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karen lewis p o rt fo l i o fo r p ro m ot i o n to a s s oc i at e p ro f e s s o r w i t h t e n u r e summer 2014

c r e at i v e s c h o l a r s h i p e x pa n d i n g r e p r e s e n tat i o n graphic design for architects representing information envisioning organization clarifying systems light industrial landscape inner space harborport mobility across ohio m a p p i n g i n fo r m at i o n The geography of Violence resilience network diagrammatically yellowtown

funded research studio be2020: redesigning bob evans

m a p p i n g wo r k s h o p s presentations and seminars


karen lewis assistant professor of architecture the ohio state university

160 detroit avenue columbus, ohio 43201

k arenjlewis.net k arenjlewis@me.com 617. 970. 1606


karen lewis p o rt fo l i o fo r p ro m ot i o n to a s s oc i at e p ro f e s s o r w i t h t e n u r e summer 2014

c r e at i v e s c h o l a r s h i p e x pa n d i n g r e p r e s e n tat i o n graphic design for architects representing information envisioning organization clarifying systems light industrial landscape inner space harborport mobility across ohio m a p p i n g i n fo r m at i o n The geography of Violence resilience network diagrammatically yellowtown

funded research studio be2020: redesigning bob evans

m a p p i n g wo r k s h o p s presentations and seminars


e x pa n d i n g introduction research statement

r e p r e s e n tat i o n 4

curriculum vitae 9

graphic design for architects

22

representing information

62

envisioning organization

72

clarifying sy s t e m s light industrial landscape

76

inner space 90 harborport 100 mobility across ohio

112


table of contents

mapping

funded

i n fo r m at i o n

research studio

The geography of Violence

118

resilience network 122

be2020: redesigning bob evans

diagrammatically 132

mapping

yellowtown 138

wo r k s h o p s invited seminars

152

176


r e s e a r c h s tat e m e n t forms of information

Engaging architecture is a practice of visualization. My work explores architecture’s relationship to information: how information about site, program, environment or demographics influences architecture’s development, and, when designing within multiple systems of information, how this data is represented. This portfolio of work seeks to position design as an agent for organization. By clarifying relationships between components, landscapes, programs or populations, new sites for design emerge. My research into architecture’s forms of information has manifested itself in three themes: •

Expanding the realm of architectural representation;

Clarifying infrastructural systems as an expanded site for design; and

Spatiality through information mapping.

expanding representation

The first theme of my research centers on expanding the role of representation in architecture to include graphic design, diagrams, mappings and data visualization techniques. The manuscript, Graphic Design for Architects, has been accepted for publication by Routledge / Taylor Francis (expected 2015). Written and designed as a manual for visual communication, the book takes the position that architects describe their work primarily through two-dimensional images. Diagrams, information graphics, books, posters, websites, competition boards and digital presentations are part of an expanded vocabulary of representation techniques. While the topic of these drawings is architecture, the tools and techniques used to present them are expertise associated with graphic design. Graphic Design for Architects takes the position that graphic representation is not an additional lens

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KAREN LEWIS


modeling systems

of expertise applied to the presentation of architecture, rather, it is central to the

(left) Light Industrial Landscape,

way an architectural project is conceived, developed and projected.

model at three scales

Expanding architectural representation has been developed through a conference, Envisioning Organization: Architecture and Information. Architects, landscape architects, urban designers and graphic designers were invited to present their work over a two-day symposium at the Knowlton School. The ideas presented at the conference were further explored through a research paper “Representing Information: Envisioning the City through Data,” published and presented at the conference Digital Aptitudes: 2012 Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture annual meeting.

clarifying systems

How a project’s information is visualized, is foundational to its spatial organization. This thesis is tested through several design competitions that engage landscape, urban systems, transportation and civic engagement. Light Industrial Landscape1 intertwines emerging export-oriented economies within an expanded recreational vision for New York’s Queensway Rail Corridor. The project seeks to connect emerging urban economies with landscape and transportation. The interconnection of these financial, social and logistic networks is represented through several scales of maps and diagrams, which serve as sites for design interventions. Inner Space2 locates design at the intersection of topographic and infrastructural overlaps. Seeking to broaden public engagement on the Bronx’s Grand Concourse, an 8-lane vehicle roadway, Inner Space proposes strategic designs to provide public access, reduce traffic speeds and give pedestrian scale to the thoroughfare. These projects provide legibility and identity by organizing and clarifying the sites’ complex systems. Inner Space was recognized by a competition organized by the Design Trust for Public Space and was exhibited at the Center for Architecture in New York. In the Harborport3 project I teamed with two landscape architects: one with expertise in river dredge, the other with knowledge of stormwater systems. We explored ways to intertwine these environmental systems with transportation systems, resulting in a multi-scaled approach to water remediation and transportation planning. Throughout the project, I drew the map of New York to focus exclusively on its transportation and water remediation systems. The Harborport project was recognized in the 2011 One Prize: Water as the Sixth Borrough. Two projects, Health Corridor and Switch Space4, are design outcomes from an on-going study on the urban / rural connections that shape the Midwestern landscape. While 85 percent of Ohio’s landscape is census defined as “rural,” over 80 percent of its population reside within 10 miles of an urban core, a relationships that is changing the Midwest’s economy and subsequent infrastructure networks. A graduate research studio, Mobility Through Ohio, and subsequent research study tested the opportunities of Ohio’s controversial high-speed rail proposal. Both of these projects, Health Corridor and Switch Space were recognized as an honorable mention and winning entry in the Van Alen Institute’s 2011 Life at the Speed of Rail competition.

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introduction


mapping information

public / private map

Mapping represents the third intersection of architecture and information in my

(above left) Resilience Network,

design work. Rather than tracing existing conditions, I have sought to infuse maps

mapping of Newtown, CT

with the intelligence of diagrams as “double sided tools� for speculation, as evidenced in published and presented papers at the ACSA 2012 Conference and within the publication Diagrammatic5. Yellowtown seeks to understand the relationship between signage design, race and class by drawing several maps that layer disparate information. This work was presented at the Logocities Conference at Concordia University and published in the journal Design and Culture6 Similarly, the recognized Geography of Violence7 mapping holds questions about the relationship between gun violence, urban centers, and mental health. Layering multiple scales and types of information, the map serves as a tool to hold questions about the city, landscape and environment. These inquiries form a design proposal, Resilience Network, for a memorial to recognize the 12/14 Sandy Hook Elementary School tragedy. The project maps informal community spaces formed in the wake of the event, looking at the relationships formed between formal and spontaneous community centers. The project seeks a relationship between public and private spaces, using landscape architecture as the primary design pallet. engaging graphics

As part of an on-going project to develop architectural information and graphic protocol, I have been invited to present my design work at several conferences and symposium. I was invited to lecture and lead a weeklong Catalyst Week workshop on urban mappings at the University of Minnesota. I have taught workshops

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KAREN LEWIS


geography of violence

on diagrams and modeling at the Cleveland Urban Design Center, Kent State

(above right) mapping for Dymax

University and the University of Tennessee. I was included in the Networks

Redux competition

panel of the Spring 2012 Manufactured Landscape Symposium, organized by the University of Illinois Urbana-Champagne, and have been invited to contribute to the forthcoming publication. I was the invited keynote speaker for a conference on Failure and Creativity at the College of Art at SUNY Buffalo. The theme was explored further in a paper and presentation at the 2011 Flip Your Field ACSA Midwest Conference at University of Illinois Chicago. I have been a guest critic at reviews focused on representation and networks at the University of Michigan, University of Minnesota, University of Illinois Chicago, Syracuse University and Columbia University. teaching

These research interests are brought to my teaching through studios, research studios and lectures. During my five years as an Assistant Professor at the Knowlton School of Architecture, I have had the opportunity to develop a specific pedagogy related to visualizing architecture. My studios focus on architectural networks, looking at how large-scale systems influence design. The fourth-year undergraduate studio focuses on site systems and large-scale design, and has manifested itself in several ways, from large-scale mappings and models to smaller scale studies of walls. I seek to expand my students’ well-developed formal abilities with a broadened set of visualization practices to better question how architecture transforms at larger scales.

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introduction


I initiated and developed a partnership with Bob Evans Corporation for my Spring 2014 research studio, collaborating with their Head of Design, Vice President for Operations, and innovation and marketing teams in order to work with the students throughout the term. The studio, Bob Evans 2020, received $20,000 in research sponsorship and is now serving as a model for further academic / corporate sponsorships. The studio Bob Evans 2020 asked students to reimagine the freestanding, highway restaurant for an urban context aimed at a new generation of customers. The students researched how Bob Evans’ brand could be repositioned in relationship to shifting demographics, food production and cultural influences. At the end of the term, students presented their research to the CEO of Bob Evans and I am currently discussing ways to expand the initial studio partnership. Working at the intersection of branding, graphics, identity and architectural networks, the Bob Evans 2020 research studio represents a trajectory between research efforts and community engagement. This engagement positions architectural research—rather than service—as central to the University and the discipline. Initiated by then-Section Head John McMorrough, I was asked to reposition the Architecture Representation course to emphasize architectural communication. The course emphasizes foundational modes of communication in conjunction with an expanded repertoire of diagrams, information graphics and portfolios. Additionally, I have taught several portfolio workshops within the Knowlton School and facilitated a weekend-long data visualization design competition8. Additionally, my teaching methods have been recognized both at Ohio State and by other academic institutions. My excellence in teaching has been recognized at OSU with a 2014 Sphinx Undergraduate Teaching Award and in 2009 with a national ACSA New Faculty Teaching award. service

Engagement in the wider university and community is an important aspect of my work that I expect to continue. I have been invited to visualize conferences hosted by the Columbus Urban Land Institute and for Ohio State Mansfield. The College of Engineering has sought my expertise in crafting an interdisciplinary major on Data Visualization, a project I look forward to developing. In collaboration with the College of Law, Glenn School of Public Affairs and College of Engineering, I recently helped organize an interdisciplinary conference on Big Data and the Social Future, for which I helped secure a grant of $40,000. My expertise in crafting information has also facilitated the redesign of the Knowlton School of Architecture website and School communications. Working closely with staff during the 2011-2013 academic year, I redesigned the Knowlton School website focusing on how information is presented via the web. I’ve designed the school’s lecture posters, Stoss Landscape Urbanism edition of the Source Books, and helped develop the school’s web gallery of student work.

A

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Trajectory forward

As I progress in my career, I hope very much to start an interdisciplinary research lab on data visualization as a way of bridging my interests in teaching, research and service. The publication of my book reveals that expanded visual communication skills are necessary not just for architects, but for all professionals. To this end, I will partner with the Central Ohio Trauma Center as part of a multi-disciplinary research seminar in the Spring 2015. Students from multiple design disciplines will map and visualize information provided by the Trauma Center to form a visual study intersecting health and infrastructure. As evidenced by the Bob Evans 2020 funded studio, architecture can and should form community engagements centered on design research – not only service. Our ability to imagine, visualize and communicate complexity is central to our discipline and should be positioned foremost within our creative, scholarly, teaching and outreach engagement.

1. Light Industrial Landscape (Fall 2013–Summer 2014) Entry for the Emerging New York Architects award.

2. Inner Space. Semi-Finalist in the Grand Concourse Beyond 100 Competition, Design Trust for Public Space. Exhibited in the Spotlight: Grand Concourse exhibition at the Center for Architecture in New York, Spring 2009– Fall 2009.

3. Harborport, Semi-Finalist in the 2011 One Prize Competition: Water as the Sixth Borough. Collaboration with Jason Kentner, Matthew Banton and Sean Burkholder.

4. Switch Space, Emma Cuccurean-Zappan and Christine Yankel (primary authors) and Health Corridor (Lewis) were both recognized in the Van Alen Institute 2011 Life at the Speed of Rail competition.

5. Co-edited and designed with Terry Schwartz, Director of the Cleveland Urban Design Center. Diagrammatic was named a finalist of the EDRA Great Places 2013 Book Award.

6. “Yellowtown: Urban Signage, Class and Race”. Dr. Matthew Soar, ed., Design and Culture (London: Berg Pubishers, 2010): 183–198.

7. Finalist, Dymax Redux Competition, Buckminster Fuller Institute, Summer 2013. The competition was additionally exhibited at Cooper Union, New York, October–November 2013.

8. Visualizing.org, Seed Media Group, sponsored the international design charette. Ohio State was recognized as having the largest participation.

spectacle infrastructure (below) section of Light Industrial Landscape proposal

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KAREN LEWIS


c u r r i c u lu m v i ta e Karen Lewis 160 Detroit Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43201 karenjlewis.net karenjlewis@me.com 617. 970. 1606

Education Harvard University, Graduate School of Design Master of Architecture, 2000–2004 Thesis: PNY/EWK/NJT: Intermodal Service Center in Newark, New Jersey Advisors: Sarah Whiting and Ron Witte Wellesley College Bachelor of Arts, Architecture, cum laude, 1993–1997

Academic Appointments The Ohio State University Knowlton School of Architecture, Architecture Section Assistant Professor, 2009–present course number

semesters / quarters taught

course title

ARCH 4420 / 3420 ARCH 4410 ARCH 6420 ARCH 699 ARCH 340

S 2014 W 2012, F 2012, F 2013 S 2013 W 2011 F 2009, W 2010

Third and Fourth Year Undergraduate Studio Fourth Year Undergraduate Design Studio First Year Graduate Design Studio Third Year Graduate Design Studio Third Year Undergraduate Design Studio

ARCH 5910 ARCH 271 ARCH 271

F 2012, F 2013 W 2010, W 2011, W 2012 F2009, F 2010, F 2011

Architectural Representation 1: Lecture and Lab Architectural Graphics 2: Lecture and Lab Architectural Graphics 1: Lecture and Lab

ARCH 5610 ARCH 700 ARCH 700

S 2013 S 2013 S 2013

Seminar: Information Territories Seminar: Diagrams in Action Seminar: Diagrammatic

ARCH 5590 ARCH 599 ARCH 599

May 2013 S 2011 S 2010

Independent Study: Smart Harbor Competition Independent Study: Ohio’s Next Economy Independent Study: Architecture and Information

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Academic Appointments (continued) University of Kentucky College of Design, School of Architecture Assistant Professor of Architecture, September 2006–May 2009 Lecturer in Architecture, September 2004–August 2006 course number

semesters / quarters taught

course title

ARCH 302 ARCH 401 / 501 ARCH 201

F 2008 S 2008, F 2006, S 2006, F 2005 F 2005, S 2006

Third Year Undergraduate Studio Fourth / Fifth Year Undergraduate Design Studio Second Year Undergraduate Studio

ARCH 260

S 2009

Architectural Representation: Lecture and Lab

ARCH 800 ARCH 500 ARCH 500

S 2008 S 2006, S 2007, S 2009 S 2007, F 2008

Seminar: Visualizing Modern Architecture Seminar: Topography of Typography Seminar: Infrastructural Urbanism

ARCH 999

SU 2007

Visiting Studio Critic, Rotterdam Program

Harvard University Faculty of Arts & Sciences, Visual and Environmental Studies Teaching Fellow, under John R. Stilgoe, Robert and Lois Orchard Professor in the History of Landscape Development course number

semesters taught

course title

VES 6410

F 2003

Studies of the Built North American Environment since 1580

VES 6420

S 2004

Modernization in the Visual United States Environment, 1890-2035

Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Career Discovery Program Architecture Instructor, under John McMorrough. Summer 2002, 2003

Boston Architectural Center Architecture Studio Critic, “The Freedom Trail: Design Studio.” Fall 2003

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Awards 2014

Sphinx Undergraduate Honorary Society, The Ohio State University Outstanding Teacher Award

2013

Buckminster Fuller Institute, Dymax Redux Competition Finalist, The Geography of Violence 2013 Environmental Design Research Association, Great Places Book Award Finalist, Diagrammatically: Urban Infill 5. Co-edited and designed with Terry Schwartz, Director of the Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative, Kent State University

2011

2011 Terreform One Prize Competition, Water as the Sixth Borrough Finalist, Harborport. Collaboration with Matt Banton, Sean Burkholder, and Jason Kentner, RLA Van Alen Institute, Life at the Speed of Rail Competition Honorable Mention, Health Corridor

Van Alen Institute, Life at the Speed of Rail Competition Winner, Switch Space. With Emma Cucurrean-Zapan and Christine Yankel (primary authors)

2010

Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE) National Design Awards Annual Award, 2009 Alumni Publications, Ampersand Alumni Magazine

2009

Design Trust for Public Space / The Bronx Museum of Art Intersections: Envisioning the Grand Concourse at 100 Competition Honorable Mention, Inner Space. Collaboration with Jason Kentner, RLA Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture New Faculty Teaching Award

2006

Boston Society of Architects, “WindScape: Envisioning Renewable Energy� Competition Honorable Mention, 110% Juice. Collaboration with Jason Kentner, RLA

2005

National Parks Service, Flight 93 9/11 Memorial Competition Finalist, Memory Trail, collaboration with Jason Kentner, RLA; E. Lynn Miller, MLA; Frederick Steiner, Hon. MLA

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symposia, Lectures, presentations and workshops (*refereed) 2015

Invited Lecture, Department of Design, The Ohio State University (upcoming January 2015)

2014

* Presentation, Panel Discussion and Workshop, Mediated Cities: Los Angeles Conference (upcoming, October 2014) Woodbury University, Los Angeles Invited Critic, Columbia University, Graduate School of Architecture Final Reviews Organizer, Big Data Future Conference, The Ohio State University Multi-disciplinary conference on Big Data with the Law School, School of Public Affairs and College of Engineering Invited Workshop, University of Tennessee, Landscape Architecture Department Mapping Networks: Geographic Information Systems

2013

Invited Workshop Leader, Catalyst Week, School of Architecture and Design, University of Minnesota One-week design workshop and exhibition: Spatializing Information: Geographic Information Systems Invited Lecture, School of Architecture and Design, University of Minnesotta Spatializing Systems: Archtiecture and Graphics

2012

Invited Critic, School of Architecture, University of Illinois Chicago Undergraduate Studio Reviews: Fields Invited Workshop, College of Architecture and Design, Kent State University Diagramming the City Workshop, Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative / AIA Ohio Annual Conference Visualizing Infrastructural Connections Invited Presentation, Manufactured Landscapes Symposium The Illinois School of Architecture, University of Illinois Urbana-Champagne Service Networks: Design for a Changing Economy Invited Critic, School of Architecture and Design, University of Minnesotta Graduate Architecture Thesis Reviews Invited Critic, Daniels Faculty of Architecture, Landscape, and Design, University of Toronto Graduate Architecture Thesis Reviews Invited Critic, School of Architecture, Syracuse University Undergraduate Reviews Invited Panelist, College of Architecture and Design, Kent State University Envisioning the Future of Architectural Education

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* Presentation, Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture Annual Meeting 100 Host Institution: The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Representing Information: Envisioning the City through Data 2011

Invited Critic, Taubman College of Architecture, University of Michigan Graduate Studio Reviews: Networks Invited Critic, College of Design, University of Kentucky Third Year Undergraduate Studio Reviews Invited Presentation, Cleveland Urban Design Center, Kent State University Mobility Infrastructures: Envisioning High Speed Rail

2010

Symposium Chair, Envisioning Organization: Architecture and Information Knowlton School of Architecture, The Ohio State University Role: Chair, Presenter, Moderator and Exhibition Curator * Presentation, Flip Your Field: ACSA Midwest Conference Host Institution: University of Illinois at Chicago Epic Fail! Keynote Address, Failure Symposium, College of Design, SUNY Buffalo On Design and Failure

2009

Invited Presentation, New Jersey School of Architecture Start / Gap: Infrastructure and Human Trafficking Invited Presentation, School of Architecture and Design, University of Cincinnatti Information in Architecture: Diagramming Research * Presentation, Third International Conference on Design Principles and Practices Technical University of Berlin Data Processing: Designing Logistics

2008

* Presentation, Social Studies: Educating Designers in a Connected World American Institute of Graphic Arts, Educator’s Annual Meeting, Maryland Institute College of Art Stock Exchange: Redesigning the Bluegrass Stockyard * Presentation, Design Inquiry Conference, Maine College of Art (Not So) Great Expectations: Class Values in Signage Invited Presentation, University of Texas at Austin Information / Architecture

2007 Invited Presentation, Environmental Protection Agency Ohio River Valley Conference Live / Work: Sustainable Strategies * Presentation, Logocities Symposium, Concordia University Yellowtown: The Graphic Design of Urgency, the Aesthetics of Poverty

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Publications and Exhibitions (*refereed) publications accepted but not yet published

Graphic Design for Architects (London: Routledge / Taylor and Francis Publishers, 2015) * Cultivating Resilience in [Bracket] Takes Action, ed. Mason White (Barcelona: Actar, 2014) 110% Juice in Drawing for Architects, Julia McMorrough (London: Quarto Publishing Group, 2014) Envisioning Economic Systems in Manufactured Landscapes, ed. Julie Larsen (Berlin: Jovis, forthcoming) * Air / Shed in Charles Waldheim, Clare Lyster, Mason White, eds. Third Coast Atlas (Barcelona: ACTAR, forthcoming)

publications

Diagrammatically: Urban Infill 5 co-edited and designed with Terry Schwarz (2012). * Information and Architecture in Diagrammatically, eds. Terry Schwarz and Karen Lewis. Book produced through the Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative, 2012: 24-29. * Representing Information: Envisioning the City through Data Digital Aptitudes: 100th Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture Meeting (eds. Mark Goulthorpe, Ann Murphy). Published in Conference Proceedings, Spring 2012 : 648–653. Drawings and Memory Trail project discussed in “In Search for a Fitting Tribute: The Flight 93 National Memorial” in Frederick Steiner, Design for a Vulnerable Planet (Austin: UT Austin Press, 2011): 219-228. * Epic Fail! Flip Your Field: 2010 ACSA West Central Conference (ed. Penelope Dean) Published in Conference Proceedings, Fall 2010: 121-126. * Yellowtown: Urban Signage, Class and Race Dr. Matthew Soar, ed., Design and Culture (London: Berg Pubishers, 2010): 183-198. (Earlier version published in MULTI: The RIT Journal of Diversity and Plurality in Design, Fall 2008) Everyday Urbanism, Book review. The Journal of Architectural Education, September 2009: 108-109. Data Processing, in James Carlopio, Strategy by Design (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010): 169-178. Flight 93 Visitors Chapel, in Becoming a Landscape Architect: A Guide to Careers in Design (Hoboken: Wiley & Sons, 2010): 144. * 110% Juice, in Gregory A. Luhan, Phillip Anzalone, Mark Cabrinha, Cory Clarke, eds., Synthetic Landscapes: ACADIA 2006 International Conference Proceedings. (Mansfield, OH: ACADIA Publications, 2006.), p.123.

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* 110% Juice, in Gregory A. Luhan, ed., The Digital Exchange: An Exhibition of Digital Manufacture and Visualization. (Mansfield, OH: ACADIA Publications, 2006), p. 56. “Finalists Names for Flight 93 Memorial,” Architectural Record (McGraw_Hill: April 2005). p. 42. Drawings of Memory Trail’s proposed visitor center are featured in article

“UT Team Among Finalists for Flight 93 Memorial,” Texas Architect (March 2005). p. 25 Interior and exterior renderings of Memory Trail’s proposed visitor’s center are featured in article

Exhibitions

* Geography of Violence Dymax Redux: Rethinking the Dymaxion Map, The Cooper Union, New York, NY October–November 2013 Street/Scape Urban Infill Competition, The Loretta Building, Fargo, ND, November 2010–January 2011 Exhibiting Organization: Exhibition for the Envisioning Organization Symposium Banvard Gallery, Knowtlon School of Architecture, Columbus, OH, November 2010 – January 2011 Curator and exhibitor in group show of selected work to support the conference, Envisioning Organization

* Inner Space Center for Architecture, New York, NY, November 2009—January 2010 Spotlight exhibition of selected finalists (11 selected of 30 finalists / 180+ entries). Context model of our project developed (1 of 30 finalists) Short list web exhibition. 30 projects selected from over 200 entries. http://gallery.grandconcourse100.org/ (Summer 2009 – present).

* 110% Juice Boston Society of Architects, Boston, MA, January—March 2006 Northeast Sustainable Energy Association Conference: Building Energy Seaport Hotel, Boston, MA, March 7–9, 2006 Build Boston Convention Seaport World Trade Center, Boston, MA, April 5–6, 2006 ACADIA Conference 2006: Synthetic Landscapes Louisville, KY, September 29—October 31, 2006

* Memory Trail Flight 93 Memorial Finalists Exhibition Somerset, PA, June — September, 2005 * Harvard Design Studio Work Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA “Library / Archive,“ critic, Michael Bell, Fall 2003 “Slot Life,” critics, Alex Kreiger and Janine Clifford, Fall 2002

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Grants and research support 2014

Bob Evans Corporation Total: $20,000 Project: Design Research Studio, BE2: Designing the Next Bob Evans Restaurant Role: Principal Investigator

2013

Battelle Endowment for Technology and Human Affairs Award: $42,000 [total funding $60,000] Project: Symposium, Big Data and the Social Future Role: Conference organizer, panel moderator

Ohio State University, College of Engineering, “CONNECT Networking Award” Award: $5,000 Project: Architecture and Data Visualization. Invited mentor: Laura Kurgan, Spatial Information Design Lab, Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation, Columbia University

2008

University of Kentucky, College of Design, Faculty Research Grant Award: $3,000 Project: Taxonomy of Diagrams Role: Principal Investigator

2007

University of Kentucky, University Faculty Summer Research Funding Award: $6,000 Project: Stock Exchange: Diagramming Infrastructural Landscapes Role: Principal Investigator

Service ohio state university committees, task forces, design projects

2013–present 2013–present 2013 2011–2013 2011–2012 2012 2012 2011 2010-2011 2010–2011 2009–2010 2009–2010 2009–present

Member, Data Analytics Task Force, College of Engineering Member, Knowlton School of Architecture (KSA) Student Work Digital Gallery Task Force Designer, Source Book 7: Stoss Landscape Architecture Urbanism Chair, KSA Communications Team Redesigned and oversaw the development of the KSA Website Member, KSA Web Developer Search Member, KSA Digital Librarian Search Member, KSA Research Task Force Designer, Knowlton School of Architecture Baumer Lecture Series Posters Coordinator, Architecture Accreditation Exhibitions, Team Room and Information Design Member, KSA One School Committee Co-curator, KSA Banvard Gallery Graduate Architecture Student Advising

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University of Kentucky Committees

2008-2009 2008-2009 2008-2009 2007, 2008 2006-2007 2006–2008 2007–2009 2004–2005

Member, University Committee for Visual Communication Major Member, Website Member, Architecture Curriculum Member, Architecture Faculty Search Member, College of Design Dean Search College Lectures: Chair (2007-08) Member, (2006-07) Member, University Signage Member, Architecture Admissions

harvard university Service

2001–2004 2003 2002 2000

President, Member, Women in Design (Student Organization), Graduate School of Design Graphic Design, Harvard University Graduate Association Introduction, Co-moderator, “Conversations: Toshiko Mori;” Boston Society of Architects Student Member, Graduate School of Design Website Redesign

professional and community service

2013 2013 2013 2012, 2013 2012 2010–2011 2009–2011 2011 2011 2009 2007 2007 2007 2007 2006 2006 2005

Presentation and Panel Discussion, Wellesley College Architecture Student Organization Lecture, The Architecture of Memory: Design and The Submission, OSU First Year Experience Information Design, Implicit Bias Workshop, The Women’s Place, The Ohio State University Peer Reviewer, Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture Coordinator, Visualizing.org Data Visualization Charette, College of Engineering, KSA Member, Neighborhood Design Center, Columbus, OH Architecture Commissioner, Italian Village Commission, City of Columbus, OH Information Design, Envisioning Columbus 2050, Urban Land Institute, Columbus, OH Three-weekend Portfolio Workshop Presentation, Action Plans! Ground Mini Symposium Knowlton School of Architecture Consultant, Woodford County Farm Bureau Lecture, Stock Exchange: Redesigning the Bluegrass Stockyard, Fayette County Farm Bureau Keynote address and exhibition, Kentucky Cattlemen’s Convention, Annual Meeting Presentation, Community Oriented Research, University of Kentucky Research Office Art Design and Installation, Ale 8 Bottle Wall, Ale 8 Factory Panelist, Young Women Academics, Women in Design (student invitation), GSD Harvard University Keynote Address, Flight 93 Design Competition, Kentucky Governor’s School for the Arts

Portfolio Design Workshops

2013 2013 2012 2011 2010 2006 2006

Presentation, Fourth Year Undergraduate Architecture students, Ohio State Presentation and Workshop, Knowlton School of Architecture students, Ohio State Presentation, Fourth Year Undergraduate Architecture students, Ohio State Presentation, City & Regional Planning students, Ohio State Presentation, Fourth Year Undergraduate Architecture students, Ohio State Presentation, Architecture and Landscape students, University of Kentucky Presentation, College of Design, University of Kentucky

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Professional Design Experience Implement (formerly Influx Studio) Principal; Collaborative practice with Jason Kentner, RLA highlighted Projects:

Seimans Corporation Landscape masterplan and design of courtyards (renderings) The Benchmark Apartments: Landscape for 12 building / 48-unit apartment complex (renderings) Envision 2020: Magazine and website for the University of Kentucky Arts and Sciences. (100% graphics) Baltimore County Farm, Archtiecture and Interiors (50%) graphic design projects:

Ampersand& (2005-2011) University of Kentucky, College of Arts and Science, Alumni Magazine Law Notes (Fall 2007) University of Kentucky, College of Law, Alumni Magazine Signage and Wayfinding Analysis and Design Advisor and Project Coordinator; College of Education, University of Kentucky (Fall 2006—Spring 2007) Website and Branding Creative Director; College of Design, University of Kentucky (Summer 2006) Harvard Design School Student Handbook, 1st, 2nd, 3rd editions Creative Director, Co-Editor, Designer, Writer; Harvard Design School (2001, 2002, 2003)

Architecture, Exhibition, and Media Design Practice

Cambridge Seven Associates, Cambridge, MA Architecture, Exhibition Design Intern (Summer 2001) Icon-Nicholson, New York, NY Information Architect for interactive digital media firm (1999–2000) Whirlwind and Company, New York, NY Exhibition Designer (1998–1999) Bruce Museum of Arts and Sciences, Greenwich, CT Exhibition Designer, Lillian Butler Davey Museum Fellow (1997–1998)

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KAREN LEWIS


CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP

e x pa n d i n g represe n tatio n

m appi n g i n for m atio n

graphic design for architects

22

The geography of Violence

118

representing information

62

122

envisioning organization

72

resilience network diagrammatically yellowtown

138

clari f y i n g s y ste m s light industrial landscape

76

inner space 90 harborport 100 MOBILITY THROUGH THE MIDWEST

112

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP

132


scheduled publication

January 2015

Routledge / Taylor and Francis Publishers

Submitted to publisher

Summer 2014

Spring 2013

Extended Sample printed and displayed at ACSA 101: San Fransisco

Spring 2013

Work presented with lecture at University of Minnesota

Spring 2012

Work presented with lecture at the Knowlton School of Architecture

signed contract Summer 2012

Graphic Design for Architects to be published by Routledge / Taylor and Francis. 4-color, 224-pages

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expanding representation

graphic design for architects

karen lewis is principal of Implement, a design firm working at the intersection of information, architecture and landscape. Her design work and reserach in infrastructural systems, data visualizations and graphic techniques has been recognized internationally. Currently Karen Lewis is on the architecture faculty at the Ohio State University.

karen lewis

a superb handbook of techniques, explanations and examples which provides a complete reference of graphic techniques and methods most useful to architects in getting their work done.

graphic design for

architects

A mAnuAl for visuAl communicAtion

written And designed by

karen lewis

isBn: 978-0-415-52261-8

gda_cover_sample.indd All Pages

3/9/13 12:11 PM

g raphic d esi g n for architects

abstract Graphic Design for Architects: A Manual for Visual Communication expands architecture’s representation skills to include the discipline of graphic design. The book recognizes that contemporary architecture practice requires an increased set of two-dimensional representational skills to develop the multiple types of representations required for contemporary practice: portfolios, diagrams, maps, information graphics, presentations and books. Filled with diagrams, explanations and examples, the book serves as a graphic reference for students and professionals to broaden their visual communication skills.

a manual of visual communication

accepted for publication Manuscript submitted summer 2014

Graphic Design for Architects positions an increased awareness and knowledge of graphic design will not only expand architecture’s representational skills but will provide disciplinary knowledge necessary for spatial invention. An awareness of graphic design will provide for better professional consultancies and collaborations, thereby expanding disciplinary effects.

