AN ARCHI TECTURAL PRIMER GROUP12 WHAT IS A MEMORIAL?
CITIES CULTURES &U30024 SOCIETY OXFORD BROOKES UNIVERSITY
Zeineb Ben Nasr // 11051131 Quirin Gockner // 11005930 Stephan Graebner // 11036345 Joe Robey // 10026207 Shreni Sanghvi // 10079442 Karisma Shoker // 10028302
An Editorial What is a Memorial? w/ Bibliography
Chapter 01 Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, Berlin Peter Eisenman Quirin Gockner
Chapter 04 The Medina of Tunis and its For fica on Wall Zeineb Ben Nasr
Chapter 02 Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Wash. DC. / Maya Lin Public Percep on /Personal vs. Collec ve Karisma Shoker
Chapter 05 One World Trade Centre, New York City David Childs Joe Robey
Chapter 03 The Forgo en Memorial: India Gate, New Delhi Edwin Lutyens Shreni Sanghvi
Chapter 06 German Historical Museum, Berlin Aldo Rossi Stephan Graebner
AN EDITORIAL WHAT IS A MEMORIAL? W/ BIBLIOGRAPHY
Humans come to identify themselves, in one part, through the built environment. Buildings, as part of a larger urban context, interact with one another to allow individuals to create a narrative of who they are – past, present, and future. Mark Crinson (2005) describes memory as the “ability of faculty by which we recollect the past.” 1 The material world in form of buildings play an important role in that process: ″[Buildings, N/A] are store houses for these social memories because streets, buildings, and patterns of settlement, frame the lives of many people and often outlast many lifetimes.“ 2 (Dolores Hayden, 1995) With our Primer we want to ask the question - ″What is a memorial?“ What are the characteristics of a memorial? What is it showing and in which way are the intensions expressed? What else could be a memorial, which you would not call one at first sight. What makes a building a symbol of personal, cultural or national identification? Therefore we as group want to give a range of different memorials and locations, which are linked to a certain architectural theory. We present and compare memorials from small to large scales in different cultural regions of the world. Furthermore, looking at how they shape and visualize collective and individual commemoration. With a kind of matrix, we have found a basic structure for this investigation. It includes the following points: / The memorial and its historical relation / The memorial as architecture (the architect‘s concept, scale/size, look, material, etc.) / A theoretical/philosophical viewpoint on ″Memory and Identity“ and how it relates to that particular memorial / The public reaction to it and how the people deal with their history / An example from Oxford, which deals with the same themes / An answer to the question ″What is a memorial?“
1 Crinson, Mark (2005). Urban Memory: An Introduction, Urban Memory: History and Amnesia in the Modern City. London: Routledge 2
Hayden, Dolores (1995) The Power of Place: Urban Landscapes as Public History. Cambridge: The MIT Press, p. 46
In the following we give a general overview of the selected memorials with a small introduction to every chapter. // CHAPTER 01 QUIRIN GOCKNER MEMORIAL TO THE MURDERED JEWS OF EUROPE, BERLIN - PETER EISENMANN Nowadays there is a new generation of artists and architects in Germany. For them the question is not whether to remember or to forget the Holocaust. Rather, given the tortuous complexity of their nation‘s relation to its past. Sometimes they might wonder whether the monument itself is more an impediment than an incitement to public memory. However Peter Eisenmann tried to find an adequate combination between art representing their own identity and memory. In the following essay I am reflecting this subject. // CHAPTER 02 KARISMA SHOKER VIETNAM VETERANS MEMORIAL, WASHINGTON DC. - MAYA LIN PUBLIC PERCEPTION / PERSONAL VS. COLLECTIVE The public perception of memorials can be explored in relation to personal and collective remembrance. Memorials can have a direct, personal effect on an individual or offer a shared experience to the public. Looking particularly at the large scale Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington DC, and comparing the two categories of commemoration with the smaller scale of Kathe Kollwitz’s ‘The Grieveing Parents’, this chapter explores how society perceives memorials. The fundamental factors to consider when examining public perception are the historical and social context of the monument, the aesthetics and materiality, and also the ideologies behind the design concept. All of these essentially influence ones viewpoint. // CHAPTER 03 SHRENI SANGHVI THE FORGOTTEN MEMORIAL: INDIA GATE / ALL INDIA WAR MEMORIAL, NEW DELHI - EDWIN LUTYENS The historian John R Gillis (1994) points out in his introduc on to Commemora ons: The Poli cs of Na onal Iden ty that “both iden ty and memory are poli cal and social constructs, and should be treated as such…Iden es and memories are not things we think about, but things we think with.” In my chapter I have tried to analyze why we Indians, have forgo en about our World War heroes. Accep ng that architecture is a very strong medium of reigni ng memories, what went wrong with the design of this memorial? Designed by a famous Bri sh architect, Lutyens during the Bri sh Raj, this monument has transformed into a cultural hot-spot in the present day India. Why is it being so perceived by the society?
