

User contentment The lower floor public spaces are given a higher value than the higher floors . Value is assigned in packs of 100m2. PROGRAM - SCORING THE OVERLAP Light, views and ventilation are important factors. These factors can be amplified by the rotation of the towers. For this purpose each tower is compared to the other two such that the area that they share, or overlap, is minimized.

max

max

min

min

min

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max

A HIGH SCORING DESIGN A high scoring design maximizes the public programs on the lower floors, minimizes overlapping areas between towers and maximizes light, views and ventilation between floors.

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max

max

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min

A LOW SCORING DESIGN A low scoring design does not provide enough area for public programs on lower floors, generates too much overlapping area between the three towers and minimizes light, views and ventilation between floors.


MACRO SCALE TESTING - MASSING OPERATIONS TAXONOMY Version 1.0

PROPORTIONAL SCALING Tower 01 proportion is set. Towers 02 and 03 are proportionally scaled to accommodate the remainder of program.

ROTATION ABOUT CENTER AXIS The three towers can be rotated about the grouping’s central axis.

TWISTING AT UPPER THIRD Each tower may be twisted about an axis in the upper third of the building.

TWISTING AT MIDDLE THIRD Each tower may be twisted about an axis in the middle third of the building.

ROTATION ABOUT TOWER AXIS Each individual tower may rotate about its central axis.

CONVERGING / DIVERGING Each tower may move closer or farther away from the group’s central axis.

EXPANDING / CONTRACTING / SHIFTING - UPPER THIRD Each tower may expand, contract or shift in the xy plane at the upper third.

EXPANDING / CONTRACTING / SHIFTING - MIDDLE THIRD Each tower may expand, contract or shift in the xy plane at the middle third.

EXPANDING / CONTRACTING BOTTOM THIRD Each tower may expand or contract at the bottom third.

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MACRO SCALE TESTING - KERN STABILITY TEST Version 1.0

MACRO SCALE TESTING - PARETO FRONTIER Design Space

Kern Radius ‘K’ defined as 0.25R Floor Plan Radius ‘R’

Floor Plan with Kern Area INNER KERN load path falls in an area 1/3 of kern radius OUTER KERN load path falls in an area 2/3 of kern radius

MINIMIZE OVERLAPPING SURFACE AREAS

Kern Area

CONDITIONAL SUPPORT Indicates lateral support by one or two adjacent towers to offset any eccentric loads at this location

Enlarged Plan of Kern Area

MAXIMIZE YELLOW KERNS

ECCENTRIC LOADING - OUT OF BOUNDS load path falls outside of kern area indicating an eccentric loading condition

KERN TESTING Twisting, rotating and scaling can provide a wide variety of results, but as architects our designs must be applicable to reality. A basic stability test is run to define a feasible design area. Based on our discussion with the structural engineer, the kern is defined as the area of one fourth the radius of the circular section. Though we have a hexagonal plan (or a low resolution circle), we assume our building functions as a series of stacked circular column sections, not unlike a stack of poker chips. Each floorplan projects its center to the one below. A circle is drawn in the center of the lower floorplate. If this projection falls in the inner 1/4 of the circle the projection turns green. If it falls in the circle but out of this inner limit it turns yellow. If it falls out it turns red. If two towers make contact it turns blue. A HIGH SCORING DESIGN This variation has an even mix of yellow and green kerns, indicating that the hexgrid structure will not need to be stiffened to accommodate an undue amount of eccentric loading. 38

CBIP2 STUDIO

A LOW SCORING DESIGN This variation has many red kerns, indicating that there are a prohibitive number of eccentric loading conditions that will be imposed upon the hexgrid. This immediate feedback allows us to quickly adjust the model according to the visual feedback.


MACRO SCALE TESTING - OBSERVED TRENDS + PARETO DESIGNS High Scoring Designs

PREDICTED (MANUAL DESIGN) Manually designed tower assuming wide base tapering toward the top. This trend is confirmed by testing.

INWARD TAPER Load is concentrated towards the middle third of the tower and is spread downward not unlike the previous design.

ENTASIS Load bulges at the middle third, creating a condition not unlike the effect of entasis found in the classical orders. Perhaps entasis may be reimagined as being expressive of load pushing down upon the column, as opposed to the traditional reading which posits this bulging as expressive of the column holding up the structure.

DERIVED BY ALGORITHM Upon initial examination, this configuration makes little sense. Upon closer inspection according to kern testing, this trend is possible within a certain range. Load is asymmetrically channeled until it meets well within the kern at the middle third. Load is then spread outward at the base.

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MICRO SCALE TESTING - EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

COMPETING DESIGN OBJECTIVES Maximize the number of intersections between lines.

Maximize the distance between each intersection.

‘STICKINESS’ OF ISLAMIC SPACE Islamic towns exhibit a high degree of privacy as dictated by Islamic Sharia law. The resulting effect clearly defines thresholds between public and private realms and thus how they are accessed via circulation routes. These routes can be quantified by measuring the ‘stickiness’ that we observe in the circulation patterns of traditional Islamic towns. The nonCartesian irregularity and relative inefficiency of movement (in contrast to axial movement) creates a ‘retarding’ effect on movement through space. Our intention is to carry this sense of movement and space vertically into the tower.

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CBIP2 STUDIO

LINE TEST - MEASURING ‘STICKINESS’ Thus, the design of the circulation routes to maintain public and private realms is critical to our design proposal. We subdivide the floor plan with circulation paths and maximize the number of intersections between the lines. We then maximize the distance between these intersections to computationally generate a wide variety of possible diagrammatic floor plan solutions.


COMPETING DESIGN OBJECTIVES Maximize the number of intersections. Maximize the distance between each intersection. SCORING AND EVALUATION Each variation is then evaluated for the number of intersections it exhibits and how far apart each intersection is from its neighbors. This ensures a random, yet evenly spaced circulation network. PREDICTION Based on our parameters and variables, high scoring variations will likely form an ‘A’ shape. A HIGH SCORING DESIGN This variation has 6 intersections evenly spaced apart.

A LOW SCORING DESIGN This variation has 2 intersections very closely spaced apart.

DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT Inputs: Line Position + Line Angle By varying these two kinds of inputs, evolutionary design algorithms test several thousand variations to evolve the best possible designs as determined by our design objectives below. COMPETING DESIGN OBJECTIVES Maximize the number of intersections between lines. Maximize the distance between each intersection.

THE HIGHEST SCORING DESIGN This variation has 18 intersections evenly spaced apart.

THE SECOND HIGHEST SCORING DESIGN This variation has 17 intersections evenly spaced apart.

CONCLUSION As predicted, the highest scoring results tend to form an ‘A’ like configuration. Next version should improve upon input parameters and include other criteria.