To be published January 2015 Routledge / Taylor and Francis 4-color print, 224-pages, $34.95

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First published 2015 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business Š 2015 Karen Lewis The right of Karen Lewis to be identified as author of this work has been asserted by him/her in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data [CIP data] ISBN: 978-0-415-52260-1 (hbk) ISBN: 978-0-415-52261-8 (pbk) Typeset in Gotham Narrow by Hoefler & Frere-Jones and Trade Gothic by Linotype

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KAREN LEWIS


graphic design for

architects A mAnuAl for visuAl communicAtion

written And designed by

karen lewis

london & new york

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introduction

presenting to an audience

XX The graphic archiTecT Essay by Karen Lewis

XX

conversation with 2x4

XX

Michael Rock, Principal

XX compeTiTions Competition phasing Scales of information Structuring argument Layering images Mixing drawing types

presenting yourself

conversation with studio DuBs

XX XX XX XX XX XX

Michael Piper, Principal

XX porTfolios Getting Started Overview flowchart Printing techniques Binding options Cover options Organizing content Diagramming structure Page typologies Pacing and structure Page grids Typeface organization conversation with WJoB

XX XX XX XX XX XX XX

conversation with Benjamin Van Dyke

conversation with interboro partners

XX

XXX XXX XXX XXX

Daniel D’Oca, Partner

XX

Georgeen Theodore, Partner

XX XX

XX XX XX XX

XXX Books Printing technology Book ergonomics Pacing and sequence Page grids Page structure Setting type Typographic mechanics

XX

conversation with Thumb

XX

Luke Bulman, Principal

Graphic Designer

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XXX

Tobias Armborst, Partner

XX

William J. O’brien Jr., Principal

XX resumes Organizational overview Page structures Baseline grids Nesting information Mixing typefaces

XXX presenTaTions Rhetrocial structures Compacing messages Structuring color Words to images

graphic design for architects

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KAREN LEWIS

XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX


table of Contents architectural communication XXX

communication as architecture XXX

diagrams Formal analysis Explaining process Clarifying the components Phenomenological explanations Information diagrams Implications of color Conversation with all of the above

XXX

signage & wayfinding Clarifying experience Signage systems Organizing spaces Walls as communication Structure of signage Landscape signage

XXX

Conversation with open

XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX

Janette Kim, Principal

XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX

Scott Stowell, Principal

XXX

XXX

information graphiCs Pie charts Types of data Bar charts Pie versus bar charts Presenting numbers Flow charts

XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX

super graphiCs What makes them super? Concealing the surface Supergraphic effect Graphic landscapes Conversation with project projects

XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX

Prem Krishnamurthy, Principal

Conversation with filson & rohrbacher XXX Anne Filson, Principal

XXX

maps Coordinating information Layering information Levels of specificity Enhancing relationships Aggregating marks Hierarchy and detail Conversation with nicholas felton

XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX

Graphic Designer

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essay

architects for graphic design karen lewis

Architects describe their work through drawings, images, and

and intellectual framework. For example, in the MoMA PS1

models. Increasingly, architects use other forms of representation

Young Architects Program, design teams produce a range of

to describe their ideas. Diagrams, information graphics, books,

representations to explain their proposal. Traditional orthographic

posters, websites, competition boards and digital presentations

drawings have been augmented – if not entirely replaced – by

are part of an expanded vocabulary of representation techniques.

renderings, diagrams, and animations. Work is not pinned on the

While the topic of these drawings is architecture, the tools and

wall cohesively but presented via slide-by-slide presentations

techniques used to present them are expertise associated with

of single images and videos. Recently, too, each design teams

graphic design. Deep disciplinary knowledge is required to

prepare project books for each juror. This representational

produce architecture; additional knowledge from graphic design

shifts towards presentations, diagrams, renderings and books

is necessary to present architecture.

establish a project’s conceptual framework. The 2-dimensional representation of an architectural project – be it through a book

Increasingly architects are responsible for images that explain

or website, digital presentation or synthetic image –has become

the effects of architecture, be they financial, organizational,

part of an architects’ spatial strategies. The graphic organizations

environmental or social. As the architecture profession becomes

that inform a project’s representation is foundational to how it

more specialized, workflow increasingly complex and design

is imagined. The graphic presentation of architecture is not an

expertise further focused, architects are required to produce

additional lens of expertise applied to the presentation of work,

a wider range of drawings to explain the impacts of our work.

it is essential to the way architecture is conceived, developed

It is common for architects to produce a broad range of

and projected. Graphics are not about the addition of further,

representations to communicate with clients, project consultants,

unaffiliated expertise layered upon those of architecture – to

or public constituencies. The architects’ graphic output is no

do so is an anathema – but it is to recognize the relationship

longer limited to two-dimensional representations of three-

between representation and the work itself. Contemporary

dimensional space, but also includes drawings of organization,

representation techniques are imbued within architecture’s

structure and relationships across building materials, finances,

spatial and organizational techniques. These comprise the same

and other consultancies. These images, prepared by the architect

lineage of spatial structure that guides its development.

as part of the design process, represent the organization of interrelated decisions.

Architects – indeed, all professions – need to understand the foundations of graphic design in order to present information

As architecture expands its reach of visual services,

visually. Visual communication is an increasingly significant

these methods of structuring and organizing space move

part of professional communication. Architects in particular

beyond that of client-designer relationships. The way work is

can benefit from this knowledge to enhance representation

presented graphically communicates the design’s conceptual

skills, but also to facilitate better relationships with consultants.

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introduction

Every building, landscape or urban center eventually interacts

volumes and wide ramps directing users to prominent spaces,

with by graphic design. Having knowledge of the potentials of

the unfamiliar visitor immediately proceeds up small, narrow

graphic design can better position architects to communicate

staircases to arrive at the second floor. At the beginning of every

and collaborate with their consultants. In the same way

semester, ad hoc signage litters the building walls, attempting to

architects have engaged affiliated professions such as structural

direct visitors towards the main thoroughfares. These signs are

engineering and landscape, architects can and should present

unproductive. Printed (or hand-drawn) on single sheets of white

similar creative collaborations. Instead of the graphic designer

letter-sized paper, the small rectangles disappear within the

being invited into the building project at the end of its completion

grey, concrete, 20-foot entry spaces. Located haphazardly, the

to add signage, the graphic designer instead should be included

signs also don’t fall into the user’s view. As such, these graphic

earlier in the design process. To do so allows both the architecture

messages don’t correlate to the building’s space.

and building graphics to share similar conceptual agendas. 2x4 and OMA’s collaboration at the Illinois Institute of Technology

Architects do not need to become graphic designers; we

McCormick Tribune Center rested upon a shared intellectual

need to understand better the expertise and techniques of

query surrounding perception. Koolhaas’s essay “Junk Space”

graphic design. Expanding our representation skills allows

was first published in ANY 27, which 2x4 designed. This shared

communication to broader audiences, clients, and research

question of visual perception stimulated the building’s graphic

collaborators and facilitates disciplinary knowledge across related

treatment. Walls were considered hosts for information. The

fields. Architecture also needs to recognize the spatial practice

building walls become hosts for information, using graphic design

shared with graphic design. A closer relationship between

as a way to both encode and obfuscate the surface. In this case,

the two disciplines will enhance the intelligence of the field.

the building graphics are part of a shared spatial project between

Increasing our awareness of graphic design techniques facilitates

the graphic designer and architect.

our disciplinary knowledge. To include graphic design as part of our discipline, architecture expands opportunities for spatial

Conversely, architecture without graphic design can produce

invention.

unintended spatial effects. Scoggin and Elam’s Knowlton School of Architecture at Ohio State University is a building with clear spatial hierarchies. However, its unconventional use of ramps, walls and materials makes navigation confounding for a user accustomed to the spatial strategies of traditional campus buildings. Users entering the building looking for the main auditorium, room 250, immediately search for access to the second floor. Ignoring the spatial cues provided by main

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conversation organization

2x4 Michael rock / creatiVe director / new york, ny

Michael rock is a founding partner

graphic design for architects:

with the exception of model-making,

and Creative Director at 2x4 and

you’ve been crafting the graphic

student’s work is almost exclusively graphic.

Director of the Graphic Architecture

Architecture Project at the school of

critiques are centered in presentations

Project at the Columbia University

Architecture at columbia university. what

in the form of boards and power–point

Graduate School of Architecture,

is the relationship between graphic design

presentations. very little of the work

Planning and Preservation. At 2x4, he

and architecture?

actually becomes built form but there hardly any discussion about the material

leads a wide range of projects for Prada, Nike, Kanye West, Barneys New York, Harvard and CCTV. His writing on design has appeared in publications worldwide. He is the recipient of the 1999/2000 Rome Prize in Design from the American Academy in Rome.

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Michael rock: i don’t think so much about graphic design benefiting architecture; more often i think that architecture is often a form of graphic design. A significant percentage of the work of architecture is two–dimensional representation—drawings, renderings, diagrams, collages—and texts. it’s basically the ingredients in graphic design. in school,

graphic design for architects

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KAREN LEWIS

quality of that work. i started the graphic Architecture Project with the statement: architecture is born of, and dies as, graphic design. As almost all the work before a building is built is graphic, the building lives on in the form of media coverage, photographs, essays, etc. we only visit a miniscule percentage of the world’s buildings, the rest we know through


introduction

pictures, blogs, books, articles. your

graphic material to create a certain effect,

on the sub–genres of architecture. for

understanding of architecture is primarily

assembling images on pages to a specific

example, i’ve been teaching a class on

through the graphic, not the spatial.

end. the end is to evoke a design, a

diagrams. i use koolhaas’s definition: the

building, or concept. manipulating two–

diagram the reduction of an idea down to

dimensional objects on paper, screens, and

its most fundamental contradiction. the

space is the operation of graphic design.

diagram is about juxtaposition. before

gda: graphic design programs teach typography, layout, color-theory. those elements aren’t typically part of an architecture representation course. from a curricular standpoint, how is architecture graphic design? Mr: Architects make drawings, renderings, books, diagrams, all as forms of persuation. the subject is architecture, but the form of it is graphic. in a way the subject isn’t that important. it’s the composition of

you have a building you have a diagram gda: what is the subject of the graphic

that addresses issues of program, flows,

Architecture Program?

narratives. the diagram is the most primitive representation of the process. we

Mr: gAP focuses all of the graphic issues

try to look at how the diagram may inform

in, on, around and about architecture.

the design process.

we look at presentation and how ideas

we did another class looking at

are broadcast, how content in injected

display, the electronic display as a hyper–

in space, how media interacts with form.

specialized building material. if the diagram

i’ve been working on a series of classes

is the earliest act, display is the latest thing,

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conversation organization

the activation of the surface. what kind

definitely not architectural. it’s a low form

Mr: At the student center at iit the walls

of material is a display? is it a window?

of decoration that serves no structural or

are just gypsum dividers, the roof is

is it a wall? it’s a prominent part of many

material function. it is utterly superficial.

supported by a steel i-beam grid that is

buildings, entire facades are given over

since wallpaper is not architecture, it must

disengaged from the walls. right about

to it and as a material its one of the most

be about something else: class, taste,

the time we were working on the project

expensive. but we don’t think about it

style, representation, image, and meaning.

with omA, koolhaas was writing “Junk

materially. it’s a hybrid form.

wallpaper, it would seem, is an admission

space” we ended up in Any 27 (2000)

of an architectural failure.

which we designed. (later i told him we

gda: you make the point earlier that

we took this idea of superficial very

were influenced by the essay, and the idea

graphic design doesn’t add value to

seriously and tried to interrogate what

of iit as a kind of Junk space, and he noted

architecture because architecture is graphic

it meant. the very fact the wallpaper is

he was thinking about Pompeii and some

design. However, at the scale of a wall in

temporary, that it changes every 6 months

of the deepest, most solid architectural

a building, it sounds as if you’re saying

or so, creates the condition wherein you’re

issues.) At iit we were thinking about the

that graphic design does add value to

always referring to your own superficiality.

walls as superficial partitions, surfaces onto

architecture. is that true?

And because its temporal, wallpaper can

which we applied coatings to give them

do a very specific, detailed job. it can

meaning. so a fancy wall is a gold wall,

Mr: in economics, if you buy an egg you

be targeted and contextual in a way the

a rough room has a sheetrock wall. the

get an egg. but if you do something to the

building cannot.

walls were signs that coded spaces and the

egg it’s worth more. you’ve given form to

the Prada wallpaper took a rhetorical

project was a catalogue of graphic devices,

it so now it is a better product than it was

form in that we were always engaging the

all of these different ways to change the

before. graphic design does that, too. you

space itself -- the presence, opacity, the

meaning of spaces based on appliqué.

have space and you have walls and graphic

fact of the wall -- as well as content related

design does something to those things

to the meaning of the space, that is its

always trying effect vision in a new way:

that add value to it. it’s the same thing with

about fashion, luxury, italianness, bourgeois

far and close, deep and shallow, etc. they

text. you get raw, underdeveloped text

culture, shopping, etc. we’re always trying

are all embedded in the spaces around

then you shape it, you add value to it, and

to enhance the breadth of the wall, its

the student center. the building holds all

now the text has the qualities of the book

thickness, flatness, impenetrability, or we’re

of the effects that you experience if you

and you’ve added value onto the text itself.

scheming to make the wall disappear. if

approach it from a distance and it engages

you can think about that in spatial terms,

you think about those formal challenges

you as you move through the space. that’s

too, that you add design so that it adds

– and this is where it ties in specifically to

a project we’ve been trying to keep going

value to space.

graphic design – the subject of the work

on our own for a long time.

the graphic elements of iit were about

is always the problem itself. in this case gda: How does graphic design operate at

the wallpaper is only a millimeter thick,

gda: How do buildings communicate?

the scale of a wall?

it literally has almost no Z-dimension. so

mark wigley speaks about the relationship

depth is always an illusion. it can have

between architecture and words in his

Mr: the wall is a condition in the way the

perspectival depth, conceptual depth,

introduction to your book, “multiple

page is a condition. walls are facts that

intellectual depth, but its inherent flatness

signatures.” but you deal with the

you’re constantly working against. they

is the essential formal, graphic problem.

communication of images. How do you

are solid, they hold things up, they are

metaphorically wallpaper is the same as

grapple with communication beyond

opaque. they have a series of qualities that

graphic design, we’re always trying to

words?

always need to be grappled with. when

impose depth. Mr: i’ve been struggling with that because

we started the project at Prada store in soho by omA, the idea of using wallpaper

gda: How were you experimenting with

when communication becomes too

as a major gesture was a very loaded act

depth at the illinois institute of technology

blatant, too literal, it becomes a negative

for a work of a high architect. wallpaper is

(iit) mccormick student center?

value to the building. it is compensatory.

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graphic design for architects

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KAREN LEWIS


introduction

for example, the library is shaped like

gda: How has the design work of branding

rules across their vast empires.) over the

a gigantic book or the concert hall is

evolved in your practice?

past few decades there has been a move

shaped like a gigantic drum, everything

away from uniformity of visualization and

is shaped like its program. Anytime

Mr: the idea of branding has drastically

toward a uniformity of voice. designers

the built form becomes literal i find it

transformed in the last 25 years. when

started to come to the conclusion that the

diminished. buildings may, however,

i was studying graphic design it was

goal of branding was the construction of

become brand devices as a residual

called corporate identity and it involved

a consistent personality, strong enough to

part of a communication strategy, they

creating scalable, rational design systems

be modulated for different audiences. At

become representative of a corporate

that organized the visual material of an

the same time, branding was picked up as

or organizational ethos. we’re a daring

organization or enterprise. the goal was

a major case study in business schools and

organization, so our architecture should

to create a big manual that organized the

business journalists started to report on it.

be daring too. the form is a statement

logo, typeface, color system, and the way

in the course of my career we have moved

of values. it’s an unusual thing. everyone

those things would be displayed. this was

from a condition in which no one had

knows about bilbao because they’ve seen

design based in uniformity and rules. there

any idea what design was, to it becoming

representations of it. its even spawned a

are lots of designers who have done that

a ubiquitous subject. now everyone is

theory: the so-called bilbao effect. frank

very successfully for a very long time. (you

using branding as a lens through which

gehry has built a career on the idea that

could argue that both imperial rome and

everything is practiced. every entity from

his work immediately represents innovation

the Han dynasty created very specific rules

nations and global alliances down to local

and confidence.

about representation and broadcast those

schools and individuals are obsessed

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conversation organization

reputation and voice are more valuable

valuable about itself. And that means you

gda: what are the processes you use to

than its all of its real estate, buildings,

make very specific types of decisions in its

develop that type of abstract conversation?

trucks, bottle, ingredients, everything.

urban planning, transportation, everything.

so what are these things that make your

if you’re keeping that identity in mind it’s

Mr: we spend a lot of time interviewing

brand? A brand is both an ideology and

going to tell you about how people are

and talking to people, and just trying

a planning tool. A brand vision provides

going to live, move, zone your city. it’s a

to understand ourselves. but mostly its

a way to evaluate how to move forward,

system about making design choices.

about creativity and imagination. its like

to grow and change. if you’re a city, and

on the practical side we’ve seen big

we are creating a personality. we try to

you’re trying to figure out how to develop,

changes in our own projects. it used to

describe out clients companies the way you

brand gives you a sense of how to organize

be that we started with a logo and some

would tell me about someone you knew

zoning and program. it makes you aware

colors. now those things come very late

and i didn’t. you’d resort to a handful of

of who you are and what you’re about so

to the process. Almost all of our work now

adjectives. what about a museum? you

that it helps you make planning decisions.

is about finding the core messages of an

can do the same thing. you can say its an

branding is about the future of things

organization and understanding where

open place, its totally unpretentious, it’s

you’re going to do rather than what you’re

its going. How do they speak. what can

dynamic, or grand, or intimate. what kind

doing now. it’s about what you’re going to

they say, credibly. then we design stuff

of place it is? it’s the most refined, elegant

do next.

that supports that position. logos are the

place you’ve ever been, don’t go with

third stage of the project. it’s very rare

your kids, ever. if you start to describe an

texas, which has a very specific feel to it.

for us to work with someone who says “i

organization in the same way then it starts

its slogan is “keep Austin weird.” that says

need a logo.” now it’s about defining the

to give you a feeling of how you should

to me its a city that really knows what is

organization’s personality.

design for them, not just their stuff but

it’s interesting to think about Austin

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graphic design for architects

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introduction

their practices too. because now you’re

person working at the gatehouse. “if this

gda: i think architecture is about how we

designing a person more than you’re

place is a world apart, how would you do

live, the design of systems, conditions and

designing this abstract thing.

your job differently?” maybe you shouldn’t

spaces that structure our lives.

have a gate. maybe you walk up and have gda: it is hard for institution to think about

a more natural exchange. you start to think

Mr: well, then, branding is a form of

their identities as having multiple voices,

about the ways you do all of these jobs

architecture because it’s structuring a

different forms of execution.

differently. working from these kind of

social engagement. Architecture structures

platforms, people tend to act differently.

social engagements in lots of different ways

Mr: the hardest part is the internal part.

there are brands that do that really well.

and to that end, branding is the same thing

How do you get your workforce to think

Apple, for example. the Apple store has

because it gives meaning to how we live.

the same way? oftentimes when people

little to do with how the store looks. they

come to us, their staff is unclear about

train their staff really well. People act

what they should be doing. the first

towards you in a certain way that makes

stage is always the internal phase – how

you feel this is a special place.

does the idea of this institution effect the way you do your work in this institution?

gda: is branding architecture?

we’ve been working recently with a huge botanical garden and we were talking

Mr: that’s a really good question. i would

about this place as a heterotopia, a totally

have to think back as to what architecture

different world that mirrors but is set apart

is. what do you think is architecture?

from the real one. so, you then ask the 17

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presenting work

books the eameses once said “Books are miniature architecture.� imilar to how an architect organizes program, mass, structure and materials, resumes demand a similar approach to organizing systems of information. Page structure, columns, text hierarchy and detail work together as a visual system.

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production

printing technology hand printing press Type is set, inked, and pressed onto paper, producing single sheets at a time (each sheet, or signature, may contain several pages). For each color change, a new plate is inked and pressed onto the same page.

four color

Light ink on dark paper

Four color printing means each image is printed with four distinct inks

Gutenberg’s sheets were pressed twice— first press with black ink then a second pass with red ink.

Yellow

black

RTL

RTL

71 x 11

91 x 31

digital printing On a four-color press, each image is printed with a separate layer of ink which build into a composite. This is why you need to convert your RGB images to CMYK when prepping files for press production.

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graphic design for architects

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KAREN LEWIS


books

To print the magazine with flourescent inks, but to stay within a four-color budget, typical inks were swapped with custom Pantone colors

step one

printing signatures with fluorescent inks

testing the limits Knowing how printing technology works allows the designer to engage the printing process. Meeting with subcontractors and

= series of 2 color signatures

discussing the potentials allows for better

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form

book ergonomics books have a phYsical presence. As they are held in the hand and experienced with our eyes, they relate to the human body. Because books are far more dense and physical than portfolios, designing a book’s physical presence – mass, weight and structure – is part of designing a book’s message. Books sequence information, but they also have a permanence they mobilize performance and make physical architectural ideas.

small books Since small-books fit into the hand and are meant to be enjoyed by one person at a time, they Small books are personal and have an intimacy. Ones engagement with

a5 5.833”

x

us trade 8.24”

6”

x

9”

small books is more akin to trade paperbacks – meant to be seen by the individual, not a group, and poured over in an intimate way. Small books are personal.

us trade 6” x 9” 15.24cm x 22.86cm

a5

5.833” x 8.24” 14.817cm x 20.99cm

standard books Standard book sizes have a different physical quality than small books. Their mass and weight require two hands to hold the object rather than just one. When opened, the page spread takes on a larger territory.

us letter 8.5” x 11” 21.59cm x 27.94cm

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a4

8.264” x 11.694” 20.99cm x 29.70cm

crown Quarto

crown Quarto 7.444” x 9.681” 18.91cm x 24.589cm

graphic design for architects

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KAREN LEWIS

roYal

6.139” x 9.21” 15.593cm x 23.389cm

pocket

4.25” x 6.875” 10.795cm x 17.463cm


books

notes on:

open versus closed

bindings for books

landscape

When opened, books have a very

7” x 9”

different quality. The territory of the page set up dramatically changes. A landscape page has a much

opened landscape

different proportion than a spread

7” x 18”

of two landscape pages.

Because books are longer, have more pages, and don’t need to

18”

quickly disseminate alot of visual information in just a few pages, they can afford different bindings than portfolios.

7”

hard cover books Case-wrapped books provide a solid shell for the interior pages. Their durability allows the book to open without cracking the spine.

soft covers Paperback books are perfect bound, so as a result don’t lie flat when opened. Due to their physical limits the interior margin needs to be considered when designing the book. If designing a small, perfect bound book, the margin is going to take on a different territory than a larger perfect bound book.

larger gutter

one hand or two Book sizes relate to the scale of the body and how it fits into your hand, how far it is held from your face, and how much content, images and text occupy the page. larger margins

When setting up the page margins and gutters, consider how the book will be held

sewn bindings Sewn bindings are the most durable type and are when the book block is actually sewn with thread before binding. Sewing the book blocks ensures the binding doesn’t crack, which can happen on larger glue-bound books or books that are opened and closed hundreds of times.

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structure

pacing and sequence different tYpes of pages hold different tYpes of information. Page types coordinate a book’s pacing of by varying the way content is displayed, giving a book hierarchy and structure.

intro photo essaY Black and white images on toned paper announce each new section. Small captions annotate the images, giving another layer of interpretation.

intro context essaY Beginning essay contextualizes the proceeding visual essay. Toned paper is a slightly lighter in color than the visual essay. Large sized sans-serif text is set in one column.

example projects Starts with an introductory photo that spans a 2-page spread. Large and medium sized photos are used. Two columns of serif body text describes the projects.

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15

spreads

10

5

Found Ice:

section introduction

projects

Form Photos

Found Ice:

64

110

Form Essay

84

graphic design for architects

44

KAREN LEWIS

Biblioteca Espana

Biblioteca Espana

Museo Territorio


books

Essay pages are filled with text and contain smaller images, while gallery spreads have larger images and fewer words.

interview Dialogue between participants. A single column of serifed body text is indented to describe the dialogue. A selection of smaller, black and white images illustrate the discussion

essaY Critical and historic overview to the section topic. Serifed body text is set in a single column. Larger black and white images

Museo Territorio Interview The 124

On Mountains

concluding project Deep inquiry into focused project. Blue pages with darker blue type, full-bleed images.

The Great Rock

crtical essaYs On Mountains: Scalable and Unscalable

132

136

The Great Rock 167

179

Stan Allen and Mark McQuade. Landform Building: Architecture’s New Terrain. (Baden: Lars Muller, 2011)

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


structure

page grids one grid sYstem can organize manY different tYpes of content. A 12-column grid can accommodate two, three, four and six page divisions as well organize a variety of image and text sizes. Flexible grid systems can adapt to many circumstances.