// CHAPTER 04 ZEINEB BEN NASR THE MEDINA OF TUNIS AND ITS FORTIFICATION WALL
Generally, it takes time to know a place and its stories. What enables us to understand the value and complexity of these places is sharing with people who visit, live or work there, their main experiences. ‘Even the simplest story raises fundamental issues regarding subjectivity, representation, fiction and what is taken to be real’, Potteiger Matthew and Purinton Jamie, (1998). The Tunis Medina is a fascinating place to learn more about the history of north Africa. It represents a memorial which is a much different model than other memorials. Its way to exist is much more related to people perception and experiences than to the memorial itself, as a physical element (Buildings, materiality, size). It functions to satisfy them and to embody the identity of the city. This chapter deals with the way how people perceive the Medina as a memorial. What was the process leading to the creation of this memorial and what is the subsequent reaction of the public ? // CHAPTER 05 JOE ROBEY ONE WORLD TRADE CENTRE, NEW YORK CITY - DAVID CHILDS // CHAPTER 06 STEPHAN GRAEBNER GERMAN HISTORICAL MUSEUM, BERLIN - ALDO ROSSI „[...] to consider the city as architecture means to recognize the importance of architecture as a discipline that has a self-determined autonomy [...], constitutes the major urban artifact within the city, and, through all the processes analyzed [...], links the past to the present.“ 3 (Aldo Rossi, 1982) In 1966 Aldo Rossi published ″The Architecture of the City“, which had a lasting impact on international architecture and the urban discourse. This theoretical work itself became an inevitable reference figure in the discussions about the relationship between city, architecture, history and memory. Rossi‘s ideas culminated in his winning design project for the ″German Historical Museum“ in Berlin (1988). It became the focus of a controversial debate, but also the mirror of German historical events itself, such as the Second World War and the German reunification. With my individual chapter I investigate in Rossi‘s understanding of the city, and what his project tells about German identity even today. 3
Rossi, Aldo (1982). The Architecture of the City. New York: The Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies, The MIT, p. 165
CHAPTER 02 KARISMA SHOKER 10028302
VIETNAM VETERANS MEMORIAL, WASHINGTON DC.
// MAYA LIN /// PUBLIC PERCEPTION / PERSONAL VS. COLLECTIVE The public percep on of memorials can be explored in rela on to personal and collec ve remembrance. Memorials can have a direct, personal eﬀect on an individual or oﬀer a shared experience to the public. Looking par cularly at the large scale Vietnam Veteran’s Memorial in Washington DC, and comparing the two categories of commemora on with the smaller scale of Kathe Kollwitz’s ‘The Grieveing Parents’, this chapter explores how society perceives memorials. The fundamental factors to consider when examining public percep on are the historical and social context of the monument, the aesthe cs and materiality, and also the ideologies behind the design concept. All of these essen ally influence ones viewpoint.
The memory of a person, place or specific event can be honoured in mul ple ways. The public percep on of memorials can be grouped into two categories; collec ve commemora on, where the memorial provides a shared experience, and individual commemora on which is more personal. Individual remembrance is frequently experienced when one has been directly aﬀected by the experience/person, whereas memorials concerning a major event are viewed collec vely on a large scale to create societal awareness, for example the First and Second World Wars. Collec ve commemora on can also be described as “the process of public recollec on” where “groups of people gather bits and pieces of the past and join them together for a public that will express and consume the constructed memory” 1 as stated by Jay Winter (1999, p.2) in an ar cle tled ‘Remembrance and Redemp on’. Memorials then evoke oral history which makes the collec ve memory more personal.