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MICRO SCALE TESTING - MULTIPLE FLOORS VERSION 1.0 5 FLOOR SECTION TEST The Test is transformed into a 3D operation and we combine the initial idea with the structure of the building. We propose a structural hexagon grid as the envelope of the building. The circulation paths and skin are the primary structure of the building.

INPUTS Position: 8 tunnels connecting two cells on outer shell - options from 1 to 241. Random point selection by MOGA-II. (8x2=16 inputs) Scale and separation of the three towers.

OUTPUTS But we propose a change of the position of the Test for Structure (X, Y, and Z stresses, bending structural cores. Not vertical not horizontal. The failures, node failures) cores become the streets. The spaces in between the Test for Stickiness city. Floorplates and spaces are held by the cores. The tower is a part of the city, a new neighboorhood.

COMPETING DESIGN OBJECTIVES Maximum number of intersections within the hexagonal volume. Maximum number of intersections within an ideal 3D region(cylinder). Maximum distance between points within the ideal 3D region. Minimum number of structural nodal failures and bending stress failures. PREDICTION Intersections will tend to fall near the perimeter of the cylinder.

A HIGH SCORING DESIGN This variation has the maximum number of intersections, evenly spaced apart within the ideal 3D region, minimal nodal and bending stress failures.

MAXIMIZE THE NUMBER OF INTERSECTIONS

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A LOW SCORING DESIGN This variation has very few intersections that fall within the ideal 3D region and high nodal and bending stress failures.

PLACE INTERSECTIONS WITHIN THE OPTIMAL VOLUME (CYLINDER)

AGGREGATE SCORING METRIC We total these four factors into an aggregate score that determines the overall fitness of each design variation with respect to design intent.

MAXIMIZE THE DISTANCE BETWEEN INTERSECTIONS WITHIN THE CYLINDER

MINIMIZE STRUCTURAL NODAL FAILURE BENDING STRESSES AT HEXGRID PRIMARY STRUCTURE


MICRO SCALE TESTING - PARETO FRONTIER Design Space 710

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MIN_STRUCTUR[...] (Diameter)

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Min = 2.1560E1 Max = 9.7246E3

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498 174

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7.5300E2 6.7790E2 6.0280E2 5.2770E2 4.5260E2 3.7750E2 3.0240E2 2.2730E2 1.5220E2 7.7100E1 2.0000E0

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MAX. INTERSECTIONS WITHIN IDEAL VOLUME

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MAX. NUMBER OF VARIED INTERSECTIONS

MICRO SCALE TESTING - OBSERVED TRENDS High Scoring Designs

BULGING Partial sections exhibit bulging at its middle part as load is carried to the supports.

‘A’ INTERSECTION FORMATIONS Intersection and spacing rules tend to create ‘A’ shaped configurations as the system attempts to maximize number of intersections and distance between them.

SQUASHING Partial sections spread out at the base under loading.

‘H’ INTERSECTION FORMATIONS Intersection and spacing rules tend to create ‘H’ shaped configurations as the system attempts to maximize number of intersections and distance between them.

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This page: rendering by Alex Malagelada Opposite page: rendering by Fereshteh Tabe

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CBIP STUDIO - ACTIVE THERMAL ENVELOPE


CBIP STUDIO - ACTIVE THERMAL ENVELOPE ADVANCED STUDIO IV SPRING 2012 SCOTT MARBLE

COLUMBIA BUILDING INTELLIGENCE PROJECT C-BIP DESIGN STUDIO The Integrated Design Studio (IDS) will prepare the next generation of architects to lead in the development of new modes of design and practice. In addition, work will focus on the themes of energy and adaptation in the context of existing urban structures and the urgent need of cities to change in response to what is increasingly acknowledged as a global climate crisis. We will explore new forms of interdisciplinary and collective workflow through design and communication software. We will be working with a team of consultants, advisors and students from other disciplines who will greatly expand the learning capacity of the studio.

The components will be used in single instances, but they will also be integrated into larger design proposals. By the end of the semester, the Integrated Design Studio will offer dozens of individual design components, as well as several larger design strategies, that are both flexible and re-usable. And it will explore issues of culture, program, history, and aesthetics that are difficult to quantify. Concepts, and imagination will drive the entire process.

Unlike a typical studio in which students produce isolated standalone designs, this studio will involve a design-and-release model. The design task for each student will involve the creation of sophisticated components that can be formulated, tested, compiled, released, handed off, and re-used. Each component will be created in CATIA and then made available as a tangible research product that others can download, re-configure, and utilize. It will be a specific product, but it will also initiate a broader system for storing, documenting, and sharing architectural design and research.

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DESIGN STATEMENT Current building envelope design is thermally inefficient, fractured into several layers. Perimeter heat gain/loss add significant loads to the mechanical system which must then be over-designed to compensate for this inefficiency. This increases the size/cost of the mechanical system and adds cost to the building’s operation and maintenance during its lifetime. A simpler, cheaper, and more thermally effective envelope may be obtained by combining the enclosure with a radiant heating system into a single layer, creating a ‘heat exchange-relation’ between envelope and occupants. In order to test this hypothesis, the following process-design is used to measure the proposed assembly. By measuring its value within the domains of aesthetics, structural performance, mechanical performance, material cost and profit, one is able to obtain a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the many design permutations that the system can generate.

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CBIP STUDIO - ACTIVE THERMAL ENVELOPE


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exteriors/ cladding + airspace/ vapor barrier + interior finish

cooling s/r

ventilation s/r

chilled / heated water supply

ventilation s/r

+ exteriors/ cladding

EXTERIOR

airspace/ vapor barrier

exterior sheathing

masonry or stud backup

interior finishes

INTERIOR EXTERIOR

INTERIOR

summer

heat radiates from the warmer body to the cooler body

winter

water return

PROPOSED SYSTEM WATER-BASED HEATING / COOLING SYSTEM DECOUPLED VENTILATION THERMAL MASS CONSTRUCTION

THE PRINCIPLE OF RADIANT HEATING The principle of radiant heating can be summed up in the following statement - heat flows from the warmer object to the cooler object. This is not to be confused with the principle of convection which states that warm air rises and cool air descends. Rather, if object A has a greater temperature than object B, heat from object A will flow to object B. Or put another way, heat from from object B will draw heat away from object A.