Landform Building, designed by Thumb

Page grids provide structure and flexibility. The grid for this book organizes many different types of content, such as critical essays, interviews, and photo galleries.

Prototypical Grid for Landform Building book

112

graphic design for architects

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KAREN LEWIS


books

endless variation Books have to manage a lot of different types of content. In this book, scholarly articles, photo galleries, contextualizing essays and large images are all managed with the same grid system, giving a cohesive presentation to a variety of information.

Essay with lage images

Full-bleed image with caption

Large photo with title

Smaller images, large text

Essay – mostly text

Images with text

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


organization

structuring the page several methods can establish the relationships between the page edge and text. How you set up the logic of this piece of paper addresses – want to say something about how the page structures and organizes content.

3 1 Set the diagnols across the spread...

4

Strike a line straight up from the diagnols’ intersection and connect to the opposite page

start

end

start

3

end

2 ...and across each page.

4

From the intersection of the page and spread diagnols, draw a line across until it hits the spread diagnol

a the golden ratio This proportional system of squares and rectangles is based on the Fibonacci sequence, and can be found in nature, western art and architecture (Corb’s Villa Stein, for example or The Mona Lisa). A distinctive feature of this shape is that when a square section is removed, the remainder is another golden rectangle; that is, with the same aspect ratio as the first. Hence a : b = b : (a+b).

b

a : b = b : (a+b) 114

graphic design for architects

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KAREN LEWIS

j. a. van de graaf canon This classic text-block-to-page-size proportioning system is less relevant to contemporary practice, but recognizing its origins allows for reinvention. After studying books designed between 1450—1500, Van de Graaf discovered a consistency to how the text block was placed in relationship to the page size. This diagram results in the top left corner and the inside margin always being 1/9th form the top and the inside margin, producing a consistently balanced text block. Jan Tschichold refers to this system as a “method to produce the perfect book.”


books

1”

½” ½”

¾”

1”

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veriure dolorero duipit, quat.

veriure dolorero duipit, quat.

default margins When placing text on a page, avoid the default setting of an even margin around the perimeter of each page edge. Pages should be thought about as spreads, and as physical devices collected into a book. Gutters, edges, page titles and headers influence the placement of text.

x x

x

¾”

designed margins A wider gutter allows for pages to hinge in the center. Margins of different widths at the top of the page versus the bottom allow for

x

x

12-column grid The simple 12-column grid allows for many subdivisions. It can be easily broken into two, three, four or six subdivisions. Margins are proportional to the interior grid, and can even be incorporated into the overall page structure. This 12-columnn grid allows for maxiumum flexibility, easily combining images and text.

1

2

1 2

1

3

1 1

4

2 2

3

3 4

5

6

2x 2x

Taller page foot is very modern and allows for more room for page numbers, book titles, navigation

115

49

CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


typography

setting type text is not an object, it is a sYstem. As a result, the rules of alignment, spacing and proportion are dynamic in order to respond to the ever changing spaces produced by text.

step one Text needs to be designed, not just automatically placed using document default settings. • Type size is too large • Leading is too solid • Double justified paragraph creates rivers in the text body • Nominal weight difference between title and body text

changing scale • Leading is still too solid • Right paragraph rag is choppy • Line length is too long • Avoid widows (single words on a single line)

HARBORPORT

Double justification creates rivers of space in paragraphs

Harborport links New York’s water management systems with transportation networks at several scales of infrastructure and connectivity. First, the proposal seeks to mitigate combined sewer overflow (CSO) pollution with new subway and ferry connections. The 2014 Clean Tech Expo serves as the public platform for this new investment in infrastructure and water health. Following the Expo, facilities are expanded through collection of river dredge materials toward the construction of a new airport to serve the metro area.

harborport

Choppy rag

Harborport links New York’s water management systems with transportation networks at several scales of infrastructure and connectivity. First, the proposal seeks to mitigate combined sewer overflow (CSO) pollution with new subway and ferry connections. The 2014 Clean Tech Expo serves as the public platform for this new investment in infrastructure and water health. Following the Expo, facilities are expanded through collection of river dredge materials toward the construction of a new airport to serve the metro area. watch out for widows

tYpes of tYpe

harborport

Keep line length to eight to ten words per line

Harborport links New York’s water management systems with

Perfect! • Type size is slightly decreased • Leading is increased • Ironically, as type gets smaller leading often gets larger.

transportation networks at several scales of infrastructure and connectivity. First, the proposal seeks to mitigate combined sewer overflow (CSO) pollution with new subway and ferry connections. The 2014 Clean Tech Expo serves as the public platform for this new investment in infrastructure and water health. Following the Expo, facilities are expanded through collection of river dredge materials toward the construction of a new airport to serve the metro area.

116

graphic design for architects

50

KAREN LEWIS


books

widows and orphans

notes on:

dash types

Avoid leaving single lines of text (orphans) or single words (widows) on lines by themselves.

Harborport links New York’s water management systems with

1. hYphens connect a sequence

transportation networks at several scales of infrastructure and

of numbers, such as a phone number.

connectivity.

614-555-1234

watch out for widows

2. en dash are longer than

Eliminate widows by either changing

regular dashes (the length of the

the length of the type box.

letter ‘n’) and are used several ways:

original length

• A range of values with clearly

Harborport links New York’s water management

defined limits.

systems with transportation networks at several

From 11:00am–1:00pm

scales of infrastructure and connectivity.

For ages 3–5 • To contrast values or illustrate

Or adjusting the overall tracking to

a relationship.

sneak another word onto the line.

Harborport links New York’s water management systems with transportation networks at several scales of infrastructure and connectivity.

• For compound attributives in

increasing tracking pushes “and” to the next line

which one or both elements is itself a compound.

Don’t leave single lines of text on their own paragraph line. Harborport links New York’s water management systems with transportation networks at several scales of infrastructure and connectivity. First, the proposal seeks to mitigate combined sewer overflow (CSO) pollution with new

Smoot–Hawley Tariff Boston beat New York 22–0

avoid orphans

The ex–prime minister Pritzker Prize–winning building

subway and ferry connections. The 2014 Clean Tech Expo serves as the public platform for this new investment in infrastructure and water health. Following the Expo, facilities are expanded

3. em dash is the length of an ‘m’ character, and is frequently used mid-scentence to demarcate a break of thought or interuption. She was suddenly in a position to call those associates—and invite them to apply to her for jobs.

Adjust the text box, gutter width and • An en dash surrounded by

/ or tracking to help align text. Harborport links New York’s water management systems with transportation networks at several scales of infrastructure and connectivity. First, the proposal seeks to mitigate combined sewer overflow (CSO) pollution with new subway and ferry connections.

The 2014 Clean Tech Expo serves as the public platform for this new investment in infrastructure and water health. Following the Expo, facilities are expanded through collection of river dredge materials toward the construction of a new airport to serve the metro area.

spaces achieves the same effect as an em dash with no spaces. However, some feel this option is typographically less disruptive. She was suddenly in a position to call those associates – and invite them to apply to her for jobs.

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


case study

thumb luke bulman / graphic designer / new York, nY

Expanded Mies

luke bulman is founder and director of Thumb, a Brooklynbased graphic design office that was organized in 2007 by partners Luke Bulman and Jessica Young. Thumb works on public, private, and self-initiated projects, usually in the areas of architecture, art, design, and culture. The projects featured on these spreads are part of courses taught at the Yale School of Architecture.

120

graphic design for architects: You design books primarily, and many for architects. How has your architectural education in architecture helped you with your current work?

image is the way I frame an argument. I’ve

luke bulman: One of the ways I’ve approached graphic design is through images. Most of the graphic designers I know have been trained to think about words, a structuralist approach to typography. I’ve never approached graphic design this way, or learning about architecture in this way. For me, it’s about images; looking at images of architecture, paintings, photographs, etc. The

organize books?

always thought about the image as the basis of graphic design. That is the way I’ve linked to architecture.

gda: In your practice, how do images

graphic design for architects

52

KAREN LEWIS

thumb: We did a book about David Adjaye’s work including some of the studios he taught at Princeton. Different artists were invited to contribute. The book is divided into different pieces—Adjaye’s work, work by the invited artists, essys, texts by the artists, parts of conversations, further essays, student works.


books

256 Images of Architecture

The book forms a repetition. In between

give an open structure to the book. The

book. The difference between watching a

each structure are image sets showing the

structure is not as vibrant or casual as

French New Wave film, versus a Hollywood

interaction between art and architecture.

SMLXL, but there’s an open figure to it.

film, for example, is that not everything is

gda: Open figure is a really architectural term. It strikes me that you speak about books with architectural terms—structure, flow, figure…

explained. I try to make productive frictions

Everyone in this book is arguing for something more integrated, where art and architecture become blurred. The blurring of that intellectual line gives a way to think about blurring the lines of the structure of the book. This book has different types of content, which is set in different scales of type, is assembled with different types of paper—some more like newsprint, others shinier and in full-color—the images are placed in different ways depending on the types of conversations. These choices

between things. This type of paper for this type of content. I try to make things so much themselves that, when they’re placed next to something different or unexpected,

thumb: It’s a way of talking about the nature of the content, and that by extension I’m always looking for a way to connect the content to the book to its design. I want to leave the structure open enough, not resolved enough, so there are places for people to find something in the

the reader has to resolve those differences. The book is deploying things in time, not just spatially, so it’s a matter of how closely you time those differences for the reader. Book design is about you handle the space, but it is how you design the time between spreads that produces meaning.

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case study

16,392 Images That Matter to Architecture

This exhibition at the 2013 New York Art Book Fair was funded by Elise Jaffe and Jeffrey Brown with support from Yale School of Architecture

gda: How is your work spatial? thumb: I think of my work as very very 2D and 4D, and not much 3D at all. There are some aspects of the physical book object that I think about as 3D, but not really. This isn’t where my work is creative. I think about the deployment of the spreads, I don’t really think about how they compile to make a book form. gda: How do books contribute to your understanding of architecture? thumb: I’ve been teaching a class on books and architecture at Yale for five years. One of the projects in the seminar is called 256. It asks students to gather together 256 images that matter to architecture. Everybody has to decide for themselves what those images are—it is a research project is research to figure out

122

what matters to architecture. Once you

Compared to SMLXL, which figures really

have these images, how do you structure

strongly in that depiction of life. You have

and sequence them so they have meaning.

pictures of men’s underwear, artwork,

The projects become a psychic register of

dialogue, cartoons, different types of

architecture subconsciousness.

histories of materials and the lexicon. It

I’ve been obsessed with this book, Mies

describes the world and how the practice

van der Rhoe by Werner Blaser, He did

fits into the world. These connections are

several books on Mies, he was from Basel

what make it enduring, it has an openness.

he worked in Mies’s office and did a book

That’s the type of book I’m trying to

when he was there and a whole bunch of

do. For the seminar at Yale, I proposed we

other books just documenting the work.

take the Mies book, crack it open and let

It’s a super simple book, just documenting

it drift. We reproduced the Mies book on

the work. There’s nothing graphically tricky

grey paper and everyone in the seminar

going on here, it just presents the work.

contributed sections to the book printed on

There are a few images that have a handful

yellow paper. We tried to bring the material

of people in them, but for the most part

up to date. In between the invention of the

the book is just images of buildings. Its

TV dinner, the beginning of Burger King,

sterile, simple, there’s no noise - almost

we open the material up to other things

pure signal.

that were happening at the same time.

This book is simultaneously interesting

It tests the idea Mies put forward—that

to me but also dead. There’s nothing

architecture reflects the time. Is Mies’s work

animating it, there’s no life in this book.

an expression of the time he worked in?

graphic design for architects

54

KAREN LEWIS


books

gda: The design of the book is a way to mark changing cultural contexts. thumb: That’s one of the things that’s really missing right now—context for ideas. No one seems to take that very seriously right now. I participate in a lot architecture portfolio workshops and I don’t see much effort towards producing documentation or proof of concepts. I’m finding that, as we move further into digitation, we are demonstrating technological ability more than conceptual documents. People are not thinking about communication issues as much as they used to. gda: Why do you think there is that shift away from communication? What is being discussed instead? thumb: I think there’s a switch in the modality of working for architects. BIM

software or any kind of programming

through the work. The thing we loose

environment shifts the location of where

in the slide-type presentation is the big

the discourse happens. Currently in

view, the extent of what to look at. This is

architecture reviews, students will likely

an important concept, to know the outer

pin up their Grasshopper diagrams which

edges of the idea and to talk through

become the document used to discuss the

details that support the concepts. We need

relative competency of the work. There’s

to engage with the rhetoric of presentation,

less output towards traditional modes of

with modes of organizing information.

representation and increasingly towards the tectonic of the functioning diagram as

gda: You’re advocating for structure.

proof of concept.

gda: Increased technological specification has impacted communication—how can architects reclaim presentation techniques? thumb: We’ve relied on the simultaneous procession through our work for so long —put everything up on the wall and then walk the jury through the work. Now we make presentations through slides that emphasize a temporal procession

thumb: It’s about understanding the underlying structure of how we organize things. We organize things by scale, typologies, etc. There’s an art to these discussions. Its not about software—that’s only a tool to achieve the larger goal. We have to take modes of rhetoric and deploy them with new technologies. It is not about describing the design process but about finding ways to capture peoples’ imaginations.

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


presenting yourself

portfolios portfolio structures the sequence and organization of your work. The portfolio is a design project in and of itself, but it should not distract from the work. The portfolios organizes information. Design the way the work is presented by thinking about page layout and typography.

portfolios

curation

diagram your portfolio

page types Different types of content require different page structures. Think of how different page styles can help pace your portfolio.

Organize your portfolio by drawing a diagram of page layouts. Visualizing the structure of your portfolio will help you think about pages, pacing, and how the book will be organized.

Book Pages

academic projects

beginning pages

back of table of contentS

cover

4

inSide back cover

3rd year fall Studio

front Page 1

back of front Page

table of contentS 3

2

back of table of contentS 4

firSt Section 5

6

3rd year fall Studio 8

3rd year fall Studio 10

back of theSiS Project

firSt Section 5

3rd year fall Studio 7

3rd year fall Studio 9

3rd year fall Studio 11

about this diagram Layout programs show book pages as a diagram of an open book. The front cover is on the first line (1) as its own right-facing page. The second line of pages shows the inside back cover (2) with the corresponding right-hand page (3).

32

3rd year fall Studio 12

Intro Pages

Project Pages

professional projects

3rd year fall Studio 13

start with your best Reviewers want to see your potential, not your “progress,” so start with a great project rather than the project first in your chronology.

Second Section

40

2nd year SPring Studio 14

2nd year SPring Studio 16

2nd year SPring Studio 18

2nd year SPring Studio 15

2nd year SPring Studio 17

2nd year SPring Studio 19

segue to strong work Your next few projects should still be good work, but can be slightly fewer pages than the first project.

3rd year SPring Studio

3rd year SPring Studio 21

20

3rd year SPring Studio

3rd year SPring Studio 23

22

3rd year SPring Studio

3rd year SPring Studio 25

24

keep momentum Emphasize your best projects with the most number of pages while others can be shorter and less detailed.

2nd year Study 26

2nd year Study 28

2nd year Study 27

theSiS

2nd year Study 29

hide a less developed project near the end A project that’s a good, but perhaps underdeveloped, can be couched right before a strong finale. Limit this project to a few spreads that focus on its best attributes.

theSiS

theSiS

33

44

35

46

37

professional work Design work completed in an office should be clearly separated from your academic work. Make sure there is an obvious distinction between academic and office work.

office work 1

office work 1

theSiS

36

theSiS

42

theSiS

34

theSiS

38

office work 1

31

theSiS

32

theSiS

office work 1

theSiS

30

41

office work 2 43

48

45

50

47

52

office work 1

49

office work 2

office work 1

office work 2

office work 2 51

office work 2

office work 2 53

back of the laSt Page

inSide back cover

back cover

39

finish strong

give proper credit

Conclude your academic

Only include the

section with a longer

professional drawings,

layout of a well developed,

renderings and models

intellectually rich project.

you worked on.

33

graphic design for architects

56

KAREN LEWIS


portfolios

organization

WHo Will print your portfolio?

Qualified professionals Me! I like to outsource the technical stuff

do you know which pro you’ll use?

no

yes

I want to safeguard each page

have you worked with them before?

no

do you know what size your portfolio will be?

yes

no

check your printers’ specifications

Can your printer print the paper size you need to make your portfolio?

yes

Most places store research your options

research your options

local Copy shop. Find the

if you’re outsourcing

one all of the architects use,

things online, send one test

not the chain brand available

portfolio to flush out any

in every strip mall.

production issues such as

online provider. Selfpublishing services offer printing and binding with professional looking results. But be careful – student projects can appear under developed a monograph print. Ironically, too, some providers are known for inconsistent printing quality.

do you know which printer you’ll use?

yes

potfolios in filing

yes

no

typical 8.5” x 11”

Hmmm... That’s alot of printing. If your portfolio is many pages

Reconside the portfolio size,

affordable. Beautiful color

long, you may want to

the type of printer you’ll use,

output but relatively slow

consider working with

or if a professional can help.

speed. Each page will take

a professional.

Double sided pages require

will you be printing double-sided pages?

stick with the rules

one to hand-feed the printer. Color laser. If you have

no

access to a laser printer

yes

Meet the staff and explain

Are you applying to graduate school,

your project. They can offer

a fellowship, internship, etc? If they’ve

advice on file preparation,

made restrictions or specificaitons for

suggest paper and binding

your application size, follow these

It’s hard to align images

techniques, and help make

specifications exactly. You don’t want

perfectly so avoid graphics

the process run more

to annoy anyone before you’ve even

that wrap the page.

smoothly.

been accepted!

Files that aren’t set up properly are one of the most frequent complaints from printers. If your portfolio has full-bleed images, make sure to set up your file with full-bleeds.

6-100

several minutes to print.

color density.

printer, go introduce yourself.

1-5

inkjet. Easily found and

full bleeds, transparency and

if you’re using a local

huh?

research your options

cabinets, so don’t go larger than the

how many portfolios do you need?

their output is fairly quick and most have the ability to automaticaly print doublesided pages. Color quality and image clarity isn’t as high as an inkjet printer.

do you want full bleeds?

list any known portfolio limits here:

no

yes

Portfolio thickness # of Projects # of Pages

You’ll need to print on paper

Name on each page?

larger than your final portfolio

On the cover?

size and trim each page.

Anything else?

20

21

graphic design for architects

portfolios

page types

introductory pages & project pages

36

ACADEMIC WORK

MATTHEW B. STORRIE

37

STOP | GAP

“intro” pages announce a project by creating a visual break in the rhythm and structure

COLUMBUS, OHIO PASSENGER RAIL HUB SPRING 2007

ROADW AYS

of the portfolio and clearly announce that one is in a “new project” while project pages give greater

2ND PLACE, COLUMBUS: REWIRED COMPETITION IN COLLABORATION WITH: BRIAN BUCKNER, YU FAN CHEUNG

RAILWAY S

detail about the specific work. Together these two types of pages structure and give rhythm to the portfolio pacing.

Due to the nation’s security threats, economic troubles, and effects of a warming global climate, Americans are demanding a more convenient transportation alternative. As it exists, however, the nationwide rail network is missing several key links that prevent its effectivity.

VEGETAT

ION

According to Amtrak’s 2006 Fiscal Year Strategic Plan for ‘Corridor Opportunities,’ Columbus has long been a missed opportunity in connecting cities of the midwest with the Northeast Corridor. With a metropolitan population of over one million people, Columbus will play a key role in the development of a more integrated network of intercity travel.

CULTUR

AL BUILDIN

GS

GE

SITE CONTOU

N

ED

RS

BA

The existing Norfolk Southern rail bridge occupies a site above the Scioto River where networks at national, regional and local scales intersect. The Stop|Gap hub will replace this bridge and establish a new public space above the river.

IDG BR

EDGE UR

BA

N

URBAN

E

UR

introductory pages Intro pages announce that the reader is looking at a new project and helps the

intro page

viewer orient themselves as they move through the book. • Introductory pages announce ACADEMIC WORK

Short

Street

gh

strict Di

lu Co

2

Nation

FRANKLIN COUNTRY VETERANS SERVICES

NEW SPAGHETTI RAIL PARK

distr i

nt

Greater

NORFOLK S. BRIDGE BROAD ST. BRIDGE EXISTING RAIL LINE W. LONG ST. BRIDGE

PEDESTRIAN ENTRY

Ri v e

ront rf

t

collaborators, instructors

wide Ar

C

str D i ic

• Team members, project

HEAVY CONGESTION CENTRAL TRANSIT DISTRICT

mbus

en a

ARCH PARK

STOP | GAP TRANSPORTATION HUB

CENTER OF SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY

Hi

ai n ert me

1 2 3 4

1

vention on

URBAN BRIDGE

3

nter

COLUMBUS CITY HALL

Ar

ct

OPENED WALKING ROUTE

4

Ce

VISIBLE PARK AREA PUBLIC PLAZA

• Dates, project duration HEAVY CONGESTION SUPPLEMENTAL TRANSIT

c e a nd ust Ind ry

us

Cen

RAIL CROSSING

r of Sci te

en

GREENWAY

TRANSIT HUB

wn Colu to

mb

intro page

Dow n

• Short description of the project

North

rsity

RAIL HUB BUS HUB

ve ni

1 2

WATERFRONT GARDENS

2

[left] Site Scheme Diagram By pinching together mass transit systems over the Scioto River, the building links existing parks and provides optimal viewing of the city’s skyline.

ena ent

• Project title and subtitle

STACKED INFRASTRUCTURE

1

[right] Stopgap The city of Columbus, Ohio is currently a hole in our nation’s rail network. With a major rail hub, Columbus would make the northeast rail corridor directly accesible by nearly 8 million southern and midwestern urbanites.

ar

project information

[far right] Stitched City The site provides multiple transportation options between two of Columbus’ primary urban centers.

an d G ts

portfolio by also introducing critical

U

Introductory pages give pacing to the

o State

the book

er all y

38

Ohi

themselves visually from the rest of

MAJOR TRANSIT CROSSING

ma

n Vill

ict

Ge r

tr

ry Dis we

e ag

Bre

WATERFRONT

project page

project pages

MATTHEW B. STORRIE

Syracuse

Boston

Washington D.C.

New Haven New York

Buffalo

EXPANSION EXPANSION EXPANSION

Schenectady

Rochester

Page spreads that announce a new

Trenton

Baltimore Wilmington

Philadelphia Lancaster

Pittsburgh

Harrisburg

EXPANSION EXPANSION EXPANSION

ion: ulat pop 478

project. They give pacing to the portfolio

Cleveland

k ion: ulat pop 711

COLUMBUS

k 331

EXPANSION EXPANSION EXPANSION

ion: ulat pop

Cincinnati

k k k k k k k k 3 00 792 504 680 184 287 484 ion:7 ion: ion: ion: ion: ion: ion: ulat ulat ulat ulat ulat ulat ulat pop pop pop pop pop pop pop

critical information, and help viewers orient themselves as they move through the book.

Louisville

Nashville

ACTIVATED PASSENGER RAIL LINE

16.4 16.9

10.5 25.6

2.5

2.0 9.0

5.2

-0.5 -0.5 2.8

5.6

5.8

23.7

5.2

19.1 5.8

7.7

10.0 14.7

Jackson

Ashland

Charleston

Clidton Forge Chicago New Orleans

Charlottesville

7.6

0.6 2.4 8.0

10.3

19.1 2.5 13.8 4.7 -0.9

21.0

13.8

35.2

1

17.3

12.6 0.7

Memphis

6.2 2.4 0.6 -5.6

7.8 12.1

33.9

8.4

Indianapolis

EXPANSION EXPANSION EXPANSION

by introducing the project with some

41

Formal Development Existing rail lines and water levels require a thin sectional profile. The design’s pinched thin plane capitalizes on structural and spatial overlaps.

Altoona

11.1

25.0

24.9 17.9 -49.9

UNITED STATES POPULATION CHANGES 2000-2006 (IN PERCENT)

2

[right] Structural Unit To facilitate construction, each pile and cantilever is a self-supporting structural unit. The combined units form a surface that oscillates between spatial affect (horizontal) and structure (vertical).

project page

3

project page

36

37

graphic design for architects

57

CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


jane smith

ortfolio janesmith.com

hone 617-123-4567

mail js@janesmith.com

summar summary: Architecture major from Wellesley C phone interest in interest617-123-4567 in Museum Studies and Exhibition Design architecture, visual communication andarchitectu spatializin email js@janesmith.com portfolio janesmith.com

presenting yourself

resumes education BA with Honors in Architecture, Welle Ex BA with Honors in Architecture, Wellesley College

Wellesley, MA — 2008–2012

a resume is about visual organization. Similar to how an architect organizes program, mass, structure and materials, resumes demand a systematic approach to organizing systems of information. Page structure, columns, text hierarchy and detail work together as a visual system.

Wellesley, MA — 2008–2012

InD

Graduated Cum Laude; First Year Distinctions;Illu M raduated Cum Laude; First Year Distinctions; Major GPA 3.8 / 4.0 Ph • Completed three studio design courses at t Completed three studio design courses at the massachusetts institute

Rh technology; of technology; work selected for MITofStudio Archivework selected for MIT Studi

Sk

Intensive architecture study-abroad columbia university, • program Intensiveatarchitecture study-abroad program Ve shape of two cities: new york / paris , 2010–2011 shape of two cities: new york / paris , 20 Sk

Au

resumes

structure

Ma experience Architecture Intern, Techler Design Gr Architecture Intern, Techler Design Group Bo Boston, MA — January 2012 oston, MA — January 2012 Gr baseline grid

one of the most critical tools for excellent typesetting, the baseline grid gives proportion and structure to type and spacing. when its activiated, the baseline grid organizes all of the spaces between text, giving the overall type setting an organized, proportional feel.

jane smith

portfolio janesmith.com

summary: Architecture major from Wellesley College with an interest in Museum Studies and Exhibition Design. Experience in architecture, visual communication and spatializing information.

no baseline grid The text on this resume does not snap to the baseline grid, and as a result slight deviations occur in the horizontal alignment of text. Small variations in text spacing make the resume look less coherent.

jane smith

portfolio janesmith.com

summary: Architecture major from Wellesley College with an

phone 617-123-4567

interest in Museum Studies and Exhibition Design. Experience in

email js@janesmith.com

architecture, visual communication and spatializing information.

baseline grid with the baseline grid, everything snaps to the underlying structure. Space between type is locked into similar proportions, giving spatial rigor to your resume no matter what size typefaces you choose.

Designed conceptual esigned conceptual building mass and landscape modelsbuilding for clientmass and landsca 3D presentations and marketing publications. resentations and marketing publications. education

phone 617-123-4567

email js@janesmith.com

BA with Honors in Architecture, Wellesley College

ExpErt in

Wellesley, MA — 2008–2012

InDesign

Graduated Cum Laude; First Year Distinctions; Major GPA 3.8 / 4.0

Illustrator

Completed three studio design courses at the massachusetts institute of technology; work selected for MIT Studio Archive

Intensive architecture study-abroad program at columbia university, shape of two cities: new york / paris , 2010–2011

Photoshop Rhino

education

BA with Honors in Architecture, Wellesley College

ExpErt in

Wellesley, MA — 2008–2012

InDesign

Graduated Cum Laude; First Year Distinctions; Major GPA 3.8 / 4.0

Illustrator

Completed three studio design courses at the massachusetts institute

of technology; work selected for MIT Studio Archive

SketchUp

Vectorworks

Intensive architecture study-abroad program at columbia university,

shape of two cities: new york / paris , 2010–2011

SkillEd in AutoCAD

experience

Architecture Intern, Techler Design Group Boston, MA — January 2012 Designed conceptual building mass and landscape models for client presentations and marketing publications.

experience

SketchUp

Vectorworks SkillEd in

Architecture Intern, Techler Design Group

Maya

Boston, MA — January 2012

Bonzai

Grasshopper

Designed conceptual building mass and landscape models for client

Grasshopper

3D Studio Max

presentations and marketing publications.

3D Studio Max

Bonzai

Text doesn’t align

Microsoft Office

Washington, DC — Summer 2011

Rhino

AutoCAD

Maya

Thanks to the baseline grid, text aligns across the entire page

Mi

Microsoft Office

Exhibition Intern, National Building Museum Assisted the Chief Curator with exhibition research. Developed intial exhibition research on materials advertised in Sweets Catalogue and Architectural Record from 1890-1990. Synthesized primary research efforts into a report with 20-pages of written analysis and 250 primary-source images from the last century.