The memory of defeat can be explored with public percep on in mind. As these monuments predominantly address war, the Vietnam Veteran’s Memorial is a suitable memorial to examine. The fundamental concepts in regards to memory are trace and erasure. The theore cal viewpoint of de-construc vism provides a further insight to this. Deconstruc vism is a significant concept in the Vietnam Memorial. Moreover, Kathe Kohlwitz’s sculpture of ‘The Grieving Parents’ reflects grief in an individual and generic sense but on a more personal scale. The two memorials can also be examined in rela on to various plaques and monuments in Oxford, for example the war monuments at St Giles.
Fig. 1 The Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Washington DC.
Winter, J. 1999. Remembrance and Redemp on. Harvard Design Magazine, Fall 1999, Number 9.
In the past, war was o en deemed to guarantee a glorified death for those involved. It was promoted in a posi ve light, ignoring all fatalis c connota ons, especially in the First World War where society was oblivious to the destruc ve consequences. The Vietnam Veteran’s Memorial is an example of memorialised defeat of modern warfare. Today, conflict is depicted through the memorialisa on of those who died or went missing, rather than through glorifica on. Although young men are s ll encouraged to fight for their countries, more thought goes into the decision primarily as society is more aware of the impacts of ba le. By memorialising the deceased, awareness of the importance of life is reinforced. The public opinion on war has changed greatly over me. ‘Facing It’ is a poignant poem about the Vietnam Veteran’s Memorial, by Yusef Komunyakaa. It is a direct cri cism of the public percep on of war related deaths. The poet appears to be addressing society’s percep on on the false glorifica on of war, thus portraying the true reali es of warfare. Tradi onally, memorials honoured the courage and bravery of soldiers and essen ally promoted combat whilst ignoring the terrors of war. In modern day, these monuments s ll honour this heroism and virtue, but they also become a sign of the realisa on of the horrors of war.
/ FACING IT // Yusef Komunyakaa My black face fades, hiding inside the black granite. I said I wouldn't, dammit: No tears. I'm stone. I'm flesh. My clouded reflec on eyes me like a bird of prey, the profile of night slanted against morning. I turn this way--the stone lets me go. I turn that way--I'm inside the Vietnam Veterans Memorial again, depending on the light to make a diﬀerence. I go down the 58,022 names, half-expec ng to find my own in le ers like smoke. I touch the name Andrew Johnson; I see the booby trap's white flash. Names shimmer on a woman's blouse but when she walks away
the names stay on the wall. Brushstrokes flash, a red bird's wings cu ng across my stare. The sky. A plane in the sky. A white vet's image floats closer to me, then his pale eyes look through mine. I'm a window. He's lost his right arm inside the stone. In the black mirror a woman's trying to erase names: No, she's brushing a boy's hair.
In the poem, Komunyakaa is cri cal of the sensi vity that passers-by, specifically the American public, show towards the memorial and all it represents;
“Names shimmer on a woman’s blouse but when she walks away the names stay on the wall” 2 A woman can walk away from the memorial but the reality of the war remains the same; lives have s ll been lost. The reflec ons of people walking by reiterate how people carry on with their lives and move on. Moreover, the casual ac on of “brushing a boys hair” 3 that is confused with “a woman trying to erase names” 4 further echoes how society carries on with daily life and the horrors of war are le unacknowledged. Memorials are put in place to remind the public of what has been lost but also to remind them of the cause to which it was lost. However, the poem suggests that the memorial is ineﬀec ve in fully doing so. People may remember for a split second; a negligible period of me from which they are able to move on. The wall represents an instant in me. In that instant when one walks past, the period that is embodied by the memorial is remembered and reflected upon. Once the end of the wall nears, one looks to the future to what comes next for them conveying the final stages of the grieving process, where life is forced to go on.
Fig. 2 Reflec ve quality of granite
Society and individuals deal with commemora on in diﬀerent ways. Memorials provide one generic memory of an event or person which can then be subdivided into a “set of genera ve associa ons” 5 (ABRAMSON, 1999) which in turn provide a more personal experience. Personal remembrance entails recalling specific moments which have a direct connec on with the griever, for example, a life lost in ba le would trigger a personal response; whereas, collec ve commemora on is remembering an event as a whole, for example the Vietnam War itself, promo ng historical knowledge rather than personal remembrance. The event is collec vely honoured through a shared frame of reference. The Vietnam Veteran’s Memorial lends itself to a contempla ve response from the public purely because of its materiality, let alone what it actually stands to represent. The mirrored surface of the black granite symbolises how people should respond to the memorial itself by reflec ng on the war and those who died. The materiality of the form is fi ng for its representa on. The tle of Komunyakaa’s poem, ‘Facing It’, is ambiguous in the sense that it can be interpreted literally or metaphorically; the viewer is literally looking at their reflec on in the granite, or figura vely, they are facing up to what actually happened during the warlives were destroyed.