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heating s/r

CBIP STUDIO - ACTIVE THERMAL ENVELOPE

CURRENT PRACTICE AIR-BASED HEATING / COOLING SYSTEM COMBINED WITH VENTILATION CAVITY WALL CONSTRUCTION

RADIANT CURTAIN WALL This sketch explores the design and detailing of a radiant curtain wall that combines envelope design and mechanical design into a single system. They are also explorations of an underlying geometric framework or ‘scaffolding’ that responds to parametric inputs.


water storage location

gravity-fed hot water distribution

earth air water tower courtney hunt - CBIP 2012

solar hot water heater

HEATING RISER DIAGRAM In this diagram, water is collected, stored and heated using other students building elements. This water is then gravity fed into the radiant curtain wall. The water flows downward, shedding its heat to the cooler objects (human occupants) on each floor. Water that has shed its heat is the collected at the bottom and pumped back to the top of the system for storage and reheating.

window water chamber heidi werner - CBIP 2012 solar ivy ben brennan - CBIP 2012

heat radiates from the warmer body to the cooler body pump water up to roof storage location for re-use

pump water up to greywater system

water storage location

gravity-fed cold water distribution

COOLING RISER DIAGRAM In similar fashion, during the cooling loop, water is fed from the top of the system and allowed to flow to the bottom of the system. Chilled water draws heat away from the warmer objects (human occupants) at each floor. Warmed water is then collected at the bottom of the system and pumped back to the top for storage and heat rejection.

earth air water tower courtney hunt - CBIP 2012

solar hot water heater

solar ivy ben brennan - CBIP 2012

window water chamber heidi werner - CBIP 2012

heat radiates from the warmer body to the cooler body

pump water up to roof storage location for re-use

pump water up to greywater system

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INPUTS

horizontal opening ratio vertical opening ratio horizontal grid deformation vertical grid deformation deformation factor

RADIANT CURTAIN WALL

design variations

QUALITATIVE INPUTS

SYSTEM QUALITATIVE OUTPUTS

EVALUATION

solid to void ratio

UDF instantiation upon hosting surface

surface thickness projection from edge of slab material density specific heat Cp temp T1 temp T2 surface temp T3 surface temp T4

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

number of rows number of columns

QUANTITATIVE INPUTS

rentable price per sf material unit cost

FINANCIAL INPUTS

user defined feature (UDF)

SYSTEM PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

total surface area (interior) radiating surface area (interior) total volume volume of radiating surface

COMPARISON OF DESIGN VARIATIONS

SURFACE DRIVING INPUTS BY OTHERS

The diagram above describes the design-process. Inputs are entered into the system to inform the behavior of the user defined feature, or UDF. This fundamental geometric unit, or block, is placed on an underlying surface geometry which functions as a kind of mold for the UDF to rest upon. This placement procedure, known as instantiation, is repeated several times by means of a script. Once

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OUTPUTS

CBIP STUDIO - ACTIVE THERMAL ENVELOPE

design scorecard

SYSTEM QUANTITATIVE OUTPUTS

mass of radiating surface heat input required to heat water radiant heat transfer (surface to body)

SYSTEM FINANCIAL OUTPUTS

new rentable square footage added value of new rentable square footage

the script has been completed, output data from all the instances of UDFs are collected and tallied, thus allowing the designer to measure the iteration. The resulting feedback that is generated facilitates quantitative and qualitative comparison between different iterations of the design-process.


HEAT INPUT BENCHMARK 1 boiler horsepower BHP = 33,445.6 Btu or tbd by mechanical engineer

IDEALIZED DESIGN VARIATION ALL DOMAINS HELD IN EQUILIBRIUM

AESTHETICS tbd by architect PROFIT FROM NEW SF tbd by real estate input or tbd by owner

RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER BENCHMARK 28 btu/h/sf tbd by mechanical engineer STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE BENCHMARK 10 psf DL, 6 kip WL, typ. aluminum curtain wall typical DL + LL for cavity wall tbd by structural engineer

DESIGN VARIATION BIASED TOWARD AESTHETICS DOMAIN aesthetics

heat input

profit from new sf

material cost

radiative heat transfer

MATERIAL COST current cost per unit area for a given material glass fiber reinforced concrete or lightweight structural concrete size of circle magnitude relative to benchmark proximity to dominant domain describes influence of biased domain to peripheral domain (closer = stronger connection)

structural performance

DOMAIN LEGEND biased domain takes the center marginalized domain moved to the periphery driven by dominant domain aesthetics

structural performance

profit from new sf

radiative heat transfer

material cost

heat input

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OPERATIONAL TAXONOMY The following examples illustrate the effects of each variable (input) in the system. The resulting feedback (output) allows designers to measure the differences and similarities between design variations. Thus, a large field of possible outcomes is created by the interplay of these variables.

OPENING RATIO HORIZONTAL / VERTICAL DIRECTION

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CBIP STUDIO - ACTIVE THERMAL ENVELOPE

DEFORMATION FACTOR DISPLACEMENT OF INSERTION POINTS


HORIZONTAL DIVISIONS VERTICAL DIVISIONS

GRID DEFORMATION HORIZONTAL DIRECTION

GRID DEFORMATION VERTICAL DIRECTION

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PROFIT FROM NEW SQUARE FOOTAGE

RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER

MATERIAL COSTS MINIMIZED PROFIT FROM NEW SQUARE FOOTAGE MAXIMIZED

AESTHETICS

STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE

AESTHETICS / RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER

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[activ

INPU openi openi horizo vertic

defor grid d grid d envel facad rental price

[active thermal envelope] version 5.0 INPUTS opening ratio H opening ratio V horizontal divisons vertical divisions deformation factor grid deformation H grid deformation V envelope thickness facade projection rental price per SF $ price per cu.ft. conc. $

OUTPUTS opening percentage new sf added value new sf added $ total wt. concrete total material cost $ emitting surface area required heat input radiation loss rate

0.7 0.8 20 10 0 8” 2” 12” 30” 60 office 60

OUTP openi

new s value

total w total m emitt requir

radiat

76.8 % 214 12,845 18,041 lb 1,445 587 21,469 btu 12.18 btu/hr/person

AESTHETICS

profit from new sf

heat input

radiative heat transfer

material cost

structural performance

KARL H. BENGZON COLUMBIA BUILDING INTELLIGENCE PROJECT INTEGRATED DESIGN STUDIO - COLUMBIA GSAPP SPRING 2012

heat in

[active thermal envelope] version 5.0 INPUTS opening ratio H opening ratio V horizontal divisons vertical divisions deformation factor grid deformation H grid deformation V envelope thickness facade projection rental price per SF $ price per cu.ft. conc. $

OUTPUTS opening percentage new sf added value new sf added $ total wt. concrete total material cost $ emitting surface area required heat input radiation loss rate

0.7 0.8 20 10 0 8” 2” 12” 30” 60 office 60

materia

KARL COLU INTEG SPRIN

76.8 % 214 12,845 18,041 lb 1,445 587 21,469 btu 12.18 btu/hr/person

AESTHETICS

heat input

profit from new sf

KARL H. BENGZON

material cost

radiative heat transfer

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POSSIBLE FUTURES - ALTERNATE APPLICATIONS Since the element is posited as a design system, rather than a single object, the active thermal envelope might also be developed for purposes other than the facade. It may also be employed as a horizontal surface that may be used to create different types of rooftop occupation such as rooftop gardens or apartments. On the following page, it is imagined as a self supporting rooftop pavilion or arbor.