Photoshop

Exhibition Intern, National Building Museum Skilled in computer and hand-drawing, figure drawing and sketching; 6 years

no grid

Washington, DC — Summer 2011

Skilled in computer

Assisted the Chief Curator with exhibition research. Developed intial exhibition

and hand-drawing,

research on materials advertised in Sweets Catalogue and Architectural Record

figure drawing and

from 1890-1990. Synthesized primary research efforts into a report with 20-pages

sketching; 6 years

of written analysis and 250 primary-source images from the last century.

watercolor classes.

Office Intern, Phillips Janson Architects

Classically trained

New York, NY — Summer 2010

opera vocalist,

Collated and designed office furniture specification guides for 10,000 square foot

specializing in Baroque

office renovation. Organized office material library.

music. Sung languages

grid

Exhibition Intern, National Building Museum Exhibition Intern, National Building Mu Office Intern, Phillips Janson Architects New York, NY — Summer 2010

Collated and designed office furniture specification guides for 10,000 square foot office renovation. Organized office material library.

Night Lab Assistant, Wellesley Astronomy Department

watercolor classes.

Classically trained vocalist, specializing in Baroque music. Performed in Italian, German, French, Latin, Spanish and Russian.

Washington, DC — Summer 2011

Washington, DC — Summer 2011 include Italian, German,

Sk an ssisted the Chief Curator with exhibition research. intial exhibition Assisted the Developed Chief Curator with exhibition research fig esearch on materials advertised in Sweets Catalogue and Architectural Record research on materials advertised in Sweets Catalog sk om 1890-1990. Synthesized primary research efforts into a report with 20-pages Wellesley, MA — 2009–2011

Tutored students in astronomy fundamentals, operated telescopes.

Artist’s Assistant, Ross Miller Public Art Cambridge, MA — 2011–2012

Hand rendering and graphic design layouts for art projects

honors

Performed at Carneigie Hall with the New York Collegiate Chorale (2010–2011). Currently a Soprano in the Boston Bach Society (2011– present).

Night Lab Assistant, Wellesley Astronomy Department Tutored students in astronomy fundamentals, operated telescopes.

Performed at Carneigie

Artist’s Assistant, Ross Miller Public Art

Collegiate Chorale

Cambridge, MA — 2011–2012

(2009–2011). Currently

Hand rendering and graphic design layouts for art projects

a Sopranao in the

Hall with the New York

Best in Studio Award

Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010

Pin Up, MIT Student Architecture Publication “What is a Window” essay included in Spring 2009 issue

French, Latin, Russian.

Wellesley, MA — 2009–2011

Boston Bach Society

honors

Best in Studio Award

(2011– present).

Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010

Pin Up, MIT Student Architecture Publication “What is a Window” essay included in Spring 2009 issue

When text doesn’t sit on the baseline grid (light blue lines), the spacing between lines of text isn’t proportional

The bottom of each text line snaps to the grid and spaces between lines of text are even and proportional

fromimages 1890-1990. primary research effo f written analysis and 250 primary-source fromSynthesized the last century. wa of written analysis and 250 primary-source images 62

graphic design for architects

63

Office Intern, Phillips Janson Architects 58 KAREN LEWIS Cla Office Intern, Phillips Janson Architec New York, NY — Summer 2010

vo


resumes

overview

organizing information

3 even better resume packaged information Three distinct columns of information help make this resume more easily “skimmed.” The overly horizontal quality of a resume is broken apart into three columns that read across and down the page.

Name is too big— emphasize skills and experience instead

the resume is a practice in nesting information. Being able to consume information in a quick, visual way allows for someone to access the resume in two ways: first, quickly as one skims information to get the big picture; and then in a longer, more detailed way to understand fully skills and experiences.

same resume, different structures

Name is rescaled and aligned with the rest of the resume

1 Ditch the “graphics.” Use space, rather than heavy lines, to organize information

• Center column holds the

Subtle flow lines and indenting give structure to each section

main descriptions in short, skim-able sentences • Side columns hold ancillary and contextual information

Each resume is the same size, uses the same typefaces, and includes the same information. Their radically different appearances is a result of space and

2

organization, the basis for all good graphic design projects. space, not form, structures the resume.

3

Because the line length is short, information in the center column is highly skim-able. The right column holds information that needs to be quickly scanned, such as relevant skills.

1 bad resume too many “elements” This resume relies on physical elements such as dark bars, lines, and an excessive number of bullet points to organize content. Space, rather than “graphic design” elements, should be used to manage information. •

2 better resume simple horizontal Larger margins, a baseline grid, and simple organizing structures help components fit onto the page. Hierarchies are subtly reinforced with slight indents and larger spaces after sections.

Page is imbalanced

Text is set symmetrically, left

Too many competing

justified, and right aligned elements make the page

Limit the number of resume sections to three or four—more than this chops up the page.

• Resume content floats away

hard to read, not to mention

from the page edge

appear awkward

• Text is balanced between bold (main info) and light (descriptions) type weights • Subtle indents and flowlines help organize sections

58

59

graphic design for architects

resumes

style

mixing type faces

pairing serifs & sans serifs Pair serifed and sans serifed typefaces by considering their properties. Thin

typefaces are visual systems – what kinds of tones are established with their How

and simple Futura pairs well with intricate Sentinel. The narrow “n’s” in

typefaces work together visually can help set the tone for your professional work and create an

Bodoni have a similar stance as those in FF Din. Look for commonalities and

effective communications environment.

contrasts to provide rhythm.

family differences

sentinel + futura

pairing similar type faces

Choosing a single typeface and using a family of weights

Some sans-serif typefaces are square and flat, others tall

and postures—bold, book, light, italic—can create hierarchy

and fluid. Mixing stylistic choices helps balance the pacing

while still maintaining continuity.

of dense content, allowing information to be more easily understood.

Jason kentner

News Gothic, Bold, 17pt

22 Putnam Avenue

News Gothic, Light, 7.5pt

Jason Kentner

Cambridge, MA 02139 (cell) 617-555-1234

reed hilderbrand office associate

News Gothic, Bold, 9pt

1998–2001

News Gothic, Light, 7.5pt

News Gothic, Bold, 9pt

why this is great • Keeps the graphic quality consistent • Differences are created through nuance look out for maintaining difference. If you choose to work with a single typeface make sure you have enough of the family to build hierarchy and difference between typefaces. Bold against light provides better hierarchy than roman against light.

Jason kentner 22 Putnam Avenue

Jason Kentner 22 Putnam Avenue

reed Hilderbrand

Futura Bold, 9pt

office associate

Futura Bold, 6pt Gotham Narrow Light, 8pt, tracking +25

1998–2001

.5”

22 Putnam Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139 (cell) 617-555-1234

.6”

22 Putnam Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139 (cell) 617–555–1234 .95”

66

font did you use?” Argh! font? font?!

Cambridge, MA 02139

Sigh. “oh, you must mean typeface.”

(cell) 617-555-1234

(cell) 617-555-1234

Reed Hilderbrand

reed Hilderbrand

1998 – 2001

1998 – 2001

Office Associate

Jason Kentner

Jason Kentner

22 Putnam Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139 (cell) 617-555-1234

22 Putnam Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139 (cell) 617-555-1234

Reed Hilderbrand

Reed Hilderbrand Office Associate 1998 – 2001

clarendon + trade gothic

No adjustments to the horizontal or vertical alignments

Jason Kentner

Jason Kentner

22 Putnam Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139 (cell) 617-555-1234

22 Putnam Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139 (cell) 617-555-1234

Reed Hilderbrand

Reed Hilderbrand

Office Associate

Office Associate

1998 – 2001

1998 – 2001

bodoni + ff din

.8”

Jason Kentner

“I love your poster design! which

22 Putnam Avenue

Cambridge, MA 02139

Office Associate 1998 – 2001

look out for slight adjustments. when using similar typefaces, legibility resides with the details. Becuse the fonts look proportionally similar, small adjustments in tracking and spacing differences can yeild significant results, making information easier to see.

Jason Kentner

Jason Kentner

22 Putnam Avenue

caslon + univers

why this is great • Slight stylistic allow for another texture to be added while still maintaining similar stylistic profile • Maintains a modern tone

Balancing type scale, bold and light weights provide hierarchy

Roman and light are too similar – not enough difference

Gotham Narrow Light, 8pt, tracking +25

what the font?

Jason Kentner

Office Associate

Futura Bold, 13pt

22 Putnam Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139 (cell) 617-555-1234

notes on:

Jason Kentner 22 Putnam Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139 (cell) 617-555-1234

Legibility increases with more leading and tracking, especially between the numbers

reed Hilderbrand Office Associate 1998 – 2001

Jason Kentner 22 Putnam Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139 (cell) 617-555-1234

Reed Hilderbrand

fonts deliver Saying “font” instead of “typeface” is a common mistake. fonts are the delivery mechanism – computer files, wooden blocks or cases of metal pieces – of a stylized collection of letters and numbers. typefaces have style the specific styling of the collection is the typeface. when we appreciate beautifully designed letters on a poster, we are enjoying the visual style of the typeface. fonts = mp3’s “which font did you use?” is akin to asking “I love this music! which MP3 is playing?” As we know, MP3s are just the delivery mechanisms for the songs we love. The same is true for fonts, which are just the delivery mechanism for the typeface.

fonts : typefaces = mp3’s : songs

Office Associate 1998 – 2001 67

graphic design for architects

59

CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


architectural communication

information graphics knowing how to present information is an increasingly significant skill for all fields—not just for architecture. Knowing how to present information as a series of relationships gives agency to presenting any kind of data. Depicting numbers, percentages, times and sequences is as much a creative as technical exercise.

info graphics

organization

presenting numbers

effective comparisons When presenting multiple data sets in one

the structure and organization of your resume demonstrates. How you

chart its easier to compare information

set up the logic of this piece of paper addresses – want to say something about how the page

vertically than horizontally. Heavier lead line makes an effective division between headers and data

Project 1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Project 3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Project 4

Project 2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Project 5

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Project 6

0.0

0.0

0.0

Project 7

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Project 8

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

distracting lines Too many lines cause heavy divisions between cells making information hard to read

chart title

Name

Data

Data

Data

Data

Project 1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Project 2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Project 3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Project 4

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Project 5

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Project 6

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Project 7

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Project 8

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Never set text at an angle

Overview Of the infOrmatiOn presented in the chart

Budget Cost / sq. foot Time

Overview of the information

Budget

Cost / sq. ft

Project 1

10,000

60

10,000

20,000

30,000

Project 2

20,000

80

200

60

80

100

Project 3

30,000

100

300

100

200

300

easier to read The chart is organized around information pertaining to each project, rather than information about budgets, costs and time.

cluttered information Text is presented in distracting ways—bold, italics, reversed, even at an angle. The chart’s purpose (to compae data between comparnies) is hard to understand.

moire effect In small charts, alternating zones of dark and light lines appear busy. Readers can easily scan information

chart title

ct 3

Data

ct 2

Data

Pr oje

Data

ct 1

Data

A simple headline explains the graph without overwhelming

Pr oje

Name

Cluttered text is especially hard to read white on black

Pr oje

structures and organizes content.

Time 100

Its okay to center small numbers

Column label is centered over the number Name

Data

Data

Data

Data

Name

Data

Data

Data

Project 1

0.0

15.0

0.0

0.0

Project 1

0.0

15.0

0.0

Project 2

0.0

14.0

0.0

0.0

Project 2

0.0

14.0

0.0

0.0

13.0

0.0

0.0

Project 3

0.0

13.0

0.0

Project 4

0.0

12.0

0.0

0.0

Project 4

0.0

12.0

0.0

Project 5

Project 3

0.0

11.0

0.0

0.0

Project 5

0.0

11.0

0.0

Project 6

0.0

10.0

0.0

0.0

Project 6

0.0

10.0

0.0

Project 7

0.0

9.0

0.0

0.0

Project 7

0.0

9.0

0.0

Project 8

0.0

8.0

0.0

0.0

Project 8

0.0

8.0

0.0

Project 9

0.0

7.0

0.0

0.0

Project 9

0.0

7.0

0.0

Project 10

0.0

6.0

0.0

0.0

Project 10

0.0

6.0

0.0

Project 11

0.0

5.0

0.0

0.0

Project 11

0.0

5.0

0.0

Project 12

0.0

4.0

0.0

0.0

Project 12

0.0

4.0

0.0

small guides Thing lines every three to five lines can help readers scan across the table. Shading can be used to highlight important data.

chart in a table Charts are more memorable than numbers, so when possible use a chart to represent the important information.

154 graphic design for architects

Whole numbers are left justified

Decimals aligned above the other

Decimal points are left justified

Align whole numbers to the right

Name

Data

Project 1

5000

Project 1

5000

Project 1

12.31

Project 1

12.3

Project 2

700

Project 2

700

Project 2

11.22

Project 2

11.2

Project 3

50

Project 3

50

Project 3

9.8

Project 3

9.8

Project 4

3

Project 4

3

Project 4

7

Project 4

7.0

Name

Data

Name

aligning decimals

Name

Data

Data

aligning decimals

Decimal numbers should never be aligned

Decimal numbers should never be aligned

flush left or right, but rather should have their

flush left or right, but rather should have their

decimal points line up.

decimal points line up.

155

60

KAREN LEWIS


info graphics

production

pie charts

expanded information

notes on:

When expanding upon a pie chart, it is helpful to change

the structure and organization of your resume demonstrates. How you set up the logic of this piece of paper addresses – want to say something about how the page structures and organizes content.

info graphic resources

representation forms. A segmented bar chart, rather than another pie chart, is more efficient at explaining proportions of a whole.

Who is your favorite architecture theorist? Who is your favorite architecture theorist?

start at the top

Graduate students often cite writings by Sarah Whiting

Lavin Sassen

Black outlines separate the chart from the page and make it look heavy

2nd largest segment

Whiting

Wall street journal guide to information graphics Dona M. Wong (W.W. Norton & Co., 2010)

Easterling

largest segment

Whiting Easterling

3rd

Sassen If pulling out a slice from the chart, there’s no need to also reinforce it with a change in color

4th

Lavin

out of order Its intuitive to read a chart clockwise, top to bottom. However, the smallest segments are given the most prominence.

50%

“Bas-Relief Urbanism”

To emphasize one segment, use a darker color in the same tonal family

Sassen Bold text on the highlighted piece can add prominence

Lavin

as the information on number

resources filled with historic examples of how information has been visualized and displayed.

information graphics Sandra Rendgen, Julius Weideman (eds.) (Taschen, 2012)

What discipline were the students studing?

black text Dark colored text is always easier to read than white text on a darker background. Place labels in the center of each segment.

50%

30%

architecture

urban design

Visual explanations: images and quantities, eVidence and narratiVe Edward Tufte (Graphics Press, 1997) All of Tufte’s books are useful

Histories of Cities: Design and Context, eds. Rodolphe el-Khoury and Edward Robbins (London: Spon/Routledge, 2004): 57-76

Whiting

effective colors Too many colors can be distracting. Allow one darker color to give prominence to the chart content you want to highlight.

10% Other

“Superblockism: Chicago’s Elastic Grid”

Easterling

Lavin

15%

25%

“Notes around the Doppler Effect”

Sassen

charts on these pages, as well

from this publication.

Select colors in the same tonal family

Whiting

many helpful examples. The pie

charts, have been synthesized

reorganize pieces By putting the largest pie pieces at the top, the smallest segments are given the least prominence.

Easterling

Filled with great information and

20%

A tome of contemporary

landscape

information graphics, filled with Unlike using multiple pie charts, expanding upon a segmented bar with another is clarifying

examples from the last decade.

144 graphic design for architects

145

info graphics

organization structure

new york’s tallest and costliest buildings

bar charts

ONE WORLD TRADE 3.8 billion / 1776’

Height and Construction Costs

presenting data is a design choice. When given different datasets, think carefully about the best form to present information. Single bar-charts might be the best way to illustrate

3-dimensional data

a presentation. Layering information reveals a different story. Only show information that is relevant to the case you’re trying to present.

The same information presented in two bar charts is also presented

New York Tallest Buildings

New York’s Costliest Skyscrapers

Height of New York City’s skyscapers (in feet)

Construction costs (in dollars) adjusted for inflation

One World Trade Empire State

1250

Bank of America Chrysler

1046 1046

One 57

876

Trump World

more information as each axis can

274 million / 1046’

hold different datasets. However,

1

Beekman Tower

875 million

New York Times

850

281 million / 1250’

373

Trump World

300

Empire State

281

Chrysler

861

CHRYSLER

EMPIRE STATE

Four World Trde

915

Beekman Tower

1.1

Bank of America

977

Citigroup

dimensions allows you to present

1.4

Citigroup

1004

Four World Trd

representation. Working in three 3.8 billion

One 57

1200

New York Times

in this three-dimensional

One World Trade

1776 feet

this can make information harder to read. Think about when to use 2-D or 3-D techniques.

BANK OF AMERICA 1 billion / 1200’

274

NEW YORK TIMES 850 million / 1046’

Cost of New York’s Tallest Sky Scrapers

ONE57 1.4 billion / 1004’

Construction costs (in dollars) compared to building height 3.8 billion One World Trade

4 WORLD TRADE

1776 feet

Empire State

373 million / 977’

CITIGROUP 1.1 billion / 915’

1250

Bank of America

BEEKMAN TOWER 875 million / 876’

1200

Chrysler

1046

New York Times

1046

TRUMP WORLD

One 57

300 million / 861 ’

1004

Four World Trade

Adding color adds information. Building eras are represented through different colors.

977

Citigroup

915

Beekman Tower

876

Trump World

Buildings built from 2010 – present

861

Height

300 million

2000 – 2009 Before 1999

Cost Financial information is layered on top of height

150 graphic design for architects

151

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communication as architecture

signage a resume is about visual organization. Similar to how an architect organizes program, mass, structure and materials, resumes demand a similar approach to organizing systems of information. Page structure, columns, text hierarchy and detail work together as a visual system.

signage

production after

surfaces communicate the structure and organization of your resume demonstrates. How you set up the logic of this piece of paper addresses – want to say something about how the page structures and organizes content.

after

before

after

breaking up the corridor To break up the corridor and further signify which doors are used for which purposes, signage extends to the floor as a simple graphic, indicating "this door serves the public."

coding doors Permanent rooms, such as restrooms, exits, and rooms numbers, all must comply with code standards.

before

before

190 graphic design for architects

191

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KAREN LEWIS


signage

organization

signage systems

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION TAYLOR EDUCATION BUILDING

Eric Anderman, Ph.D.

notes on:

Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Studies

the structure and organization of your resume demonstrates. How you set up the logic of this piece of paper addresses – want to say something about how the page structures and organizes content.

TAYLOR

107

229

SPECIAL EDUCATION REHABILITATION COUNSELING

224

CENTER FOR SCHOOL SAFETY

250 212-220

FACULTY OFFICES

TAYLOR EDUCATION BUILDING

2 ½"

8"

INSTITUTE FOR EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

3 ⅝" removable panel

2"

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

229

REHABILITATION COUNSELING

224

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

to dark) contrast between characters and their background in order for them to be compliant. The important issue is not a specific color, but rather the contrast produced between lightness and darkness.

⅝"

232-237

12 1" removable panels

212-220

FACULTY OFFICES

17"

250

CENTER FOR SCHOOL SAFETY

must have a high dark to light (or light

105

UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY

105

UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

Signs that contain visual characters

TAYLOR

3 ¾"

SPECIAL EDUCATION

232-237

INSTITUTE FOR EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

TAYLOR

color contrast

11"

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION TAYLOR EDUCATION BUILDING

¾" 2" removable

Eric Anderman, Ph.D.

6"

Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Studies

2 ¼" ⅜"

½"

11"

6"

Good contrast

TAYLOR

SPECIAL EDUCATION

229

REHABILITATION COUNSELING

224

CENTER FOR SCHOOL SAFETY

TAYLOR

107

MEN

exit

INSTITUTE FOR EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

FACULTY OFFICES

UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

105

exit

250 212-220 232-237

Eric Anderman, Ph.D.

6"

exit

Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Studies

TAYLOR

107

separate spaces One building is coded in orange signage while the other uses blue signage.

105

exit exit

MEN

Not enough

Not great, but passable

?

exit

186 graphic design for architects

187

signage

organization

large scale legibility the structure and organization of your resume demonstrates. How you set up the logic of this piece of paper addresses – want to say something about how the page structures and organizes content. structures and organizes content.

kerning Kerning is the process of adjusting the spacing between individual letters, while tracking (letter-spacing) adjusts spacing uniformly over the entire word. In a well-kerned word the two-dimensional blank spaces between each pair of characters all have similar area.

Av Av .2

.3

no kerning

kerning

The edge of the A and V line up without any overlap. A wide gap is created between the two letters.

The edge of the A and V overlap to form a tighter relationship.

Avery Index

Having a hard time seeing the difference? Compare the spacing between the C and the K, J and the A

before

Ave ry IInde nd ex very

after

after

same tracking, different kerning While tracking between the top and bottom examples is the same, the kerning on the bottom demonstrates proportional letter spacing.

before

kerning signs When letters become really large, the spacing between them become even more critical. To the untrained eye, kerning is a subtle practice, but makes architectural signage more graceful and legible. When done well, you won't even notice proper kerning.

tracking Tracking adjusts spacing uniformly over the entire word.

Avery Index Avvery ery Inde I ndex

wide tracking, no kerning As spaces between letters get larger, its easier to see uneven spaces between letters.

wide tracking, kerning Kerning becomes more noticable, and significant to legibility, when letters change scale.

wrong top down

right

left is right Its a common mistake to design blade signage with English letters stacked on top of one another. English characters should be typeset as they are read—left to right, rather than top to bottom.

straight across

192 graphic design for architects

193

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paper and presentation

March 2012

Representing Information: Envisioning the City through Data

Submitted paper for ACSA 100: Registration and Abstraction panel

Summer 2012

diagramatic

Spring 2011

Graduate Seminar on diagrams taught at the Knowlton School of Architecture

envisioning organization

Fall 2010

Conference Chair, Knowlton School of Architecture

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KAREN LEWIS


expanding representation

REPRESENTING INFORMATION ENVISIONING THE CITY THROUGH DATA Karen Lewis

Knowlton School of Architecture, The Ohio State University ACSA 100 / March 1, 2012

abstract

presentation and publication

Stemming from a research seminar on diagrams, Representing Information synthesized research on how the measurement and collected data about cities have shaped contemporary practice. Linking research and projects from the past 20 years, the paper organizes contemporary data practice into four design themes: Clarification, Augmentation, Revelation and Information. These themes were first introduced in a symposium Envisioning Organization. The paper expands upon these initial themes to develop a deeper, inquiry into how designers represent and leverage information to form practice.

Digital Aptitudes Conference Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture 100 March 2012 Session: Registration and Projection The Mediation of Urban Imaging Technologies

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


Columbia University Spatial Information Design Lab “Beijing Air Tracks” project, 2008

representing information

envisioning the city through data

The constructed world is replete with information that governs and controls its organization. From railroads to highways, building codes to zoning regulations, the design and development of the contemporary environment is managed by strategies of physical and visual organization. Architects’ interest in this globally networked environment is reflective of an increasing awareness and attention to the multi-variant world, one invested in infrastructural systems that support productivity in lieu of pictures1 and is reflective of a new global and electronic economy based on intangibles – ideas, information and relationships.(2) The effects of these systems, once only theorized and simulated through abstract models, is given attention via the measurement, collection and processing of their effects. Increased methods of gathering and collecting information have resulted in an unprecedented saturation of data – data that often reflects empirical and scientific measurement of previously impressionistic phenomena. During the 2008 Summer Olympics, the Spatial Information Design Lab at Columbia University developed technology to measure precisely air pollution throughout Beijing, finding a way to link

66

the observed phenomenon of low visibility, haze and smog with scientific measurement. In the months leading up to the Olympic games, Beijing’s poor air quality was a cause of concern for the participating athletes and visitors to the city and, despite varying assessments by the Chinese authorities that “fog (not smog) was responsible for the low levels of visibility around the city,” (3) the government put into place several initiatives to dramatically curb air pollution. (4) Leveraging the Associated Press’s unrivaled access to the Olympic venues, SIDL partnered with journalists to measure air quality throughout Beijing for the weeks leading up to and during the summer Olympics. Journalists were given handheld monitoring devices that tracked air particulate matter, CO2 and geographic location, allowing the press to gather air quality information in conjunction with their geographic locales. Maps of Beijing’s air quality before and after the government restrictions produced an information graphic distributed throughout the AP network, giving the world access to China’s impacts on air pollution. But while the data collected, measured and visualized yielded a convincing information graphic to demonstrate industrialization impacts on the environment, its results are less certain. Despite the

KAREN LEWIS


Columbia University Spatial Information Design Lab “Beijing Air Tracks” project, 2008

clarity of the visual mapping, the description of the city, its industrialization and authority’s role is less confident. “The causes and effects of air pollution comprise a complicated chemical recipe that is all too easily reduced to superficial observation (the color of the sky) or an abstract statistical reading from static instruments. Being able to recognize the experience of a city’s air quality is a combination of highly localized as well as more regional effects that shift in intensity as one moves through an urban landscape.”(5) Describing fluvial data is difficult. Information gathered at one location doesn’t give a comprehensive overview of the interdependent systems that influence a singular data collection point. As the Beijing Air Tracks project demonstrates, reducing the complexities and experiences of a city into its measurable components can simultaneous overwhelm as well as liberate the designer.(6) While new technologies have enabled new types of information to be gathered and shared about our environment, the methods of mobilizing this knowledge into meaningful design projects remains unclear. Critics have condemned designers that confuse the geographic patterning of data as a site for architectural form, oscillating between data’s formal history as potential ‘abstract machines,’(7) or leveraging its mere presence as empirical justification to operate. Data’s ubiquitousness, its proliferation and availability has produced an “increasing range of

architectural and urban practices focusing on the mining of data related to built form and its occupation so extensive in its accumulation, description and transformation, that these data structures can themselves be seen to operate as both the context of, and model for, practices of the architect.”(8) In its late 1990’s conceptualization, MVDV’s datascape projects leverage information visualization practices by diagramming the quantifiable forces that can influence or control the architects’ work. As Winy Maas has described, “DataTown is only based upon data. It is a city that wants to be described only by information. A city that does not know any given typography, no prescribed ideology, no representation, no context. Purely huge, only data.”(9) Perhaps this is why ‘DataTown,’ MVRDV’s hypothetical city based only on information, is so formally unspectacular. Is the mere presence of data, its meaningful measurement and observation of the urban context, a sufficient design project? Spatializing collected and measured data, not just formally representing it through the metaphor of a city, can open up new geographies and territories of previously unseen networked systems. Visualizing and spatializing information ‘is the conceptual glue linking the tangible world of buildings, cities and landscapes with the intangible world of social networks and electronic communications. To design is to invent

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


Spatial Information Design Lab “Million Dollar Blocks”

new strategies for visualizing information that make new interpretations possible.’(10) As we gain information about the world, practiced methods of representing knowledge are challenged, and we must invent representational techniques that reflect the fluvial, multivariate ways of recognizing these changes. Infusing the landscape with data represents a significant conceptual shift from representing the environment pictorially. As Edward Tufte described this similar transformation of map making, moving from the only descriptive map to one that also includes measured data, made a significant leap forward in mapping thinking. “To depict relations between any measured quantities, however, requires replacing the map’s natural spatial scales with abstract scales of measurement not based on geographic analogy… To go from maps of existing scenery to graphs of newly measured and collected data was an enormous conceptual step.”(11) Visually describing this networked, infrastructural environment is problematic, as it requires reflexive, multi-scaled methods of representation. Data moves. It shifts, changes, and is fluvial. While all data is just that – data – it is through the culling and designing of information that allows the designers’ voice to penetrate through the collection process. Rem Koolhaas described his own practice of using data collection as a way of building intelligence into a project, using diagrams as a way to build up ‘not just a knowledge about architecture, but about the world, too.’(12) Representing information became a tool to look creativity at building form, but also at the “economics of a project, too. The Conde Nast diagram and how there is a potential for new magazines to be born continuously out of these intersections.”13 In this sense, the interest of the architect isn’t relegated to just the data enriched site, city or specific building, but to the work

68

of the industry it contains. As Keller Easterling has noted, “This architecture is not about the house but rather about housekeeping. It is not be about triangles and tauruses or motion trajectories, but about timing and patterns of interactivity, about triplets and cycles, subtractions and parallelism, switches and differentials. Architecture, as it is used here, might describe the parameters or protocols for formatting space.”(14) Data collection is mobilized into architectural practice by representation techniques that visualize previously unseen conditions. Architecture critic Barts Lootsma recognizes this as an architectural practice, noting that data “when visualized, [these forces] together form a new and more complex version of what the site plan used to be.” (15) Representing abstract environmental conditions allow relationships and adjacencies between components to be understood and therefore designed. Data visualization becomes a way to position architecture, to recommend or discourage design, and to promote spatial agency. While recent methods of collecting information have become more sophisticated, more nuanced, and more attuned to the environment, the methods of data translation are where design creativity and architectural agency lie. It is through the translation of data collection into visual representation that give architects ways of occupying information, and using this occupation to develop design strategies. Recent practices have engaged data visualization as a way to situate their design proposals, and while each have taken advantage of new methods of collecting information about their subjects, it is through data translation techniques that demonstrate different ways of occupying data.