Komunyakaa, Y. 1988. Dien Cai Dau. ‘Facing It’. Wesleyan University Press. 1988. 3
Abramson, D. 1999. Make History, Not Memory. Harvard Design Magazine, Fall 1999, Number 9.
The wall is inscribed with the “58,022 names” 6 of the soldiers who lost their lives or went missing in ba le in no order other than le er chronology. This implies that each life is valued and the idea that no one life is more/less important than another manifests itself in the memorial. The exact number of names is made evident in ‘Facing It’ to signify the importance of each of those lives. The Vietnam Veteran’s Memorial tries to make the public see the importance of these lives too.
The loca on of the memorial is also important in provoking a valuable response from the public. It is situated in Cons tu on Gardens in Washington DC, set amongst various other historical memorials, such as the World War II and Korean War Veteran’s Memorials. To the east is the Washington Monument and to the west is the Lincoln Memorial. The loca onal context is eﬀec ve in evoking remembrance as the whole site is concerned with commemora on, thus providing the public with a contempla ve mind-set. A communal space houses the memorial, enabling visitors to come into contact with each other which, in turn, may encourage them to voice their thoughts providing a sense of fragmented oral history and an overall “societal memory” 7 (BEVAN, 2006). The commemora ve wall is a part of a trio of memorials; the statue of the ‘Three Servicemen’, the ‘Vietnam Women’s Memorial’ and the main ‘Veteran’s Memorial’. Each stand to honour all those involved in the war. The two addi onal monuments give a tradi onal viewpoint to the contemporary structure of the principal veteran’s memorial, rela ng it back to the history it represents. The bronze statue of the three soldiers is posi oned so that the sculpture “appeared to be looking over a sea of the fallen.” 8 The evoca ve imagery portrays a sense of vigil and mourning. Moreover, the ‘Vietnam Women’s Memorial’ depicts the importance of women in war me, who are usually unreadily remembered for their eﬀorts.
Fig. 3 / 4 Servicemen monument reflected in granite
Komunyakaa, Y. 1988. Dien Cai Dau. ‘Facing It’. Wesleyan University Press. 1988. 7
The veteran’s memorial was designed by ar st Maya Lin, who won a na onal design compe on in 1980. The brief suggested that the memorial should conform to its surroundings, contain the names of those who died and went missing, and to make no poli cal statement about the war. It is shaped in such a way to symbolise the process of grieving. Lin’s ini al concept was to generate a wound-like opening in the ground to represent hurt and suﬀering that comes
Bevan, R. 2006. Introduc on: The Enemies of Architecture and Memory. The Destruc on of Memory: Architecture at War. Reak on Books Ltd. London. 2006. P.16
2010 Veteran Memorials and Monuments, The Three Soldiers [online] Available at: <h p://www. gcveterans.com/Three_Soldiers_ Memorial.html> [Accessed 18/01/2012]
with the loss of life. The form arises above and below ground level deno ng the emo onal highs and lows that come with the grieving process.
/23 Fig. 5 Aerial View
The Vietnam Veteran’s Memorial addresses trace and erasure in a physical and metaphorical sense. The public can physically trace over the names of the deceased but also trace back the past, giving a personal, individual and interac ve approach to remembrance. Although the lives have been ‘erased’, the memory of the soldiers’ lives on through the memorial. The deconstuc vist theory is categorised by both trace and erasure. The theory represents a literal and figura ve interpreta on of the memorial. In architecture, it is defined through non-linear forms. The architectural design of the Vietnam Veteran’s Memorial follows a distorted form as it rises above and below ground level, thus echoing the deconstruc ve style. In addi on, the fragmented history that is voiced through the public is echoed through the style of architecture, so the form is fi ng for what it stands to convey. The French philosopher, Jacques Derrida, influenced many of the principles behind deconstruc vism. The philosophy of the ‘metaphysics of presence’ manifests itself into the deconstruc vist theory. One interpreta on of the philosophy conveys the abstract rela onship between the human thought process and material substance. Rela ng this to memorialisa on, the associa on of the mind with the physical form of a memorial inspires thought as denoted by the ‘metaphysics of presence’.