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CBIP STUDIO - ACTIVE THERMAL ENVELOPE


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CBIP2 MASHRABIYA


CBIP2 MASHRABIYA ADVANCED STUDIO V FALL 2012 DAVID BENJAMIN

PROJECT ABSTRACT In recent years, argues entrepreneur Kevin Slavin, without anyone quite realizing it, algorithms have assumed command of most aspects of our lives. Algorithms now control finance, public infrastructure, espionage, and movie scripts. Algorithms have migrated from the domain of data to the domain of culture, and they now offer simulations of human behavior, predictions of taste, and a new “physics of culture.� Algorithms have even burrowed their way into the age-old categorization of narrative conflicts: man-against-nature has become man-against-nature-against algorithms. This is the territory of CBIP 2, a new experimental design studio at the intersection of computation, collaboration, culture, and construction. As a new chapter in the Columbia Building Intelligence Project (CBIP), this Third year and AAD studio will explore new advanced topics and produce new publishable research. We will build off of modules of building intelligence from previous CBIP studios, and in turn develop new modules of building intelligence for future CBIP studios. We will draw on workflows of open source software development, and we will develop our own new models of collaboration. We will apply computation to enhance creativity, and not merely to achieve cold-blooded efficiency. We will investigate energy, environmental performance, and ecology in new ways. And over the course of the semester, we will contribute in a novel and important way to an open-ended and critical discussion of artificial intelligence, collaborative intelligence, and building intelligence.

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ELEMENT DESIGN - MASHRABIYA

01 - FOUR INPUT POINTS These points lie outside the UDFgeometrical set. They will be required to instantiate the UDF. Starting with any of these four points, the pick the remaining three in CLOCKWISE fashion.

03 - INPUT SURFACE CONSTRUCTION 04 - LINE PROJECTION 05 - FILL SURFACES This is a placeholder surface that can achieve The diagonals are then projected onto the Once all lines have been projected onto the input double curvature. This surface lies outside the UDF placeholder input surface. surface, fill surfaces are created. geometrical set as an input, along with the first four input points.

06 - THICK SURFACES 07 - SHELL SURFACES 08 - PARAMETERS The previous fill surfaces are then used to create The thick surfaces are then hollowed out using the Finally, driving parameters control the height of Thick Surfaces. shell command. the extrusion and its thickness. Output parameters measure the volume (and weight) of the piece, and calculate the opening percentage of the voids.

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02 - LINE CONSTRUCTION The previous construction lines and planes are used as ‘rigging’ for the diagonals defined here. These diagonals will be projected onto an input surface next.


HOSTING SURFACE Hosting surface is provided by the Powercopy, but end user may simply strip out the UDF and create their own hosting surface. To do so, you will need a point grid, a hosting surface, and an orientation plane (do not use the world planes). UDF INSTANTIATION Final module is pictured right. Module instantiated upon hosting surface pictured left. Input selection dialog pictured at upper right.

ROTATION User may vary the pattern shown here by changing the multiplier parameter found under parameters. This feature is for purely aesthetic use. POWERCOPY INSTANTIATION Instantiating the powercopy only requires four input points and a plane. You can control the density of the modules under the Parameters. Execute and upgrade the knowledge patterns.

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The mashrabiya limits the amount of direct sunlight and therefore heat gain into the building. The mashrabiya also functions as a privacy screen, preventing outsiders from looking into the house.

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CBIP2 MASHRABIYA


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ADR II


ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING + REPRESENTATION II SPRING 2011 T. KELLY WILSON

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THE ROMAN SARCOPHAGUS METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART This sculpture was drawn and analyzed over a five week period to get a sense of its order, composition and design intent. In other words, we studied its architecture. The lessons learned from this intensive period of study were then used to explore pure abstraction and visual order as entry points into architecture.

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DRAWING UNDER TIME CONSTRAINT Every week, the class was asked to draw a certain segment of the sarcophagus under increasing time pressure with every iteration. For example, in the first week, students were asked to draw only one figure within 15 minutes. The next week, students are asked to draw two figures, then three, then four, all within fifteen minutes. This method quickly develops the students’ ability to judge proportion and scale while enhancing hand eye coordination.


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OPTICAL CORRECTION Proportions in the entire composition are tweaked in such a way to enhance the qualities of each figure at a specific viewing height, angle, etc. For example, the Four Seasons have longer necks & torsos, so their proportions are evened out when looking up at them. Perhaps the angle shown here was used to optically correct for an approach to the sarcophagus from a given direction at its original location. THE GOLDEN SECTION The Golden Section is employed as the primary organizing device in the composition. The Four Seasons occupy the squares on either side, forming a pair of figures framing the middle. DIAGONALS The Four Seasons are symmetrically oriented on a diagonal tilting away from Dionysus, furthering the framing effect in the center of the composition. RHYTHM The composition employs the major and minor divsions to suggest the rhythm of time. The major divisions of the seasons stand firm as the activities of man and animal in the lower order swirl about in relation to them, as all swirl in relation to Dionysus.. MAJOR AND MINOR DIVISONS The composition is arranged further with the use of major and minor groupings creating a classical tripartite scheme.

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A

B

A

C

A

B

A


DRAWING AS VISUAL ORDER With the drawing and analysis of the sarcophagus as a point of departure, the mark making of the graphite stick on paper becomes a study of the very process of sketching, removed of the need to represent the subject. The marks themselves are the subject. Yet in interpreting these marks, it becomes possible to understand them as a whole, integral work. KARL H. BENGZON

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CONTINUATION OF LINES - VERTICALS Elements of the composition flow from one to the other seamlessly as limbs merge with animals and branches merge with cornucopia, and the sweep of cloth pulls the eye vertically.

CONTINUATION OF LINES - HORIZONTALS Elements of the composition flow from one to the other seamlessly as limbs merge with animals and branches merge with cornucopia, and the sweep of cloth pulls the eye across.

DIRECTIONALITY The gaze of the figures also helps to visuallly direct the order of the composition. All minor figures and the lion or panther surrounding Dionysus are all faced towards him. The two seasons closest to Dionysus face away from him, creating a visual counterpoint to the minor figures facing Dionysus. The overall effect of limbs and figures direct the eye in and towards the torso and face of Dionysus.

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SHARED SOLITUDE - MIDTOWN LIBRARY


SHARED SOLITUDE - MIDTOWN LIBRARY CORE STUDIO II SPRING 2011 CHRISTINA GOBERNA

The widespread distribution of public libraries is the single most significant development in democratic spatiality in the last one hundred years. Public access to information is now considered as a right of citizenship. The original development of first private then public libraries is concurrent with the historical development of urban life. The focus of this studio is to experiment with new types of spatial and program modalities that can put the contemporary conditions of civic engagement into play, and to examine how these changes are part of recent innovations in formal organizational systems and syntax.