KAREN LEWIS


MVRDV “DataTown”

Clarification One technique for occupying information is to clarify the components of complex systems, graphically depicting the flows of information such as traffic patterns, landscape ecologies, or even economies. Simplifying and clarifying these adjacencies reveals new sites for design, visualizes new hierarchies and relationships, as well as relegates the designer to one of ultimate organizer. In clarifying the components, designers are able to render each part of the process in isolation, therefore allowing relationships between components to be more easily read and understood. This technique is useful as it allows designers to understand the interaction between parts. Hilary Sample’s research in “Sick City” investigates the spread of disease within the context of urban infrastructures, linking together technologies that track and measure disease deployment with corresponding architectural and urban responses. The research begins with the 2003 SARS outbreak and its impacts on Toronto, a city that responded by scanning incoming airport travelers with thermal imaging devices. “The health of cities depends on the critical relationships and actions between this ‘local-global nexus’ of monitoring organizations along with the structures and devices used for tracking and alerting, which exist as both physical and virtual infrastructures.”(16) As the research explores the global spread of SARS and how the disease was tracked, and its ultimate development of Biomed cities across the globe, the drawings, diagrams and mappings represent techniques of clarification and exposure of this complex system of disease, agents, and urban infrastructure. The drawings focus on pulling apart these complexities, using exploded axonometric and measured urban info-graphics that at once describe

the moving of individuals infected with SARS, and the urban health infrastructure that responds to the spread of disease. In one mapping, the logistics of a hospital and its urban context is pulled apart, demonstrating the relationship between spaces of hospital lobbies, emergency room locations, and transportation systems. In rendering the city through these essential elements, the designer develops a method of seeing the spread of disease in isolation. Rather than measuring the condition of individuals as they move in and out of the country’s ports, Sick City looks at how disease infrastructure works as a system of parts. This system of spatial clarification is similar to the Noli map of Rome, ignoring other physical details and focusing instead on the medical spaces infected individuals occupy, using techniques of clarification to identify health infrastructure. Proposed projects are located in relationships to these clarified sites, responding to the essential health infrastructures identified through the measurement of disease across global urban populations.(17)

Augmentation Data reveals independent systems that can be linked together to expand and augment their functionality. Siting design as physical infill, infrastructural thickening, or conceptual expanse allows design to look across functions and programs to bring seemingly opposing practices together by augmenting and densifying existing systems. For these projects, design tactics amplify existing conditions, building upon current realities in order to secure their futures.

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


From Edward Tufte, “Visual Explanations”

Lateral Office situates their work at the intersection of ecological and cultural systems, working between vast scales of regions and intimate scales of landscape measurement. Collected and / or observed data in these contexts is represented artistically, using the landscape not as a formal or topological site from where to situate design, but understanding it as a lively system of moving parts. Their design intervention can come at the scale of a building – for example, their proposal “Ice Link: Occupying the Temporal Seam,” (18) suggested a land bridge along the arctic International Dateline that collapses the geographic effect of neither here-nor-there territory, transportation systems, cultural events and ecological systems of ice collection. While elegant, the architecture of the proposed visitor’s center and train station is given little attention. The success of the project is determined by its impacts on ecological systems – ice collection and melting, fish nodes for agricultural harvesting, located at the intersection of time, geography and cultural impulse. The proposal links together the cultural opportunity to cross water at this unique geographic and time location, and augments the ecological collections below of ice harvesting and collection. It uses landscape instruments to collect ice, simultaneously addressing ecological imperatives while giving a location for social connections. The drawings employed to describe these augmented systems are at once very large scale and very small scale – linking

70

regional maps together with product illustrations. These systems are brought together with dashed lines and impressionistic backgrounds, at once giving the data map an atmosphere of place and site, while also allowing the instruments themselves to be linked together with similar line work and explanations. The graphic tools of atmosphere and lines make fuzzy jumps between locations – how these sites are linked together, exactly we’re not sure – but the drawings themselves expand across techniques to make convincing, if not explicit, visual connections. Unlike clarification techniques, where pieces are rendered in isolation or collapsed onto one another, augmentation represents information through techniques of layering. Each one of these ideas has a similar representation technique affiliated with it – and those different techniques of representing data, collected information through the landscape, is at once useful and confusing. Layering and scale change allow the viewer to look ever closer without loosing the context of the surrounding condition.

Simulation Designers envision new worlds through practices of simulation, expanding upon visual practices that test and expand upon known conditions. Through simulation, designers can test their knowledge under new conditions and requirements, allowing new information about the changing environment to depict future conditions. Alan Berger’s project on the

KAREN LEWIS


parts, it allows for an overall sense of the interconnection and scalar change of information to be presented. Working from the regional scale, presenting long-term statistical information about a project, while simultaneously spatializing and presenting the project with an image of the mine in its current configuration, the work oscillates between regional and building scaled projects, and looks at how these components affect and intertwine with one another.

Revelation When visualized, collected data reveals tactics, outcomes and agencies of visualizing geography and policy. Maps, diagrams and information reveal practices of power, demonstrating ways the cultural landscape physically reinforces social mores, exposing complex social networks and cultural practices within cities and territories that, unless decoded by the designer, remain unobserved to the naked eye. In these methods of data collection, the designer acts as ethnographer, reporter, or anthropologist to understand how the urban landscape is occupied, designed and controlled. While not overt gestures of form or dwelling, the close cultural observation of these sites, and their subsequent design projects and critical drawings, reveal new contexts to situate design.

Reclamation of the American West defines the design project as not one of architecturalized objects or finalized sites, but of an open-ended engagement with processes. The design project has agency of operation, not of form. In this project, representation is the critical notational method to describe the reclamation of the mined western American landscape in that it not about what the thing will look like in the end, but about a process that engages those ideas, identifies how these sites are currently being altered, and communicated. The way to intervene on the site is through sorting, projections – “hard data” is used to organize the sequence of events, these speculative mappings ask the reader to engage in an evolving discourse, a simulation with its potential future. “Mappings are more diagrammatic than dogmatic, more akin to discovery than recovery – more concerned with process than results.”(19) While each mapping then can be described as ‘double sided,’ at first collecting the visual indicators of a mined landscape, then recording the landscape alterations that are visible or physically veiled. These diagrams reveal processes that are invisible to the form of the project – they document the social, environmental, financial and legislative processes, and render them concrete. Alan Berger’s drawings of the West mine’s reclamation project clarifies data by collapsing various scales of information. Rather than isolate each component and draw relationships between parts as a dashed line or the alltransformative arrow, Berger compresses information as a way to draw relationships. Rather than registering discrete

Interboro Partners works in this method of social and cultural investigation, using their observational skills to identify voiceless constituents who may not solicit economic influence over given sites. Two projects demonstrate this method of on the ground data collection and subsequent revelation – their entry into The Dead Malls Competition (20) and their handbook “Improve Your Blot,” (21) included in the Shrinking Cities exhibit and publication. The “Improve Your Blot” project looks beyond the seeming emptiness of Detroit to acknowledge the density of land ownership. Using Google Earth in cross-reference with city cadastre maps, the project addressed land holdings, ownership, and the design projects that come from grouping new urban blocks together to form new “blots.” This information is found as a result of direct observation, subsequent statistical collection of information across various government agencies, and first hand interviews with selected ‘blot’ owners. The technique employed in the “blot” project was one of ‘ghost writing,’ giving Interboro the opportunity to observe, investigate, and discuss property ownership with the owners themselves. The data collection is reflected through the development of a guidebook for neighborhood residents who may want to increase the quality of their land ownership. The book collects methods for designing and developing blots with simple architectural tools such as fences, porches, gardens and strategic siting, to improve the quality of their properties without overwhelming their budgets. Interboro’s first project, ‘In the Meantime: Life with Landbanking,” recognized the need to collect anecdotal information about a site, data that isn’t always found in a GIS

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


s and their proximity to additional real 2.0 km

1.5 km

2.0 km

1.5 km

Bou

Bou

l. Sa

l. Sa

int La

ure

int La

ure

Sai nte -Cat h

erin e

nt

Rue

Rue

Sai nte -Cat h

erin e

nt

CLARIFICATION

SIMULATION

Isolating components to understand, organize and strategize

1.25 miles

10.00 miles

Testing data through models and

1.25 miles

database. One drawing reflects the observed site conditions, anecdotal of the 1950’s. Peter Eisenmenan’s archelogical projects leveraged interviews with various mall users, and proposals for future. The map diagrams as ‘double-sided tablets’ that reified formal indexes in the of the mall shows the mall in its current condition. After the mall city, bridging the anteriority and exteriority of architecture through constituents and their needs, using techniques of cartooning to develop a process of layering, folding and subsequent spatializing. The data and cull impressions and aspects of the mall, and then finally ringing collected in these projects were historic in nature, traces of grids and the project with projections and proposals for its future, surround it. forms from previous histories that emerged as new conditions by Montreal Montreal French-Speaking Hospitalsto find architecture. French-Speaking Hospitals wasn’t This drawing was an important one of This Interboro, and itand acknowledged which The data these projects diagram charts the location size of This diagram charts the location andinfluencing size of each major hospital and homeless shelter each major hospital and homeless shelter English-Speaking Hospitals English-Speaking Hospitals within a two kilometer radius of the within a two kilometer radius of the the collapsing of first-person reporting into a project that links master collected as much as it was discovered or recognized by preexisting Montreal General Hospital. Montreal General Hospital. Homeless shelters (typically providing Homeless shelters (typically providing planning with direct emotional impactWhile of various stakeholders. formal forces in the city. MVRDV’s use of “data scapes” leveraged hospitals are fairly evenly distributed While hospitals are fairly evenly distributed basic health services in addition to beds) basic health services in addition to beds) around the nexus of Mont-Royal, the around the nexus of Mont-Royal, the the economic and statistical information of the city to develop 100% under-served population is legibly under-served population is legibly CLSC (centre local de services CLSC (centre local de services concentrated in the downtown core. communautaires) locations locations The Urban Info Graphicconcentrated in the downtown core. logical manifestations of Pig City and the sound communautaires) barrier wall projects, The semi-transparent icons represent the site The semi-transparent icons represent the site Food pantries and soup kitchens Food pantries and soup kitchens and scale of the two proposed and scale of the two proposed Many of the projects described operate between scales of data abstracting information about the city into a form that was at once Non-profit health services for Non-profit health services for super-hospitals: one for McGill University super-hospitals: one for McGill University underserved population underserved Healthcare (blue) and one for the Centre Healthcaredetail (blue) and and one for the Centre collection methods and their subsequent visualizations. The methods devoid of architectural spatiality in lieu of anpopulation overall visual Hospitalier de l’Universite de Montreal Hospitalier de l’Universite de Montreal (red). (red). ol of Architecture / Professor Hilary Sample / Spring 2010 of measuring and collecting information is less instrumental to design and architectural massing of “information.” OMA’s data collection practice as are the resulting graphics that situate design. As a result, and rendering spurred this new interest in information graphics, as these practices wrestle with new scales of representing vast kinds of programs and processes are intertwined to develop formal conditions data collected about their environment. Designers have always used as manifestations of data logic. varrying types of drawings to describe their work, but as projects and firms absorb even wider and more abstract scales than plan, section New generations of designers are leveraging information graphics or elevation reveal, new languages of representing and drawing in ways that are neither spatial nor indexical, but are gathering information must be considered. information and designing data as a way to resolve and compress complex and conflicting sets of information. As our knowledge about A new language of urban / global / information graphics have begun to the complexities of urban, landscape and building systems grow, infuse the urban diagram with critical tools that reflects the designer’s and our responsibilities towards absorbing and addressing many intention, processes and development of a point of view. Diagrams different scales of spatial issues – from global health care to landscape are complex. While much has been written about their qualities as mine restoration – and other opportunities that are both cultural, abstract machines, the intentions and usefulness of diagrams changes ecologic, and economic in nature, we must absorb these multi-scaled upon the context and point of view of the designer. Diagrams don’t sets of knowledge into increasingly complex systems of collection, just operate as abstract machines – some very carefully do that – but representation and proposal. others work at clarifying, revealing, augmenting or simulating data to allows for designers to operate in very different ways. Diagrams intentions have changed from their once ubiquitous bubble diagrams Hospitals

Homeless shelters (typically providing basic health services in addition to beds) Food pantries and soup kitchens

Major health clinics serving low-income pop. Venice Family Clinic Locations

Medicinal Marijuana Dispensary

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9 Winy Maas, ‘Datascape: The Final Extravaganza,” Daidolos (Berlin) 69/70, 1989/99, pp 48-53. 10 Janet Abrams and Peter Hall, Else / Where Mappings: New Cartographies of Networks and Territories, University of Minnesota Design Institute (Minneapolis), 2006, pp 12-17. 11 Edward Tufte, Envisioning Information, Graphics PR (Cheshire, Connecticut), 1990.

AUGMENTATION Looking across functions and programs to bring seemingly opposing practices together by densifying existing systems

12 Brett Steele, Super Critical: Peter Eisenman and Rem Koolhaas, Architectural Association (London), 2007. These debates questioned, among other things, the use of diagrams in Eisenman’s and OMA’s practice. 13 Ibid. 14 Keller Easterling, Organization Space, MIT Press (Cambridge), 1999, p2. 15 Bart Lootsma, ‘Reality Bytes,” Daidolos (Berlin) 69/70, 1989/99, pp 8-21. 16 Hilary Sample, ‘Biomed City,’ in Verb Crisis, ACTAR (Barcelona, New York), 2008, p70.

ENDNOTES 1 James Corner, ‘Terra Fluxus’, in Charles Waldheim (ed) Landscape

17 Student work samples from Hilary Sample’s “Sick City” seminar, Yale

Urbanism Reader, Princeton Architectural Press (New York), 2005, pp 21-33.

University, Spring 2010, in the exhibition Exhibiting Organization, Knowlton School of Architecture, The Ohio State University, November 5, 2010 –

2 Michael Speaks, ‘Design Intelligence and the New Economy,’ Architectural

January 3, 2011.

Record (New York) January 2002, p. 72. 18 Mason White and Lola Shepherd, Pamphlet Architecture 30: Coupling: 3 The Spatial Information Design Lab’s website, <http://www.

Strategies for Infrastructural Opportunism, Princeton Architectural Press

spatialinformationdesignlab.org/projects.php?id=97> accessed September

(New York) 2011.

13, 2011. 19 Alan Berger in Reclaiming the American West, Princeton Architectural 4 ibid. “These included the removal of half of the city’s 3.3 million cars from

Press (New York), 2002,

the road on alternate days; a temporary ban on 300, 000 heavily polluting trucks; the phasing out of older buses and taxis in favor of newer models

20 This project is best documented in Praxis 8: ReProgramming (Spring

that used compressed natural gas; higher emissions standards for new cars;

2006), pp.24-30.

the temporary shuttering of dozens of steel, chemical, and cement factories and power plants; doubling the number of subway lines; the pause in all

21 Both of these projects are well articulated by Georgeen Theodore,

construction activities throughout the city more than two weeks ahead of the

Interoro partner, at the conference Envisioning Organization: Architecture

games; and the addition of urban parks, or “greenbelts” throughout the city.”

+ Information, Knowlton School of Architecture The Ohio State University, November 6, 2010.

5 ibid. 6 Peter A Hall, ‘Diagrams and their Future in Urban Design’ in Marc Garcia (ed) The Diagrams of Architecture, Wiley (London), 2010, pp 163-169 7 Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari in A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, University of Minnessota Press (Mineapolis), 1987, p 144. 8 Brett Steele, ‘Data (e)Scape”, Daidolos (Berlin) 69/70, 1989/99, p 54. 9 Wouter Deen and Udo Garritzmann, ‘Diagramming the Contemporary: OMA’s little helper in the quest for the new’, OASE (City) no.48, 1998, pp 31-43.

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


paper publication and presentation

Winter 2012

ACSA 100: digital aptitudes

envisioning organization Fall 2010

Conference Chair, Presenter, Moderator Knowlton School of Architecture

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KAREN LEWIS


expanding representation

abstract Envisioning Organization explores design methodologies related to architecture and information. The conference invited designers who situate their work laterally across disciplines of architecture, graphic design, landscape architecture and urbanism. The methods for structuring and sequencing information manifest in several tactics of organization: clarifying complex systems through a process of editing and simplifying; augmenting functionality between components; revealing relationships between politics and power; and simulating new worlds by expressing relationships between form and information.

e n visio n i n g or ga n i z atio n architecture + information

CONFERENCE Organizer, Presenter, Moderator

Exhibition Curator, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Exhibiting Organizationâ&#x20AC;?


friday, november 5

saturday, november 6

5:30pm

8:30am

welcome

coffee and tea

karen lewis, conference chair 9:00 – 10:20 introduction

clarification

ann pendelton-julian,

editing and simplifying complex systems

director of the knowlton school of architecture Diagramming and mapping complex systems of flows – traffic keynote address

patterns, cattle, or even health care – new hierarchies aare made

adam bly, seed media group

visible. Simplifying and clarifying these relationships reveals new sites for design, as well as relegates the designer to one of ultimate organizer.

6:45pm reception / gallery opening welcoming reception

panel discussion: karen lewis, ksa // ann filson, university of

“envisioning organization” exhibition opening

kentucky // luke bulman, thumb // moderator: gale fulton, uiuc

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KAREN LEWIS


10:30 – 11:50

1:30 – 2:50

augmentation

simulation

3:15 – 4:45

designing across systems and disciplines

inventing new worlds

revelation

Looking across functions and programs

Graphic practices of branding, systems

to bring seemingly opposing practices

of structuring identity relate to how

Maps reveal practices of power,

together to augument and densify existing

architecture envisions new worlds and

demonstrating ways the cultural landscape

systems.

establishes new environments that have

physically reinforces social mores.

visualizing practices of power

commercial and fantastic applications. panel discussion: georgeen theordore,

panel discussion: sarah williams, lab for

interboro // mason white, lateral //

panel discussion: jimenez lai, burreau

spatial informatics // charisma acey, ksa

michael piper, studio dubs // moderator:

spectacular // christian unvergazt, m1/

city and regional planning // peter hall, ut

jason kentner, influx studio

dtw // scott stowell, open // moderator:

austin // moderator: karen lewis, ksa

john mcmorrough, studio apt, university of 12:00 – 1:30

michigan

lunch break 2:50 – 3:15 coffee break

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


workshop, presentation and panel discussion Mediated Cities: Los Angeles Conference Woodbury University, Los Angeles

Upcoming October 2014

Summer 2014

Built multi-scale model of Light Industrial Landscape proposal

mapping workshop and presentation

March 2014

University of Tennessee, Landscape Architecture Program

Submission

January 2014

Queensway 2014 Emerging New York Architects Competition Research trip to Ozone Park, Queens, New York

October 2013

Modeling maps project in 4th Year undergraduate design studio

Fall 2013

mapping workshop and lecture

March 2013

University of Minnesota, Catalyst Week Workshop

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KAREN LEWIS


clarifying systems

li g ht i n d u strial la n d scape

abstract Light Industrial Landscape continues my ongoing investigations into the spatial and representational impacts of intertwining and overlapping multiple civic systems. Developed for the Emerging New York Architects’ award, proposal redesigns the Queensway Rail Line by overlapping light manufacturing businesses under the abandoned rail line with a landscape corridor above.

infrastructure’s civic engagement with the next economy

Below the Queensway, light manufacturing (furniture making, welding, distilleries, food production) is intertwined with walking and biking trails. Necessary infrastructural components such as stairs, ADA ramps, HVAC systems are designed to form a spectacle landscape above. The park connects to the business below through these infrastructural components which allow for movement past, views across and engagement with an expanded public realm.

research assistants Levi Bedell, KSA Architecture Student Aaron Powers, KSA Architecture Student Cheyenne Vandervoorde, KSA Architecture Student

The Light Industrial Landscape engages other civic systems across New York while also shaping the identity and legibility of the immediate context. The project becomes a link to New York’s burgeoning light manufacturing district while providing connection to an expanded park system.

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


new york’s history of infrastructure + Parks

1850

1880

1950

2001

2003

2010

MURRAY HILL Reservoir

BROOKLYN BRIDGE

HEIGHTS PROMENADE

FRESH KILLS PARK

THE HIGH LINE

BROOKLYN BRIDGE PARK

“Walk Around It”

“Walk Through It”

“Cover It”

“Heal It”

“See and Be Seen”

“Touch the Water”

spring park breezy point

forest park

Jamaica bay rego park

ozone park

rockaway beach

MANUFACTURING and RECREATION Infrastructure for the next economy is cleaner, sustainable, and easier to engage. While it was difficult for citizens to live comfortably next to the heavy manufacturing of the 20th century, the economies of the new millennium are easier to integrate within urban centers. Local agriculture, small-scale manufacturing and light industrial businesses find a comfortable home in the Queensway, providing integration with living and working infrastructures.

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KAREN LEWIS


Queensway Light Industrial Landscape Proposal

Ozone Park Neighborhood Context

Prospect Park

Governorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Island

Lower Manhattan

model at three scales base: map of city 1:1000 area context 1:50 queensway: 1:20

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


scales of engagement light manufacturing entwined with landscape

queensway proposal 1:20 Manufacturing below, public park above. Infrastructure and circulation entwine zoning

ozone park context 1:50 Context surrounding the Ozone Park Queensway

base Map 1:1000 Context map of New York depicting Parks, Manufacturing and Light Industrial Zones, and subway lines

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KAREN LEWIS


street stoop Seating, Restroom

Street Stoop provides amenities for the manufacturing district on street level

stair Stair to the Queensway

Sculptural stairs provide legibility from the street to the Queensway entry

bike ramp / stair Bike and ADA Ramp, Pedestrian stair, Newspaper kiosk A double bike / stair connection creates a sweeping public space for the Queensway

83

CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


clarifying circulation infrastructure separates and intertwines

A

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KAREN LEWIS


85

RESEARCH


2014 QUEENSWAY = LIVE / WORK INFRASTRUCTURE 1. Add ventilation stacks to the Queensway Industrial Work Spaces

2. Clad stacks with Metal Towers allow wild urban plants and vines to grow over the towers

3. Invite Spectacle Add benches, overlooks, air and light to connect recreation above with work below

I hear thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a great new meadery

CULTURAL CONNECTIONS Expanding the burgeoning light industrial district links the knowledge and manufacturing communities with a new cultural agenda: local agriculture, bespoke quality, craft, and intelligence. High-quality, low-carbon, export oriented services, and products links to a wide array of cultural and socio-economic backgrounds. The local economy celebrates Queens while allowing for future growth and connection with an urbane audience.

Store building materials across the street in the stone yard

Furniture Designer

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KAREN LEWIS


Ventilation

Ventilation

Ventilation

Honeybees

Microclimates Microclimates

Microclimates Bird and Bat Habitats

Honey

Hey, Look!

Flow between other industrial spaces across the street Light and Air Local Honey Producer

Ventilation

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


overlapping systems mechanical systems, transportation, circulation and corridor landscapes

88

KAREN LEWIS


89

CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


infrastructureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s civic space mechanical systems and public access produce a new public realm and identity for the queensway

90

KAREN LEWIS


91

CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


spotlight exhibition

October 2009

at The Center for Architecture, New York (October 2009â&#x20AC;&#x201C;December 2009)

exhibition selection and model (12 entries selected)

September 2009

Inner Space selected to be exhibited at the Center for Architecture, AIA New York as part of a select group of honorable mentions Competition entry selected as the only project to be displayed as a model

honorable mention (30 honorable mentions / 200+ entries)

Summer 2009

Inner Space selected as an Honorable Mention for The Ground Concourse Beyond 100 Competition Competition Jury: Stan Allen, Architect Carlos Brillembourg, Architect Belmont Freeman, Architect Anthony Greene, Historian Walter Hood, Landscape Architect Dr. Clara E. RodrĂ­guez, Sociologist Tim Rollins, Artist Wilhelm Ronda, Planner Galia Solomonoff, Architect Susan Szenasy, Crtic TATS CRU, Muralists

Research trip to the Grand Concourse, Bronx, NY

March 2009

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KAREN LEWIS


clarifying systems

i n n er space

alternative public spaces for the bronx grand concourse

Abstract

collaborator

The project continues an on-going question about how to occupy infrastructure. Recognizing that the contemporary Grand Concourse’s is now a major vehicular route, rather than a wide boulevard for promenade, our proposal weeks to reinvest the Grand Concourse with public occupation. What contemporary uses claim public space?

Jason Kentner, Assistant Professor of Landscape Architecture, Ohio State University

The Grand Concourse is isolated by topography and infrastructure. As a result of the steep elevation change, the Grand Concourse has no “back door.” Service functions and side uses occur directly on the Grand Concourse which blur public and private occupation with residential, commercial, and service zones.

Intersections: The Grand Concourse Beyond 100 30 honorable mentions / 200+ entries

honorable mention

Competition sponsored by the Design Trust for Public Space and the Bronx Museum of Art

Inner Space identifies sites where the concourse can take advantage of these blurred zones. By allowing for public occupation of service zones the Grand Concourse can loosen the boundaries between residential, automotive and street life, allowing for different scales of engagement and design.

spotlight exhibition and model October 2009 – December 2009 The Center for Architecture, New York 1 model / 12 selected projects / 200+ entries

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CREATIVE scholarship


topography and infrastructure The Grand Concourse is isolated by topography and infrastructure. As a result of the steep elevation change, the Grand Concourse has no â&#x20AC;&#x153;back door.â&#x20AC;? Service functions and side uses occur directly on the Grand Concourse which blur public and private occupation with residential, commercial, and service zones. Inner Space identifies sites where the concourse can take advantage of these blurred zones. By allowing for public occupation of service zones the Grand Concourse can loosen the boundaries between residential, automotive and street life, allowing for different scales of engagement and design

The Notch

The Strip

The Corner

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KAREN LEWIS


Parks, transportation and infrastructure bind and isolate the Grand Concourse establishing the boulevardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


the notch

The Bus Notch

before

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KAREN LEWIS

PRIVATE

SEMI PRIVATE

PRIVATE

PUBLIC

PUBLIC

The Notch addresses the deep residential entrances which line the Grand Concourse. Dark, seemingly unsafe, and filled with trash, The Notch blurs public and private spaces on the Concourse, inviting residential activity to be part of the street by organizing and giving form to existing activities.

SEMI PUBLIC

Shade Grove Sitting Wall Access Ramp Residential Porch Bus Stop Benches

after


the corner The Canopy Corner Power wash Bio Swale Skate Park Eco Pavers

The Corner occurs when cross streets intersect the Grand Concourse, breaking its isolation from other systems. Gas stations, car washes, vendors and the subway bring commercial and residential activities together at the corner. BYPASS

before

Cut through after

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


typologies The Oasis Notch Water Collection Hanging Garden Green Pavers Recycling Center

The Subway Notch Bioswale Trash Receptacle Entry Path Residential Garden Garden Bench Subway Entrance

The Stage Corner Epe stage platform Ramp String lights Lighting structure

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KAREN LEWIS


the strip traffic calming surfaces, plantings and curb redesigns give prominence .

99

CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


model at three different scales residential, context, infrastructure

1” = 10’

1” = 1000’

expanding context To demonstrate the breadth as well as intimacy of the scheme, we modeled the deployment of Corners, Notches and Strips at 1:10 to show design detail, 1:50 for neighborhood impact, and 1:1000 to demonstrate design for the entire length of the Grand Concourse. All three scales were composed into one model.

100

KAREN LEWIS

1” = 50’


101

CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


semi-finalist

Summer 2011

30 semi-finalists / 85 entries Competition Jury: Kate Ascher, Principal, Happold Consulting Adrian Benepe, Commissioner, NYC Department of Parks & Recreation Amanda Burden, FAICP, Chair, New York City Planning Commission Wellington Chen, Executive Director, Chinatown Partnership LDC Michael Colgrove, Director of Energy Program, NYSERDA NYC Office James Corner, Principal, James Corner Field Operations Helena Durst, Vice President, The Durst Organization Inc. David Gouverneur, Professor, Department of Landscape Architecture, UPenn Matthias Hollwich, Co-founder, Architizer and HWKN Bjarke Ingels, Founding Partner, BIG - Bjarke Ingels Group Roland Lewis, President and CEO, Metropolitan Waterfront Alliance Victoria Marshall, Director of Urban Design, Parsons New School for Design Roberta Weisbrod, Ph.D., Principal, Sustainable Ports

submission

Summer 2011

2011 One Prize Competition: Water as the Sixth Borough

Begin work on competition entry

Spring 2011

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KAREN LEWIS


clarifying systems

har b orport Overlaying Sustainable Water Infrastructure with Transportation

abstract

collaborators

Harborport links New Yorkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water management systems with transportation networks at several scales of infrastructure and connectivity. It overlays multiple transportation systems with different sustainable infrastructure, linking transportation with water remediation strategies at two scales.