In Oxford, the memory of defeat is present in various forms around the city. The World War I and II memorial at St. Giles oďŹ€er collec ve remembrance to the public. The memorial commemorates the war as a whole; specific names of the deceased are not men oned, unlike the Veteranâ€™s Memorial in Washington. Therefore, the monument becomes a generic memorialisa on of the loss that war brings conveying a universal form of remembrance. Similarly to the Vietnam Veteranâ€™s Memorial, the war monument at St. Giles is par ally built in granite. The reflec ve quality of the material gives a sense of contempla on, thus conveying the memorials intended func on- to evoke reflec on. Furthermore, the dark tones of the granite could be a physical representa on of death and mourning due to the connota ons with the colour black in regards to colour psychology.
Fig. 6 War Memorial, Oxford
Kathe Kollwitz’s sculpture of ‘The Grieving Parents’ has become a well-known memorial that commemorates the loss of youth in ba le. The loss of her son to World War I took a large toll on the rest of Kathe Kollwitz’s life. As an ar st, she channelled her grief into her commemora ve art forms, and as Robert Bevan (2006 p.16) denotes, her “memories [were] vying for physical expression.” 9 Ini ally, the sculptures were designed to deal with Kollwitz’s personal grief, but they have now become a generic memorialisa on to all the young soldiers that died in war. They are a lament to all those who shared the same misfortune as her son. The sculptures depict two parents mourning their deceased son. The monument could once have been classed as a “nonoﬃcial memorial” 10 (WINTER 1999) as it was designed out of grievance. Today, it brings together individuals who needed to grieve for the same reason, thus providing both collec ve and personal remembrance. Kollwitz has men oned no me, date, names or loca on on the monument, leaving it unmarked to represent the generic sadness caused by bereavement. Remembrance manifests itself in this meless memorial as it becomes a place to honour all those who lost their lives in the same way and for the same cause. Grieving parents inevitably see the memorial in the same light; whether it be the me of World War I, present day, or poten al loss in the future.
In an ar cle on ‘Remembrance and Redemp on’, Winter (1999 p.6) expresses that “the smaller the scale of the monument, the more likely it is that the monument will faithfully express the cares and sen ments of those who wish to remember.” 11 This is evident in Kollwitz’s sculpture. A smaller, more sen mental monument, like ‘The Grieving Parents’, creates a stronger bond between the place of commemora on and the event it represents. It is not necessarily more eﬀec ve in producing a personal response, but it is a more personal approach to memorialisa on.
Fig. 7 Monumental Spire, St Giles
Fig. 8 Site of execu on
Bevan, R. 2006. Fences and Neighbours: The Destruc ve Consequences of Par on. The Destruc on of Memory: Architecture at War. Reak on Books Ltd. London. 2006. P.134
Rela ng back to Oxford, the Martyr’s Memorial oﬀ Magdalen Street at St. Giles memorialises three clergymen of the Church of England- Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh La mer.
10 Winter, J. 1999. Remembrance and Redemp on. Harvard Design Magazine, Fall 1999, Number 9. 11
The Victorian Gothic monument, designed by Sir George Gilbert Sco , commemorates the execu on of the martyrs which actually took place on Broad Street, where the spot is marked by a sunken cross in the road. Winter’s (1999 p.6) statement regarding the impact of small scale monuments suggests that the simple plaque in the ground would be enough to memorialise the martyrs, but in fact, this plaque serves as a demarca on rather than a memorial due to its loca on in the middle of a busy road. Therefore, there was a need for a memorial which allowed people to pause and think. The spire at St. Giles addresses this need.
Kollwitz’s monument is placed in a German War cemetery at Roggevelde. The historical connec on between the loca on and the memory provides historical context for the public. Bevan’s (2006 p.15) “view that memory somehow a aches itself to buildings and places, imprinted like ghosts on their fabric” 12 in ‘The Destruc on of Memory: Architecture at War’, conveys the strong associa on between memory and place. By being able to visit a place which is associated with the person who died, automa cally provides a more personal connec on.