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DESIGN INTENT The library is the last secular place in the public realm where an individual freely may use space without having to pay for it. Starbucks, etc. comes to mind. As such, its importance to the public realm, and to the individuals that make up our society cannot be overestimated. In a time when Facebook, Twitter and other social media have fundamentally altered our society’s notion of privacy, this project seeks to explore issues of solitude and contemplation within the context of a monumental architecture.Thus a library that re-confirms the fundamental human need to seek solitude and contemplation is proposed. A library where one may temporarily and voluntarily separate himself from the group. A library of shared solitude.

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STRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS ORGANIZATION SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT

GROUND FLOOR RETAIL COMMERCIAL OFFICE SPACE

SEATING AREAS MAIN READING ROOMS / STUDY CARRELS

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SHARED SOLITUDE - MIDTOWN LIBRARY

SITE ANALYSIS The site analysis seeks to understand and map the spatial, architectural, social, political and economic forces at work at the Midtown branch of the NY Public Library.

NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY MIDTOWN LIBRARY SITE

PROGRESSION ENTRY AND ARRIVAL SEQUENCE


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OPEN SPACE BRYANT PARK + STREET FURNITURE

PROCESSION SIDEWALKS, STEPS

ORGANIZATION GRIDIRON, STREETS + AVENUES


PRECEDENT STUDIES Precedent studies were undertaken to study the library type. Using the parameters mapped in the site analysis only now at the building scale, an overall idea of the library type begins to emerge, but most notable is relationship of structure to space as seen in Louis Kahn’s Exeter Library and Carrere and Hasting’s New York Public Library. OCCUPIED BEAMS Structure, services and program are located within the generated walls, such that the walls themselves define, and are defined by the functions they carry. This is seen as a continuation of Kahn’s servant/served dialectic, and it is also seen as a reinterpretation of how tensile and compressive forces are resolved through architecture. STRUCTURE, SPACE AND PROGRAM The proposed structural system seeks to combine the systems of Exeter and the New York Public Library into a new type of system that may be called ‘trabeated-coursed’ construction. This strategy may then be employed to explore new relationships between structure, space and program organization as small beams aggregate into larger occupied beams.

EXETER LIBRARY LOUIS KAHN

SECTION MODEL THROUGH BEAMS AND STACKS

=

+ TRABEATED CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM EXETER LIBRARY 86

SHARED SOLITUDE - MIDTOWN LIBRARY

NY PUBLIC LIBRARY CARRERE + HASTINGS

COURSED MASONRY CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY

‘TRABEATED - COURSED’ PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION MIDTOWN LIBRARY


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A

B 30’-0”

30’

18’-6 /12”

0’-0”

0’

DIAGRAMMATIC SECTION THRU FLOOR BEAM COURSING DIAGRAM

TYPICAL FLOOR

A

B

A

A

B

A

30 FT. MODULE / GOLDEN RECTANGLE MEZZANINE FLOOR

A

FLOOR FRAMING PLAN

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SHARED SOLITUDE - MIDTOWN LIBRARY

B

A

B

A

B

A

B

A

B

A

A

PLAN GENERATION The plan is inspired by classical and Beaux Arts planning methodologies explored in the precedent study. The golden rectangle, the ABA rhythm and the typical structural bay of 30 feet are re-appropriated and combined to generate a ‘bounding box’ grid that may describe the diagonal of any rectangle traced within the grid. The resulting diagonals are used to locate the stacked beams in space.


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PECK SLIP - AIRLAB


PECK SLIP - AIRLAB CORE STUDIO I FALL 2010 JEANETTE KIM

Where and how does climate change go public? As evidenced by the media frenzy surrounding the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s leaked emails before the Copenhagen summit in November 2010, the war between global warming skeptics and the scientific community wages on. The science laboratory has become a key battlefield in this contest, simultaneously connecting and isolating science practice from the general public. Here, scientists collaborate with economists, policy makers, activists, designers, and citizen scientists, sparking rigourous dialogue about best practices, priorities, ethics and implications of climate change. But labs are also mute. Here, climatologists evaluate and interpret trends that, to the public, are often invisible, unpredictable, and span incomprehensibly vast geologic time scales. This effect is reinforced by the traditional function of the lab as a hermetic space for contemplative experimentation. Thanks to triple paned glass, enormous ventilation mechanisms, and smart security systems, expensive equipment and sensitive test samples are kept away from any public or environmental interference.

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The airlab’s architecture challenges the traditional boundaries of the envelope. While still enclosed where required, much of the lab is left exposed to the elements not only to enhance its function as a test site, but to literally bring the field to the lab. The building is one that is halfway between being “out in the field “ and being “in the lab.” Thus the lab is made visible as part of a community that is well aware of climate change. The building itself is seen as an experiment in urban ecology, engaging scientists, urban farmers and the local community. In order to bring the lab closer to the field, the urban lab’s architecture is intended to disappear, eroding the traditional boundaries of the envelope. Shown on the following pages are early program and circulation studies that explore the spatial relationship between the laboratory, public space and circulation paths.

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what if local ecology and community become part of the laboratory program? 96

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GREEN SPACE + PUBLIC SPACE The airlab also provides much needed greenery and public space for its now growing residential population. Currently, there is no viable public space intended for residents’ use beyond the tourist driven areas of South Street Seaport.

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critique of existing laboratory facilities

CRITIQUE OF EXISTING LABORATORY FACILITIES fall 2010 core studio I prof kim

karl bengzon

circa 1970s lab building

circa 2000s lab building

future lab building

laboratory space

laboratory space is designed as a traditional closed lab favoring individual research and experimentation. limited exibility and adaptability of existing spaces. labs appear small and cramped.

laboratory space is designed as a more open laboratory. labs are considerably larger, more exible. wheeled equipment racks, overhead access, allow for easy modication of space. equipment zones created at lab perimeter.

space is to be designed to include a mix of open and closed labs. exibility, mobility and access to building services is extremely important. in contrast to traditional lab, new open labs to be designed to support team-based research.

circulation + public space

circulation space is given little treatment. long dark corridors with low ceilings create a monotonous alienated feeling. little to no public space for interaction and meeting is provided.

public space and corridor are much more open. though expansive and bright, public areas and corridors lack intimate scale. users report that atrium space goes unused. monotonous high ceiling and lack of intimacy discourage social interaction.

public spaces and corridors to employ the concepts of savannah preference and prospect/refuge in order to create a more varied experience and to promote interaction. circulation to address openess and proper use of scale.

equipment + building services

limited exibility extends to layout of services. existing acoustical tiles block access to overhead building services. benches are xed, limited space given for wheeled equipment carts.