Jason Kentner, Assistant Professor of Landscape Architecture, Ohio State University

First, the proposal seeks to mitigate combined sewer overflow (CSO) pollution with new subway and ferry connections. New ferry / subway transit stations will augment infrastructural investments, overlaying CSOs with transportation infrastructure.

with Sean Burkholder, Assistant Professor of Landscape Architecture, Pennsylvania State University

Matthew Banton, former architecture student, University of Kentucky

Second, the project uses river dredge materials toward the construction of a new airport to serve the metro area. This investment allows existing airports to meet new sustainable standards and models, as well as improve the quality of travel experience in and out of New York. In the future, the site will be opened for housing development as a sustainable boroughs designing this water location to be New Yorkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sixth borough.

Semi Finalist The One Prize, Designing the 6th Borough Summer 2011 Competition organized by Terreform and sponsored by several including Perkins and Will, New York University and the Buckminster Fuller Institute

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


transportation and water remediation overlaying subways + combined sewer overflows / airports + river dredge quality airports

CSOs & Expo Sites

LGA 2 subways, 1 bus

1 hr 18 min

23,983,082

1 subway, 2 trains

EWR

46,514,154

1 hr 22 min

passengers

1 subway, 1 train

1 hr 2 min

33,107,041 passengers

JFK

TIER 1 CSO OUTPUTS

shipping lanes & river dredge

50% 2%

CSOs

2% of NYCâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 494 CSOs produce half of the sewage output

OUTPUT

ANNUAL DREDGE COLLECTION

50%

Approximately 3 mcy of dredge material is collected each year, half of which requires remediation.

REQUIRES REMEDIATION

CANARISE LAGUARDIA ESPLANADE WILLIAMSBURG 34th STREET 15 mil. gal./y

384 mil. gal./y

TO

CANAR SIE

Population Area Distance from Transit

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KAREN LEWIS


Bowery Bay Wastewater Treatment

BLUE NETWORK TERMINAL

Boat Slips

BLUE NETWORK TERMINAL Boat Slips

BLUE NETWORK TERMINAL

CSO Wetland Boat Zones Slips N

BLUE NETWORK TERMINAL

CSO Wetland Zone

Public Parkland

Subway Extension Canarsie Park

S

Marina

I

New Public Parkland

Bus Loop

T

CSO Wetland Zones

L

Brooklyn Navy Yard

Public Parkland

BLUE NETWORK TERMINAL

Subway Extension

V

E

Connection to High Line

La Guardia Terminals

Airport Runoff Mitigation Zone

L

A

CSO Wetland Zone

D

Boat Slips

CSO Wetland Zone

New Runway

John Jay Park Adjacent Parkland

McGuire Fields

E

WILLIAMSBURG

ESPLANADE

90% Public Infrastructure 10% Stormwater Mitigation

30% Public Infrastructure 70% Stormwater Mitigation

40% Public Infrastructure 60% Stormwater Mitigation

R O

O

S

34th STREET

GOWANUS

COLLEGE

HARLEM

10% Public Infrastructure 90% Stormwater Mitigation

80% Public Infrastructure 20% Stormwater Mitigation

20% Public Infrastructure 80% Stormwater Mitigation

HOUSTON

DUMBO

50% Public Infrastructure 50% Stormwater Mitigation

30% Public Infrastructure 70% Stormwater Mitigation

Boat Slips

LA GUARDIA

CANARSIE

50% Public Infrastructure 50% Stormwater Mitigation

20% Public Infrastructure 80% Stormwater Mitigation

Jamaica Bay

LINDEN HILL

FLUSHING

10% Public Infrastructure 90% Stormwater Mitigation

60% Public Infrastructure 40% Stormwater Mitigation

7

8 9 10

6 11 4 3 5

125 bil. gal./y

231 bil. gal./y

1

254 bil. gal./y

2

OWLS HEAD 30% Public Infrastructure 70% Stormwater Mitigation

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


transportation and water remediation

ferry terminals and stormwater infrastructure

esplanade 40% Public Infrastructure 60% Stormwater Mitigation

water network John Jay Park

BLUE NETWORK TERMINAL

I

S

L

A

N

D

Boat Slips

S

KAREN LEWIS

O

106

E

V

E

L

T

CSO Wetland Zones

O

Improvements to New Yorkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water sewage system are overlayed with expanded surface transportation. Linking subways to the island edge with increased water taxi service, investment addresses the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s outdated CSO system. Stormwater mitigation is paired with sustainable transportation.


la guardia 50% Public Infrastructure 50% Stormwater Mitigation

Bowery Bay Wastewater Treatment

CSO Wetland Zones

New Runway

Boat Slips

BLUE NETWORK TERMINAL

Subway Extension

Bus Loop

Airport Runoff Mitigation Zone

La Te r mG u a r d i inal a s

Public Parkland

107

CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


108

KAREN LEWIS


phase 1

expo pavilions and ferry transit

109

CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


phase 2

river dredge and a new airport

PHASE 1 PHASE 2

Expo Site Park Pavilions Habitat Barge Building

North Airstrip Opens Barge Building Becomes Terminal Dredge Deposition Begins Habitat Creation Under Future Airstrips

PHASE 3

PHASE 4

South Airstrips Constructed Terminal Constructed Dredge Management Begins Southern Overlook Constructed

Southern Airstrips Accomodate Housing Dredge Converted to Habitat

FILTER CELL Sea bags for sediment and oysters

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KAREN LEWIS


Upper Bay

Red Hook Marina

6 14

Marsh Habitat

6 14

BLUE NETWORK AIR TERMINAL Oyster Flats Park

Barge Arrival Mud Flats

6 14

Gowanus Bay

6 14

Marsh Habitat Dredge Processing

6 14

Park

6 14

Sunset Park

Marsh Habitat

HARBOR LIGHT Tidal Powered Runway Approach Light / Aquaculture Buoy

Dredge Research

PORT STRIP PAVERS Pre-cast structural runway components

HARBOR BED Oyster Culture framework for shallows

111

CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


112

KAREN LEWIS


phase 3

river dredge and an active airport

113

CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


Honorable Mention: health corridor

Summer 2011

winning entry: Switch Space (10 Winners and 10 Honorable Mentions / 350+ entries) Primary Authors: Emma Cucurrean-Zappan, MArch ‘11 and Christine Yankel, MArch ‘11 with Karen Lewis Winners and Honorable Mentions presented and discussed by a competition advisors and jurors:

Carol Coletta, Director, ArtPlace Keller Easterling, Associate Professor, Yale University Christopher Hawthorne, Architecture Critic, Los Angeles Times Gary Hustwit, Director, Helvetica Michael Lejeune, Creative Director, L.A. Metro Thom Mayne, Founder & Design Director, Morphosis Petra Todorovich, Director, America 2050 Sarah Whiting, Dean, Rice School of Architecture at the following venues:

Better Transportation by Design, National Building Museum, Washington DC Laying Tracks for Economic Development, Museum of Contemporary Art, St. Louis Red State Rail, Baker Institute, Houston

submission

Spring 2011

Life at the Speed of Rail Competition, Van Alen Institute

Developed projects through conversations about Ohio’s next economy with the Greater Ohio Policy Center

Spring 2011

Urban land institute columbus, workshop leader

January 2011

Visualized discussion for Columbus 2050: Envisioning the Future

design Studio

Winter 2011

Mobility Across Ohio: High Speed Rail in the Midwest Advanced Graduate Architecture Studio

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KAREN LEWIS


clarifying systems

e n visio n i n g hi g h spee d rail new forms of transportation for the next economy

abstract

WINning entry: switch space

While 85 percent of Ohio’s landscape is census defined as “rural,” over 80 percent of its population reside within 10 miles of an urban core. The rural / urban connections extend to its economy as well. Ohio exports many agricultural products, but its economy is shifting to export wind energy and polymers, biotechnology, health care and education.

Completed with students from W11 Research Studio Emma Cucurrean-Zappan, MArch ‘11 and Christine Yankel, MArch ‘11 “Life at the Speed of Rail” Competition Van Alen Institute, New York

Switch Space questions the logic of linear corridors within the geography and development patterns of the Midwestern expanse. Although it is vast and flat, the Midwest is deceptively urban. The new infrastructure of Switch Space addresses these changing landscapes, bridging rural spaces with urban centers, connecting agricultural economies with health care and education.

honorable mention: health corridor “Life at the Speed of Rail” Competition Van Alen Institute, New York

Health Corridor aligns Ohio’s proposed high-speed rail corridor not with city centers but along prominent health institutions. Ohio’s vast agricultural landscape provides space for natural and transportation systems to coexist. By intertwining the rail system with the water system, a new region of health, wellness and education is developed.

115

CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


winning entry life at the speed of rail


case western medical

james canc riverside medical cleveland clinic

canton / akron

h e a lt h c o r r i d o r rivers, rail, and health riverside medical

moorehoUse medical

intertwining systems

osU medical campUs

Ohio’s vast agricultural landscape provides space for natural and transportation systems to coexist.

james cancer care

By intertwining the rail system with the water system, a new region of health, wellness and gy

tan

en

Ol

education is developed.

ver

Ri

r

ive

oR

iot

Sc

before Rivers, rail, and

rail / river / hospital

metro regions

Aligning transit systems opens space between the hospital and the river, creating a new health district focused on wellness and transportation

hospitals and universities Earlier high speed rail schemes site Columbus’s rail hub within its fledgling downtown. By moving the center of rail activity to Ohio’s burgeoning service economy, the focus shifts to hospitals and education. Ohio State University’s main campus and medical centers are linked to health and education centers in Cleveland and Cincinnati.

Columbus’s developing service economy, mapped with parks, rivers, and transportation networks

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KAREN LEWIS


honorable mention life at the speed of rail osU hospitals

cer centers

children’s hospital

University / hospital rail hUb river trail

main hospital link

james comprehensive breast health

weight wellness

genetics research center

ear nose and throat

cancer sUrvivors memorial wetlands treatment rail split

oUtdoor adventUre center

wellness and transportation The environment where one receives medical care is not limited to the health spa

hospital room—transportation spaces also contribute to a patient’s health. The health corridor links care with transportation, providing space for diagnosis, treatment, recovery and health management both inside and outside the hospital walls.

after

119

CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


Dymax Redux exhibition

October 2013

Top 11 entries exhibited at the Cooper Union, New York

finalist (11 finalists / 300+ entries)

Summer 2013

The Geography of Violence selected as a finalist for the Dymax Redux Competition, Buckminster Fuller Institute Competition Jury: Nicholas Felton, Graphic and Information Designer, Felton, Facebook Mary Mattingly, Artist Shoji Sadao, Architect and Planner

Submission to the Dymax Redux Competition

Summer 2013

The â&#x20AC;&#x153;Dymaxion Map,â&#x20AC;? / Fuller Projection Map is the only flat map of the entire surface of the Earth which reveals our planet as one island in one ocean, without any visually obvious distortion of the relative shapes and sizes of the land areas, and without splitting any continents.

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mapping information

g eo g raph y o f viole n ce guns, stress and mental health

abstract

Finalist

The Geography of Violence mapping pursues the research question of how maps are more than tracings of existing conditions but instead hold multiple pieces of information. How do maps act more like diagrams, “double-sided” tools that project future conditions.

Dymaxion Redux Competition Redesigning the Buckminster Fuller Dymaxion Map 11 finalists / 300+ entries The Buckminster Fuller Institute

Since the winter of 2012, US news has engaged a public debate about gun violence. Multiple factors are always discussed – mental health, social isolation, location, United States weapon culture and gun control laws. This project overlays these topics by mapping mass shooting events with urban centers, mental health and world gun violence.

exhibition Dymaxion Redux Exhibition The Cooper Union, New York, NY

The project uses multiple scales of representation to show detail and breadth. It rescales the the Buckminster Fuller Dymaxion map to highlight the US’s relation to the world. Information graphics further explain the research.

October 2013 – November 2013

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


global gun violence

map details

% of homicides by firearm

Specific Events overlayed with stress and firearm violence

1 to 19

60% 45%

20 to 39

22% The United States

40 to 59

South Africa

Colombia

Spain

France Great Britan Japan

9%

Egypt

6%

Philippines

7% India

60 to 79 80 to 100

49% 70% 81%

us mental distress

8.0â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 9.9

10.0â&#x20AC;&#x201C;11.9

us firearm suicides

12.0 +

Metro Regions

% with frequent mental distress

> 4.0

4.1-5

5.1-9

Rates of gun-related suicides per 100,000 (2006-2007)

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KAREN LEWIS

<9.1


the geography of violence

g lob a l h om i ci d e S by g U n

g u n S , S t r e S S a n d m e n ta l h e a lt h

% of homicides by firearm

1 to 19

60% 45%

20 to 39

France Great Britan Japan

22% The United States

40 to 59

Spain

South Africa

Colombia

9%

Egypt

6%

Philippines

7% India

60 to 79

49% 70%

80 to 100

81%

U S m a SS S h ooti n g S: 1982–2013 according to the FBI, for individuals, mass murder is defined as the person murdering four or more persons during a particular event with no “cooling-off” period between the murders. mass Shooting event prior signs of possible mental illness year

location

2013

santa monica, CA

2012

Newtown, CT

fatalities

5 27 6

Minneapolis, MN Oak Creek, WI

7 12

Aurora, CO Seattle, WA

5 7

oakland, CA 5

Norcross, gA

8

seal beach, CA

2011

5

Carson City, Nv

6

tuscon, AZ Manchester, CT

2010

9 8

Appomattox, vA Seattle, WA

2009

4 13

binghampton, Ny 9

Carthage, NC Fort Hood, TX

13 10

samson, Al Henderson, KY

2008

6 6

kirkwood, mo

Stress: >9

5

De kalb, il

CRANDoN, wi 6

Omaha, NE

2007

8 32

Blacksburg, VA 6

salt lake, ut

2006

Crandon, wi

6

lancaster, PA

6

miNNeAPolis, mN 7 Suicide: 6

10

Columbus, OH

2003

meridian, ms

2001

melrose Park, il

Suicide: 6

Fort worth, tx

HeNDeRsoN, ky 6

Suicide: 6

Stress: 9

Stress: 12

NewtowN, Ct 27

7 Stress: 9

5 8

Suicide: 3

gARDeN City, Ny 6

8 9

Atlanta, gA

springfield, oR

seAttle, wA 7

5

Littleton, CO 1998

Suicide: 3

NewiNgtoN, Ct 5

Stress: >9

louisville, ky 9

7

tampa, Fl

1999

Stress: 11

tAComA, wA 4

5

wakefield, mA

2000

Suicide: 9.1

Stress: 9

7

ASSAuLT BAN EXpIrES 2004

Stress: 9

oAk CReek, wi 7

8

Brookfield, WI

Stress: 9

bRookFielD, wi 7

8

goleta, CA Red lake, mN

Stress: 9

7

seattle, wA

2005

Suicide: 6

12 8

4 5

Jonesboro, AR

5

Newington, CT

Stress: 12

Aiken, sC 1996

8

4

Columbus, oH 5 6

Fort lauderdale, Fl

6

Corpus Christi, tx

1995

Suicide: 9

5

orange, CA

1997

ASSAuLT WEApONS BAN 1994

5

Fairchild Airforce, wA Aurora, CO

1993

4

Garden City, NY

6 6

Fayetteville, NC

9

san Fransisco, CA 5

watkins glen, Ny

1992

olivehurst, CA

8

Suicide: 6

Suicide: 6

5

Royal oak, mi

1991

4

6

iowa City, iA

24

Killeen, TX Jacksonville, Fl

1990

8

Louisville, KY stockton, CA

7

1988

sunnyvale, CA

7

1987

Palm bay, Fl

1986

edmond, ok

1984

san ysidro, CA Dallas, TX miami, Fl

Stress: 9

AuRoRA, Co 4 & 12

blACksbuRg, vA 32 Suicide: 9

littletoN, Co 12

Stress: 9 Stress: 12

FoRt woRtH, tx 8

10

1989

1982

Stress: 9

DAllAs, tx 6

9

Stress: 9

omAHA, Ne 9 FoRt HooD, tx 13

6

killeeN, tx 24

8

Suicide: 9

15

Stress: 9

21 6 8

U S m e n ta l d i Str e SS the percentage of the population with frequent mental distress, defined as 14 or more days of emotional discomfort, including ‘stress, depression and problems with emotion,’ during the previous month. three days of mental distress is considered average. >6.0 – 7.9 or insufficient sample size

8.0– 9.9 10.0–11.9 12.0 or greater

U S f i r e a r m SU i ci d e S rates of gun-related suicides per 100,000 (2006-2007)

4.1–6 5.1–9 9.1 or greater

Data sources: The Atlantic, Center for Disease Control, esRi, The Guardian, Mother Jones

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publication

Fall 2014

(Accepted) Bracket: Takes Action (anticipated Fall 2014) Publication Jury: Pier Vittorio Aureli, Dogma, AA School of Architecture in London Vishaan Chakrabarti, Principal at SHoP Architects Adam Greenfield, urbanist Belinda Tato, ecosistema urbano, Harvard GSD Yoshiharu Tsukamoto, co-founder of Atelier Bow-Wow.

submission

Spring 2014

EDRA Places Research Award

Discussion with memorial committee, Newtown, CT

Winter 2014

submission

Fall 2013

Crisis as Calling Competition (competition cancelled)

geography of violence

Summer 2013

Dymax Redux Competition Finalist

Begin work on memorial proposal

Spring 2013

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KAREN LEWIS


LL

Topography

mapping information

Open Land Temporary Memorials Memorial Events

Memorial Landscape

Sandy Hook Center

Public Space

Sandy Hook Elementary School

Fairfield Hills

Ram’s Pasture

Main Street

Connection to State Park

Private Space

resilie n ce n et wor k

abstract Resilience Network proposes a public memorial embedded within invisible spaces. The project recognizes the massacre at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut by moving the commemoration to less visible, butWOODEN still accessible, spaces. RAM’S PASTURE QUEEN STREET ANGELSpublic SANDY HOOK CENTER In the wake of the tragedy, temporary memorial filled informal sites throughout the town. Lacking a public square, memorials formed at several intersections between roadways, pastures, rivers and cemeteries. As the entire community was impacted by the tragedy, the visual coding of public space with signs, graphics, flowers and other tributes proved traumatic. Resilience Network maps how public spaces continue to gather community throughout Newtown through signage, programming, special events or commemoration. It proposes a memorial network that connects underused public parks with more central community areas, expanding the environment of wellness and connectivity essential for Newtown’s continued well-being.

intertwining public and private spacesSANDY to cultivate HOOK SCHOOL a memorial landscape

publication Anticipated Fall 2014 Bracket: Takes Action Journal of Architecture, Environment, Digital Culture www.brkt.org

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP

HIGH SC


sign space public space defined by memorial tributes

k in d n e s s pr o g r a m m in g res i l i ence, i nclus i on and care As the community continues to restore, there is a notable increase in the number of programs and events hosted to foster community connections at many ages: children’s arts classes, events especially for teenagers, nondenominational healing events.

com m uni t y event s , newt own patch cal endar before 12/14/12

aft er 12/14/12

j u n e 1 5 –2 1 , 2 0 1 2

j u n e 1 5 –2 1 , 2 0 1 3

Estate Moving Sale

Free trip to the Yankees

Powder Puff Football Game

Rooster Run 5K

Music at Proud Mary’s

Cheerleading Camp

Newbury Place Fundraiser

Ben’s Lighthouses Event

Teen Improv Class

Juggling in Honor of Newtown

Rooster Run 5K

SHOp Fundraiser

Tag Sale

Soccer revolution Fundraiser

Little Gym Open House

Dodgeball at the Youth Academy

Sandy Hook Business Rotary

Music and Movement Classes

Juggling Event

Summer Music Camp

Cool Jazz Concert

Newtown Chamber Gathering

Father’s Day Zoo Event

Summer Solstice Meditation

Farmer’s Market

Tag Sale

Kayaking Lecture

Free Community Yoga Self Defense Class Open Garden Tours Therapy Dogs Ever Wonder Children’s Museum In Memorium Choral Concert

D ec em b er 8 –1 5 , 2 0 1 2

D ec em b er 8 –1 5 , 2 0 1 3

Winter Arts Festival

Ballet Performance

Boot Camp Program

Holiday Craft Fair

Cat Adoptions

Young Stitchers Craft Show

Newtown Holiday Craft Fair

Ever Wonder Children’s Museum

Pet Photos

Baseball Tryouts

Chanukah Celebration

Hawleyville Tree Lighting

Job Search Event

Coffee and Conversation

Rotary Club Luncheon

Bereavement Services

Breakfast with Santa

Newtorking Lunch

Networking Lunch

Painting for Children

Become a Driving Instructor

Hypnosis Workshop

Newtown High School Concert

Ben’s Bells Holiday Events

reopening of Heaven Ice Cream for

Luminaires Give Away

prayer and Conversation

The Giving Tree

Free Animal Care for those impacted

Biking Event

Free Horseback riding at Zoar Stables

Women’s relaxation Event

Open Conseling Sessions at reed

Girls Night Out with Kindness

Intermediate School

NHS Holiday Concert Sticks and Stones Music painting Event Therapy Dogs Taize Concert

Restoration Network Open Counseling Services

places research award

Free Candelight Yoga

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KAREN LEWIS


C U LT I V AT I N G RESILIENCE INTERTWINING P U B L I C A N D P R I VAT E S PA C E S T O C U LT I V AT E A MEMORIAL LANDSCAPE

Water, Rivers, Streams Roads Topography Open Land Temporary Memorials Memorial Events

Memorial Landscape

Sandy Hook Center

Public Space

Sandy Hook Elementary School

Fairfield Hills

Ram’s Pasture

Main Street

Connection to State Park

Private Space

TOWN HALL

RAM’S PASTURE

QUEEN STREET

WOODEN ANGELS

SANDY HOOK CENTER

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SANDY HOOK SCHOOL

CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP

HIGH SCHOOL


Memorial Meadow

Treadwell Park

Family Groves

Treadwell entrance to Memorial Forest

Entry Meadow

private network The envisioned memorial connects underused public spaces while occupying an invisible seam between rivers, parks and roadways. The memorial is public while remaining private.

128

KAREN LEWIS

Creek Threshold


Memorial to Victims of Gun Violence Sandy Hook Firehouse

Former site of Sandy Hook Elementary School

Pootatuck River Sandy Hook Center

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP

Rocky Glen State Park


entry meadow preparation meadow

Up from Treadwell Park

Memorial Meadow

Principal Hochsprungâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Grove

reflection meadow

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KAREN LEWIS


Family Groves

creek

memorial meadows family groves Using a malleable pallet of landscape, trees, topography the memorial design is fluvial; spaces change seasonally while quiet edges emerge and disappear through benches, mounds and meadows. The memorial acknowledges those who died on 12/14 with a grove of trees; one tree for those who died as well as trees to represent their family. The Family Groves surround the Memorial Meadow, edged in green twig dogwood. During December, the snowy fields surrounded by birch trees, green twig dogwood and pines render the site in green and white, Sandy Hook Elementary Schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s colors.

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


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KAREN LEWIS


Dr. Hugh McGowan

Kelly Murphy

Dr. Thomas McGowan Mary Pat McGowan

Michael Murphy

Travis Rekos

Alice McGowan

Krista Rekos Alice McGowan

Paige Murphy

Colleen Murphy

Jessica Rekos, 6

Anne Marie Murphy, 52

Catherine McGowan Hugh McGowan

Rich Rekos

Shane Rekos

Francine Wheeler

Thomas Murphy

David Wheeler

Benjamin Wheeler, 6

Peter McGowan

Nate Wheeler

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


Great places book finalist

Spring 2013

2013 Environmental Design Research Association, Great Places Book Award

Publication is released

Fall 2012

workshops and presentations

Fall 2012

September: Diagramming Urban Systems: Cleveland Urban Design Center November: Urban Diagrams: Kent State University

co-editing and designing

Summerâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;Fall 2012

Diagrammatically: Urban Infill Volume 5

paper and presentation

Winter 2012

Representing Information: Envisioning the City through Data ACSA 100: Digital Aptitudes

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KAREN LEWIS


mapping information

abstract

collaborators

This book is an edited collection of essays and projects that address how urban diagrams are used to describe, explore and design cities. It explores how diagrams are used at the scale of regions, cities and landscapes. The book explores the ways maps and diagrams are related and how envisioning the city through various systems gives platforms for design.

Co-edited and designed with Terry Schwartz, Director of the Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative, Kent State University

The project was a collaboration with Terry Schwartz, director of the Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative. Terry provided deep insight into the editing and oversaw the entire project through the CUDC; my contributions helped frame books themes and book design. Together we selected projects for inclusion and both contributed to laying out the bookâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pages.

Finalist 2013 Environmental Design Research Association, Great Places Book Award

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


136

KAREN LEWIS


diagramming information essay included in Diagrammatically: Urban Infill, Volume 5

Information design has played an increasing role in the

audience and the context. To this end, I have identified five

organization, display and communication of architecture,

types of diagrams used to describe architecture, landscape

landscape architecture and urban design. Instead of dia-

and urban design:

gramming program to organize building form, for example, contemporary diagramming techniques have expanded to

Diagram Type 1: “These are the Shapes”

visualize data from an increasingly complex, dynamic and

The diagrams that describe the form of architecture and its

large sets of information. Urban diagrams synthsize informa-

resulting genesis, either abstractly or directly, use a series of

tion gleaned from economic, logistical, site and zoning data,

diagram protocols that emphasize formal operations. These

ecological models, transportation predication, and social

diagrams explain the architecture’s figural and geometric

and cultural networks. This information can be mapped and

qualities and can be described as a process of uncovery of the

collected digitally through geographic information systems,

architects’ formal imagination. This way of thinking about

can be observed and documented intuitively, and most often

architectural form has genesis in the once ubiquitous bubble

straddle the two. The visualization of complex systems

plans that organized programmatic relationships. The bub-

impact every aspect of design: no longer relegated to only

ble diagram reduces architecture functionality to an ‘assem-

organizing building form, diagrams have expanded to engage

blage of [spatial] elements,’ (1) using circles, lines, and other

the systems of information that impact the design of build-

geometric groupings to coax architecture from representa-

ings, landscapes and cities to visualize dynamic systems and

tion of spatial sequences to architectural plans for walls, pas-

temporal networks, and to work laterally across disciplines

sages, and rooms. Understood in this way, diagrams unpack

of architecture, graphic design, landscape architecture and

architecture as foundational geometric choices made by the

urbanism.

architect. These diagrams explain the architects’ work, but they don’t explain how the architect worked.

Finding ways to visualize these dynamic systems have increased the significance and complexity of diagramming

Diagram Type 2:“How I Got to the Shapes”

techniques, and in doing so have called for new methods

Peter Eisenman’s house projects are a rigorous inquiry into

of diagram representation to be considered. One can-

iterative steps that produced final architectural form. A cube

not describe the temporal and fluvial nature of the urban

was established, a grid imposed, and a systematic uncovering

environment using the language of traditional architecture

of the previous formal steps taken to establish the current

diagrams. These methods are too static, too clumsy and,

building form, and to anticipate its future trajectory. Eisen-

most problematically, too formal to describe the city. Urban

man points to the “Mystic Writing Pad” as a way to navigate

design decisions are produced through multiple and variable

between past, present and future of a design’s potential. “The

sets of information while architectural form is the result of

diagram is not only an explanation, as something that comes

the singular hand of designer.

after, but it also acts as an intermediary in the process of generation of real space and time.” (2) Diagramming the pro-

To produce a simple diagram then is no simple matter.

cess of generating architecture, versus uncovering its latent

Diagrams take many forms depending on the author, the

formal maneuver, positions the diagram as a tool for formal

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


decision making. And while much of Eisenman’s writing sug-

urbanists to contextualize their work (6), prioritizes similar

gests strategies for organizing flows, forces and time (3), the

diagramming techniques used by Rudolph. Dashed lines,

result still prioritizes a fixed architectural form. Diagram-

arrows and density describe movement through the city

ming movement as a way to develop a formal language for

with a level of specific impression missing from, for example,

dynamic architecture is not the same as diagramming flows

Eisenman’s work. While Eisenman describes flows and forces

to coordinate movement.

captured through building form, Rudolph and Kahn diagram the flows explicitly.