Kathe Kollwitz’s ‘The Grieving Parents’ and the Vietnam Veteran’s Memorial have both been built to commemorate the loss of lives in ba le. Aesthe cs, materiality and loca on all eﬀect the way in which one perceives a memorial. The design is generally used to inspire a
Bevan, R. 2006. Introduc on: The Enemies of Architecture and Memory. The Destruc on of Memory: Architecture at War. Reak on Books Ltd. London. 2006. P.15
reflec ve mind-set. The public percep on of these memorials is divided into collec ve and individual experiences, crea ng awareness as well as private contempla on. Literature, such as Komunyakaa’s poem ‘Facing It’, is cri cal of society’s views on war related deaths, but also evokes personal remembrance. It is clear in conveying how memorials can be perceived by the public- by the people who are directly aﬀected by the events, and by those individuals in passing.
To conclude, the public percep on of any memorial can be divided into personal and collec ve experiences when taken from diﬀerent perspec ves. The role of architecture in memorialisa on is to have a physical form that represents loss and remembrance. Memorials are not only in place to honour the event or person, but to create societal awareness. An ar cle by Daniel Abramson (1999 p. 6) states that “Monuments, like history, ideally connect the past to the future through present engagement and horta ve content.” 13 Memorials are a reminder of the past, to honour and reflect upon it. They are an obvious connec on to the past, but through the awareness they create, they act as a means of deterrence for the future.
13 Abramson, D. 1999. Make History, Not Memory. Harvard Design Magazine, Fall 1999, Number 9.
/ BIBLIOGRAPHY // BOOK REFERENCES Komunyakaa, Y. 1988. Dien Cai Dau. ‘Facing It’. Wesleyan University Press. 1988. Bevan, R. 2006. The Destruc on of Memory: Architecture at War. Reak on Books Ltd. London. 2006. Abramson, D. 1999. Make History, Not Memory. Harvard Design Magazine, Fall 1999, Number 9. Winter, J. 1999. Remembrance and Redemp on. Harvard Design Magazine, Fall 1999, Number 9. Young, J. E. 1999. Memory and Counter-Memory. Harvard Design Magazine, Fall 1999, Number 9.
// ELECTRONIC RESOURCES 2010 Veteran Memorials and Monuments, The Three Soldiers [online] Available at: <h p:// www.gcveterans.com/Three_Soldiers_Memorial.html> [Accessed 18/01/2012] 1996-2006. 4/9 Infantry Manchu (Vietnam) Associa on. The Vietnam Veteran’s Memorial: The Wall-USA. [online] Available at: <h p://thewall-usa.com/informa on.asp> [Accessed 06/11/2011] Randhawa, J. 2006-2010. What is Metaphysics? [online] Available at: <h p://www. wha smetaphysics.com/> [Accessed 22/01/2012]
// ILLUSTRATIONS Fig. 1 1996-2006. 4/9 Infantry Manchu (Vietnam) Associa on. The Vietnam Veteran’s Memorial: The Wall-USA. ‘Wall at Night’ [online] h p://thewall-usa.com/gallery.asp Fig. 2 2000-2012 Dreams me ‘VIETNAM WAR MEMORIAL, WASHINGTON DC' [online] h p://
www.dreams me.com/royalty-free-stock-photography-vietnam-war-memorial-washingtondc-image13801647 Taken by tdMar n Fig. 3 1996-2006. 4/9 Infantry Manchu (Vietnam) Associa on. The Vietnam Veteran’s Memorial: The Wall-USA. Taken by Lee S. Girard [online] h p://thewall-usa.com/gallery.asp Fig. 4 2011 ‘Vietnam War Memorial, Washington DC. Taken by Travis Cody [online] h p:// travsthoughts.blogspot.com/2011/05/memorial-day.html Fig. 5 1996-2012 American Academy of Achievement. Taken by Nonkel Duvel [online] h p:// www.achievement.org/autodoc/photocredit/achievers/lin0-029 Fig. 6 War Memorial, St Giles, Oxford. Taken by ‘Brownie Bear’ [online] h p://www.flickr.com/ photos/browniebear/458156397/ Fig. 7 2001–2012 Lee W. Nelson. Oxford Martyrs’ Memorial [online] h p://www.inetours.com/ England/Oxford/photos/Martyrs_Memorial.html Fig. 8 2011. LMS Chairman. The Chairman’s Blog. Oxford Pilgrimage: Procession. Ar cle by Joseph Shaw [online] h p://www.lmschairman.org/2011/10/oxford-pilgrimage-procession.html Fig. 9 ‘The Grieving Parents’ h p://woophy.com/forum/9_4705_0.html
All accessed 26/01/2012.
MEM ORY &IDEN TITY