open ceilings allow for easy access to clearly labeled building services. equipment is mobile, on wheeled carts, esp. computers and monitoring equipment. addition of extra fume hoods, ventiliation, etc. is easily accomodated.

future lab building is to build on this trend of exibility and adaptability, possibly exploring a prefabricated, ‘plug and play’ approach to installation of new labs, ofces, etc. to streamline construction.

natural + artificial lighting, views

existing ourescent and incandescent lighting does not provide effective lighting. lighting is harsh in some areas, inadequate in others. views are limited, suggesting containment.

large glazing and clerestory allows for plenty of natural daylight. artical lighting is direct/indirect, much gentler quality of light. space may be too uniformly bright. views to outside are excellent.

future lab building is to allow for plenty of natural daylight, but offer some control to create variation of light and dark. articial lighting also direct/indirect. lighter and darker ‘zones’ to be dictated by program and site. views and openess critical.

materiality + color palette, nature

yellow painted concrete blocks create a jaundiced, harsh feel. no variation in material throughout the space. faded ceiling tiles add to depressing quality. devoid of nature.

offers better variation in materiality. steel, glass, wood, metal panels are well blended together, suggesting quality and thoughtfulness.

future lab to also include thoughtful use of material and color. palette to be welcoming. materials such as wood, stone, glass, and metal, arranged in a thoughtful, consistent but varied manner.

sociability + casual interaction

building is entirely unsociable, unfriendly. prison like. gives a depressed, bounded, xed feeling. lack of public space for interaction suggests scientists as insulated, solitary, separated from society and each other.

more sociable and open atmosphere reects the changing nature of science and scientists. building feels more welcoming, brighter. high scale leaves space a little cold. interaction between scientists is encouraged, but not between scientists and the community.

future lab to balance between solitude and sociability. promotes team based work, allows for casual interaction in properly scaled settings, depending on size of group. can promote interaction between science and its surrounding community.

the future lab is to be open, yet contained. insulated, yet social.

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PECK SLIP - AIRLAB


solar collection

water collection

roof

conference

lab air exhaust corridor lab gases electrical plumbing

lab return air lab supply air

wet lab

office building air intake

MECHANICAL (LABORATORY) dedicated air intake + exhaust supply + return lab hot + cold air, lab gases MECHANICAL building air intake + exhaust hot + cold air ELECTRICAL lighting, power, voice + data emergency systems solar collection

building air return

electrical plumbing building air exhaust

building air supply

dry lab

ENVELOPE AND SERVICES

PLUMBING water + fire suppression water collection

lab air intake

building cross section fall 2010 core studio I prof kim

These early diagrams explore strategies for servicing the diverse program for the airlab. By understanding the architecture of services, this project hopes to identify and exploit these programmatic necessities as interesting design opportunities.

building services output

karl bengzon

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PECK SLIP - AIRLAB


URBAN FARM The airlab functions not only as a testing site, but as a working urban farm that is to serve the growing residential community in the South Street seaport area. The presence of The New Amsterdam Farmer’s Market and Provisions Organic grocery suggest an active interest in sustainability. An urban farm at this location would then be beneficial to the neighborhood, and would also be the first urban farm in Manhattan proper.

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ENVELOPE STRATEGY The building’s envelope employs ‘fins’ that direct and organize the distribution of services. Secondary functions include sun shading, supplemental structural support, and water collection. These fins express an architecture that is not only born of functional and aesthetic demands, but a socio-political dimension as well. It probes the limits of what is considered public or private, open or closed, inside or outside. The Urban Farm + Lab is itself an experiment, engaging scientists, urban farmers and the general public.

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BUILDING TECHNOLOGY


BUILDING TECHNOLOGY ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY IV - KEVIN LICHTEN

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ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY IV - ICA BOSTON The Institute of Contemporary Art in Boston, by Diller Scofidio + Renfro, located overlooking the Boston Harbor, is supreme example of a building that intertwines structure and architecture; as a museum, the ICA becomes as a shrine for looking, seeing, for mediating vision.

lighting, and north-facing skylights, allows a flexibility of program and usage. Clad with a mixture of continuous metal and glass, uninhibited by columns or other structure, the city and harbor backdrop enter into the gallery space to participate as another condition of viewing. A media center hangs from the cantilever downwards with a window facing into the water, framing just the The steel-frame building cantilevers 80 feet over towards the texture of undulating seawater, creating another space in which harbor, simultaneously creating a waterfront plaza and an the natural surroundings become as visible and present as another uninterrupted, 40ft-high, 18,000 sqft gallery. This is achieved by painting or artwork. a series of trusses: four large trusses span the entire building lengthwise, and dozens of smaller trusses are placed crosswise The cantilever originated from the constraints of a small building above and below these trusses, performing as beams. Thus, the footprint and the programmatic requirements for an open gallery. load from the cantilever flows across the diagonal beams of the The solution was to negotiate the rights to cantilever over city property in exchange for offering ground floor footprint to the truss and down into the main structure. city. Structural and logistical solutions were the core tactics that The result is a building oriented towards Boston and its harbor, enables the architecture of the ICA to perform as a vision curating creating spaces for contemplation, creation, and exploration. device; in every case, the architecture is responding to the city The cantilever demarcates a public plaza, placing the Boston and the harbor: it is curated as public space, postponed for a large skyline as a backdrop for performances, talks, or other events. gallery space, or itself framed as an artwork. The uninterrupted gallery space, naturally lit by a mix of artificial

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BUILDING TECHNOLOGY


four-sided structurally glazed silicone curtain wall - horizontal mullion

four-sided structurally glazed silicone curtain wall - vertical split mullion

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cap flashing access door metal angle welded to hss outrigger hss pipe support

67'-4"

concrete slab mega truss top chord channel glass ‘rainscreen’ waterproof membrane rigid insulation vapor barrier exterior sheathing light gauge metal framing channel glass wind bracket

channel glass detail at parapet

megatruss diagonal chord hss pipe outrigger welded to megatruss diagonal wt section channel glass sill and counter flashing channel glass head

channel glass detail at intermediate sill

reinforced concrete slab

45'-6"

pour stop megatruss bottom chord metal angle on gusset plate channel glass sill on discontinuous blocking with weeps metal support angle aluminum panel ‘ribbon’

channel glass detail at bottom sill

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BUILDING TECHNOLOGY


channel glass support detailing and wind load bracing tied back to megatruss

channel glass mid span wind bracing

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FORMWORKS


FORMWORKS

FALL 2012 JOSHUA DRAPER WITH RAND ABDUL JABBAR AND ANNA VAN DER ZWAAG

PROJECT ABSTRACT Formworks hybridizes methods of casting with digital fabrication. In doing so, we challenge the repetitive nature of casting and formwork by developing a parametric, dynamic formworks system and producing a series of precast elements using that system. Students are introduced to advanced 3-axis milling, 1 and 2 part molds, silicone casting and a variety of casting materials. Students respond with their own system which takes these techniques and systems of organization, assembly and fabrication further.