Diagram Type 3: “How the Shapes Relate” In the early 1990s, parametric modeling and fabrication

Diagram Type 5: The Information Diagram

techniques diagrammed architecture as a series of compo-

If the previous four examples described the diagram as a tool

nents and systems that intricately fit together. The exploded

for unpacking design, either as a way to organize urban flows

axon diagram clearly labeled how each component of the

or figural decision making, the final diagram type is an agent

design project related to the next, visualizing architecture’s

for large-scale design decisions. Taking its cues from graphic

physical and digital layers. These diagrams emphasize as-

design and data visualization, information diagrams reorga-

sembly over decision making and showed how architectural

nize the structure of how the architect works, relinquishing

form is constructed.

the form of architecture, cities and landscapes to the result of an organization of process.

Diagram Type 4: The Phenomenological Diagrams of phenomenological forces such as air, light,

The Office of Metropolitan Architecture best exemplifies this

wind and view, demand a different set of diagramming tools.

practice. OMA makes charts and graphs to organize non-ar-

The figural drawings of how an architect arrived at specific

chitectural information. For their practice, the creative

building shapes isn’t relevant to the diagram that explains

moment comes in choosing what to diagram, what to chart.

how light travels through a section. In the Phenomenologi-

In this, data is “romanticized,” the border is blurred between

cal diagram, other types of representational techniques are

analysis of the data and conceptualization of the project (7)

embraced to explain less predictable forces.

its collection is a way of building intelligence into a project, using diagrams as a way to build up ‘not just a knowledge

Paul Rudolph’s diagrams of the Barcelona Pavilion deviate

about architecture, but about the world, too.’ (8) Represent-

from the self-assured, consistent diagrams of the previous

ing information became a tool to look creativity at building

three form-based examples. In these drawings, Rudolph

form, but also at the “economics of a project, too. The Conde

describes the relationships and ‘areas of tension’ between

Nast diagram and how there is a potential for new magazines

building edges, material changes, reflective surfaces, views

to be born continuously out of these intersections.” (9)

and circulation. (4) These series of diagrams explore overlapping and similar themes (several different diagrams of

Spatializing collected and measured data, not just formally

“materials” are tested through varying graphic methods). In

representing it through the metaphor of a city, can open

one diagram, heavy shading is used to explore a sensation of

up new geographies and territories of previously unseen

material atmosphere. In another diagram about view, Ru-

networked systems. Visualizing and spatializing information

dolph uses a collection of dashed lines of several colors and

‘is the conceptual glue linking the tangible world of buildings,

density, indicating an ever-changing quality of observation

cities and landscapes with the intangible world of social net-

based on time of day, year, or atmosphere. These diagrams

works and electronic communications. To design is to invent

map the experience of architecture and its ability to organize

new strategies for visualizing information that make new

fluvial information. These are not drawings about building

interpretations possible.’ (10) As we gain information about

shapes but about the experiences buildings facilitate.

the world, practiced methods of representing knowledge are

These diagramming techniques recall Louis Kahn’s seminal

challenged, and we must invent representational techniques

“Toward a Plan for Midtown Philadelphia” which describes

that reflect the fluvial, multivariate ways of recognizing

the urban plan for the city based not on building form, but

these changes. Infusing the landscape with data represents

through a choreography of its flows. “It is intended by the

a significant conceptual shift from representing the envi-

drawings which follow to redesign the use of streets and sep-

ronment pictorially. As Edward Tufte described this similar

arate one type of movement from another so that cars, buses,

transformation of map making, moving from the only de-

trolleys, trucks and pedestrians will move and stop more

scriptive map to one that also includes measured data, made

freely.” (5) These diagrams, frequently used by landscape

a significant leap forward in mapping thinking. “To depict re-

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KAREN LEWIS


lations between any measured quantities, however, requires replacing the map’s natural spatial scales with abstract scales of measurement not based on geographic analogy… To go from maps of existing scenery to graphs of newly measured and collected data was an enormous conceptual step.” (11)

(5) Kahn, Louis. “Toward a Plan for Midtown Philadelphia” in Perspecta, vol 2 (1953): p.11 (6) During the Knowlton School of Architecture’s 2010-2011 lecture series, the “Plan for Philadelphia” was often shown by the lecturing landscape architects (7) Deen, Wouter and Udo Garritzmann. “Diagramming the

Visually describing this networked, infrastructural environment is problematic, as it requires reflexive, multi-scaled methods of representation. Data moves. It shifts, changes, and is fluvial. While all data is just that – data – it is through the culling and designing of information that allows the designers’ voice to penetrate through the collection process. In this sense, the interest of the architect isn’t relegated to just the data enriched site, city or specific building, but to the work of the industry it contains. As Keller Easterling has noted, “This architecture is not about the house but rather about housekeeping. It is not be about triangles and tauruses or motion trajectories, but about timing and patterns of interactivity, about triplets and cycles, subtractions and parallelism, switches and differentials. Architecture, as it is used here, might describe the parameters or protocols for formatting space.” (12)

Contemporary: OMA’s little helper in the quest for the new.” OASE no. 48 (1998): 83-92 (8) ibid. (9) ibid. (10) Janet Abrams and Peter Hall, Else / Where Mappings: New Cartographies of Networks and Territories, University of Minnesota Design Institute (Minneapolis), 2006, pp 12-17. (11) Edward Tufte, Envisioning Information, Graphics PR (Cheshire, Connecticut), 1990. (12) Keller Easterling, Organization Space, MIT Press (Cambridge), 1999, p2 (13) Bart Lootsma, ‘Reality Bytes,” Daidolos (Berlin) 69/70, 1989/99, pp 8-21.

Data collection is mobilized into architectural practice by representation techniques that visualize previously unseen conditions. Architecture critic Barts Lootsma recognizes this as an architectural practice, noting that data “when visualized, [these forces] together form a new and more complex version of what the site plan used to be.” (13) Representing abstract environmental conditions allow relationships and adjacencies between components to be understood and therefore designed. Data visualization becomes a way to position architecture, to recommend or discourage design, and to promote spatial agency. While recent methods of collecting information have become more sophisticated, more nuanced, and more attuned to the environment, the methods of data translation are where design creativity and architectural agency lie. It is through the translation of data collection into visual representation that give architects ways of occupying information, and using this occupation to develop design strategies. NOTES (1) Emmons, Paul. “Embodying networks: bubble diagram and the image of the modern organism.” The Journal of Architecture v. 11 n. 4 (2006): p. 446. (2) Eisenman, Peter. “Diagram: An Original Scene of Writing” in Diagram Diaries Peter Eisenman (New York: Rizzoli, 1999): p. 28 (3) ibid. (4) de Alba, Ruberto. Paul Rudolph: The Late Work (Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press, 2003)

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publication July 2010

Design and Culture: Signs and the City, Volume 2, Number 2. (London: Berg Pubishers, 2010)

paper and presentation

Spring 2007

Logocities Conference, Concordia University

Field studies of Lexington, KY signage systems

Fall 2007

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KAREN LEWIS


mapping information

abstract

Y E L LO W TO WN

Yellowtown explores the geographic impacts of color and signage. The project begins with a reading of the city as site that collects and presents information. This reading was first tested with a series of field studies and documentations to produce photo collages. The collages made a visual framework to then develop a series of maps to test further the collage’s hypothesis.

urban SIGNAGE, CLASS AND RACE

PUBLICATION

After presenting the work at the Logocities Symposium at Concordia University in Montreal, deeper research into the history of color and signage was completed. This culminated in a published paper the “Signs and the City” edition of the journal Design and Culture. Yellowtown forms a research methodology between observation, drawing, mapping and secondary sources.

Dr. Matthew Soar, ed., Design and Culture: Signs and the City, Volume 2, Number 2. (London: Berg Pubishers, 2010): 183-198.

presentation Logocities Symposium, Concordia University Montreal, Canada Spring 2007

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CREATIVE SCHOLARSHIP


yellowtown published in Dr. Matthew Soar, ed., Design and Culture (London: Berg Pubishers, 2010): 183-198.

The border between city and country, downtown and neighborhood, forgotten and gentrified manifests itself in a variety of planned and spontaneous edges. Sometimes these borders reinforce clear distinctions: The border between the United States and Mexico is an example of a physical device that demarcates and controls geographic, economic, social, and political exchange. Other times borders are ambiguous: The physical conditions at one end of a city block can be drastically different than those at the opposing end, and while there are usually no fixed walls to mark changes in a city landscape, the transitions are often apparent nonetheless. Inevitably, these ambiguous urban boundaries do contain plenty of visual cues if one is attuned to the cultural landscape that forms these porous urban edges. Edges produced by vernacular artifacts are often overlooked, as their components are casual and seemingly unplanned. The cultural landscape, however, is worth our attention, as it forms “…our unwitting autobiography, reflecting our tastes, our aspiration, and even our fears, in visible, tangible form” (1). Signage is a physical diagram of these expectations, as it articulates class divisions within a city in both material and structural forms. Signs also

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KAREN LEWIS

1. Pierce Lewis, “Axioms for Reading the Landscape: Some Guides to the American Scene,” in The Interpretation of Ordinary Landscapes, ed. Donald W. Meinig (USA: Oxford University Press, 1979), 12. This quote is also used in the Richard Schein article quoted in this paper.


visualize the expectations and aspirations of the surrounding landscape by coding the city with decisive typographical, color, and material choices that reflect these values. Commercial signage shape a cultural landscape by visualizing urban zoning laws, physical infrastructure, local demographics, and long-held societal beliefs. How signage is designed, and where it is located, indicates expectations about which messages belong in which parts of a city—a reflection of long-held social and cultural mores and historic divisions of segregation and separation. While the physical and legislative walls of segregation and separation have been dissolved for over thirty years, the urban edges of exclusion and inclusion persist in the collective conscious. Signage reifies the presence of these boundaries. This study focuses on how yellow-colored signage is deployed in Lexington, Kentucky for two reasons. First, Lexington’s history of segregation has influenced the organization of its urban landscape. Second, New Circle Road, the site for this signage study, encircles the entire city, passing through several commercial districts and socio-economic conditions.

Urban Edges 2. John R. Stilgoe, Borderland (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988), 1. According to Stilgoe, “suburb” is an old English word that denotes the inhabited land outside of the walled town. “Where dwell ye, if it to tell be?” asks one of Chaucer’s pilgrims in The Canterbury Tales. “’In the suburbes of a toun.’” 3. Joel Garreau, Edge City: Life on the New Frontier (New York: Anchor Books, 1991), 4 – 7. According to Garreau, Edge Cities are defined by five general characteristics: five million square feet or more of leasable office space; 600,000 square feet or more of leasable retail space; more jobs than bedrooms; perceived by the population as one place; and nothing like “city” as recently as thirty years ago. 4. Ibid., 6. 5. Kenneth Jackson, Crabgrass Frontier (New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985), 20.

6. Richard H. Schein, “Normative Dimensions of Landscape,” in Everyday America: Cultural Landscape Studies after J.B. Jackson, eds. Chris Wilson and Paul Groth (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003): 214. 7. Patrick Hobgood, “Constructing Community: an Exhibition of the Voices of Goodloetown,” in Kaleidoscope: University of Kentucky Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship, vol. 4 (2006): 39-44.

The borderlands between varying urban conditions is an anxious territory that has, over time, become increasingly difficult to identify. The edge that demarcated the medieval walled city from its surrounding suburbs was clear and material: Those living inside the protected ramparts enjoyed elevation, protection, and municipal services while those outside the walled city envied their uphill neighbors (2). However, municipal boundaries barely exist in the amorphous tissue of modern “Edge Cities,” as the physical characteristics of these enclaves leak seamlessly into the next agglomeration; they are often without mayor, city council, or clear boundary on a map (3). “The reason there are no ‘Welcome to’ signs at Edge City is that it is a judgment call where it begins and ends” (4). How we read and understand the seams of urban fabric is a result of both hard infrastructure and urban legislation, two factors that result in material and non-physical urban borders. Nineteenth century American cities developed a multiplicity of physical edges as a result of advancements in transportation technologies. Increased lines of railway, cable car, trolley, omnibus, and road infrastructure “turned cities inside out, inaugurating a new pattern of suburban affluence and center despair”, (5) and created a series of arteries that physically bisected them. While roadways and rail tracks connected peripheries to centers, the physical presence of these new infrastructures also separated neighborhoods and land, creating new parcels to be rezoned, designed, or simply ignored. In Lexington, Kentucky, the city center rail corridor joins and separates several functional areas of the city, forming a physical, legislative, and cultural edge between the retail area along Main Street, an industrial zone, and an African American residential district that has grown from a neighborhood created to house newly freed blacks at the end of the Civil War. “By the 1890’s… To cross from the African American residential district into the burgeoning middle-class white suburb required a pedestrian to cross no fewer than a dozen railroad tracks and sidings and to negotiate any number of quasi-industrial hazards” (6). This African American district, known as Goodloetown, developed in conjunction with Jim Crow legislation that separated public facilities for black and white Americans. Sanborn maps from 1896 to1934 represent the change in Goodloetown’s urban development: “[By 1934] domestic dwellings have increased, filling in any gaps from 1896. Further, other buildings appeared: religious structures, new businesses, industrial complexes, a funeral home, a school, and a public park.” (7) Goodloetown continued to develop as a city within a city throughout segregation until the 1960s, when cultural, social, and civic services were integrated. Today, Goodloetown’s fabric is mostly single-family, shotgun-style row houses in which primarily lower-income African-American residents live.

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Figure 1: Yellow-colored signage located on New Circle Road. The types of businesses that the yellow-colored signs are advertising, and the location of the signs in North Lexington, form an urban landscape dominated by messages of expediency and urgency. (photos and enhancements by the author)

The infrastructural and landscape boundaries that isolate Goodloetown from Lexington have been significantly reduced, reflecting the typical patterns of urban industrial drain in the post-Fordist city landscape. The railroad tracks and industrial uses separating the African-American community from the industrial zone are significantly less prominent than they were during segregation. Currently, only one rail spur operates between the community and industrial corridor, servicing the sole remaining factory three times a week (8). Likewise, land once used for heavy industry now accommodates light industrial and commercial businesses, such as wholesale stone yards, antique furniture dealers, commercial-grade design centers, and distribution facilities. While this wholesale district does not contain any housing or mixed-use developments, its tone and purpose has changed from heavy industrial with robust train traffic to a lighter industrial shopping district. Several roads that bind the edges of and cut through Goodloetown have been redesigned, spatially integrating the neighborhood and increasing vehicular circulation—and observation—through the center of Goodloetown. Topographically, the landscape ridge at the western edge of the community was flattened when a four-lane extension regraded the road (9), making the landscape edge less prominent. A new shopping development on the eastern edge of Lexington has encouraged drivers to take a short cut through Goodletown, increasing traffic and promoting a flurry of “urban design” ideas to redesign the thoroughfare (10). Recently, though, new attention has been paid to this once hidden, isolated neighborhood.

Yellowtown While the physical and legislative edges isolating Goodloetown no longer exist, the enclave is culturally reinforced through several spatial ordering systems (11), including the design and placement of signage. The signage that marks the entrances of this once segregated community is not sponsored by the Lexington Historic Association, Bluegrass Trust, or any other community group responsible for designating the city with historic significance, but is

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8. In 2006, I conducted a studio studying the Jif Peanut Butter Factory, the only operating industrial/manufacturing business located on Winchester Road, which backs up against the Goodloetown neighborhood. Conversations with Jif executives revealed that one train carrying unshelled peanuts arrives at the factory three times a week.

9. “Rose Street Extension to Bring Traffic to Quiet Neighborhood,” Lexington Herald Leader, April 18, 1995. 10. “Third Street’s Rebirth, Area Could Use City’s Design, Planning Input” Lexington Herald Leader, September 25, 2007.

11. Schein, “Normative Dimensions of Landscape,” 199–218. Schein’s article describes several methods of hemming in and organizing the Lexington landscape— notably, the inclusion of Confederate statues at the Cheapside Park, an area named for the economics of its slave auctions, and the design and development of Thoroughbred Park, which masks the visual presence of Goodloetown.


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Part Three: 1968 Figure 2: The map on the left shows the building sequence of New Circle Road, correlating yellow-colored signs to the road age and relationship to Goodloetown (area dashed in red). The photographs demonstrate the difference in signage and landscape treatments on the older and newer road. (Information about the history of New Circle Road from http://www.ktc.uky.edu, all maps and photographs by author)

characterized by the clustering of bright yellow-colored commercial signage. Pawn shops; pay-day-advance brokers; national check cashers; gun and ammunition suppliers; discount cigarettes, beer, and liquor; 24-hour locksmiths; and automotive repair shops and other businesses frequently use a bright, shiny, plastic, primary-yellow colored signage (figure 1). As city zoning codes only allow these kinds of “Downtown Businesses” to locate in certain areas of the city, North Lexington, an area dominated by lower-income African Americans, is awash in bright yellow. The result is a landscape that I term “Yellowtown.” While Yellowtown has been observed in several mid-American cities, including Chicago, Illinois, Columbus, Ohio, and Austin, Texas, Lexington, Kentucky is the case study for this observational research because of its history of segregation and because of the clarity of New Circle Road, which bisects a range of urban districts. 12. John Brinckerhoff Jackson, A Sense of Place, a Sense of Time (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994): 190-191.

Roads, rail lines, and transportation corridors form unusual edges in landscapes because we can physically inhabit these borders. As the landscape historian J.B. Jackson has noted: …roads... can no longer be identified solely with movement from one place to another. Increasingly they are the scene of work and leisure and social intercourse and excitement. Indeed, they have often become for many the last resort for privacy and solitude and contact with nature. Roads no longer merely lead to places; they are places (12). Route 4, commonly known as New Circle Road, which was constructed from the 1950s through 1970s, encircles upper- and lower-income areas. The northern half of the road, which is characterized by an area of parking directly off of New Circle Road, is lined with a dense suburban conglomeration of strip malls and big box stores. As discussed earlier, Lexington’s history of slavery and segregation has organized the city by class and race. The northern side of the city is primarily lower-income, while South Lexington is primarily white and affluent and in proximity to a number of historic and geographically significant parks and sites. Yellow is conspicuously absent from the southern part of town, where Lexington’s most recent growth has occurred (figure 2). Two main roads bind the edges of Goodloetown,

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26 – 80% AFRICAN AMERICAN POPULATION (CITY AVERAGE: 13%) 77 – 98% WHITE POPULATION (CITY AVERAGE: 81%) 0 – $39,800 DOLLARS FAMILY INCOME (CITY AVERAGE: $44,000)

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Figure 3: This map shows the location of African-American (yellow) and White (blue) populations and overlays income (orange) information. Household incomes below the poverty line correlate with Lexington’s African-American population (darker yellow color). (Information from www.census.gov, map drawn by the author)

North Limestone and Winchester Roads, both of which originate at the southern edge of the neighborhood, forming its western and eastern borders, respectively. Yellow signs cluster on the northern side of New Circle Road, where the concentration of commercial activity is zoned. The largest concentration of yellow signage occurs between North Limestone and Winchester Roads. New shopping centers, town homes, and retail businesses in the southern part of the city are built with an entirely different signage—often serifed, recessed, and gray or maroon, the signs in South Lexington assume a level of subtlety and refinement. Little to no new development has occurred in the northern half of the city. North Lexington remains in the public eye as problematic, which is mostly poor, mostly black, where most crime is concentrated, and where most of the businesses aimed at addressing these social conditions are located (figure 3). As a result, the northern half of Lexington is awash in yellow. Of course, when assessing a city, it is never as simple as equating yellow signs with poor African Americans, and one can obviously predict the presence of yellow in a lower-income African-American neighborhood. Cities and their signs cannot be reduced to this kind of one-to-one relationship. Why, then, is yellow the default color for this area of the city? Is it the type of businesses? Is it the quality of the site? What is motivating the yellow presence in one Lexington location over another?

Why Yellow? There are technical and practical reasons for selecting a yellow-colored sign. Yellow is a color with high visibility and clear legibility. Pantone 116 (a vivid yellow hue) is the OSHA standard for “general warning” and is the Federal Highway Administration’s confirmed color for highway signage communicating warning or caution. Also, yellow is a color that is well balanced in the light spectrum. Pickett brand developed the “Eye Saver Yellow” slide rule in the 1960s,

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13. Information about the Eye Saver Yellow Slide rules was from two sources: http://www.sliderule.ca/pickett.htm (accessed 9 July 2009) and http://www. sliderulemuseum.com/ (accessed 9 July 2009)

producing their products in a distinct yellow color determined by chromatic aberration tests. Pickett established that Angstrom 5600, a tone similar to Pantone 116, reflects long wavelength rays and is the point on the spectrum for optimum eye-ease. While white reflects all colors, including the short wave length actinic rays that create “hot” spots, the contrast provided by yellow improves legibility, helps prevent eyestrain, and improves accuracy (13). The color yellow also presents itself well from greater distances and at high speeds, such as when viewed from a moving automobile. In her book Dimensional Color, Lois Swirnoff writes that yellow is the most stable color we can perceive, especially within space:

14. Lois Swirnoff, Dimensional Color, (Cambridge: Birkhauser Boston, 1989): 27 – 28.

15. Robert Venturi, Denise Scott Brown, Steven Izenour, Learning from Las Vegas (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1972), 8-9. 16. Ibid., 9.

Color systems are based on three attributes, hue, brightness and saturation, and dispose themselves dimensionally. The brightness component is geometric and can be described as the gradation of a scale from relative white to relative black…. Thus yellow, a comparatively bright (light) hue, at its maximum saturation (chroma) is located high on the vertical scale, nearer to white…. Hue, on the other hand, is neither linear nor geometric… The perception of color is not proportional to the wavelength that represents hue. Yellow, the third spectral hue, the most distinctive in its brightness, appears to be the most constant. It peaks in the spectrum, appearing more isolated from orange than from green (14). In selecting signage for a road designed and built in the 1950s, sign design decisions are motivated by the ability to view signs from the vantage of a car in stop-and-go traffic. The northern half of New Circle Road is a cluttered landscape of sign architecture—a vestige of the era when car-centric shopping was routinely seen as the future of urban design. In Learning from Las Vegas, Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown write that, “The commercial persuasion of roadside eclecticism provokes bold impact in the vast and complex setting of a new landscape of big spaces, high speeds, and complex programs” (15). Recent urban developments rely on a fantasy of pedestrian-friendly environments and, as a result, their signage reflects this dream of walkable cities viewed by foot. Banners, awnings, and smaller, hand-crafted signs are a sharp contrast to the large-scaled, speed-driven signage of the 1950s and 60s, when automobile attractions captured commercial imagination. “A driver 30 years ago could maintain a sense of orientation in space. At the simple crossroad a little sign with an arrow confirmed what was obvious. One knew where one was… But the driver has no time to ponder paradoxical subtleties within a dangerous, sinuous maze. He or she relies on signs for guidance – enormous signs in vast spaces at high speeds” (16). Deploying an unsubtle yellow commercial sign can be both a technical and spatial necessity.

17. Interview with Patricia at Signs Now, 1066 E New Circle Rd, Lexington, KY, March 23, 2007.

Most of the pawn shops, locksmiths, and check cashing businesses that use yellow signs are either independently owned and operated or are part of modest corporate structures that have no formal branding strategy or sophisticated marketing department to direct signage design. When the owners of Discount Tobacco need a sign, they head to a local sign company and heed the expertise of the person behind the counter. A yellow sign can be a slightly more expensive choice (as opposed to a red or green colored vinyl), but the decision to catch an eye, along with the sign-designer’s indisputable proof that yellow provides the great contrast and highest legibility (17), will push a store owner in favor of the more expensive, legible choice. In these situations, yellow is the branding strategy. Historically, the color yellow has associations with moneylenders. The National Pawnbrokers Association’s logo includes three gold-colored spheres that hang from a bar, referencing the three bags of gold that St. Nicholas, the patron saint of pawn broking, holds in his hand. The symbol of three gold orbs is also identified as part of the family coat of arms for the Medici family, a 15th century Italian family of bankers and lenders who were well known in

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Figure 4: Examples of other pawnbrokers and independent businesses that do not use yellow-colored signage. These businesses are located off of New Circle Road, in areas reflecting a different demographic mix of lower-income and White residents. (all photos by author)

Figure 5: This store, located in the center of an affluent area of Lexington, resulted in many complaints to the Lexington sign inspector. Today (2009) this store is a jewelry business that has a single white-colored sign.

the finance and lending profession. As the Medicis’ business grew, other lenders adopted similar coats of arms, signs, shields, and symbols, with three golden balls being the most popular. When Italian bankers began to open branches abroad, they also used the symbol of the three golden balls. These three orbs have since become the official symbol for the National Pawnbrokers Association (18).

18. The history of pawn broking was culled from the following sites: www.nationalpawnbrokers. org/; www.acmepawn.com/historyofpawn.htm; www.pawnshopstoday.com/History.html (all sites accessed 9 July 2008)

Where Yellow? If yellow is so effective, and pawn broking and money lending have an official and historic affiliation with the color yellow, then why aren’t all pawn shops in Lexington using yellow signage? Not every pawn broker or independent business owner hoping to attract car traffic chooses to advertise with a yellow sign—pawn shops and tobacco brokers located in other parts of the city, those without the physical qualities and demographic mix of New Circle Road, use blue and green instead of bright yellow (figure 4). According to the Fayette County Planning and Zoning guidelines (19), there are laws restricting the size and quantity of signs, but not the use of certain colors. The building inspector in charge of signage said that most of the complaints and signage violations come regarding quantity of signs, not color or design choices. “There are many signage infractions on New Circle Road, but few complaints. The signage complaints come from [wealthier] parts of the city” (20). When citizens attempt to restrict their cultural landscape, they target their complaints on the businesses they see every day. They aren’t deliberately complaining about the color yellow, per se, but about the existence of too many visual distractions. More often than not, these distractions are temporary signs designed to attract motorists’ attention and leverage the highest contrast and legibility necessary (20). Perhaps because of their high visibility, the yellow signs located in the wealthier areas of the city receive the most complaints (figure 5). While yellow signs are permitted in certain parts of the city they are simply not tolerated in others. When mapping the relationship of yellow-colored signage to city demographics, a relationship between race, economics, and yellow signage becomes apparent. There are no yellow signs in the wealthier—and whiter—areas of the city. Yellow is not permitted in these areas, but in others, such as the commercial edges of Goodloetown, it is acceptable (figure 6).

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19. Lexington’s signage laws are described in detail at http://www.lexingtonky.gov/index.aspx?page=339, Article 17 Sign Regulations (accessed 22 June 2009) 20. Interview with Lexington sign inspector, 24 March 2007.


21. Lexington’s zoning laws are described in detail at http://www.lexingtonky.gov/index.aspx?page=339, Article 8: Zoning Ordinances http:// www.lexingtonky.gov/Modules/ShowDocument. aspx?documentid=1681 (accessed 20 June 2009).

22. Ibid., B2 Law: 8-19(a) Intent - This zone is intended to ensure compatible land uses, the preservation of existing attractions compatible with the Lexington Center, and the encouragement of new uses necessary to the proper development of the downtown area. The permitted land uses in the zone should have some logical relation to the Lexington Center and to the downtown core, should promote tourism, should promote the economic health of the community, should provide for an aesthetically pleasing environment, and should prevent the creation of influences adverse to the prospering of the Lexington Center and the downtown area.

In Lexington, pawnshops, discount tobacco sellers, locksmiths, and instant cash brokers are included in B2 (Downtown Business) zones, but are not permitted in the B1 (Neighborhood Business) zones (21). Ironically, Lexington’s official downtown businesses district is coded as “Center Business”, which is not zoned B2. In zoning guideline-speak, “Downtown Business Districts” that include pawnshops, automobile service stations, self-service laundries, and quick-copy businesses describe an urban landscape that is dominated by car and truck traffic and aimed at buyers who prioritize convenience and immediacy over walking or lingering while window shopping. It is hardly an act of segregation to organize a city based on sane zoning practices; however, zoning laws and guidelines reveal societal beliefs about where certain things in a city seem to belong—a normalizing activity based on what seems “logical” and where the intent is “proper” and “compatible” with the established vision of what the city is “supposed” to support, especially when the business district “should support an aesthetically pleasing environment, and should prevent the creation of influences adverse to the prospering of the Lexington Center and the downtown area” (22). Gun shops, check cashers, and locksmiths need to be included somewhere in the city—just not in any place where they may be an economic or aesthetic hazard or, more bluntly, where they may attract a demographic incompatible with “supporting tourism.”

Asserting Control

23. John A. Jakle and Keith A. Sculle, Signs in America’s Auto Age, Signatures of Landscape and Place, (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2004): 91.