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BOB ROSS

MARK ROTHKO NUMBER 8, 1952

JACKSON POLLOCK NUMBER 1, 1948

In representational painting, the illusion of space and depth is given to the viewer by operating upon a canvas surface stretched on a wooden frame. The viewer is confined, in a way, to this flat surface.

However, in non-representational painting, the flat surface of the canvas is dematerialized and the viewer is able to ‘penetrate’ the flatness of the canvas and develop a more spatial relationship with the painting, as in Rothko.

Thus, the viewer is liberated from the surface of the canvas. Instead of being given a flat painting lying upon a surface, the viewer is presented with an experience that allows him or her to sense rhythm and inward and outward movement, as in Pollock.

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FORMWORKS


blue foam

stakes pushing down

DIEGO VELASQUEZ LAS MENINAS, 1656 second canvas surface

second frame

stakes pushing up

Representational or not, the result of painting is an illusion of creating depth upon a flat surface. Literally and figuratively, it is a matter of perspective, as in Velasquez.

So, instead of the illusion of depth upon a surface, we propose to use the canvas and frame to literally create depth with a surface. In so doing, we can explore a domain that lies somewhere between painting and sculpture.

blue foam

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ISLER

SITE MAPPING We begin by mapping Morningside Park. Based off the data gathered, we are able to scale heights for the first surface of the formwork. The grayscale color code denotes the angle of slope, with black as the steepest parts of the site.

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MEASURING SITE AND INTENT THROUGH THE CANVAS These sketches explore the possiblity of exploiting the canvas and frame as formwork, a two dimensional surface repurposed for three dimensional sculptural work.

The resulting forms are then a record of measurement of the park and our intent. These forms can then be deployed on site to spatially define the shortcut and to possibly create a greater sense of procession, a colonnade almost, along the path.


01 - FORMWORK The formwork is prepared for pouring.

02 - POURING Top surface is removed, concrete is then poured onto waxed canvas surface.

03 - SITE RECORDING The stakes are placed according to the slope marked out on site.

04 - PAINT ‘STROKES’ Our paint ‘strokes’ are recorded by pushing stakes down upon the second surface.

05 - CURING Concrete is left to cure.

BETWEEN PAINTING AND SCULPTURE The formwork simultaneously records information gathered on site and allows us to translate it via the stakes that push up from below and from above. Thus the space defined between the two surfaces becomes a literal and figurative concrete artifact. Thus, our operations are recorded in a design space somewhere between painting and sculpture. KARL H. BENGZON

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FORMWORKS


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BRIDGING THE GAP


BRIDGING THE GAP COMPETITION ENTRY 2007 - 2008 LA REUNION ARTISTS COMMUNITY

PROJECT ABSTRACT The LaReunion Artists’ Community is named after a European Utopian community that settled in the area. Founded in 1855 by Victor Considerant, the community was comprised of several types of artisans and craftsmen. The colony failed to take root, and many eventually returned to Europe. Some, however, moved to Dallas and influenced the city’s culture in its formative years. This community is an Artist Residency program, founded in 2006, whose vision is “to offer time and space for a conversation between new and traditional media artists.” With this goal in mind, the community aspires to create a new facility for artists of varied disciplines in order to stimulate dialogue and an exchange of ideas between the artists and the community that surrounds them.

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DESIGN INTENT LaReunion’s ideals about community and public space are expressed by the courtyard, bridge and amphitheater. A courtyard and amphitheater is provided for artists and community members to meet, socialize and enjoy the outdoors. A bridge joins two sides of the site while figuratively crossing the divide between traditional and new media artists. The result is a space for art, a space for artists and a space for the public to appreciate and learn about art.

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SITE DESCRIPTION The site is located on six acres of wooded property in the Oak Cliff section of Dallas. It is bordered by residential developments to the north and east and Dallas National Golf Course to the west. The site itself features bike and pedestrian trails, ponds, and a portion of an abandoned train trestle. The site is also bisected by a river. Development is limited by an escarpment zone, pushing all construction to the southernmost tip of the site. THE COURTYARD This space is central to the scheme because it acts as the hub or point of origin. It is the town center of the community. It is a place that allows for casual and spontaneous interaction. It is a place to enjoy the weather in the shade of the buildings while one can sit, converse, read or enjoy a cup of coffee.

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THE TRESTLE The trestle is part of an abandoned railway that once cut through the southernmost part of the site. It is considered an important site feature, and its use was to be addressed by all entrants. This entry chose to leave it as a ‘relic’ of the site, left for visiting artists to tag with their artwork. This adaptive reuse of a found object is in itself an act of art, and one that is in keeping with the community’s objectives. It is hoped that in time, as the artists leave their mark, the trestle would become the community’s symbol, an embodiment of its purpose and existence.


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MATERIALS The building uses materials and colors of the southwest. Recycled steel panels, recast from scrap metal provide a rich, warm, reddish-brown color reminiscent of the local environment. White stucco recalls the Mission style. Wood siding, reminiscent of barns and prairie towns, completes the palette of color and texture.

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South facing walls at the main building are solid and are painted white in order to simultaneously reflect and absorb heat from the sun. Heat gain from south facing glazing is mitigated by the use of low-e glass and louvers at residences and Collaborative Studio 1. The amphitheater utilizes the slope of the site, minimizing cut and fill of the soil. The bridge’s decking allows for water to be collected and stored into a greywater collection system. The Bridge’s south HARMONY WITH THE SITE The scheme is oriented with the cardinal directions. Private facade offers a long expanse for solar panels to collect solar studios, residences, galleries and collaborative studios are all energy for the building’s use. placed to take advantage of natural daylight from the north with large glazed openings or louvered skylights. Collaborative Studios 1 and 2 are placed to offer shade to the courtyard.

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Courtyard Coffee Bar Collaborative Studio Lobby Lobby Office & Break Room Central Assembly Space / Gallery Electrical Mechanical Kitchen Storage / Back of House Amphitheater Bridge Private Studio / Residence Private Studio / Residence (Phase II) Collaborative Studio 3 (Phase II) Collaborative Studio 2 / Public Studio Collaborative Studio 1 / Gallery Gallery Rooftop Courtyard


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THE BRIDGE The Bridge serves several purposes. First, it links the two sides of the site, above the 100 year floodplain. Second, it provides northfacing real estate for studios and residences while minimizing the building footprint on the site. Third, it formally expresses the idea of linking traditional and new media disciplines.