24. Sharon Zukin, “Whose Culture? Whose City?” in The Culture of Cities. (Malden: Blackwell Publishers, 1995): 138

Roadside signs serve to soothe and normalize regional expectations when entering and exiting Lexington. “Signs along paths of entry also aim to ease travelers’ tensions about unfamiliar ground. Where to buy? Who deals in quality? Are they honest? Outsides are meant to feel like adopted insiders” (23). Signs located along a community entry route, such as New Circle Road, demonstrate the values of the community on either side of the roadside boundary, or at least the values prescribed by the advertising authority. Sharon Zukin writes, “Building a city depends on how people combine the traditional economic factors of land, labor, and capital. But it also depends on how they manipulate symbolic languages of exclusion and entitlement. The look and feel of cities reflects decisions about what – and who – should be visible and what should not, on concepts of order and disorder, and on uses of aesthetic power” (24).

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Certainly, the owners of Discount Tobacco aren’t manipulating symbolic languages of exclusion when selecting a sign that will best attract attention to their business, but, in a sense, they are asserting an aesthetic power that the public has tacitly bestowed. If other businesses in the vicinity are using yellow, it makes sense to participate in the established visual culture. Fewer complaints about New Circle Road yields a sign design culture that is very different than that of Chevy Chase, a more affluent part of the city that is 98% white. When yellow signs exist only in one part of the city, and only between certain roads, the visual signal of a massing of yellow signage is another way of relating class, race, and economics to the aesthetics of the city. Intentionally or not, yellow is the default brand only for certain businesses when located in certain parts of the city. Signage reifies societal expectations about what belongs in a city, and in what location, based on urban districts formulated long before the roadway itself was designed or the zoning ordinances were voted upon. Signs help to clarify and visualize these borders. Even though their presence is not as clear an urban edge as the medieval city wall or modern railroad track, their presence articulates a cultural edge that reinforces beliefs about what should and should not be included in the city. Richard Schein notes: The cultural landscape is not merely the result of human activity. It is both material thing and a conceptual framing of the world – a visual and spatial epistemology. As such, the cultural landscape is an important, even constitutive, part of social and cultural processes… Through its symbolic qualities, the cultural landscape serves to naturalize or concretize – to normalize – social relations. Additionally, the landscape’s normalizing, normative capabilities simultaneously make the landscape central to the ongoing production and reproduction of place and identity (25).

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25. Schein,ibid


The community expects and allows yellow signs in lower-income areas. There is a tacit agreement that yellow can exist on northern New Circle Road, but it will not tolerated in other areas of the city. As a society, Lexington, and arguably other cities, too, has developed graphic mores that influence aesthetic decisions made by the pawnshop owners, the city building inspectors, and those who complain. Yellow signs are not inherently racist, but they do indicate a belief about what parts of cities are designed in which fashion. Who are our cities for? Where do certain projects, certain aspects of our lives, “belong” when designing a city? Finally, what do these lower-income areas look like? When designing a neighborhood, district, or city, the qualities of its streetscape are determined by proportion, space, and organization—rarely, if ever, by color or typography. If a neighborhood’s design is considered at all, signage falls under the category of urban branding and becomes part of a palette that includes street furniture and lighting fixtures. Businesses that use bright yellow signs are trying to attract a mobile customer base and not necessarily targeting a specific demographic of “poor African Americans.” However, yellow signs aggregate in limited areas of Lexington, at the edges of neighborhoods where lower income blacks reside, marking the historic thresholds between segregated and un-segregated. Until the disciplines of landscape, urban planning, and design address signage as instrumental and organizational as, say, street width or city walls, signage will never be understood as a powerful visual device that organizes and demarcates urban edges. The vestiges of race/class separation remain visible in Lexington’s landscape, and these boundaries are articulated through policy structures, census lines, zip codes, and voting blocks. They can be rendered physical in the city landscape by public parks, street names, or even by yellow-colored signage.

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funded research studio

t h e b o b e va n s c o r p o r at i o n be2020: redesigning bob evans

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Summer 2014

Conversations of continued partnership

April 2014

Presentation to Bob Evansâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s CEO, Vice Presidents of Marketing, Operations, Innovation, Building Design, and others

April 2014

Final review at the Knowlton School of Architecture Invited Jury: Glenn Cummings, Graphic Designer, MTWTF Sarah Dunn, Architect, Urban Lab; Univeristy of Illinois-Chicago Andrew Hubbard, Head of Design, Bob Evans John McMorrough, Architect, University of Michigan Weston Walker, Architect, Studio Gang Architects

Mid-review at the Knowlton School of Architecture

February 2014

Invited Jury: Professional Architects in Columbus, Ohio Jonathan Barnes, JBAD Michael Buongornio, Design Group Ruth Gless, Lincoln Street Studios Tim Hawke, WSA Architects Bob Evans Corporation also in attendance

Research presentation to Building Design and Marketing groups at Bob Evans Corporation

February 2014

Semester begins

January 2013

Present sponsorship proposal to Bob Evans.

December 2013

Meet with Bob Evans Head of Design to discuss research studio

Fall 2013

Initiated contact with the Bob Evans Corporation

Spring 2013

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b e 202 0 designing the next generation of bob evans restaurants

studio brief

corporate partnership

This studio initiated a design partnership with the Bob Evans Corporation, proposing a collaboration between the company and my Spring 2014 research studio. The studio proposed to examine how Bob Evans Restaurants could be redesigned for a new generation of customers. Working with our college development officer, I secured 20,000 in external funding from the Bob Evans Corporation to support the research studio.

$20,000 studio research funding

Bob Evans represented an ideal research partner for a sponsored studio. Originally a farm in Southwestern Ohio, Bob Evans Restaurants link together food production, transportation and branding. They are a network of restaurants across the Midwest with strong interests in diversifying buildings. Typically a freestanding restaurant along the side of the highway, the company seeks to enter urban markets aimed at a new, younger customer.

15 third and fourth year undergraduate architecture majors

Working at the intersection of branding, graphics, identity and architectural networks, the BE2020 Research Studio represents a potential trajectory between research efforts and community engagement. This engagement positions architectural research â&#x20AC;&#x201C; rather than service â&#x20AC;&#x201C; as central to the University and the discipline.

studio websites

Bob Evans Corporation, New Albany, Ohio

undergraduate research studio

6 credit hours / 12 hours weekly Spring Semester, 2014

www.bobevansstudio.com http://issuu.com/bobevansstudio

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TEACHING


diagramming brand the Bobexplore Evan’s Machine timelines different themes BE2 Studio K. Lewis casual dining, food such as|fast Taylour Upton and farming brands Rachael Hissom Cheyenne Vandevoorde

“Pick the Pink One”

4.7 million

3.1 million

Opens Terminal Steak House Robert Evans is born in Sugar Ridge, OH

1940

1918

Buys first restaurant, Malt Shop

Starts Bob Evans Farm Inc.

1948 Begins making own sausage

1946

Begins expansion of Bob Evans company

1953

1950

First sausage plant opens in Xenia, OH

Begins airing TV commercials from the kitchen

1957

1961

1956

Expands to 14 delivery trucks, delivering to 1800 locations

The Sausage Shop opens, Unit #1

Bob Evans Corp. goes public

1964

1963

Chillicothe unit opens as a Burger Joint style eatery

Advertising targets family and adults

Expands to other states

1970 Continues expanding through Ohio

1968

Senior’s Menu introduced

1983 100th Unit opens

1975

1987 Acquires Owen’s Foods, from Texas

1985

Voted #1 Family Restaurant in Consumer Reports magazine

After being ill recieved, unit is rennovated over a weekend, with success

“Bob Evans, Farm Sausage”

“We’ll Bring the Farm to you”

1960 Campbell’s Soup Ladies Home Journal

1940 Kellog’s Rice Krispies Ladies Home Journal

“Ta

Comfort Food Movement

Fast Food, Fondue, Box Dinners

Foreign Influence

Rationing Ingredients

Hearty, Convenience

“Down on the Farm”

1970 Pepsi-Cola Time Magazine

Farm Fresh Through the Decades

The first expansion outside Ohio occurs, with the opening of a new plant in Hillsdale, MI

Bob Evans Farms Sales, Inc. opens a new restaurant “The Sausage Shop” on the family farm.

Early Meat Delivery Truck (before refigeration) 1918 Refrigerated Delivery Truck 1924

1946

Farm to Plate 1910-1940

The 500th restaurant opens in Canton, MI

Bob Evans retired as president of Bob Evans Farms

1948

1962

1957

1930

1920

1964

1968

Nearly 600 full-service, family restaurants in 19 states. 2014

The fourth sausage production plant opens in Galva, IL

1974

1983

1987

2001

2014

Farm to Plate 1960 - Now

Farm to Plate 1940 - 1960

1910

The 100th Bob Evans Restaurant opens in Schaumburg, IL

Wholesome Meat and Wholesome Poultry Acts signed into law. 1968

Shift from train delivery to truck delivery. 1960

Bob starts making his own sausage for his restaurant and soon expands to distributing product to grocery stores.

Transportation and Bob Evan Timeline

The First Bob Evans Restaurant opens in Chillicothe, Ohio

14 delivery trucks delivered fresh Bob Evans Farms sausage overnight to central and southern Ohio outlets.

Bob Opens a 12-stool, 24/7 restaurant Gallipolis, Ohio

1950

1940

1970

1960

1980

1990

2010

2000

Farms changing through the decades

1M

Total Arceage of Farm

Farms 1980s Farms evolving and developing throughout the decades.

2M

Hired Farm Workers 3M

Number of Farm Owners 4 4M

Farms 1909-1919 Farms evolving and developing throughout the decades. Farms 1920s Farms evolving and developing through the decades.

Farms 1940s Farms evolving and developing through the decades.

Farms 1930s Farms evolving and Advertisment showing developing through the decades. the view of the farm in the 1920s.

Farms 1950s Farms evolving and developing throughout the decades.

Advertisment showing the view of the farm in the 1940s.

Farms 1960s Farms evolving and developing throughout the decades.

Advertisment showing the view of the farm in the 1960s.

Farms 1970s Farms evolving and developing throughout the decades.

Advertisment showing the view of the farm in the 1950s.

5M

Advertisment showing the view of the farm in the 1970s. 6M

7M

Family Farm Workers

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Farms 1990s Farms evolving and developing throughout the decades.

Farms 2010s Farms evolving and developing throughout the decades.

Advertisment showing the view of the farm in the 1990s. Farms 2000s Farms evolving and developing throughout the decades.

Advertisment showing the view of the farm in the 2000s.

Advertisment showing the view of the farm in the 1930s.

Number of Farms

Advertisment showing the view of the farm in the 1980s.


720.9 million 1.3 billion 1.6 billion revenue USD

52.8 million

766.9 million

“Taste of the Farm”

720.9 million net profit USD

27.7 million

540.9 million

554.3 million

“Farm Fresh Goodness”

“Come See What’s Cooking” Launch food service division

Start of 3 year rennovation plan

1992

“Small Town“ resturants are launched

First Cantina del Rio opens

1991

Frozen Entrees available in stores

1994 300th Unit opens

1993

1996 All 14 Cantina del Rios are closed

1995

Addition of Carry Home Kitchens and Corner Cupboards in resturants

2002

1997

refridgerated potato line is launched

Start pf 8 year furniture and equipment replacement plan

Curbside Carry-Out is introduced

Almost 600 units open

2010 Farm House Feast concept is tested

2003

now

“Down on the Farm”

Country Lite Sausage, a lower fat option, hits grocery stores

Sustainable, local Bulk, Namebrand

aste of Good Country Living”

1991 Burger King, Whopper Time Magazine

1995 Starbucks Coffee

2010 Del Monte Ladies Home Journal

Bob Evans evolution of food Chris Carbone, Melody Funkhouser, Julie Klosterman, Sidharth Ramamurthy

2006

Pot Roast Sandwich 1147 cal Bob Evans version of this sandwich appears to be the healthier option, due to its simplicity.

Tip Top Kitchen

2012

Double Blueberry Hotcakes 968 cal In comparison to other restaurants, Bob Evans has a larger serving size.

1992 1987

Spaghetti & Meat Sauce 1112 cal Restaurants tend to present spaghetti in a simple way.

1975

Big Farm Bacon Cheeseburger 1350 cal The burgers are presented with fries and are usually put together in the same manner.

1959

Suasage Gravy & Biscuits 625 cal Bob Evans chooses to seperate the gravy and biscuits while competitors combine the two which makes it more appealing.

Slow-Roasted Turkey Breast 1070 cal When it comes to this meal, Bob Evans appears to be the heartier choice.

1997

Blueberry Crepes 852 cal Bob Evans version of the crepes look more like a desert than a breakfast meal.

Cracker Barrel

Northstar

1200

McDonalds IHOP Marcella’s

Cracker Barrel North Market

Applebees

1000

Avg. Calories per meal

Cracker Barrel Denny’s

Sunshine Skillet 912 cal

Kraft Miracle Whip Salad Dressing

Women become more interested in workout machines than simply aerobics.

1946

Vinyl workout records become popular and are geared more towards women.

1983 Magazines use more risque advertisements giving a standard for the perfect beach body.

1972 Working out becomes a social activity - group fitness classes are established.

1977

157

2006

Weight loss programs become popular on television.

1999

Indoor smoking bans are implimented.

Richard Simmons booms as a fitness guru.

TEACHING

2010

2000

1990

1957

Ads in the newspaper for fitness are geared towards men.

400

200

1980

1960

1950

Bob Evans Begins

1933

1984

Farm Fresh Side Salad 352 cal Most restaurants add a lot of color to their salads, but on the other hand Bob Evans presents a basic salad.

Bob Evans creatively combines their food which makes it stand out from the others.

Armour’s Star Bacon

1970

Shredded Wheat

California Canned Asparagus

800

600

Northstar

1971

Jimmy Dean

Del Monte

Del Maiz Corn

Campbell’s Soup

Potato-Crusted Flounder 329 cal Bob Evans presents this in a more basic way, whereas competitors’ use more color to enhance the appeal.

Hang Over Easy

Nucoa Spread

1940

1920

Libby’s Pineapple

Kellogg’s Rice Krispies

Waffle House

The Rise & Shine 1005 cal Competitors’ food looks more professinally placed together while Bob Evans looks more homemade.

IHOP

Applebees

Aunt Jemima’s Pancake Flour

California Sunkist Lemons

Denny’s

1962

1940’s

Ads show their products being part of a meal. For example, the Armour’s Star bacon is shown on a plate with eggs and toast.

1990

1920’s

Popular ads consisted of drawings of full plates of food. Usually they were large portions for several people to share. Presentation was focused on the freshness of the food. For example, the Campbell’s Soup has steam coming from it implying that it was just made.

Panera

Northstar

Old Folks

Popular ads during this time were also drawn, but the foods now became placed in contex. For example, food is drawn outside on a picnic table to imply one might enjoy this meal out in the sun.

1999

Cracker Barrel

Original Roll Sausage 343 cal Bob Evans began to sell sausage using simple packaging. Their design was similar to their competitors’.

1930’s

IHOP

Noodles & Co.

Denny’s

1953

1930

1988

1990

“Dinner Sensations“ is launched in attempt to bring back customers

“We’re Family“ theme in advertising

Bigger and Faster

200th Unit opens

Launches General Stores in response to Cracker Barrel

New prototype is launched

400th Unit opens

New resturant prototype to accomodate smoking and non-smoking

Technology helps people keep better track of their diets and physical activities.


peer reviews students ask students about Bob evans

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Fast Casual 29

Panera

Q: You’re hungry and out by yourself with an hour free before class. Where do you go to eat?

9

Chipotle 7

Noodle’s 5

Moe’s 2 2

Berry Blendz No. 1 Chinese

2

Piada

2 2

Qdoba

Grocery Fast Casual

9%

Campus

Joy’s 1

Pizza

1

Pita Pit

1

J. Gumbo

1

Burger Works

1

Fusion

1

30%

Fast Food

19

Buck-eye-donuts Jimmy John’s

8

18%

4

Cane’s

4

Wendy’s

4

McDonald’s 3

10% Home

Panda Express

Home Campus 32

28%

Taco Bell

1

Rally’s Home KSA Cafe Campus

Cafe

Full Service

Kafe Kerouac

1

Brennan’s

1

Starbucks Diaspora

1

Skyline

1

Schmidt’s City BBQ Buck-I-Mart Get-Go

3

ELDERLY

Delivery

159

Northstar

1

1 15

TEACHING

Heirloom

1 1

2

Grocery

YOUNG ADULTS

1

10

Fast Food

Tommy’s Subway

28

2

Whole Foods

2

Wings Over


ompetition, cker Barrel

B O B

E V A N S

expanding L o c a t i o n &geography Competitors

Bob Evans & Cracker Barrel

advertisements, timelines and maps formed the basis for visual research into how the brand developed

Bob Evans & Panera

Proposed Locations

Columbus, Ohio

Comparisons within 50 mile radius of Columbus, Ohio 50 Bob Evans Restaurants - 5 Cracker Barrel Restaurants

Comparisons within 8 mile radius of Columbus, Ohio 16 Bob Evans Restaurants - 10 Panera Restaurants

Prediction that Bob Evans is to be more profitable in a more commercial district.

Comparisons within 8 mile radius of St. Louis, Missouri 0 Bob Evans Restaurants - 10 Panera Restaurants

Comparisons within 50 mile radius of St. Louis, Missouri 12 Bob Evans Restaurants - 8 Cracker Barrel Restaurants

Prediction that Bob Evans is to be more profitable in a more centralized city location.

Comparisons within 8 mile radius of Tampa, Florida 2 Bob Evans Restaurants - 8 Panera Restaurants

Prediction that Bob Evans is to be more profitable in a more dense location.

St. Louis, Missouri

Tampa, Florida

Population, Cracker Barrel & Bob Evans Locations 600 Bob Evan locations in 18 states. 600 Cracker Barrels locations in 42 states. 1700 Panera Locations in 39 states. Proposed Locations Cracker Barrel

Comparisons within 50 mile radius of Tampa, Florida 17 Bob Evans Restaurants - 8 Cracker Barrel Restaurants

Bob Evans Panera Other Competitors Churches

Bob Evans & Competitors

Bob Evans Cracker Barrel Panera

600 Bob Evan locations in 18 states. 600 Cracker Barrels locations in 42 states. 1700 Panera Locations in 39 states.

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SAN DIEGO, CA

COLUMBUS, OH (

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TOTAL METRO POPULATION VS POPULATION 22-29 YR OLDS

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22-29 YEAR OLDS 2000 CENSUS

22-29 YEAR OLDS 2010 CENSUS

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engaging experts reviews with designers, academics, and bob evans professionals

mid review Five firm principals were invited to join student teams for a one-hour desk crit. Focused, collaborative discussions students develop their projects within a professional framework. Professionals from Bob Evans supported the conversations.

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final review

bob evans presentations

Architects and graphic designers engaged the final discussion to explore how students translated the Bob Evans brand into new restaurant typologies.

Students presented their research at Bob Evans twice during the semester. For the final presentation, students shared their work with the CEO and several Vice Presidents of Marketing, Innovation, Building Design and Operations.

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final project

the gastropub rachel hissom, bs ‘14 julia klosterman, bs ‘14 cheyenne vandevoorde, bs ‘15

PROBLEM Who do you take to Bob Evans...

In one word, what is Bob Evans to you...

What would you change about Bob Evans....

BobEvans... Evans Farm Fresh... What meal do you eat at IsBob Is Bob Evans Farm Fresh...

93 votes 71 votes

55 votes

48 votes

48 votes

32 votes

29 votes

32 votes

28 votes 24 votes

22 votes

17 votes 5 votes 4 votes

en e

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96 total votes

102 total votes

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6 votes

4 votes 102 total votes

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7 votes 4 votes

106 total votes

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11 votes 7 votes

3 votes

105 total votes

117 total votes

Sa

5 votes

2 votes

M

3 votes

Ye

6 votes

5 votes

11 votes

10 votes

7 votes

Id

13 votes

9 votes

SOLUTION: strip-down the distractions and reveal the essential components to Bob Evans; provide a modern day approach to these components. EXAGGERATE: the historic and defining icons to the brand become emphasized and modernized. Keyhole

Keyhole to Pitched Roof:

The roofline remains an icon, but now one of architecture, modernism and progress. It becomes the recognizable symbol for the cleanly, efficient and trustworthy Evan’s Farm.

Mailbox

One Mailbox to Many:

Bob’s mailbox invited a small audience to the Homestead. Today, the bountiful mailboxes invite the wide world to the experience of Bob Evans.

AUTHENTICATE: the heart of the brand must be undeniable and honest. Sausage

Grocery to Gourmet:

Family

Sausage is a commodity, but Bob does it best. A new updated recipe, made with the highest grade meat brings Bob to the top of the gourmet sausage industry. He’d be proud.

165

Family to Community:

“Treat strangers like friends and friends like family.“ Dining is focused on bringing the community together at large tables, sharing a meal in common. Just like on the farm.

TEACHING

Farm Fresh

Bulk to Minimal:

Farm Fresh food means the real deal. Food is prepared based on season and quantities. Each week the menu is composed to ensure freshness, flavor, and authentic farm cuisine.


prototype_rear garden columbus, oh

Residential District

Residential District

young prof. single adults families retirees

Warren Street

E. Lincoln Street

N. High Street

Goodale Park Short North

galleries boutiques local restaurants artisan shops

Residential District

prototype_split garden chicago, il

Residential District

young prof. single adults starting families

N. Ashland Ave.

N. Milwuakee Ave. commerical district Pelonia Circle Park

boutiques local restaurants artisan shops

N. Ashland Ave.

Residential District

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prototype_exit garden pittsburgh, pa

Materials: Step 4| Farm Table With their beverage, the customer walks into the main dining hall where long farm tables allow for the community to gather and enjoy their Farm Fresh meals. Up to 10 people are meant to gather around each table in Farm style fashion. Step 3| Beverage Bar After ordering their Farm Fresh meal, the customer is guided to the Beverage Bar. The bar provides drinks found on the farm: fresh milk, lemonade, coffee, and tea.

A

Step 2| P.F.C. The P.F.C.â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, or Personal Food Curators, stand ready to help compose a meal based on the cravings and tastes the customer asks for. These trained P.F.Câ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s are culinary veterans and strive to provide the customer with the best meal to their liking. Step 1| Enterance The aim of the Sausage House is to be the brand for the restaurant. The glass sausage house draws in the customer into the beginning of the food procedure. B

A B

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final project

downtown infill enio djako, BS ‘15 sid ramathury, BS ‘15

168

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169

TEACHING


final project

the breakfast party amy carbone, BS ‘14 Chris carbone, BS ‘14

170

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Columbus

171

TEACHING


G A T E W

A Y

MAD MEX

172

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final project

the grocery store allison bartholemew, bs ‘14 rachel mcginnis, bs ‘14 julie vash, bs ‘14

Scale: 1/1

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final project

the grocery store allison bartholomew, BS ‘14 rachal mcginnis, bs ‘14 julie vash, BS ‘14

174

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175

TEACHING


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mapping workshops

177

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(upcoming) workshop

October 2014

Mediated City: Los Angeles, Woodbury University

workshop

Spring 2014

University of Tennessee. 2-day workshop for 25 Graduate Landscape Architecture students

in-studio workshop

Fall 2013

2-day in-studio workshop with Fall 2013 studio

catalyst week workshop

Spring 2013

University of Minnesota. One-week long workshop for 15 Graduate Architecture students

seminar

Spring 2013

Information Territories: Networks, Flows and Systems

workshop

Fall 2012

Urban Diagrams: 2-day workshop at Cleveland Urban Design Center

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mappings presentations, workshops and resarch studies

overview

invited workshops

Recent research projects have directly engaged mapping as an expansion of architecture representation. These techniques have been recognized with invitations to present, lecture and teach workshops. As a form of visual research, mapping intersects directly with teaching and practice. The collection of proceeding demonstrates the impact of mapping workshops offered at several institutions.

University of Minnesota Catalyst Week 15 Graduate Architecture students One week – Spring 2013

Mapping is a drawing tool that organizes research. Maps organize data, hold several pieces of information and allow for multiple registrations. Modeling maps is a way to engage specific site systems by rendering them physical.

Cleveland Urban Design Center 30 architecture students One day – Fall 2012

University of Tennessee 25 Graduate Landscape Architecture students Two days – Spring 2014

Woodbury University (upcoming) October 2014

179

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buenos aires As part of the 4th Year Undergraduate Urban Scale Studio, students developed maps and an abstract model of the research site in Buenos Aires, Argentina

180

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POPULATION

DENSITY BY PROVINCE POPULATION high medium low

LIGHT DENSITY

DENSITY (/KM ) 2

50.0

PROVINCE NAME POPULATION % OF TOTAL POP. AREA (KM 2 )

45% IN BUENOS AIRES

Approximately 45% of the total population (18.5 million) reside in the Buenos Aires province, and the capital city is 46th most dense city in the world.

LA RIOJA 0.3M 0.90% 89,680 KM 2

3.7

7.6

5.6

Population densities vary drastically among provinces; There are 14,241 people per one square kilometer in the capital city while there is only 1.1 people per one square kilometer in the Santa Cruz province.

2.3

SAN JUAN 0.7M 1.75% 89,651 KM 2

SAN LUIS 0.4M 1.15% 76,748 KM2 11.7

MENDOZA 1.7M 4.33% 148,827 KM2

2.2

LA PAMPA 0.3M 0.87% 143,440 KM2 5.8

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SALTA 1.2M 3.07% 155,488 KM2

TUCUMAN 1.5M 3.63% 22,524 KM 2

CATAMARCA 0.4M 1.00% 102,602 KM 2

3.6

"

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NEUQUEN 0.6M 1.44% 94,078 KM 2

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RIO NEGRO 0.6M 1.63% 203,013 KM

CHUBUT 0.5M 1.34% 224,686 KM2

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SANTIAGO DEL ESTERO 0.9M 2.29% 136,351 KM2

"

CORDOBA 3.3M 8.13% 165,321 KM 2 SANTA FE 3.2M 7.89% 24.1 133,007 KM2

BUENOS AIRES 15.6M 38.07% 307,571 KM2

50.7

3.1

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SANTA CRUZ 0.3M 0.76% 243,943 KM2

"

" "

"

" "

" " "

"

" "

"

1.1

" " " " " " "

" "

" "

" "

"

"

" " "

"

"

"" "

TIERRA DEL FUEGO 0.1M 0.41% 21,263 KM 2

"

"

185

CHACO 1.0M 2.66% 99,633 KM2

MISIONES 1.1M 2.78% 29,801 KM 2

"

" "" " " "" " " "" " ""

" "" " "

" " " " " " "

5.8

FORMOSA 0.5M 1.39% 72,066 KM 2

"

7.8

64.3

"

""

" " " ""

"

The "Density by Province" map displays the distribution of population in Argentina and varying densities by different districts. The total population of Argentina is 41.09 million, 10.6% of South America population.

"

JUJUY 0.7M 1.73% 53,219 KM 2

12.6

TEACHING

36.8

6.6

CORRIENTES 1.0M 2.51% 88,199 KM2

20.0

ENTRE RIOS 1.2M 3.19% 78,781 KM 2

10.6

11.3

15.7

BUENOS AIRES CITY 2.9M 7.13% 203 KM 2

14,241

7.3


186

KAREN LEWIS


Transportation

Key

Circulation of Argentina

City Name

Population (millions)

City Labels

Tier 1 City

Tier 2 City

Tier 3 City City Callout

Guidelines Country Outlines Argentina Railroads Bus Line Close Proximity Flights Domestic Flights International Flights

Jujuy .2M

Salta 1.2M

Formosa .5M

Resistencia .3M

Santiago del Estero

Corrientes

.9M

.3M

Posadas .3M

Reconquista .1M

Curuzu Cuatia .03M

Cordoba

Santa Fe

3.3M

3.2M

San Juan .7M

Rio Cuarto

Rosario

.1M

1.2M

Junin

San Louis

.08M

.4M

Buenos Aires 2.9M

La Plata .7M

Santa Rosa .1M

Mar del Plata .6M

Necochea

Neuquen

.06M

.6M

Bahia Blanca .3M

Zapala .03M

Viedma .05M

San Carlos de Bariloche .1M

Esquel .03M

Comodoro Rivadavia .2M

Puerto Deseado .01M

Gobernador Gregores .002M

Puerto Santa Cruz .003M

Rio Gallegos .1M

Rio Grande .07M

187

TEACHING


the almanac of projection:

catalyst week

university of minnesota school of architecture catalyst week 2013

One-week long invited seminar at the University of Minnesota

the almanac of

projection:

vol 1: Minnesota

resources, economies and cultures

minnesota

karen lewis and marc swackhamer vanessa abin-fuentes namdi alexander joseph anton sandra callies john greene emilie kopp julian lemon kari ricker kate robertson alex robinson sophia skemp briana turgeon-schramm fiona wholey

karen lewis and marc swackhamer

188

KAREN LEWIS


189

TEACHING


190

KAREN LEWIS


191

TEACHING


Karen Lewis Portfolio  

Assistant Professor, Ohio State University MArch 1, Harvard University

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