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ST PHILIPS ACADEMY


ST PHILIPS ACADEMY PROFESSIONAL PROJECT 2004 - 2006 GENSLER

PROJECT DESCRIPTION The property at 342 Central Avenue in Newark is a heavy timber and brick warehouse built in the late 1800’s. It was home to several businesses over the years including a chocolate factory and a casket factory. More recently it was occupied by a construction company before becoming the new home for St. Philip’s Academy, a private charter school whose previous location was an old bank at 18 Washington Place. Faced with a growing student body and inadequate facilities, the school bought the property and lot across the street and began the design process with Gensler in the fall of 2004.

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DESIGN INTENT The intent is to respect and maintain the character of the existing building while simultaneously creating a new identity for the school. Thus, the intervention is seen as an additive process. To that end, a formal strategy was developed to juxtapose old and new via color, texture and material. For example, new masonry additions are clad in a warm gray split face block, accented with smooth face block at entries. This material complements the existing brick in scale and texture, but provides a contrasting color that balances the overall composition. THE LANTERN The intent is also carried through the design and detailing of the main entry facade, nicknamed “the lantern.” The cool colors of the aluminum and glass curtain wall facade contrast sharply against the warm colors of the heavy, rustic, load bearing walls behind it. The resulting dialogue creates a clearly defined entry point in an otherwise symmetrical facade, while also indicating new “layers” added onto old.

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PROJECT RESPONSIBILITIES The author was a member of the design and construction of this project. The author helped determine the formal strategy of layering contrasting materials and colors against the existing building. He also spearheaded design and detailing efforts for all exterior facades, with particular emphasis on the main entry and glass curtain wall. The author was also responsible for the creation and management of the construction document drawing set.


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SITE DESCRIPTION The site is located in an area of Newark that is currently undergoing a period of drastic change. Old warehouses and vacant lots have given way to new multi-family and single family housing. Older prewar structures are demolished and replaced with new housing as well. Located only a few blocks from both NJIT and UMDNJ, the school’s new location has helped transform its neighborhood and has become an integral part of the new community.

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PROGRAM Classrooms, labs and offices occupy the 1st through 4th floors, along with various study rooms and a media center located on the 3rd floor. A new core attached to the existing core contains stairs, elevators, restrooms and mechanical spaces. A new gymnasium addition is placed behind the existing building. It features a roof garden and a two-way stage. The remainder of the lot is covered with artificial turf and a recycled rubber play surface. The ground floor contains the school’s cafeteria, a new feature that did not exist at the school’s previous location. Herbs, vegetables, and fruits from the roof garden are prepared and served as part of the lunch program.

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AWARDS + PUBLICATIONS 2nd Place, NJ AIA Awards, Newark/Suburban, 2007 GDEA Gensler Design Excellence Awards, 2007 Society of American Registered Architects Awards 1st LEED accredited building in Newark, NJ Published in the New York Times, Jun.25, 2006 Published in Metropolis, Feb.2008, p.46


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THREE GRACES BRIDAL


THREE GRACES BRIDAL PROFESSIONAL PROJECT 2011 - 2012 FREELANCE DESIGN

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THE UNVEILING PROCESSION Three Graces Bridal is seen as the place “where a bride goes to marry her dress.” With this idea in mind, the first wall encountered upon entering the shop acts as a spatial veil - the store is revealed as the bride and the bridal consultant greet at the threshold of the vestibule and the main retail area. The consultant then escorts the bride into the salon in an axial progression that recalls the bride’s walk to the altar. As she enters, her gaze is met by the image of a wedding dress at the niche-altar, enticing her to rehearse her own upcoming nuptials as she seeks to find the perfect dress for her wedding day.

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MAY 19, 2011

OPTION A This option explores the arrangement of salons as theater like rooms where the unveiling of the bride in a gown is revealed to her audience / family. Here, the main retail area is conceived to act as a large salon while the smaller salon provides a more intimate scaled room.

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MAY 20, 2011

OPTION B This option explores a symmetrical layout and location of the desk. This option is quickly ruled out as the path from storage or bathroom require one to go through a salon first.

OPTION C This option is selected for further development as it most effectively resolves the needs of program while staying true to the initial concept. Here, the salons are still understood as theater like rooms, and the niche-altar begins to take definite shape.

INITIAL SKETCHES These sketches explore the initial ideas about entry, arrival and threshold. Constrained only by the location of the front door and an existing restroom, studies explored different options for the program which included bridal salons, retail area, office space and storage.


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JUNE 16-17, 2011

SCHEME C1 This scheme proposes a series of smaller niches. This scheme is ruled out as it divides the retail area into small, uncomfortably scaled pieces.

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SCHEME C2 This scheme explores ideas about flexibility of the salons. By employing fabric or some other demountable material for the walls, the owner would have the maximum flexibility in layout.

SCHEME C3 This scheme proposes to combine the two smaller salons into a larger single salon. It also combines reception and office into a single space, while refining the niche-altar.


JUNE 25, 2011

JUNE 26, 2011

JULY 16, 2011

SCHEMATIC DESIGN The lessons learned from the first few iterations are further developed in this series of sketches as ideas about material, lighting and furnishings begin to take shape. Shown above is the sketch that is developed into the construction plan.

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A STUDY IN PARTITIONS The final construction plan codifies the design’s intent into a strategic deployment of partitions. The nature of these non-bearing walls are expressed through their subsequent detailing, use of materials and ‘gaps’ which further emphasize the planar nature of the partitions.

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THREE GRACES BRIDAL


Dana Lane Photography

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THREE GRACES BRIDAL


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TRAVEL SKETCHES AND PHOTOGRAPHY


TRAVEL SKETCHES AND PHOTOGRAPHY SELECTED WORKS 2006 - 2013

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ASPHALT AND LEAVES CHESTER, NJ OCTOBER 2005

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TRAVEL SKETCHES AND PHOTOGRAPHY


GARGOYLE CHARLESTON, SC FEBRUARY 2008

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PONTE ST. ANGELO ROME, ITALY JUNE 2011

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SANTA BARBARA ROME, ITALY JUNE 2011

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PIAZZA LOVATELLI ROME, ITALY JUNE 2011

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YASAKA PAGODA KYOTO, JAPAN MARCH 2013

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KENNEN-JI TEMPLE GROUNDS KYOTO, JAPAN MARCH 2013

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UNKYO, TODAI-JI TEMPLE NARA, JAPAN MARCH 2013

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AGYO, TODAI-JI TEMPLE NARA, JAPAN MARCH 2013

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BETHESDA FOUNTAIN NEW YORK, NEW YORK AUGUST 2008

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KARL H. BENGZON 209 WEST 108TH ST., APT. 1, NEW YORK, NY, 10025 kbengzon@gmail.com kb2543@columbia.edu 908.884.6567

Karl Bengzon  

Columbia University GSAPP 2010-2013

Karl Bengzon  

Columbia University GSAPP 2010-2013

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